Science.gov

Sample records for activity future research

  1. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  2. The Future of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report looks at the future opportunities and challenges facing the UK university research base and makes recommendations as to how the system can respond to these. It comes at a time when the UK has elected its first coalition government for 70 years and is facing unprecedented economic challenges. The report is aimed at policy makers…

  3. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities. PMID:17950318

  4. Future in Psychopathology Research

    PubMed Central

    Heckers, Stephan

    2014-01-01

    Psychopathology research has focused either on the analysis of the mental state in the here and now or on the synthesis of mental status abnormalities with biological markers and outcome data. These two schools of psychopathology, the analytic and the synthetic, make contrasting assumptions, take different approaches, and pursue divergent goals. Analytic psychopathology favors the individual person and unique biography, whereas synthetic psychopathology abstracts from the single case and generalizes to the population level. The dimension of time, especially the prediction of future outcomes, is viewed differently by these two schools. Here I outline how Carpenter’s proposal of strong inference and theory testing in psychopathology research can be used to test the value of analytic and synthetic psychopathology. The emerging field of personalized psychiatry can clarify the relevance of psychopathology for contemporary research in psychiatry. PMID:24562493

  5. Students' Research-Informed Socio-scientific Activism: Re/Visions for a Sustainable Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bencze, Larry; Sperling, Erin; Carter, Lyn

    2012-01-01

    In many educational contexts throughout the world, increasing focus has been placed on socio-scientific issues; that is, disagreements about potential personal, social and/or environmental problems associated with fields of science and technology. Some suggest (as do we) that many of these potential problems, such as those associated with climate change, are so serious that education needs to be oriented towards encouraging and enabling students to become citizen activists, ready and willing to take personal and social actions to reduce risks associated with the issues. Towards this outcome, teachers we studied encouraged and enabled students to direct open-ended primary (e.g., correlational studies), as well as secondary (e.g., internet searches), research as sources of motivation and direction for their activist projects. In this paper, we concluded, based on constant comparative analyses of qualitative data, that school students' tendencies towards socio-political activism appeared to depend on myriad, possibly interacting, factors. We focused, though, on curriculum policy statements, school culture, teacher characteristics and student-generated research findings. Our conclusions may be useful to those promoting education for sustainability, generally, and, more specifically, to those encouraging activism on such issues informed by student-led research.

  6. Research Into Educational Futures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spitzer, Dean R.

    A series of articles examines the subject of educational futures, including discussions of the relevance of the topic to the training of teachers and librarians. Three games for future forecasting (SCIFI, AFAR and FAR) and a mini-delphi technique are included. A scheme for viewing alternative futures in Educational Technology through the use of…

  7. Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative nuclear education and training courses - Current activities and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Sklenka, L.; Rataj, J.; Boeck, H.

    2012-07-01

    The Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative was established in January 2008 to enhance cooperation between the Research Reactors in Eastern Europe. It covers three areas of research reactor utilisation: irradiation of materials and fuel, radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments, education and training. In the field of education and training an EERRI training course was developed. The training programme has been elaborated with the purpose to assist IAEA Member States, which consider building a research reactor (RR) as a first step to develop nuclear competence and infrastructure in the Country. The major strength of the reactor is utilisation of three different research reactors and a lot of practical exercises. Due to high level of adaptability, the course can be tailored to specific needs of institutions with limited or no access to research reactors. (authors)

  8. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  9. Using the Internet for B2B Activities: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Perlusz, Stefano; Bohmann, Kristoffer

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates some of the challenges that electronic commerce practitioners and researchers face, focusing on business to business (B2B) transactions. Highlights include a conceptual framework of Web user behavior; purchasing context; socio-demographic characteristics; cultural factors; economic factors; attitudes toward information technology;…

  10. The role of research in nuclear regulation: Status and future activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Soda, K.

    1997-01-01

    The role of nuclear regulation is grouped into the three categories in the Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, the INSAG-3 document of IAEA published in 1988. First category is to specify and develop standards and regulations for safety, and to issue licenses to operating organization. Second category is to inspect, monitor and review the safety performances of nuclear power plants and operating organizations. In the second category, corrective action may be ordered if it is found necessary after inspection, monitoring and review. The third category is to advocate safety research and disseminate safety information. Nuclear safety research is closely related to nuclear regulation. The licensing procedures of nuclear facilities requires a two step approach in Japan, that is, those who wish to construct and operate a nuclear plant must apply for a government approval for construction and operation. Safety examination is then performed first by the government, and the second examination is carried out by the Nuclear Safety Commission. In this process, research information is supplied to the Advisory Committee on Technical Matters which is under the Ministry of Trade and Industry and to the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety which is under the Science and Technology Agency. Research organizations are asked by those Committees to provide data needed for safety examination and to perform safety analyses for verification of analyses submitted to the Committees by the licensees. in addition in the licensing procedures, examination guides needed for the safety examination are based on experimental data and analyses performed by research organizations by the government request.

  11. Museum Education Research: Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Museum Education: Roundtable Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Six museum education and learning researchers discuss the need to study how people learn and behave in museums and what kind of current research studies should be undertaken. Mary Ellen Munley, in "Back to the Future: A Call for Coordinated Research Programs in Museums," describes the differences between the terms "evaluation,""audience research,"…

  12. Future Skills. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2004-01-01

    Most of the occupations for which students need to be prepared have not yet been designed, however, it is acknowledged that the majority of employment will be in service related fields. According to the research, the jobs most people will perform will only exist for three to five years, therefore, training for a specific job is not what is…

  13. The Future of Research Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tim; De Waard, Anita; Herman, Ivan; Hovy, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11331 “The Future of Research Communication”. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers from these different disciplines, whose core research goal is changing the formats, standards, and means by which we communicate science. PMID:26317061

  14. The Future of Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Norward J.

    It is proposed that research universities are a vital component of higher education in the United States because they provide cultural and intellectual leadership, research potential, and the professional and technical human resources to translate research into social, industrial, and economic action. The future of these institutions in view of…

  15. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  16. High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research

    PubMed Central

    Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Axmacher, Nikolai; Mormann, Florian; Halgren, Eric; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI. PMID:22750156

  17. Future directions for agricultural phosphorus research

    SciTech Connect

    Sikora, F.J.

    1992-03-01

    Future Directions for Agricultural Phosphorus Research is a collection of papers presented at a workshop in Muscle Shoals, Alabama, on July 18 and 19, 1990. The objective of the workshop was to gather representatives of academia, government, and industry to discuss and debate research needs with phosphorus in agriculture, ranging from basic to applied research. The enclosed papers present information on current knowledge in the areas of (1) identifying phosphorus solid phases in soil, (ii) enhanced phosphorus bioavailability through microbial activity, (iii) phosphorus rock quality, (iv) environmental issues regarding phosphorus in agriculture, (v) predicting phosphorus bioavailability in soil, and (vi) fertilizer management effects on phosphorus availability. Within each paper, the authors suggest future research needs in their area. With the discussion of current knowledge and future research needs, this publication was designed to benefit organizations formulating and developing research plans concerning phosphorus in agricultural systems.

  18. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  19. Research in a Scenario of Change: Why Research Institutions Should Begin To Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Martha A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses emerging ideas about the future of federal research and development activities as they relate to the future of industry and especially to institutions of higher learning. Discusses energy research today, a future perspective, the future of the research community, and challenges. Highlights the future orientation of the Office of Energy…

  20. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  1. Future directions in meteorite research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anders, E.; Kerridge, John F.

    1988-01-01

    Information presently available on meteorite composition and history and the areas in meteorite research that should be covered in future in order to shed additional light on the earliest history of the solar system are discussed. Attention is given to the work needed in the classification schemes for chondrites, the question of the identification of parent bodies of the major meteorite and chondrite types, the igneous differentiation of certain asteroids, the effects of irradiation, the solar-system chronology, and issues concerning the early solar system. Other important areas discussed include the elemental composition of chondrites, the magnetic properties of meteorites, the composition and the petrology of chondrules, the properties of primitive material surviving in chondrites, the micrometeorites, the nebula, the presolar material in meteorites, the nucleosynthesis, and the nucleocosmochronology.

  2. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  3. The Necessity of a High-grade Telescope for Education and Future Research Activities in the Phillipines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celebre, C. P.

    Astronomy has been practiced in the Philippines for the past century. However, the study of celestial objects in the country is confined to its observation and publication of data. There is no course on astronomy in the tertiary level while it is briefly covered in the general science curriculum of the elementary and high schools in the country. No serious research activity has been conducted primarily due to the lack of necessary research instruments such as a high-grade telescope and the required formal education or training of staff in astronomy to perform such an activity. The possible donation of a 45-cm high-grade telescope with its accessories by the Government of Japan, through its Cultural Grant-aid Program, to the Philippines will upgrade the capability of the Astronomical Observatory of the Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA) to observe and study astronomical objects and phenomena. Likewise, it will improve services in the promotion of the science of astronomy in the country, especially in the education and training of science teachers.

  4. Research Training--Present & Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development, Paris (France).

    In 10 papers by independent experts, this volume explores the trends in and prospects for research training in member nations of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. "Problems and Prospects of Research Training in the 1990s" (Stuart Blume) looks at trends in national policy toward research training and issues of quality.…

  5. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  6. Future methods in pharmacy practice research.

    PubMed

    Almarsdottir, A B; Babar, Z U D

    2016-06-01

    This article describes the current and future practice of pharmacy scenario underpinning and guiding this research and then suggests future directions and strategies for such research. First, it sets the scene by discussing the key drivers which could influence the change in pharmacy practice research. These are demographics, technology and professional standards. Second, deriving from this, it seeks to predict and forecast the future shifts in use of methodologies. Third, new research areas and availability of data impacting on future methods are discussed. These include the impact of aging information technology users on healthcare, understanding and responding to cultural and social disparities, implementing multidisciplinary initiatives to improve health care, medicines optimization and predictive risk analysis, and pharmacy as business and health care institution. Finally, implications of the trends for pharmacy practice research methods are discussed. PMID:27209486

  7. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization. PMID:26610539

  8. Distant Futures of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1997-07-01

    We will explore possible future fates of solar magnetic activity through high-S/N ultraviolet spectra of the ancient Sun analog, Arcturus {K2 III}. The fundamental mechanisms that drive the hot {T>10^6 K} coronae of cool stars remain elusive. Solving the mystery is a central theme of the ``solar-stellar connection;'' whose importance extends beyond astronomy to areas ranging from basic plasma physics to solar-terrestrial relations. A significant property of the activity is that it subsides with age: G dwarfs in young clusters are intense coronal sources, whereas old low mass K giants are so feable in soft X-rays that most are below current detection limits. For that reason, historical studies of activity have been biased towards the younger stars. Now HST/STIS easily can record faint coronal proxies {like Si IV and C IV} in nearby cool subgiants and giants, thereby mitigating the de facto age discrimination. In the solar neighborhood the brightest single star of advanced age {9-11 Gyr} is Alpha Bootis {K2 III}. Previous studies have placed the archetype red giant firmly in the ``coronal graveyard.'' Our project focuses on understanding the ``basal'' chromosphere; molecular cooling catastrophes and the structure of the passive ``COmosphere;'' the dynamics and energy balance of the residual subcoronal gas; and mass loss mechanisms. {This program is a carryover from a failed Cycle 5 GHRS observation.}

  9. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided. PMID:26965100

  10. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  11. Recommendations for future research in hypersonic instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocheltree, S. L.

    1993-01-01

    An overview of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop is presented. It describes the process followed to obtain a group consensus on the main technical recommendations for each of the five technical sessions of the Workshop and presents the general conclusions and recommendations for future research agreed upon by the workshop participants.

  12. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  13. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  14. Future Directions of Inquiry in Adapted Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg

    2000-01-01

    Sketches some future trends of inquiry in adapted physical activity. These include investigation into ethics in adapted physical activity. Empirically based issues of inquiry include physical activity as a dependent measure, diverse and changing populations, theoretical and applied research, nomothetic and idiographic research perspectives,…

  15. The Evolution and Future of Cognitive Research in Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jack A.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses the evolution and current status of cognitive research in music. Identifies the field's five research branches: (1) sensation; (2) perception; (3) concept formation and memory; (4) affect or emotions; and (5) psychomotor activity. Recommends five changes for the future of cognitive musicology. (CFR)

  16. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  17. Past, Present and Future in Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gusdorf, Georges

    1977-01-01

    Presents examples of interdisciplinary research since the origin of western science and predicts that future interdisciplinary approaches to epistemological writing will take into account divergent thinking patterns and thereby end the domination by western intellectual imperialism. For journal availability, see SO 506 201. (Author/DB)

  18. NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

    1987-01-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

  19. Basic research for future electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jahn, R. G.

    1985-01-01

    It is pointed out that the evolution of electric propulsion over the past two and a half decades has been constrained by the interaction of three broad factors, including the physics and dynamics of the propellants, the dynamical and logistical requirements of the mission, and the technological realities of materials, power sources, and thermal management. A projection of the future of electric propulsion requires, therefore, a simultaneous reassessment of all three factors. Aspects of mission specification and power systems are discussed, and basic research needed for future electric propulsion applications is considered. Attention is given to electrostatic propulsion, electrothermal propulsion, electromagnetic propulsion, electrothermal/electromagnetic hybrids, novel concepts, and ancillary concerns.

  20. Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

  1. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  2. Future research in weight bias: What next?

    PubMed

    Alberga, Angela S; Russell-Mayhew, Shelly; von Ranson, Kristin M; McLaren, Lindsay; Ramos Salas, Ximena; Sharma, Arya M

    2016-06-01

    The 2015 Canadian Weight Bias Summit disseminated the newest research advances and brought together 40 experts, stakeholders, and policy makers in various disciplines in health, education, and public policy to identify future research directions in weight bias. In this paper we aim to share the results of the Summit as well as encourage international and interdisciplinary research collaborations in weight bias reduction. Consensus emerged on six research areas that warrant further investigation in weight bias: costs, causes, measurement, qualitative research and lived experience, interventions, and learning from other models of discrimination. These discussions highlighted three key lessons that were informed by the Summit, namely: language matters, the voices of people living with obesity should be incorporated, and interdisciplinary stakeholders should be included. PMID:27129601

  3. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research

    PubMed Central

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  4. Futures Challenges in Thyroid Hormone Signaling Research.

    PubMed

    Flamant, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The canonical pathway of thyroid hormone signaling involves its binding to nuclear receptors (TRs) acting directly on the transcription of a number of genes. Recent genome-wide studies revealed that chromatin occupancy by TR is not sufficient for transactivation of gene expression. Reciprocally, in some cases, DNA binding by TR may not be required for cellular response. This leaves many new questions to be addressed in future research. PMID:27445973

  5. Toward Interagency Coordination: An Overview of Federal Research and Development Activities Relating to Early Childhood, and Recommendations for the Future. (Executive Summary).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stearns, Marian S.; And Others

    The Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development, convened in the spring of 1970 by the Office of Child Development, reports on its activities among 11 federal agencies over an 18 month period. It conducted a survey of federally funded research in early child learning and development, developed a data bank, and gathered…

  6. Educational Imperatives of the Future Research Library: A Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodsworth, Anne; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Seven articles discuss the competencies needed by library and information science school graduates. Surveys of needed competencies are compared, a model of the information activities of a research library of the future is proposed, staffing and educational requirements are discussed, and a need for new philosophies of user services is suggested.…

  7. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  8. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  9. Wound ballistics: contemporary and future research.

    PubMed

    Ryan, J M; Cooper, G J; Maynard, R L

    1988-10-01

    Wound ballistics research has contributed much to the understanding of the pathophysiology of missile injury that now exists. From this store of knowledge treatment regimes have evolved which have greatly improved the lot of the soldier wounded in war. However, research must keep pace with changes that are taking place in weapons research and development so that the particular needs of the Army Medical Services on a future battlefield can be met. The differing needs of civilian and military medical services are highlighted. The marked differences that exist between the missile wound seen and treated in a late twentieth century hospital and the wounds likely to be encountered on the modern battlefield are enumerated and discussed. PMID:3057188

  10. Future directions in preterm birth research.

    PubMed

    Jain, Joses; Gyamfi-Bannerman, Cynthia

    2016-04-01

    The problem of preterm birth continues to pose one of the most significant research challenges that we face due to its immense scope and complexity. With evidence that 95% of cases of spontaneous preterm birth are intractable to current interventions, our best hope in resolving this problem may lie in new, innovative ideas. Novel approaches to researching preterm birth are currently underway, building upon our prior discoveries and probing into the unknown on multiple fronts. Here we discuss some of the major focuses of future investigation that provide a promising outlook for discovery, including advanced techniques to evaluate the cervix, new strategies to identify the role of the microbiome, and advances in molecular and epigenetic-based research. PMID:26640166

  11. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  12. Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbert, Bruce N.

    2015-01-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in early 2009 as the implementation of Goal 1.4 of its just-issued strategic plan. In keeping with the NIMH mission, to “transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research,” RDoC was explicitly conceived as a research-related initiative. The statement of the relevant goal in the strategic plan reads: “Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures.” Due to the novel approach that RDoC takes to conceptualizing and studying mental disorders, it has received widespread attention, well beyond the borders of the immediate research community. This review discusses the rationale for the experimental framework that RDoC has adopted, and its implications for the nosology of mental disorders in the future. PMID:25987867

  13. Soy Saponins: Current Research and Future Goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Saponins are a biologically active class of triterpenoid phytochemicals found in soybeans at concentrations similar to those of the isoflavones, and the role they may play in nutrition and health is not well understood. Research the functionality of these compounds in animals and humans has been ha...

  14. What is the future of biomedical research?

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico

    2015-10-01

    Randomized controlled trials require hard work and financial commitment, whereas meta-analyses and systematic reviews can be relatively easy to perform and often get published in high impact journals. Many researchers might decide to devote themselves to the latter approach, resulting in a negative impact on clinical research. We have reviewed the number of indexed meta-analyses and systematic reviews on PubMed and compared it with the number of randomized controlled trials over the same period. Statistical analysis showed an exponential increase of synthetic studies with respect to randomized trials. The ratio between RCTs and synthetic studies is quickly decreasing. These results suggest that a growing number of researchers might prefer to commit themselves to synthetic studies more than be involved in more time consuming and funds demanding observational trials. If we are unable to invert this trend, in the future we will have a growing number of synthetic studies utilizing someone else's original data and fewer raw data to base our knowledge upon. PMID:26194725

  15. Future Requirements for Satellite Altimetry: Recommendations from the GAMBLE Project for Future Missions and Research Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, P. D.; Menard, Y.

    2006-07-01

    The GAMBLE th ematic network brought together European exper ts in ocean altimetry to consider future developmen ts in satellite altimetry. The aim was to provide r ecommendations for research activ ities, and future altimeter missions, th at w ere necessary to support and build on present developments in operational o ceanography and to main tain o cean monitoring programmes. This paper reviews user r equiremen ts for operational products th at rely on altimeter d ata, and assess how well presen t and planned activities satisfy those requ irements. It provides recommendations for future missions required to form a cost-eff ectiv e, robust, operational satellite altimeter measuremen t system. [1] provides a full discussion.

  16. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article. PMID:18651820

  17. Future Directions of Delirium Research and Management

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Christopher G.; Brummel, Nathan E.; Vasilevskis, Eduard E.; Girard, Timothy D.; Pandharipande, Pratik P.

    2013-01-01

    Delirium is a prevalent organ dysfunction in critically ill patients associated with significant morbidity and mortality, requiring advancements in the clinical and research realms to improve patient outcomes. Increased clinical recognition and utilization of delirium assessment tools, along with clarification of specific risk factors and presentations in varying patient populations, will be necessary in the future. To improve predictive models for outcomes, the continued development and implementation of delirium assessment tools and severity scoring systems will be required. The interplay between the pathophysiological pathways implicated in delirium and resulting clinical presentations and outcomes will need to guide the development of appropriate prevention and treatment protocols. Multicenter randomized controlled trials of interventional therapies will then need to be performed to test their ability to improve clinical outcomes. Physical and cognitive rehabilitation measures need to be further examined as additional means of improving outcomes from delirium in the hospital setting. PMID:23040289

  18. Nanofluid technology : current status and future research.

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, S. U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R and D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  19. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  20. Photometric support for future astonomical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, D. S.; Genet, R. M.

    1985-01-01

    The I.A.P.P.P. is described and how that organization can provide photometric support for future astronomical research projects such as the 1982-1984 eclipse of epsilon Aurigae discussed at this workshop. I.A.P.P.P., International Amateur-Professional Photoelectric Photometry, is an organization founded in Fairborn, Ohio by the authors in 1980. Its purpose is to encourage contact between amateur and professional astronomers interested in photoelectric photometry, for their mutual benefit and for the benefit of astronomical research. Aspects dealt with include instrumentation, electronics, computer hardware and software, observing techniques, data reduction, and observing programs. Starting with the June 1980 issue, I.A.P.P.P. has published the quarterly I.A.P.P.P. Communications. The Communications contain articles dealing with all the above aspects of photoelectric photometry, although it does not publish observational results as such. Photoelectric photometry obtained by amateurs is published in the same journals which publish photometry obtained by professionals.

  1. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice. PMID:23816867

  2. Sepsis: a roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Jonathan; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Adhikari, Neill K J; Machado, Flavia R; Angus, Derek C; Calandra, Thierry; Jaton, Katia; Giulieri, Stefano; Delaloye, Julie; Opal, Steven; Tracey, Kevin; van der Poll, Tom; Pelfrene, Eric

    2015-05-01

    Sepsis is a common and lethal syndrome: although outcomes have improved, mortality remains high. No specific anti-sepsis treatments exist; as such, management of patients relies mainly on early recognition allowing correct therapeutic measures to be started rapidly, including administration of appropriate antibiotics, source control measures when necessary, and resuscitation with intravenous fluids and vasoactive drugs when needed. Although substantial developments have been made in the understanding of the basic pathogenesis of sepsis and the complex interplay of host, pathogen, and environment that affect the incidence and course of the disease, sepsis has stubbornly resisted all efforts to successfully develop and then deploy new and improved treatments. Existing models of clinical research seem increasingly unlikely to produce new therapies that will result in a step change in clinical outcomes. In this Commission, we set out our understanding of the clinical epidemiology and management of sepsis and then ask how the present approaches might be challenged to develop a new roadmap for future research. PMID:25932591

  3. Research is the Future, the Future is…….

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Francis J

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two decades, Professor Lenney has established the Paediatric Respiratory Department at the Royal Stoke University Hospital as a centre recognised for high quality research. A broad portfolio of clinical and laboratory based research is in progress. Four research areas are discussed that are likely to contribute to the continued academic output from the unit. These are the use of selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry for the detection of biomarkers associated with pulmonary pathogens, the measurement of lung clearance index in preschool children, structured light plethysmography in children and the use of oral prednisolone for asthma exacerbations in children. PMID:26527356

  4. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  5. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-01

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  6. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  7. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; et al

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  8. ISS Assembly Progress and Future Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    we will expand the ISS structure, add more power and enable international support capability. All of the U.S. hardware for the next two years is completing processing and preparing for launch. Japan and Europe continue to work on their laboratories, "Kibo" and "Columbus," to prepare for arrival on orbit in 2004/ early 2005. Enhanced utilization and research is also a major goal for Phase 3. During increment 4, we'll take up two more research racks, bringing the total to seven racks on orbit, and install additional scientific equipment. There is a world of possibilities for future activities on ISS, including science, commerce, and education, in addition to the ground breaking international cooperation that is shaping human space flight for years to come.

  9. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  10. Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations

    MedlinePlus

    ... ADEAR Participating in Alzheimer's Research: For Yourself and Future Generations Introduction Participating in a clinical trial or ... prevent Alzheimer's and other diseases, and could help future generations lead healthier lives. "When I was diagnosed ...

  11. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  12. The Future of Educational Research in the Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Carole J.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    This issue of the "Professions Education Research Notes" is devoted to the theme of "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions." Four articles have been extracted from the issue to form this document: "The Future of Educational Research in the Professions," by Carole J. Bland, introduces the other articles and describes, as context for…

  13. Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

  14. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    The factors affecting the helicopter market for the past, present, and future are reviewed. Acquisition cost, mission reliability, life cycle cost and civil and military aspects are reviewed. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations and the component technology for the engine systems are discussed. The selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency is considered.

  15. Research Challenges in Future Health Care Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulatunga, Harini

    Future health care systems will involve a network of heterogeneous resources providing different levels of service and will comprise of a physical and a virtual decision and control layer. The initial results presented here will lead to health care delivery with on-line decision making in order to meet QoS requirements and management targets.

  16. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012

  17. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012

  18. Trends in catalysis research to meet future refining needs

    SciTech Connect

    Absi-Halabi, M.; Stanislaus, A.; Qabazard, H.

    1997-02-01

    The main emphasis of petroleum refining during the `70s and early `80s was to maximize conversion of heavy oils to gasoline and middle distillate products. While this objective is still important, the current focus that began in the late `80s is to develop cleaner products. This is a result of strict environmental constraints to reduce emissions from both the products and refineries. Developing catalysts with improved activity, selectivity and stability for use in processes producing such environmentally acceptable fuels is the most economical and effective route for refiners. Novel technologies such as biocatalysis and catalytic membranes are examples of current successful laboratory-scale attempts to resolve anticipated future industry problems. Since catalysts play a key role in refining processes, it is important to examine the challenges facing catalysis research to meet future refining developments. The paper discusses the factors influencing refining, advancements in refining technology and catalysis, short-term future trends in refining catalysts research, and long-term trends in refining catalysts. 56 refs.

  19. Cold Fronts Research Programme: Progress, Future Plans, and Research Directions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, B. F.; Wilson, K. J.; Garratt, J. R.; Smith, R. K.

    1985-09-01

    Following the analysis of data collected during Phases land II of the Cold Fronts Research Programme (CFRP) a conceptual model for the Australian summertime "cool change" has been proposed. The model provides a focus and a framework for the design of Phase III.The model is based on data gathered from a mesoscale network centered on Mount Gambier, South Australia, and includes the coastal waters to the west and relatively flat terrain to the east. The first objective of Phase III is to generalize the model so that it is applicable to the ocean waters to the far west of Mount Gambier and to the more rugged terrain farther to the east in the vicinity of Melbourne, Victoria. The remaining objectives concentrate on resolving unsatisfactory aspects of the model such as the evolution of convective lines and the relationship between the surface cold front and the upper-tropospheric cold pool and its associated jet stream.The integrated nature of the Cold Fronts Research Programme has meant that it has stimulated a wide range of research activities that extend beyond the field observations. The associated investigations include climatological, theoretical, and numerical modeling studies.

  20. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  1. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors related to the acquisition and life-cycle cost, and mission reliability of helicopters is given. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Special attention is given to advanced propulsion systems and related component technologies, and system requirements, powerplants and component thrusts, compressor designs, combustion systems, turbine efficiency, blade tip treatment concepts and shaft dynamics are discussed in detail.

  2. Research Universities and the Future of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  3. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  4. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  5. Future of Venus Research and Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaze, L.; Limaye, S.; Nakamura, M.; Wilson, C.; Zasova, L.

    2014-04-01

    A great deal is known about Venus from the Venera, Pioneer-Venus, Magellan, and Venus Express missions. However, many significant questions remain regarding the origin, evolution and current geologic and atmospheric processes. Much can be learned from theoretical modeling of the planetary interior and atmospheric circulation, as well as from laboratory spectroscopic studies. However, to answer many of the outstanding questions, new space flight missions are needed. Multiple international space agencies are considering Venus as a possible destination for future exploration. Collaborative international participation provides a viable path to further understanding of Earth's sister planet and her role in the formation of our solar system.

  6. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  7. The Future of Higher Education and the Future of Higher Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teichler, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Higher education research is closely linked to the debates on higher education policy and practice. It provides the information basis for decisions about the future of higher education. As the themes of the public debate on problems and reform needs in higher education change quickly, higher education research has to anticipate future problems and…

  8. Postoperative ileus: mechanisms and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Vather, Ryash; O'Grady, Greg; Bissett, Ian P; Dinning, Phil G

    2014-05-01

    Postoperative ileus (POI) is an abnormal pattern of gastrointestinal motility characterized by nausea, vomiting, abdominal distension and/or delayed passage of flatus or stool, which may occur following surgery. Postoperative ileus slows recovery, increases the risk of developing postoperative complications and confers a significant financial load on healthcare institutions. The aim of the present review is to provide a succinct overview of the clinical features and pathophysiological mechanisms of POI, with final comment on selected directions for future research.Terminology used when describing POI is inconsistent, with little differentiation made between the obligatory period of gut dysfunction seen after surgery ('normal POI') and the more clinically and pathologically significant entity of a 'prolonged POI'. Both normal and prolonged POI represent a fundamentally similar pathophysiological phenomenon. The aetiology of POI is postulated to be multifactorial, with principal mediators being inflammatory cell activation, autonomic dysfunction (both primarily and as part of the surgical stress response), agonism at gut opioid receptors, modulation of gastrointestinal hormone activity and electrolyte derangements. A final common pathway for these effectors is impaired contractility and motility and gut wall oedema. There are many potential directions for future research. In particular, there remains scope to accurately characterize the gastrointestinal dysfunction that underscores an ileus, development of an accurate risk stratification tool will facilitate early implementation of preventive measures and clinical appraisal of novel therapeutic strategies that target individual pathways in the pathogenesis of ileus warrant further investigation. PMID:24754527

  9. Guiding future research on terrestrial ecosystem disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-04-01

    With North American ecosystems responsible for drawing hundreds of teragrams of carbon from the atmosphere each year, the tenuous balance of the terrestrial carbon budget can be upset for decades by disturbances such as fires, storms, disease outbreaks, insect infestations, and logging. Research cataloging the effects of such disturbances on regional carbon cycling tends to be sporadic or of limited scope. Most research has focused on forests but is less extensive for other important ecosystems such as grasslands or permafrost peatlands.

  10. Applying futures' research to nutrition education.

    PubMed

    Gayle, M E

    1987-09-01

    You, as individuals and as professionals, cannot be expected to solve all the problems of this decade and those projected for the future that I have discussed with you today, but you must accept the challenge to help bring individuals and society to a more holistic approach to a quality of life for all its members. The messages have gone out to children, youth, and adults that a young, thin, and beautiful image is all that is appropriate. Within the context of these messages individuals are confused and overwhelmed by their own inabilities to "be all that they can be." There are mixed messages in the media concerning drugs that are bad and drugs that are good, food that is bad and food that is good, and the connections to the environment. Your role and mine in this future will be to enter into partnerships with all policy-making and administrative agencies and with private sector groups, to work together and to share our many resources, experiences, and creative minds in moving healthy minds and bodies into the 21st century. Choices, Challenges, and Change--a time for new heroes. Who is yours? Mine is Pogo, who said, "I am faced with insurmountable opportunities." PMID:3624729

  11. Geriatric epilepsy: research and clinical directions for the future.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Erik D; Hope, Omotola A; Martin, Roy C; Schmidt, Dieter

    2011-09-01

    There is a growing awareness of the need for improved treatment and care of older adults with epilepsy. The present review article highlights key clinical and research issues in the emerging field of geriatric epilepsy. Drs. Martin and Schmidt explore the scope of the problems in the field, outline topic areas including cognitive health/dementia, and diagnostic challenges, and also present important research questions that should be considered for the future. As part of this presentation, we will highlight the work of two promising young investigators whose work holds great promise for the field of geriatric epilepsy. Dr. Roberson will discuss his work focusing on the relationship of epilepsy and cognitive impairment, particularly as it relates to Alzheimer's disease pathology including tau and its role in epileptiform activity. Dr. Hope will outline key issues, as well as her work, relating to defining and measuring quality care in geriatric epilepsy. PMID:21596624

  12. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested. PMID:16769143

  13. Future human bone research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

    1998-01-01

    Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

  14. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  15. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  16. Future directions in human-environment research.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science. PMID:26422805

  17. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  18. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  19. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  20. Past, present and future research directions with Pichia anomala.

    PubMed

    Passoth, Volkmar; Olstorpe, Matilda; Schnürer, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The first International Pichia anomala Symposium provided a survey of past, recent and ongoing research on this yeast. The research community working with this yeast has focussed on several areas. Based on molecular data, a revision of the taxonomy is required: the name P. anomala is no longer applicable, as the genus Pichia is polyphyletic. The current debate centres on whether the yeast should be designated as Wickerhamomyces anomalus or if the previous name, Hansenula anomala, should be re-instated. The anti-microbial activities of this yeast received considerable attention during the symposium. H. anomala has been extensively studied as a biopreservation agent in many different post-harvest systems. Several mechanisms account for its anti-microbial activities, including the production of killer proteins and toxic volatile metabolites. Anti-idiotypic antibodies generating an "internal image" of a killer protein have been found to possess therapeutic activity against a broad range of microorganisms. A great diversity of H. anomala strains was reported at the symposium. Strains have been isolated from several food and feed systems and even from the intestine and reproductive organs of a malaria vector (Anopheles stephensi). Feed and food supplemented with certain H. anomala strains show an improved quality due, for example, to the addition of advantageous proteins and phytase activity. However, a number of apparent opportunistic pathogenic strains have also been isolated. Strain differentiation, especially the recognition of potentially pathogenic isolates, is an important challenge for the future commercialisation of this yeast. Future industrial and agricultural application of this yeast also raises questions of the economics of large-scale production, its survival during storage (formulation) and of safety regulations, all of which require further investigation. PMID:20924674

  1. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    PubMed Central

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2015-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the development of ADHD. Second, neurobiological findings will have limited impact if not examined in the context of significant race and cultural variation in ADHD-related developmental processes, and in the context of rapidly changing social and technological contexts of children’s development worldwide. Third, further examination of the phenotype and characterization of its dimensional and categorical structure remains a major need. Overall, the coming decades of etiology research on ADHD will be expected to capitalize on new scientific tools. The hope in the field is that new insights into fundamental prevention can emerge. PMID:22642834

  2. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  3. Future directions in aeronautical research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bower, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The aeronautical R & D effort in NASA is discussed with emphasis on those areas where major needs and opportunities exist. In aerodynamics, areas selected for discussion include computational aerodynamics, transonic test techniques, high Reynolds number research, skin friction drag reduction, and propulsive lift. In propulsion, consideration is given to the areas of fuel-efficient subsonic propulsion, variable-flow engines, hypersonic propulsion, alternate fuels, and aircraft noise reduction. Consideration is also given to the utilization of advanced composites and integrated avionic systems.

  4. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  5. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  6. The Epilepsy Spectrum: Targeting Future Research Challenges.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Gregory L; Noebels, Jeffrey L

    2016-01-01

    There have been tremendous recent advances in our understanding of the biological underpinnings of epilepsy and associated comorbidities that justify its representation as a spectrum disorder. Advances in genetics, electrophysiology, and neuroimaging have greatly improved our ability to differentiate, diagnose, and treat individuals with epilepsy. However, we have made little overall progress in preventing epilepsy, and the number of patients who are cured remains small. Likewise, the comorbidities of epilepsy are often underdiagnosed or not adequately treated. In this article, we suggest a few areas in which additional research will likely pay big dividends for patients and their families. PMID:27371672

  7. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  8. Alcohol research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Gunzerath, Lorraine; Hewitt, Brenda G; Li, Ting-Kai; Warren, Kenneth R

    2011-01-01

    Created forty years ago, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has played a major role in the great strides made in the understanding, treatment, prevention, and public acceptance of alcohol-use disorders. Throughout most of U.S. history "habitual drunkenness" was viewed as a problem of moral degeneracy or character flaw inherent in the individual. However, the wealth of scientific evidence amassed throughout NIAAA's history has established alcoholism as a medical condition, that is, as a disease for which affected individuals should feel no shame or be treated with disdain. We look at the developments in alcohol epidemiology, typology, etiology, prevention, and treatment research over the past 40 years. We also discuss how NIAAA addresses alcohol disorders from a life-course framework, affecting all stages of the lifespan, from fetus through child, adolescent, and young adult, to midlife/senior adult, with each stage involving different risks, consequences, prevention efforts, and treatment strategies. PMID:21182533

  9. Diet and cancer: future etiologic research.

    PubMed Central

    Schatzkin, A; Dorgan, J; Swanson, C; Potischman, N

    1995-01-01

    In light of several credible diet and cancer hypotheses, we suggest strategies for advancing our understanding in this area. Two conceptual approaches can be taken in defining dietary exposure: the decompositional approach focuses on specific nutrients and other chemical constituents of food, whereas the integrative approach emphasizes the action of whole foods or food patterns (cuisines). Diet-cancer hypotheses can be organized according to this conceptual framework. We review four types of scientific investigation available to us for advancing the diet and cancer field: metabolic (clinical nutrition) studies; animal studies; observational epidemiologic investigations; and clinical trials. Each of these designs has its strengths and limitations. Observational epidemiologic studies and trials have the particular advantage of examining explicit cancer end points in humans. Results from metabolic and animal research, however, can complement the findings from epidemiologic studies and trials. Finally, we briefly review strategies for evaluating promising hypotheses linking diet to cancers of the large bowel, lung, breast, and prostate. PMID:8741779

  10. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  11. Acamprosate: recent findings and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Mann, Karl; Kiefer, Falk; Spanagel, Rainer; Littleton, John

    2008-07-01

    This article explores the mechanisms of action and the potential responder profile of acamprosate, a compound efficacious in relapse prevention of alcoholism. New evidence at the molecular and cellular level suggests that acamprosate attenuates hyper-glutamatergic states that occur during early abstinence and involves iono (NMDA)- and metabotrotropic (mGluR5) glutamate receptors along with augmented intracellular calcium release and electrophysiological changes. Thus mutant mice with enhanced glutamate levels exhibit higher alcohol consumption than wild type mice and respond better to acamprosate, demonstrating that acamprosate acts mainly on a hyper-glutamatergic system. This mode of action further suggests that acamprosate exhibits neuroprotective properties. In rats, cue-induced reinstatement behavior is significantly reduced by acamprosate treatment whereas cue-induced craving responses in alcohol-dependent patients seem not to be affected by this treatment. An ongoing study ("Project Predict") defines specific responder profiles for an individualized use of acamprosate and naltrexone. Neurophysiological as well as psychometric data are used to define 2 groups of patients: "reward cravers" and "relief cravers". While naltrexone should work better in the first group, acamprosate is hypothesized to be efficacious in the latter where withdrawal associated and/or cue induced hyper-glutamatergic states are thought to trigger relapse. Further research should target the definition of subgroups applying endophenotypic approaches, e.g. by detecting a hyperglutamatergic syndrome using MR spectroscopy. PMID:18540918

  12. Race and Child Welfare Services: Past Research and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Mark E.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reviews child welfare research studies and discusses empirical literature on relationships among race, services, and outcomes in selected child welfare domains. Provides summary of previous research. Presents conceptual and methodological considerations for future research on role of race in child welfare and development of culturally competent…

  13. Special Education Teacher Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sindelar, Paul T.; Brownell, Mary T.; Billingsley, Bonnie

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose an agenda for special education teacher education researchers, with particular attention to policy work and studies of innovations in pre-service preparation, induction and mentoring, and professional development. Because previous research is limited and unfocused, the foundation for future research is weak,…

  14. Directions for Future Research in Vocational Special Needs Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojewski, Jay W.; Meers, Gary D.

    A two-phase empirical investigation identified, categorized, and prioritized research needs in vocational special education for the next 10 years. Phase 1 involved 18 university personnel in a three-round Delphi technique that generated 91 future research objectives. Research statements collected from Round 1 questionnaires were used to construct…

  15. Internet Research: Implications for The Future of Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Shortliffe, Ted

    1999-01-01

    The phenomenal growth in Internet usage, largely due to the success of the World Wide Web, has stressed the international networking infrastructure in ways that were never contemplated when the early ARPAnet emerged from research laboratories in the 1970s. Some of the challenges are logistical and legal, and have to do with management of domain names, intellectual-property agreements, and international business activities. Others are technical, resulting both because we are envisioning applications that the current Internet cannot support, and because the existing infrastructure cannot scale to a world in which a huge portion of the world's population is online and individual homes and businesses may have IP addresses for tens of electronic devices, such as appliances, heating systems, or security alarms. In this presentation, I will discuss some of the US research and testbed activities that are currently underway in an effort to respond to the technical challenges. These include the Internet-2 testbed created by a consortium of academic institutions, and the federal government's Next Generation Internet research initiative. I will explain the difference between these two programs and identify some of the technical requirements other than a simple increase in bandwidth that have been identified for the evolving Internet. This will lead to a discussion of the limitations of the current Internet that have constrained its use in health care and that accordingly help to define the networking research agenda that is of greatest importance to the biomedical community. Policy and regulatory issues that arise because of health care's use of the Internet will also be discussed, as will those technical requirements that may be unique to biomedical applications. One goal of the discussion will be to motivate an international discussion of the ways in which the medical informatics community should be engaged in both basic and applied research in the area of networking and the

  16. Prospects for Technical Communication: Research for Futures Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathes, J. C.

    The need for technical communication to enable the transition from a "postindustrial" future to an alternative future is incalculable; however, research is required to improve current technical communication models and methods. The current rhetoric of technical communication derives from an inadequate command-generated technical communication…

  17. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities. PMID:22874227

  18. High Density Electroencephalography in Sleep Research: Potential, Problems, Future Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lustenberger, Caroline; Huber, Reto

    2012-01-01

    High density EEG (hdEEG) during sleep combines the superior temporal resolution of EEG recordings with high spatial resolution. Thus, this method allows a topographical analysis of sleep EEG activity and thereby fosters the shift from a global view of sleep to a local one. HdEEG allowed to investigate sleep rhythms in terms of their characteristic behavior (e.g., the traveling of slow waves) and in terms of their relationship to cortical functioning (e.g., consciousness and cognitive abilities). Moreover, recent studies successfully demonstrated that hdEEG can be used to study brain functioning in neurological and neuro-developmental disorders, and to evaluate therapeutic approaches. This review highlights the potential, the problems, and future perspective of hdEEG in sleep research. PMID:22593753

  19. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  20. PM ACTIVITY PATTERN RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human activity/uptake rate data are necessary to estimate potential human exposure and intake dose to environmental pollutants and to refine human exposure models. Personal exposure monitoring studies have demonstrated the critical role that activities play in explaining and pre...

  1. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  2. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Davison, K K; Birch, L L

    2001-08-01

    The prevalence of overweight among children has doubled within the past two decades. Increases in the rate of childhood overweight are of particular concern due to the negative health and psychological effects noted among overweight children. As shown by previous research, the development of childhood overweight involves a complex set of factors from multiple contexts that interact with each other to place a child at risk of overweight. This multifaceted system can be conceptualized using Ecological Systems Theory (EST). EST highlights the importance of considering the context(s), or ecological niche, in which a person is located in order to understand the emergence of a particular characteristic. In the case of a child, the ecological niche includes the family and the school, which are in turn embedded in larger social contexts including the community and society at large. In this review, EST is used as a framework with which to summarize research assessing predictors of childhood overweight. Specifically, child characteristics that place children at risk of the development of overweight (including dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour) will be reviewed while taking into consideration the influence of the familial environment, the school environment, and the community and larger social environments. It is concluded that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach in order to understand and intervene against the processes leading to the development of overweight among children and that the use of theories or paradigms such as EST will facilitate developing and testing models of causal processes. PMID:12120101

  3. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  4. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  5. Childhood overweight: a contextual model and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Davison, K. K.; Birch, L. L.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The prevalence of overweight among children has doubled within the past two decades. Increases in the rate of childhood overweight are of particular concern due to the negative health and psychological effects noted among overweight children. As shown by previous research, the development of childhood overweight involves a complex set of factors from multiple contexts that interact with each other to place a child at risk of overweight. This multifaceted system can be conceptualized using Ecological Systems Theory (EST). EST highlights the importance of considering the context(s), or ecological niche, in which a person is located in order to understand the emergence of a particular characteristic. In the case of a child, the ecological niche includes the family and the school, which are in turn embedded in larger social contexts including the community and society at large. In this review, EST is used as a framework with which to summarize research assessing predictors of childhood overweight. Specifically, child characteristics that place children at risk of the development of overweight (including dietary intake, physical activity, and sedentary behaviour) will be reviewed while taking into consideration the influence of the familial environment, the school environment, and the community and larger social environments. It is concluded that future research needs to adopt a broader contextual approach in order to understand and intervene against the processes leading to the development of overweight among children and that the use of theories or paradigms such as EST will facilitate developing and testing models of causal processes. PMID:12120101

  6. The ESA activities on future launchers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfeffer, H.

    1984-01-01

    A future launcher development scenario depends on many assumptions, such as the impetus provided by the probability of future missions, and the political willingness of member states to undertake future developments. Because of the long timescale implied by a coherent launcher development, a step-wise approach within an overall future launcher development plan appears essential. The definition of development steps allows the launcher developments to be adapted to the driving external forces, so that no possible opportunity to Europe in the space launch business is missed out because of improper planning on the absence of a long term goal. The launcher senario, to be presented in 1985, forms part of Europe's overall STS plan for the future. This overall STS plan is one product of the complete STS LTPP, a first draft of which should exist by 1985, and which will be updated regularly to take into account the changing political and economic perspectives.

  7. Opening remarks: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1993-08-01

    It is our custom to present the Propagation Program's recent accomplishments and future plans at the onset of a NAPEX meeting. A summary is presented. The data analysis phase of the U.S. Olympus Campaign is nearing its end. The final report will be published by Virginia Tech by midsummer 1993. The report will comprise measurement analysis for 12 months. It will include monthly and annual attenuation statistics and statistics on scintillation effects. A number of prediction models will be presented. The ACTS propagation experiment preparations are moving forward as expected. The mobile/personal channel characterization efforts continued during the last year. Data collected by the University of Texas in 1992 are being analyzed and will become available by September 1993. We have recently started a study to characterize LEO mobile/personal channels. Topics such as indoor reception, tree shadowing, blockage, and delay spread will be investigated. These results will become available in one to two years from now. We have also collected Ka-band mobile data using Olympus 20 GHz beacon transmissions. The University of Texas has already collected five years of low-elevation angle, 11GHz propagation data. The work on database for propagation models has progressed very well. The first release is ready, and the participants of this meeting will receive a copy of the software. We had an active year where CCIR is concerned.

  8. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  9. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in

  10. Current status and future research in motion planning

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Y.K.

    1995-07-01

    There have been numerous research efforts in the field of motion planning, resulting in many theoretical and practical results. We review the current status of existing motion planning algorithms, evaluate their completeness and efficiencies on modern computers, and suggest fruitful future research directions.

  11. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  12. Official Language Bilingualism for Allophones in Canada: Exploring Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Turnbull, Miles

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a review of policy and research as they relate to Allophones and their access to French Second Official Language (FSOL) programs in English-dominant Canada. Possible areas of future research are woven throughout the review as questions emerge in the summary of relevant literature. (Contains 3 notes.)

  13. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  14. Mass Communication Research; Major Issues and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, W. Phillips, Ed.; Yu, Frederick T. C., Ed.

    The papers in this edited volume on the directions in mass communication research deal with two broad questions: What is the current state of knowledge with respect to the area in question? And what might be the most fruitful directions for future research? The nine articles include: (1) an attempt to structure the field of mass communication; (2)…

  15. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  16. Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

  17. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  18. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  19. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  20. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered. PMID:26179872

  1. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Structural dynamics technology research in NASA: Perspective on future needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The perspective of a NASA ad hoc study group on future research needs in structural dynamics within the aerospace industry is presented. The common aspects of the design process across the industry are identified and the role of structural dynamics is established through a discussion of various design considerations having their basis in structural dynamics. The specific structural dynamics issues involved are identified and assessed as to their current technological status and trends. Projections of future requirements based on this assessment are made and areas of research to meet them are identified.

  3. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support

  4. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  5. Future Research Needs for Long-Term Monitoring Program Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minsker, B. S.; Dougherty, D. E.; Williams, G.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    An ASCE Task Committee is preparing a manual of practice on long-term monitoring (LTM) program design for groundwater (including vadose) systems. The committee has identified several areas for future research and technology transfer that will improve LTM design. LTM is an on-going activity aimed at assessing remediation performance, containment integrity, and/or continued non-contamination of the subsurface and groundwater. LTM has different goals and needs than site characterization, so data collection, analysis, and modeling approaches must evolve to meet these new needs. Many new sensors and field measurement methods for LTM are under development, and research is needed to develop methods to integrate these data sources with more traditional samples drawn from wells to maximize the information extracted from the data. These new methods need to be able to provide information to assess performance of waste management activities and to understand long-term behavior by optimizing the collection and analysis of multiple data types. The effects of different sampling and measurement methods on monitoring results and their implications for the design of LTM programs also require study. Additional research needs include development of methods to assess flow control strategies, to identify monitoring redundancy in fractured media, and to better incorporate uncertainty into the LTM design process. Well-tested, documented, and open datasets are needed to validate and compare the performance of methods. Technology transfer activities must address the need for evolution of regulatory guidance to encompass the types of data analysis that are needed to assess remediation or containment performance, to identify appropriate LTM plans, and to incorporate novel data collection methods that may support better decision quality through the use of more extensive measurements with lower individual precisions than traditional measurements or may measure an indicator parameter rather than

  6. Leaders, leadership and future primary care clinical research

    PubMed Central

    Furler, John; Cleland, Jennifer; Del Mar, Chris; Hanratty, Barbara; Kadam, Umesh; Lasserson, Daniel; McCowan, Colin; Magin, Parker; Mitchell, Caroline; Qureshi, Nadeem; Rait, Greta; Steel, Nick; van Driel, Mieke; Ward, Alison

    2008-01-01

    Background A strong and self confident primary care workforce can deliver the highest quality care and outcomes equitably and cost effectively. To meet the increasing demands being made of it, primary care needs its own thriving research culture and knowledge base. Methods Review of recent developments supporting primary care clinical research. Results Primary care research has benefited from a small group of passionate leaders and significant investment in recent decades in some countries. Emerging from this has been innovation in research design and focus, although less is known of the effect on research output. Conclusion Primary care research is now well placed to lead a broad re-vitalisation of academic medicine, answering questions of relevance to practitioners, patients, communities and Government. Key areas for future primary care research leaders to focus on include exposing undergraduates early to primary care research, integrating this early exposure with doctoral and postdoctoral research career support, further expanding cross disciplinary approaches, and developing useful measures of output for future primary care research investment. PMID:18822178

  7. Research in paediatric neuropsychology--past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Frampton, Ian

    2004-01-01

    Reviews of the research literature in a range of neurodevelopmental disorders and acquired brain injury reveal a remarkably consistent historical transition through three phases, here termed structural, theoretical and dynamic neuropsychology. Of course, any attempt to summarize such a complex and rich history using a simplistic heuristic will inevitably fail to capture the wide diversity of the research effort. Nevertheless, it is argued that looking at three distinct phases in the history of research helps to organize the field and points to possible future directions for applied research. Using examples from an eclectic range of disorders including childhood obsessive compulsive disorder, congenital hemiplegia and disorders implicating mutation of neurodevelopmental control genes, the implications for future efforts in paediatric neurorehabilitation are considered. PMID:14744672

  8. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  9. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  10. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  11. The Study of the Future: An Agenda for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boucher, Wayne I., Ed.

    This collection of 18 papers is concerned with the beliefs, methods, practices, and results associated with the type of forecasting which has become known in the last 10 to 15 years as "futures research." Topics discussed include: (1) forecasting methodology; (2) the validity of forecasting systems; (3) unforeseen developments; (4) forecasting in…

  12. Tuberous Sclerosis Complex: A Roadmap for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Anna

    2016-07-01

    Investigators from the NINDS and the Tuberous Sclerosis Alliance sponsored a workshop in March 2015, which joined basic scientists and clinicians with expertise in various aspects of Tuberous Sclerosis Complex (TSC), in order to assess the current state of TSC research and to set future goals. PMID:27617567

  13. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  14. Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The field of education is a vital component of today's society, enriching and facilitating the attainment of new knowledge. Progress continues to be achieved in this area as new methods are envisioned that increase education's value. "Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research" brings together diverse perspectives that…

  15. The tau and beyond: Future research on heavy leptons

    SciTech Connect

    Perl, M.I.

    1988-01-01

    This paper outlines directions for future experimental research on the tau and tau neutrino. Present limits on the existence of heavier charged leptons are reviewed, with emphasis on the close-mass lepton pair concept. 44 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  17. Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

  18. Recent Research Activity at OECD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Economics of Education Review, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes research topics and activities at upcoming and past conferences involving the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. Human resources activity is stressing partnerships and the adult learner. New policies and direction in teacher education are focusing on the new professionalism and training innovations. Imbalances in the…

  19. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  20. A future perspective on technological obsolescenceat NASA, Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcintyre, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    The present research effort was the first phase of a study to forecast whether technological obsolescence will be a problem for the engineers, scientists, and technicians at NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC). There were four goals of the research: to review the literature on technological obsolescence; to determine through interviews of division chiefs and branch heads Langley's perspective on future technological obsolescence; to begin making contacts with outside industries to find out how they view the possibility of technological obsolescence; and to make preliminary recommendations for dealing with the problem. A complete description of the findings of this research can be reviewed in a technical report in preparation. The following are a small subset of the key findings of the study: NASA's centers and divisions vary in their missions and because of this, in their capability to control obsolescence; research-oriented organizations within NASA are believed by respondents to keep up to date more than the project-oriented organizations; asked what are the signs of a professional's technological obsolescence, respondents had a variety of responses; top performing scientists were viewed as continuous learners, keeping up to date by a variety of means; when asked what incentives were available to aerospace technologists for keeping up to data, respondents specified a number of ideas; respondents identified many obstacles to professionals' keeping up to date in the future; and most respondents expressed some concern for the future of the professionals at NASA vis a vis the issue of professional obsolescence.

  1. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  2. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE GOALS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Mark B.; Kapustin, Anton N.; Schwarz, John Henry; Carroll, Sean; Ooguri, Hirosi; Gukov, Sergei; Preskill, John; Hitlin, David G.; Porter, Frank C.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Newman, Harvey B.; Spiropulu, Maria; Golwala, Sunil; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-08-26

    of activity include: CDMS II data analysis, contributions to SuperCDMS Soudan operations and analysis, R&D towards SuperCDMS SNOLAB, development of a novel screener for radiocontamination (the BetaCage), and development of new WIMP detector concepts. Ren-Yuan Zhu leads the HEP crystal laboratory for the advanced detector R&D effort. The crystal lab is involved in development of novel scintillating crystals and has proposed several crystal based detector concepts for future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers. Its current research effort is concentrated on development of fast crystal scintillators with good radiation hardness and low cost. II) THEORETICAL PHYSICS The main theme of Sergei Gukov's current research is the relation between the geometry of quantum group invariants and their categorification, on the one hand, and the physics of supersymmetric gauge theory and string theory, on the other. Anton Kapustin's research spans a variety of topics in non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). His main areas of interest are supersymmetric gauge theories, non-perturbative dualities in QFT, disorder operators, Topological Quantum Field Theory, and non-relativistic QFT. He is also interested in the foundations and possible generalizations of Quantum Mechanics. Hirosi Ooguri's current research has two main components. One is to find exact results in Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory. Another is to explore applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence. He also plans to continue his project with Caltech postdoctoral fellows on BPS spectra of supersymmetric gauge theories in diverse dimensions. John Preskill works on quantum information science. This field may lead to important future technologies, and also lead to new understanding of issues in fundamental physics John Schwarz has been exploring a number of topics in superstring theory/M-theory, supersymmetric gauge theory, and their AdS/CFT relationships. Much of the motivation for these

  3. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  4. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  5. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  6. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  7. Drug discovery research in India: current state and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Balganesh, Tanjore; Kundu, Tapas K; Chakraborty, Tushar Kanti; Roy, Siddhartha

    2014-07-10

    Indian civilization developed a strong system of traditional medicine and was one of the first nations to develop a synthetic drug. In the postindependence era, Indian pharmaceutical industry developed a strong base for production of generic drugs. Challenges for the future are to give its traditional medicine a strong scientific base and develop research and clinical capability to consistently produce new drugs based on advances in modern biological sciences. PMID:25050153

  8. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  9. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  10. FIFE in 1992 - Results, scientific gains, and future research directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellers, P. J.; Hall, F. G.

    1992-01-01

    A summary is presented of some of the more significant findings of the science teams and science staff of FIFE, emphasizing scientific gains, and outlining some future research directions. Attention is given to interactions between surface and boudary layer heat fluxes, momentum fluxes, and correlations between near-surface heat and CO2 fluxes and satellite data. Consideration is given to improved understanding of the exchanges between the land surface and the atmosphere at the local scale.

  11. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process. PMID:12676216

  12. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  13. Substorms - Future of magnetospheric substorm-storm research

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I. )

    1989-04-01

    Seven approaches and/or areas of magnetospheric substorm and storm science which should be emphasized in future research are briefly discussed. They are: the combining of groups of researchers who study magnetic storms and substorms in terms of magnetic reconnection with those that do not, the possible use of a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model to merge the groups, the development of improved input-output relationships, the complementing of satellite and ground-based observations, the need for global imaging of the magnetosphere, the complementing of observations with computer simulations, and the need to study the causes of changes in the north-south component of the IMF. 36 refs.

  14. Status of Problem-Based Learning Research in Pharmacy Education: A Call for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cisneros, Robert M.; Salisbury-Glennon, Jill D.; Anderson-Harper, Heidi M.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the current status of problem-based learning (PBL) research in pharmacy education, identifies trends and student outcomes from the pharmacy courses that have used PBL, presents a brief review of PBL research in medical education, and recommends future directions for PBL research in pharmacy education. (EV)

  15. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-05

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

  16. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  17. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  18. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  19. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  20. Genome research in Austria--a program of the future.

    PubMed

    Pasterk, Markus G

    2002-11-01

    Genome research is a central area both for progress in scientific findings in life sciences and for the innovative capacity in medical science, and the pharmaceutical and biotech industries. The research findings obtained by interdisciplinary cooperation are of paramount epistemological importance. They will establish a new understanding of biology. In this context, there will be revolutionary opportunities for new medical therapies, for instance, or for keeping plants and animals healthy. Austria will participate in this science and innovation field and will use the resulting opportunities for scientific and economic development as well as for overall social prosperity. For this purpose, [corrected] Austria has developed the 'Austrian Genome Research Programme', a 'programme of the future' for Austria. This program will be based on the good foundations that genome research has already established in Austria. PMID:12437484

  1. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Coller, Barry S.; DiMichele, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  2. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2011-01-01

    The overarching aim of this paper is to review research on relationship education programs and approaches that have been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2002. This paper provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A theme weaved throughout the paper are the ways in which relationship education is similar and different from couples therapy and we conclude that there can be a synergistic, healthy marriage between the two. We then provide recommendations for future directions for research in the relationship education field. Finally, the co-authors comment on our experiences in both the relationship education field and couples therapy field as both researchers and interventionists. PMID:22283386

  3. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  4. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) OIL SHALE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activ...

  5. Some ideas on the emerging future of developmental research.

    PubMed

    Kloep, Marion; Hendry, Leo B

    2014-12-01

    We are somewhat critical of the concept of emerging adulthood as a new developmental stage in modern industrial societies, and prefer the idea of systemic mechanisms and processes as the forces and factors that influence the transitions and transformations of human change across the life course. For this reason, we are pleased to see this volume is entirely dedicated to the life-phase of emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries, suggesting that researchers are not convinced that the characteristics of emerging adulthood would be the same for young people from different cultures. While we are very positive towards this series of articles showing that emerging adulthood in Mediterranean countries has similarities, and, yet differences to other cultures, and appreciate the diverse findings of these research projects, we would want to suggest some new and more radical strategies for future developmental research. Concretely, a move away from age-bound, stage models towards a more dynamic and systemic approach to lifespan research, simply because we cannot ignore both the past and the future, whilst contemplating the present. PMID:25266579

  6. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, D. G.; Dahmann, J. S.

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects are in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  7. Future directions of C3 research at DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency)

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, D.G.; Dahmann, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Research into C3 related problems is a major effort of the Information Science and Technology Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. The major thrusts of projects is in the area of future, high-risk efforts, often resulting in the development of a conceptual model or prototype. Some of these prototypes are then further developed to provide an infrastructure for future research. The programs can be divided into two groups: base technology research programs and testbed programs. The testbeds provide a focus for the technology programs.

  8. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  9. Future Research Directions in Asthma. An NHLBI Working Group Report.

    PubMed

    Levy, Bruce D; Noel, Patricia J; Freemer, Michelle M; Cloutier, Michelle M; Georas, Steve N; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ober, Carole; Woodruff, Prescott G; Barnes, Kathleen C; Bender, Bruce G; Camargo, Carlos A; Chupp, Geoff L; Denlinger, Loren C; Fahy, John V; Fitzpatrick, Anne M; Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Gaston, Ben M; Hartert, Tina V; Kolls, Jay K; Lynch, Susan V; Moore, Wendy C; Morgan, Wayne J; Nadeau, Kari C; Ownby, Dennis R; Solway, Julian; Szefler, Stanley J; Wenzel, Sally E; Wright, Rosalind J; Smith, Robert A; Erzurum, Serpil C

    2015-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic disease without cure. Our understanding of asthma onset, pathobiology, classification, and management has evolved substantially over the past decade; however, significant asthma-related morbidity and excess healthcare use and costs persist. To address this important clinical condition, the NHLBI convened a group of extramural investigators for an Asthma Research Strategic Planning workshop on September 18-19, 2014, to accelerate discoveries and their translation to patients. The workshop focused on (1) in utero and early-life origins of asthma, (2) the use of phenotypes and endotypes to classify disease, (3) defining disease modification, (4) disease management, and (5) implementation research. This report summarizes the workshop and produces recommendations to guide future research in asthma. PMID:26305520

  10. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  11. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  12. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  13. Identifying future scientists: predicting persistence into research training.

    PubMed

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8-12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  14. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  15. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-07-01

    There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype-phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as 'genotype scores'. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been identified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene-gene and gene-environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  16. Genes and elite athletes: a roadmap for future research

    PubMed Central

    Eynon, Nir; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Oliveira, José; Duarte, José Alberto; Birk, Ruth; Lucia, Alejandro

    2011-01-01

    Abstract There is compelling evidence that genetic factors influence several phenotype traits related to physical performance and training response as well as to elite athletic status. Previous case-control studies showed that ∼20 genetic variants seem to be associated with elite endurance athletic status. The present review aims to introduce novel methodological approaches in the field of sports genetics research, which can be applied in the near future to analyse the genotype profile associated with elite athletic status. These include genotype–phenotype association studies using gene expression analysis, analysis of post-transcriptional factors, particularly microRNAs, genome-wide scan linkage or genome-wide association studies, and novel algorithm approaches, such as ‘genotype scores’. Several gaps in the current body of knowledge have been indentified including, among others: small sample size of most athletic cohorts, lack of corroboration with replication cohorts of different ethnic backgrounds (particularly, made up of non-Caucasian athletes), the need of research accounting for the potential role of epigenetics in elite athletic performance, and also the need for future models that take into account the association between athletic status and complex gene–gene and gene–environment interactions. Some recommendations are provided to minimize research limitations in the field of sport genetics. PMID:21540342

  17. Foresight scanning: future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research.

    PubMed

    Foster, Brian C

    2008-01-01

    Foresight Scanning: Future Directions of Clinical and Pharmaceutical Research. Brian C. Foster, Therapeutic Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada ABSTRACT The Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences Satellite Symposium on Foresight Scanning, May 26 and 27, 2008, Nordegg, Alberta, Canada, focussed on the future directions of clinical and pharmaceutical research. The symposium brought together a group of clinicians, regulatory scientists, researchers and students to examine where clinical, pharmaceutical, and regulatory science might be in 10 to 15 years. Industry, regulatory, analytical, and clinical perspectives were presented and discussed, as well as the impact of exogenous (indirect) and endogenous (direct) change drivers. Unconditional funding was provided by Bayer HealthCare; they had no input on the direction of the meeting or selection of speakers. It was envisioned that the more important endogenous drivers may not be new information or changes in technology, policy, regulation, or health care delivery, but amplification of long-term underlying trends by emergence of new technologies, convergence of existing technologies or new communication and collaboration vehicles such as Web 2.0. PMID:19183518

  18. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  19. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  20. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  1. Burden of disease--implications for future research.

    PubMed

    Michaud, C M; Murray, C J; Bloom, B R

    2001-02-01

    One overall challenge for public health and medicine in the future is to allocate available resources effectively to reduce major causes of disease burden globally and to decrease health disparities between poor and affluent populations. The major risk factors for death and disability worldwide are malnutrition; poor water supply, sanitation, and personal and domestic hygiene; unsafe sexual behavior; tobacco use; alcohol use; occupational hazards; hypertension; physical inactivity; illicit drugs; and air pollution. The challenge for research in the 21st century is to maintain and improve life expectancy and the quality of life that was achieved for most of the world's population during the 20th century. PMID:11176854

  2. Questions raised over future of UK research council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Five senior physicists have written to the UK science minister, Lord Drayson, about the "dismal future" for researchers in the country in the wake of a £40m shortfall in the budget of the Science and Technology Facilities Council (STFC). The physicists, who chair the STFC's five advisory panels, have also called for structural reforms to be made to the council. They warn that unless the government takes action to reverse the situation, the UK will be "perceived as an untrustworthy partner in global projects" and predict that a brain drain of the best UK scientists to positions overseas will ensue.

  3. Research planning for the future of psychiatric diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Regier, D A; Kuhl, E A; Narrow, W E; Kupfer, D J

    2012-10-01

    More than 10 years prior to the anticipated 2013 publication of DSM-5, processes were set in motion to assess the research and clinical issues that would best inform future diagnostic classification of mental disorders. These efforts intended to identify the clinical and research needs within various populations, examine the current state of the science to determine the empirical evidence for improving criteria within and across disorders, and stimulate research in areas that could potentially provide evidence for change. In the second phase of the revision process, the American Psychiatric Institute for Research and Education (APIRE) recently completed the 5-year international series of 13 diagnostic conferences convened by APA/APIRE in collaboration with the World Health Organization and the National Institutes of Health (NIH), under a cooperative grant funded by the NIH. From these conferences, the DSM-5 Task Force and Work Groups have developed plans for potential revisions for DSM-5, including the incorporation of dimensional approaches within and across diagnostic groups to clarify heterogeneity, improve diagnostic validity, and enhance clinical case conceptualization. Use of dimensions for measurement-based care has been shown to be feasible in psychiatric and primary care settings and may inform monitoring of disorder threshold, severity, and treatment outcomes. The integration of dimensions with diagnostic categories represents an exciting and potentially transformative approach for DSM-5 to simultaneously address DSM-IV's clinical short-comings and create novel pathways for research in neurobiology, genetics, and psychiatric epidemiology. PMID:21676595

  4. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Downs, Danielle Symons; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose This review provides researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Methods We examined past and present physical activity and pregnancy studies and highlight key papers with a particular focus on maternal health outcomes to best inform physical activity promotion efforts. Results This review discusses: (a) historical overview of prenatal physical activity with a specific focus on the physical activity guidelines, how they have changed over time, and how evidence of the effect of prenatal activity on maternal/fetal health outcomes has impacted clinical recommendations; (b) existing tools and challenges associated with measuring prenatal physical activity; (c) empirical evidence on the multi-level determinants of prenatal activity to help guide future intervention work; (d) empirical evidence of prenatal activity on adverse maternal outcomes (gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, excessive gestational weight gain) from observational and intervention studies; and (e) summary/recommendations for future research and practice. Conclusions The physical activity and pregnancy literature has evolved over the past 50 years and there is currently sufficient empirical evidence to support the promotion of moderate to vigorous prenatal physical activity for maternal health benefits. Future studies and interventions should be carefully-designed, theoretically driven, and include validated and reliable measures of activity. Researchers and practitioners should also consider the multifaceted determinants and outcomes of prenatal physical activity and intervening to promote physical activity before, during, and after pregnancy. PMID:23367811

  5. Suggested future directions in high-speed transition experimental research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Dennis

    1990-01-01

    Historical developments in the area of high-speed experimental transition research are outlined, and future directions in this area as determined by the panel membership are listed. The directions include measurement and modeling of initial disturbance fields, both in ground facilities and flight, for all modes; development of advanced high-speed instrumentation for disturbance field measurements, measurements of the details of receptivity in multitudinous flows; further development and use of high-speed quiet tunnels; stability and transition studies for multitudinous flows; detailed studies of the transitional region for boundary layers, free flows, vortices separated flows, corner flows, etc.; and studies of flow-chemistry effects on transition phenomena. Applied research such areas as the physics of perforated-surface suction stabilization and the resolution of anomalies in the existing high-speed database is also suggested.

  6. Future opportunities for photovoltaic materials and device research

    SciTech Connect

    Deb, S.K. )

    1994-06-30

    The semiconductor material science and associated device technologies have entered into a new era, almost a revolutionary period. The use of sophisticated computation techniques has given theoreticians the predictive power for novel materials architecture; the experimentalists have the ability to grow materials and devices under carefully controlled conditions and manipulate materials on an atomic scale; and the powerful analytical tools have enabled us to gain insight on the surface, interface, and bulk properties of materials and devices with a high degree of precision. These have opened up some opportunities for doing some very exciting materials and device research in the area of semiconductor materials, in general, and photovoltaic (PV) materials and devices, in particular. In this brief review, a global view of semiconductor materials for PV applications will be taken and an attempt will be made to identify future research opportunities.

  7. Future Directions in Early Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Research

    PubMed Central

    Banks-Schlegel, Susan; Accurso, Frank J.; Boucher, Richard C.; Cutting, Garry R.; Engelhardt, John F.; Guggino, William B.; Karp, Christopher L.; Knowles, Michael R.; Kolls, Jay K.; LiPuma, John J.; Lynch, Susan; McCray, Paul B.; Rubenstein, Ronald C.; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sorscher, Eric; Welsh, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since the 1989 discovery that mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene cause cystic fibrosis (CF), there has been substantial progress toward understanding the molecular basis for CF lung disease, leading to the discovery and development of new therapeutic approaches. However, the earliest impact of the loss of CFTR function on airway physiology and structure and its relationship to initial infection and inflammation are poorly understood. Universal newborn screening for CF in the United States represents an unprecedented opportunity for investigating CF clinical manifestations very early in life. Recently developed animal models with pulmonary phenotypic manifestations also provide a window into the early consequences of this genetic disorder. For these reasons, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) convened a working group of extramural experts, entitled “Future Research Directions in Early CF Lung Disease” on September 21–22, 2010, to identify future research directions of great promise in CF. The priority areas identified included (1) exploring pathogenic mechanisms of early CF lung disease; (2) leveraging newborn screening to elucidate the natural history of early lung disease; (3) developing a spectrum of biomarkers of early lung disease that reflects CF pathophysiology, clinical outcome, and response to treatment; (4) exploring the role of genetics/genomics (e.g., modifier genes, gene–environmental interactions, and epigenetics) in early CF pathogenesis; (5) defining early microbiological events in CF lung disease; and (6) elucidating the initial airway inflammatory, remodeling, and repair mechanisms in CF lung disease. PMID:22312017

  8. Compact Toroidal Hybrid Research Program: Recent Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, D. A.; Cianciosa, M.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Archmiller, M. C.; Traverso, P.; Pandya, M.; Ma, X.

    2012-10-01

    Understanding the control and avoidance of major disruptions in current carrying toroidal plasmas is important in mitigating the effects of rapid loss of confinement in future devices. The Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH) experiment is investigating the passive avoidance of disruptions with the addition of a small amount of vacuum transform provided by external coils. In ohmically-driven stellarator plasmas no disruptions of any kind are observed if the vacuum transform exceeds ˜ 0.11. Recent progress on the suppression of low-qa (high a), density limit, and vertically unstable plasma disruptions is overviewed. Interpretation of these results makes use of 3D equilibrium reconstructions using the V3FIT code [1]. Several new diagnostic tools have recently been developed and implemented on CTH. These new research tools include multi-chord interferometry, bolometry, Hα emission detection, a two-color soft x-ray camera, and upgraded magnetic sensor arrays. In addition to these diagnostic improvements, a new 200 kW gyrotron system will provide additional heating power for stellarator target plasmas. Future research directions and plans will also be discussed. [4pt] [1] J. D. Hanson, S. P. Hirshman, S. F. Knowlton, L. L. Lao, E. A. Lazarus, J. M. Shields, Nucl. Fusion, 49 (2009) 075031

  9. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  10. Solar-terrestrial research opportunities - A look to the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Intriligator, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    Recent and proposed research programs and their impact on the understanding of solar-terrestrial interactions, the processes driving solar activity, and the propagation of the solar wind are outlined. The magnetospheres of the earth and major planets have been mapped and their interactions with the solar wind modeled. MHD activity has been identified as the driving force for stellar surface activity, and Pioneer data are permitting a mapping of the outer areas of the heliosphere. Further studies are required to understand solar magnetic field-earth magnetosphere, ionosphere-atmosphere interactions, the effects of solar heating on earth atmosphere ozone levels, and the effects of solar transient events on the earth atmosphere. The initiation of an International Geosphere-Biosphere Program is now under study and several satellites for solar-terrestrial research are under development as cooperative efforts among the U.S., Japanese, and European agencies.

  11. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  12. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  13. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller{close_quote}s special lecture on {open_quote}{open_quote}New Internal Combustion Engine{close_quote}{close_quote} for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept {open_quote}{open_quote}Cannonball Target{close_quote}{close_quote} which became later to be recognize as a same concept of {open_quote}{open_quote}Hohlraum Target{close_quote}{close_quote} from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement {open_quote}{open_quote}Madrid Manifest{close_quote}{close_quote} which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O{close_quote}Leary{close_quote}s openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. (Abstract Truncated)

  14. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  15. FSA future directions: FSA technology activities in FY86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The silicon material, advanced silicon sheet, device research, and process research activities are explained. There will be no new initiatives. Many activities are targeted for completion and the emphasis will then be on technology transfer. Industrial development of the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) deposition technology is proceeding. Technology transfer and industry funding of sheet development are continuing.

  16. Repetition-Related Reductions in Neural Activity during Emotional Simulations of Future Events

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of future experiences are often emotionally arousing, and the tendency to repeatedly simulate negative future outcomes has been identified as a predictor of the onset of symptoms of anxiety. Nonetheless, next to nothing is known about how the healthy human brain processes repeated simulations of emotional future events. In this study, we present a paradigm that can be used to study repeated simulations of the emotional future in a manner that overcomes phenomenological confounds between positive and negative events. The results show that pulvinar nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex respectively demonstrate selective reductions in neural activity in response to frequently as compared to infrequently repeated simulations of negative and positive future events. Implications for research on repeated simulations of the emotional future in both non-clinical and clinical populations are discussed. PMID:26390294

  17. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  18. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  19. Recent Advances in PV Research and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Satyen K.

    1998-04-01

    The photovoltaic technology is making a major thrust in the commercial arena with 1997 worldwide production of PV modules reaching over 125 MW and growing at the rate of 20-25semiconductor materials and devices are emerging as strong contenders for PV applications even though silicon is still the 'work-horse' of the industry. Ultra-high efficiency solar cells fabricated from gallium arsenide (GaAs) and its ternary alloys like gallium indium phosphide (GaInP2) are finding applications in space technology. Enormous progress has also been made on various thin-film solar cell technologies, which offer the promise for substantially reducing the cost of PV systems. Some of the leading contenders are amorphous and polycrystalline silicon, compound semiconductor thin films such as copper indium diselenide (CuInSe2) based alloys, and cadmium telluride (CdTe) thin films. Exciting new developments are happening in the use of nano-particle semiconductor materials like titanium dioxide (TiO2) for low-cost PV devices. Intense research on these and other materials and devices is making a strong impact on the technology. In this presentation, a brief overview of recent advances in PV research will b e made and the trends and opportunities for future research directions will be identified.

  20. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  1. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  2. Cognitive behavioral therapy: current status and future research directions.

    PubMed

    McMain, Shelley; Newman, Michelle G; Segal, Zindel V; DeRubeis, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), an umbrella term that includes a diverse group of treatments, is defined by a strong commitment to empiricism. While CBT has a robust empirical base, areas for improvement remain. This article reviews the status of the current empirical base and its limitations, and presents future directions for advancement of the field. Ultimately, studies are needed that will identify the predictors, mediators, and moderators of treatment response in order to increase knowledge on how to personalize interventions for each client and to strengthen the impact of CBT. Efforts to advance the dissemination and implementation of CBT, innovative approaches such as practice-oriented research, and the advantages of incorporating new and existing technologies, are discussed as well. PMID:25689506

  3. Trends in research and development for future detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattai, Ariella

    2013-12-01

    Development of novel detector concepts has always played a major role in supporting and enabling scientific research. In the forthcoming phase of high energy physics (HEP), the design and development of new detectors and detector concepts will be even more important than it was in the past owing to the harsh environmental conditions and the challenging requests imposed by the physicists' needs for: improved spatial and time resolution, innovative functions, acquisition speed, radiation tolerance, minimal power consumption, robustness and reliability, minimal material and more. This overview addresses the challenges that upgrades and future projects in HEP will impose in terms of novel technologies and stresses the detectors' potential and limitations in attempting to achieve the scientific goals. In addition the increasingly strong dependence on large-scale industrial production and industrial development, especially in the area of integrated electronics, sensors and large complex systems will be addressed.

  4. A bright future for bioluminescent imaging in viral research

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stewart M; McGregor, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    Summary Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) has emerged as a powerful tool in the study of animal models of viral disease. BLI enables real-time in vivo study of viral infection, host immune response and the efficacy of intervention strategies. Substrate dependent light emitting luciferase enzyme when incorporated into a virus as a reporter gene enables detection of bioluminescence from infected cells using sensitive charge-coupled device (CCD) camera systems. Advantages of BLI include low background, real-time tracking of infection in the same animal and reduction in the requirement for larger animal numbers. Transgenic luciferase-tagged mice enable the use of pre-existing nontagged viruses in BLI studies. Continued development in luciferase reporter genes, substrates, transgenic animals and imaging systems will greatly enhance future BLI strategies in viral research. PMID:26413138

  5. Summary: present and future challenges for stem cell research.

    PubMed

    Hogan, B L M

    2008-01-01

    Stem cell research is being driven forward at an intense pace by creative interactions among scientists working in different fields. These include developmental and reproductive biology, regeneration, genomics, live cell imaging, RNA biology, and cancer biology, to name a few. Numerous model systems and techniques are being exploited, and lab scientists are teaming up with bioengineers and clinicians. The ferment of ideas that makes the field so exciting was in full evidence throughout the Symposium. However, many challenges still need to be overcome to translate basic discoveries into therapeutic outcomes that will save lives and fulfill the promises that have been made. This chapter summarizes some of the highlights of the Symposium and indicates future directions that are being taken by leaders in the field. PMID:19329577

  6. The current state of personal assistance services: implications for policy and future research.

    PubMed

    Hagglund, Kristofer J; Clark, Mary J; Mokelke, Emily K; Stout, Brian J

    2004-01-01

    Personal assistant services (PAS) are designed to support persons with disabilities in their routine performance of activities of daily living (ADLs) and to provide individuals with disability the opportunity to go to school, volunteer, obtain active employment, and participate in social and recreational activities. PAS are primary and essential to the realization of societal inclusion and personal freedom among persons with severe, disabling conditions. This paper reviews the personal assistance literature for persons with spinal cord injury and other disabilities. Evidence-based recommendations are made for PAS policy initiatives and future directions in PAS research. PMID:15201470

  7. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  8. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  9. Implementation of proteomics for cancer research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Parisa; Shahrokni, Armin; Ranjbar, Mohammad R Nezami

    2014-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of the death, accounts for about 13% of all annual deaths worldwide. Many different fields of science are collaborating together studying cancer to improve our knowledge of this lethal disease, and find better solutions for diagnosis and treatment. Proteomics is one of the most recent and rapidly growing areas in molecular biology that helps understanding cancer from an omics data analysis point of view. The human proteome project was officially initiated in 2008. Proteomics enables the scientists to interrogate a variety of biospecimens for their protein contents and measure the concentrations of these proteins. Current necessary equipment and technologies for cancer proteomics are mass spectrometry, protein microarrays, nanotechnology and bioinformatics. In this paper, we provide a brief review on proteomics and its application in cancer research. After a brief introduction including its definition, we summarize the history of major previous work conducted by researchers, followed by an overview on the role of proteomics in cancer studies. We also provide a list of different utilities in cancer proteomics and investigate their advantages and shortcomings from theoretical and practical angles. Finally, we explore some of the main challenges and conclude the paper with future directions in this field. PMID:24761843

  10. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology. PMID:26465351

  11. Peaking for optimal performance: Research limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David B; Mujika, Iñigo; Reilly, Thomas

    2009-02-01

    A key element of the physical preparation of athletes is the taper period in the weeks immediately preceding competition. Existing research has defined the taper, identified various forms used in contemporary sport, and examined the prescription of training volume, load, intensity, duration, and type (progressive or step). Current limitations include: the lack of studies on team, combative, racquet, and precision (target) sports; the relatively small number of randomized controlled trials; the narrow focus on a single competition (single peak) compared with multiple peaking for weekly, multi-day or multiple events; and limited understanding of the physiological, neuromuscular, and biomechanical basis of the taper. Future research should address these limitations, together with the influence of prior training on optimal tapering strategies, and the interactions between the taper and long-haul travel, heat, and altitude. Practitioners seek information on how to prescribe tapers from season to season during an athlete's career, or a team's progression through a domestic league season, or multi-year Olympic or World Cup cycle. Practical guidelines for planning effective tapers for the Vancouver 2010 and London 2012 Olympics will evolve from both experimental investigations and modelling of successful tapers currently employed in a wide range of sports. PMID:19153861

  12. Future developments in brain-machine interface research

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition. PMID:21779720

  13. Epidemiologic research programs at the Department of Energy: Looking to the future

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The secretary of the Department of Energy (DOE) asked the National Research Council in 1989 to establish a Committee on Radiation Epidemiological Research Programs to provide scientific advice on the current status and future direction of DOE`s epidemiologic research program. This report is in response to a request from the National Research Council committee to provide advice regarding the future directions of OEHS`s epidemiologic research. This report begins with some of the background leading to the current activities of OEHS. In 1990, a committee (the Secretarial Panel for the Evaluation of Epidemiological Research Activities, or SPEERA) established by the secretary of the DOE recommended that DOE enter into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) with the Department of Health and Human Services that outlined the responsibilities of the two departments regarding epidemiologic research. The present report points out that the implementation of the SPEERA recommendations and the MoU by DOE have raised issues that have not been satisfactorily resolved.

  14. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-06-01

    This proposal presents the research accomplishments and ongoing activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics. Some changes have been made in the structure of the program from the previous arrangement of tasks. Task B, Accelerator Design Physics, is being submitted as a separate proposal for an independent grant; this will be consistent with the nature of the research and the source of funding. Boston University is active in seven principal areas: (1) Task A: Colliding Beams - physics of e(sup +)e(sup -) and (anti p)p collisions; (2) Task C: MACRO Experiment - search for magnetic monopoles and study of cosmic rays; (3) Task D: Proton Decay - search for nucleon instability and study of neutrino interactions; (4) Tasks E, J, and N: Particle Theory - theoretical high energy particle physics, including two Outstanding Junior Investigator awards; (5) Task F: Muon G-2 - measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon; (6) Task K: SSCintcal - calorimetry for the GEM Experiment; (7) Task L: Muon Detectors for the GEM Experiment. The body of the proposal is devoted to detailed discussions of each of the tasks. The total budget request for the program appears in a summary chapter that includes a general budget discussion and individual budget requests and explanations for each of the tasks.

  15. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  16. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research

    PubMed Central

    Gillette‐Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti‐oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega‐3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed. PMID:23384081

  17. Structured Observation of School Administrator Work Activities: Methodological Limitations and Recommendations for Research, Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitner, Nancy J.; Russell, James S.

    1986-01-01

    This paper critically reviews administrator work activity studies which follow the research of Henry Mintzberg. It discusses directions for future research using qualitative and quantitative methods and discourages research that relies solely on Mintzberg's structure. (Author/JAZ)

  18. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  19. Possible Selves: Students Orientating Themselves towards the Future through Extracurricular Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevenson, Jacqueline; Clegg, Sue

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the under-researched area of extracurricular activity undertaken by students through the lens of the possible selves literature, which has largely been developed in the North American context. In the UK the employability agenda assumes an orientation towards the future and employers are increasingly expecting students to…

  20. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  1. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  2. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  3. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  4. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  5. Microbicide acceptability research: current approaches and future directions.

    PubMed

    Mantell, Joanne E; Myer, Landon; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex; Stein, Zena; Ramjee, Gita; Morar, Neetha S; Harrison, Polly F

    2005-01-01

    With growing recognition of the potential value of microbicides for HIV/STI prevention, the importance of the acceptability of this brand-new technology has been widely acknowledged. We review the current body of microbicide acceptability research, characterize the limitations in assessment approaches, and suggest strategies for improvement. Electronic databases and abstracts of recent meetings were searched for acceptability data regarding vaginal and rectal products that may be used for HIV prevention. Of the 61 studies reviewed, more than half assessed acceptability based primarily on the description of a hypothetical microbicide, or with the demonstration of a spermicide or lubricant. Physical characteristics of microbicidal products, their effects after insertion, and their effects on sensation during intercourse (for both partners) were the dimensions most frequently assessed (measured in 77%, 49% and 49% of studies, respectively). Attention to the social context of use was inadequate. As acceptability is likely to be a key determinant in the use-effectiveness of microbicides, in-depth understanding of the social processes that shape microbicide acceptability across diverse populations will become increasingly valuable. This includes exploring the effects that sexual partners, health care providers, and key opinion leaders have on the acceptability of microbicides among women and men, including youth and people living with HIV. Future research will benefit from studies of the acceptability of other contraceptive-barrier methods (especially the female condom), use of an agreed-upon operationalization of acceptability, use of acceptability assessments within clinical trials, expansion of measurement domains, and assessment of changes in perceptions of acceptability and use over time. Failure to understand the key factors associated with microbicide acceptability is likely to hinder the adoption and continued use of products that are effective in preventing HIV

  6. Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

  7. Selenium bioavailability: current knowledge and future research requirements.

    PubMed

    Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Collings, Rachel; Hurst, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    Information on selenium bioavailability is required to derive dietary recommendations and to evaluate and improve the quality of food products. The need for robust data is particularly important in light of recent suggestions of potential health benefits associated with different intakes of selenium. The issue is not straightforward, however, because of large variations in the selenium content of foods (determined by a combination of geologic/environmental factors and selenium supplementation of fertilizers and animal feedstuffs) and the chemical forms of the element, which are absorbed and metabolized differently. Although most dietary selenium is absorbed efficiently, the retention of organic forms is higher than that of inorganic forms. There are also complications in the assessment and quantification of selenium species within foodstuffs. Often, extraction is only partial, and the process can alter the form or forms present in the food. Efforts to improve, standardize, and make more widely available techniques for species quantification are required. Similarly, reliable and sensitive functional biomarkers of selenium status are required, together with improvements in current biomarker methods. This requirement is particularly important for the assessment of bioavailability, because some functional biomarkers respond differently to the various selenium species. The effect of genotype adds a potential further dimension to the process of deriving bioavailability estimates and underlines the need for further research to facilitate the process of deriving dietary recommendations in the future. PMID:20200264

  8. [Eating disorders: state of the art research and future challenges].

    PubMed

    Voderholzer, U; Cuntz, U; Schlegl, S

    2012-11-01

    Eating disorders are a common mental disorder during adolescence and young adulthood. While prevalence rates of eating disorders dramatically increased during the second half of the last century, these rates have remained relatively stable over the last 20 years. According to ICD-10 eating disorders are diagnostically categorized as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and atypical eating disorders or eating disorders not otherwise specified. Concerning the etiology, genetic factors are involved, especially in anorexia nervosa, as well as psychological and sociocultural factors. Evidence-based recommendations are available for the treatment of bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder and in this context cognitive behavioral therapy is seen as the first choice. In contrast, the state of knowledge concerning the treatment of anorexia nervosa is still limited, especially concerning effective treatments for adults. Recent data only provide evidence for the effectiveness of family therapy for adolescents. Due to the lack of high quality studies, research on therapy for anorexia nervosa is a future challenge. PMID:23104604

  9. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  10. Recent progress and future direction of cancer epidemiological research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sobue, Tomotaka

    2015-06-01

    In 2006, the Cancer Control Act was approved and a Basic Plan, to Promote the Cancer Control Program at the national level, was developed in 2007. Cancer research is recognized as a fundamental component to provide evidence in cancer control program. Cancer epidemiology plays central role in connecting research and policy, since it directly deals with data from humans. Research for cancer epidemiology in Japan made substantial progress, in the field of descriptive studies, cohort studies, intervention studies and activities for summarizing evidences. In future, promoting high-quality large-scale intervention studies, individual-level linkage studies, simulation models and studies for elderly population will be of great importance, but at the same time research should be promoted in well-balanced fashion not placing too much emphasis on one particular research field. PMID:25762798

  11. Global Alzheimer Research Summit: basic and clinical research: present and future Alzheimer research.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Danielle; Jovanovic, Katarina; Da Costa Dias, Bianca; Weiss, Stefan F T

    2012-01-01

    We report here on the proceedings of the Global Alzheimer Summit that took place September 22-23, 2011 in Madrid, Spain. As Alzheimer disease (AD) is the leading cause of neurodegeneration in elderly individuals and as yet has no effective therapeutic option, it continues to stimulate global research interests. At the conference, leaders in the field of AD research provided insights into current developments in various areas of research, namely molecular mechanisms, genetics, novel aspects of AD research and translational research. Emphasis was also placed on the importance of biomarkers in the diagnosis of AD and development of current therapeutic strategies. PMID:22453170

  12. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  13. Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Im, E

    2001-04-01

    Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed. PMID:11223059

  14. Past and future changes in Canadian boreal wildfire activity.

    PubMed

    Girardin, Martin P; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Climate change in Canadian boreal forests is usually associated with increased drought severity and fire activity. However, future fire activity could well be within the range of values experienced during the preindustrial period. In this study, we contrast 21st century forecasts of fire occurrence (FireOcc, number of large forest fires per year) in the southern part of the Boreal Shield, Canada, with the historical range of the past 240 years statistically reconstructed from tree-ring width data. First, a historical relationship between drought indices and FireOcc is developed over the calibration period 1959-1998. Next, together with seven tree-ring based drought reconstructions covering the last 240 years and simulations from the CGCM3 and ECHAM4 global climate models, the calibration model is used to estimate past (prior to 1959) and future (post 1999) FireOcc. Last, time-dependent changes in mean FireOcc and in the occurrence rate of extreme fire years are evaluated with the aid of advanced methods of statistical time series analysis. Results suggest that the increase in precipitation projected toward the end of the 21st century will be insufficient to compensate for increasing temperatures and will be insufficient to maintain potential evapotranspiration at current levels. Limited moisture availability would cause FireOcc to increase as well. But will future FireOcc exceed its historical range? The results obtained from our approach suggest high probabilities of seeing future FireOcc reach the upper limit of the historical range. Predictions, which are essentially weighed on northwestern Ontario and eastern boreal Manitoba, indicate that, by 2061-2100, typical FireOcc could increase by more than 34% when compared with the past two centuries. Increases in fire activity as projected by this study could negatively affect the implementation in the next century of forest management inspired by historical or natural disturbance dynamics. This approach is indeed

  15. Science and cycling: current knowledge and future directions for research.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Greg; Davison, Richard; Jeukendrup, Asker; Passfield, Louis

    2003-09-01

    In this holistic review of cycling science, the objectives are: (1) to identify the various human and environmental factors that influence cycling power output and velocity; (2) to discuss, with the aid of a schematic model, the often complex interrelationships between these factors; and (3) to suggest future directions for research to help clarify how cycling performance can be optimized, given different race disciplines, environments and riders. Most successful cyclists, irrespective of the race discipline, have a high maximal aerobic power output measured from an incremental test, and an ability to work at relatively high power outputs for long periods. The relationship between these characteristics and inherent physiological factors such as muscle capilliarization and muscle fibre type is complicated by inter-individual differences in selecting cadence for different race conditions. More research is needed on high-class professional riders, since they probably represent the pinnacle of natural selection for, and physiological adaptation to, endurance exercise. Recent advances in mathematical modelling and bicycle-mounted strain gauges, which can measure power directly in races, are starting to help unravel the interrelationships between the various resistive forces on the bicycle (e.g. air and rolling resistance, gravity). Interventions on rider position to optimize aerodynamics should also consider the impact on power output of the rider. All-terrain bicycle (ATB) racing is a neglected discipline in terms of the characterization of power outputs in race conditions and the modelling of the effects of the different design of bicycle frame and components on the magnitude of resistive forces. A direct application of mathematical models of cycling velocity has been in identifying optimal pacing strategies for different race conditions. Such data should, nevertheless, be considered alongside physiological optimization of power output in a race. An even distribution

  16. Animal biowarfare research: historical perspective and potential future attacks.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A biological attack on livestock or poultry could result in the loss of valuable animals, costs related to the containment of outbreaks and the disposal of carcasses, lost trade and other economic effects involving suppliers, transporters, distributors and restaurants; however, it is not possible to secure all livestock, and livestock are much less well guarded than human targets. Thus, the vulnerability of the livestock industry to the introduction of biological agents varies for the following reasons: (i) the majority of lethal and contagious biological agents are environmentally resilient, endemic in foreign countries and harmless to humans, making it easier for terrorists to acquire, handle and deploy these pathogens, (ii) with animals concentrated in fewer production facilities and frequently transported between these facilities, a single pathogen introduction could cause widespread infection and (iii) the extent of human travel around the globe makes it difficult to exclude exotic animal diseases as possible biological agents. Historically, many governments have developed and planned to use biological agents for direct attacks on livestock or poultry. In the past, developed nations have actively developed biological weapons to target animals. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from isolated acts against individuals by individuals to tactical and strategic military attacks and state-sponsored international terrorism intended to cause mass casualties in animals, humans or both. This review provides an overview of the past development and use of biological weapons and describes potential future attacks. PMID:22646760

  17. European Fusion Materials Research Program - Recent Results and Future Strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Diegele, E.; Andreani, R.; Laesser, R.; Schaaf, B. van der

    2005-05-15

    The paper reviews the objectives and the status of the current EU long-term materials program. It highlights recent results, discusses some of the key issues and major existing problems to be resolved and presents an outlook on the R and D planned for the next few years. The main objectives of the Materials Development program are the development and qualification of reduced activation structural materials for the Test Blanket Modules (TBMs) in ITER and of low activation structural materials resistant to high fluence neutron irradiation for in-vessel components such as breeding blanket, divertor and first wall in DEMO. The EU strategy assumes: (i) ITER operation starting in 2015 with DEMO relevant Test Blanket Modules to be installed from day one of operation, (ii) IFMIF operation in 2017 and (iii) DEMO final design activities in 2022 to 2025. The EU candidate structural material EUROFER for TBMs has to be fully code qualified for licensing well before 2015. In parallel, research on materials for operation at higher temperatures is conducted following a logical sequence, by supplementing EUROFER with the oxide dispersion strengthened ferritic steels and, thereafter, with fibre-reinforced Silicon Carbide (SiC{sub f}/SiC). Complementary, tungsten alloys are developed as structural material for high temperature applications such as gas-cooled divertors.

  18. Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various

  19. NASA's Future Active Remote Sensing Missing for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Jonathan B.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of space remote sensing of the earth, there has been a natural progression widening the range of electromagnetic radiation used to sense the earth, and slowly, steadily increasing the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution of the measurements. There has also been a somewhat slower trend toward active measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum, motivated in part by increased resolution, but also by the ability to make new measurements. Active microwave instruments have been used to measure ocean topography, to study the land surface. and to study rainfall from space. Future NASA active microwave missions may add detail to the topographical studies, sense soil moisture, and better characterize the cryosphere. Only recently have active optical instruments been flown in space by NASA; however, there are currently several missions in development which will sense the earth with lasers and many more conceptual active optical missions which address the priorities of NASA's earth science program. Missions are under development to investigate the structure of the terrestrial vegetation canopy, to characterize the earth's ice caps, and to study clouds and aerosols. Future NASA missions may measure tropospheric vector winds and make vastly improved measurements of the chemical components of the earth's atmosphere.

  20. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  1. Shaping the future of medical rehabilitation research: Using the interdisciplinary research model.

    PubMed

    Delisa, Joel A

    2004-04-01

    This memorial lecture addresses the fundamental requirements for developing a framework for interdisciplinary rehabilitation research. The needs for funding, clinical trials, staffing, education, and infrastructure are examined from the vantage points of my experiences as an educator, investigator, chief executive officer, department chair, and dean. Developing an academic base for the specialty of physical medicine and rehabilitation and demonstrating our expertise in rehabilitation research are fundamental to academic acceptance and will enhance our ability to compete for future funding for our investigations. PMID:15083427

  2. Research Strategy 2002-5. Influencing the Future: Informing Policy and Improving Practice through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewsbury, Angela, Ed.

    England's Learning and Skills Research Centre (LSRC) is working to build a strong body of evidence from rigorous research that is focused on critical and innovative thinking and models and solutions for the long-term development of post-16 learning. In 2002-2005, the LSRC will focus on the following activities and goals: identify key priorities;…

  3. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  4. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  5. Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by

  6. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  7. Future of Research in Family Medicine: Where To From Here?

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    2004-01-01

    Desired research outcomes in family medicine vary according to the developmental stage of the discipline and the context of practice. Several milestones in the evolution of family practice research worldwide have been achieved. Now family medicine researchers face the challenge of discovering how evidence-based primary health care can be delivered in a sustainable way to individuals within communities. To advance family medicine research, we must ensure that trainees have a positive research attitude, develop academic clinician-researchers, lobby for primary care research funding, support practitioners who wish to do research in their own practices, sustain practice-based research networks, and study important questions. PMID:15655092

  8. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  9. Research Universities and Scientific Misconduct: History, Policies, and the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steneck, Nicholas H.

    1994-01-01

    The evolution of research misconduct policies in universities is traced since the late 1970s. It is argued that research universities have been slow to accept responsibility for research misconduct, and they are urged to examine their research environments and place more emphasis on research ethics education. (MSE)

  10. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: an agenda for future research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Graham, Mark J; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-03-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  11. Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Graham, Mark J.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  12. Qualitative Research in the Foreseeable Future: No Study Left Behind?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flinders, David J.

    2003-01-01

    Questions efficacy of Department of Education's recent decision to support only studies using quantitative experimental research designs. Describes advantages of qualitative research. (Contains 23 references.) (PKP)

  13. Active Learning in Aging Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singelis, Theodore M.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the involvement of undergraduate students in research at the California State University (CSU), Chico funded through an Academic Research Enhancement Award (AREA) from the National Institute on Aging (NIA). CSU, Chico is a "teaching" university and has students with a variety of motivations and abilities. The 3-year research…

  14. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  15. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  16. Using Futures Research Techniques in Strategic Planning: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.; Cope, Robert G.

    1985-01-01

    The ways in which a futures and strategic planning preconference workshop provided an environmental scan to identify a number of issues facing higher education are described. Exercises designed to rank and evaluate these issues are discussed. (MLW)

  17. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  18. Household Equipment Research: Past Accomplishments, Challenges for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; Lytton, Ruth H.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewing household equipment research over 75 years, this study found researchers responding to needs for information on new appliances, energy, and consumer protection. Since 1950 research has increasingly reflected marketers' concerns. Researchers have been hampered by problems of conceptualization, visibility, funding, and a reactive…

  19. The State of Mentoring Research: A Qualitative Review of Current Research Methods and Future Research Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Tammy D.; Eby, Lillian T.; O'Brien, Kimberly E.; Lentz, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Research regarding mentoring relationships has flourished during the past 20 years. This article reviews the methodology and content of 200 published mentoring articles. Some of the major concerns raised in this review include over reliance on cross-sectional designs and self-report data, a failure to differentiate between different forms of…

  20. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals.

    PubMed

    Brownawell, Amy M; Caers, Wim; Gibson, Glenn R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lewis, Kara D; Ringel, Yehuda; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-05-01

    First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use. PMID:22457389

  1. Promising future for the transgenic rat in transplantation research.

    PubMed

    Doorschodt, B M; Teubner, A; Kobayashi, E; Tolba, R H

    2014-10-01

    The rat is the most widely used animal species in surgical research and offers distinct advantages over the mouse in transplantation models due to its size and close genetic similarity to humans. Sequencing of the rat genome and successful application of transgenic technologies which had only been available for mice have since led to a resurgence of the use of rat models. Transplantation provides the possibility to deliver transgenes through a variety of routes which can potentially offer treatment modalities for post-transplant dysfunction and rejection. Moreover, the use of genetically encoded fluorescent light probes has enabled in vivo visualization of organs and tissue in living animals. In recent years, generation of gene knockout rats via the zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) and transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN) technologies has offered alternatives to the sophisticated embryonic stem cell based gene-targeting. In this review, we aim to provide an overview of transplantation studies involving transgenic techniques using rat models and recent advances in methods to modify the rat genome. Through novel gene modification techniques, precise, complete and conditional knockout and knockin rat models have become available which can provide promising new treatment options and opportunities for studying human transplant-related pathophysiology. PMID:24975516

  2. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  3. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cline; F. Perry; G. Valentine; E. Smistad

    2005-05-26

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10{sup -8} be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the

  4. Active Videogames and Weight Management: Is There a Future?

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Jull, Andrew; Marsh, Samantha; Direito, Artur; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of an active videogame (AVG) intervention (Sony [Tokyo, Japan] PlayStation(®) EyeToy(®)) compared with non-AVGs on body composition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and snack food consumption among overweight 10-12-year-old children over 24 weeks. Our research showed a treatment effect on body mass index and percentage body fat in favor of the intervention group. There was no difference between groups for total physical activity levels, but there was an increase in self-reported AVG play and reductions in non-AVG play and snack food consumption in the intervention group. Research is needed to determine how to augment the effects observed in this study. PMID:26196730

  5. Future Atmospheric Research Priorities of the International Arctic Research Committee(IASC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overland, J. E.; Rachold, V.; Bowden, S.

    2010-12-01

    Since the founding of IASC, scientific, environmental, economic and political realities of the North have changed dramatically. New problems and challenges ask for new or improved scientific knowledge. In response, IASC has established five new Working Groups (WG): Terrestrial, Cryosphere, Marine, Atmosphere, and Social and Human; they will identify scientific priorities and initiate and stimulate cross-disciplinary initiatives. The Arctic Ocean Sciences Board(ASOB) has merged to become the IASC Marine WG. The scope of the Atmospheric Working Group is to understand and predict Arctic change, including local processes, the Arctic response to global change (Arctic amplification), fate of perennial sea ice, and impacts of Arctic changes on northern hemispheric atmospheric circulation. Approaches include investigation of past climate, Arctic processes across data sets and approaches, and climate model projections of the future. The research direction of the IASC Atmospheric WG can build on the strong results of the IPY Oslo Science Conference (June 2010) and the WCRP Polar Climate Predictability Workshop (October 2010). Changes are underway. Continued loss of sea ice will be a major driver of large changes across the Arctic over the next decades leading to Arctic amplification and mid-latitude teleconnections. Two major surprises were the major loss of sea ice extent in summer 2007 and the strong connectivity between warm Arctic conditions and mid-latitude cold events during winter 2009-2010. Additional ocean heat storage is a major new process in fall. Over the past decade, a newly persistent Arctic atmospheric climate pattern, the Arctic Dipole (AD) with a meridional (north-south) flow direction is now rivaling the well known Arctic Oscillation (AO) climate pattern. The AD pattern was predominate for the whole summer in 2007, but was active only in early summer in 2009 and 2010 which slowed down the sea ice retreat in those years. While the climate of the Arctic is

  6. Protecting Human Research Subjects: The Past Defines the Future

    PubMed Central

    Breault, Joseph L.

    2006-01-01

    The creation of Institutional Review Boards to assure the protection of research subjects came out of terrible research abuses that resulted in the Belmont Report and federal regulations establishing rules for federally funded research and its independent review. The Common Rule became widely accepted as the way to oversee human research that is funded by federal agencies, or used in FDA submissions. The Office of Human Research Protections, now under the Secretary of DHHS, created Federalwide Assurances with groups that receive federal funding and others, the vast majority of which have agreed to apply the same ethical rules to all research regardless of funding source. There are controversies over the best methods to protect human research subjects, confusion about how to handle some of the gray areas, increased regulatory burdens, and debates about the adequacy of the IRB system. New exciting directions have evolved and overall, research subjects appear better protected than ever. PMID:21765779

  7. The AOA Dissertation Research Program: Resource for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fritz, D.

    1978-01-01

    Discusses implications of the Dissertation Research Grant Program of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare's Administration on Aging for practitioners, career training institutions, the research community, and policymakers. Provides information about the program's administration, eligibility requirements, evaluation procedures, and…

  8. Future Soil Moisture Satellite Missions and Research Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Jackson, T. J.; O'Neill, P. E.

    2001-12-01

    During the coming decade, launches of a number of satellite microwave sensors will provide new and unique opportunities for acquiring global information on the amount and distribution of surface soil moisture and its frozen/thawed state. This new information will provide potentially significant enhancements to the predictive capabilities of numerical weather and climate models as well as improved capabilities for monitoring and predicting floods, droughts, and other natural hazards. The development focus has been on L-band (1.4 GHz) passive microwave sensors (radiometers) as the basis for new satellite mission concepts since these instruments are uniquely suited to acquiring soil moisture information over a wide range of vegetation and heterogeneous terrain, and under nearly all weather conditions. Active microwave sensors (radars) can provide higher spatial resolution measurements and, in combination with passive sensors, enhanced information on surface moisture and its freeze/thaw condition. The soil moisture and surface freeze/thaw state together control the `surface resistance' to water and energy exchanges at the surface. Among the new soil moisture mission concepts under consideration for launch in ~2005 or later are the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and Hydrosphere States (HYDROS) missions, and higher-resolution follow-on missions. These missions use different but complementary technological approaches to surface soil moisture sensing. In the nearer term, launches of the Advanced Scanning Microwave Radiometers (AMSRs) on the NASA EOS-Aqua and National Space Development Agency of Japan ADEOS-II satellites in 2002, and similar instruments to be launched in subsequent years as part of Department of Defense and National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) programs, will provide new C-band (~6.9 GHz) data that will be useful for soil moisture monitoring under more limited vegetation and environmental conditions. There are

  9. School-Based Performance Awards: Research Findings and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Carolyn; Heneman, Herbert, III; Milanowski, Anthony

    This paper synthesizes research on how motivation influenced teachers at two school-based performance award (SBPA) programs in Kentucky and in North Carolina. The research was conducted between 1995 and 1998 by the Consortium for Policy Research in Education. SBPA programs provide teachers and other school staff with pay bonuses for the…

  10. A Conceptual Framework for the Future of Successful Research Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lintz, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Research administration has experienced dramatic changes over the past decades. As scientific research has evolved, higher education institutions have tried to adapt, with varying degrees of success. This paper presents a conceptual framework based on six cornerstones of research administration: mission, information, communication, collaboration,…

  11. Flight controls/avionics research - Impact on future civil helicopter operating efficiency and mission reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, W. J.; Christensen, J. V.

    1979-01-01

    Operational efficiency and mission reliability are key capabilities which will impact the future use of helicopters in the civil segment and areas where flight control/avionics research can play a major role. The present paper reviews flight control/avionics system needs for each major area of civil helicopter use. Technology requirements to meet civil needs are discussed. The review points up the need for the development of all-weather flight control concepts and the validation of cost effective active control/fly-by-wire/fly-by-light system concepts with modular architecture which can be tailored to specific mission requirements.

  12. Intel Teach to the Future[R] Leadership Forum: Formative Research. CCT Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasnik, Shelley

    2004-01-01

    Consistent with the longitudinal evaluation of the Intel Teach to the Future Essentials Course that Education Development Center's Center for Children and Technology (CCT) has been conducting since the program's inception in 2000, the Intel Foundation commissioned CCT to conduct a formative evaluation of the Leadership Forum Pilot program. This…

  13. Energy and the Future: Research Priorities and National Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, Allen L.

    1973-01-01

    Article provides an account of alternatives for solving energy shortage problems in future years. A national policy is needed. More concerted effort should be made to develop technologies for conversion of energy from conventional and non-conventional resources so that energy is cheaper, available for use and without environmental hazards. (PS)

  14. Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.

  15. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Muscles—ESNAM', entirely focused on EAPs and gathering the most active research institutes, as well as key industrial developers and end users. The ESNAM network has received financial support from the European COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme (COST Action MP1003), leading to fruitful collaboration, of which some results are showcased in this issue. This focus issue deals with a number of relevant topics on ionic and electronic EAPs. The contents, which span highly heterogeneous and cross diverse disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, material science and engineering, embrace size scales from nano to macro, and cover different areas, such as new materials, devices and applications. This collection of papers helps elucidate, on the one hand, how heterogeneous and dynamic the EAP field is in general and, on the other hand, the state of the art of the EAP research in Europe. We hope that this focus issue might help to stimulate future work in this emerging field of research and generate new applications. Acknowledgments We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, and the Smart Materials and Structures Editor-in-Chief, Professor Garcia, for having accepted our proposal to organize this focus issue. Special thanks also go to Natasha Leeper, from the IOP Publishing team, for her continued support and impeccable professionalism in arranging this focus issue. We also gratefully acknowledge financial support from COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) in the framework of 'ESNAM—European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles' (COST Action MP1003), which made possible cooperation that led to contributions to this issue.

  16. NASA research activities in aeropropulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J. F., Jr.; Weber, R. J.

    1982-01-01

    NASA is responsible for advancing technologies related to air transportation. A sampling of the work at NASA's Lewis Research Center aimed at improved aircraft propulsion systems is described. Particularly stressed are efforts related to reduced noise and fuel consumption of subsonic transports. Generic work in specific disciplines are reviewed including computational analysis, materials, structures, controls, diagnostics, alternative fuels, and high-speed propellers. Prospects for variable cycle engines are also discussed.

  17. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  18. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  19. Future research on gender symmetry in physical assaults on partners.

    PubMed

    Straus, Murray A

    2006-11-01

    In the light of evidence from about 200 studies showing gender symmetry in perpetration of partner assault, research can now focus on why gender symmetry is predominant and on the implications of symmetry for primary prevention and treatment of partner violence. Progress in such research is handicapped by a number of problems: (1) Insufficient empirical research and a surplus of discussion and theory, (2) Blinders imposed by commitment to a single causal factor theory-patriarchy and male dominance-in the face of overwhelming evidence that this is only one of a multitude of causes, (3) Research purporting to investigate gender differences but which obtains data on only one gender, (4) Denial of research grants to projects that do not assume most partner violence is by male perpetrators, (5) Failure to investigate primary prevention and treatment programs for female offenders, and (6) Suppression of evidence on female perpetration by both researchers and agencies. PMID:17043370

  20. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  1. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  2. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  3. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  4. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research activities. (a) Patient identifying information may be disclosed for the purpose of conducting...

  5. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

    2009-01-01

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with <2, and 3 states with <1 FTE. Increased interest in cellulosic energy, climate change, and environmental impact may offer new opportunities for these FTE to participate in integrated cross-discipline research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to

  6. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  7. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  8. Constructing a Roadmap for Future Universal Screening Research beyond Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Volpe, Robert J.; Livanis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the literature on universal screening in education is devoted to academic screeners. However, research clearly indicates that other aspects of student functioning are closely associated with outcomes inside and outside of school. As a result, there are gaps in the current literature that call for additional research extending…

  9. Rater Cognition Research: Some Possible Directions for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myford, Carol M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last several decades, researchers have studied many and varied aspects of rater cognition. Those interested in pursuing basic research have focused on gaining an understanding of raters' thought processes as they score different types of performances and products, striving to understand how raters' mental representations and the cognitive…

  10. Uncertain Future for Education Research Despite Increased Congressional Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, Gerald E.

    1991-01-01

    The 101st Congress and the Administration have cooperated to provide a solid increase for education, research, and statistics for 1991, but a new deficit reduction measure prohibits increases for the next three years. Observes that appropriations committees now favor research and are unlikely to divert these funds. (DM)

  11. Reflections on Future Research in Adolescent Reproductive Health

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Catherine M.; Loriaux, D. Lynn; Grumbach, Melvin M.; Rogol, Alan D.; Nelson, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    A group of basic scientists, clinicians, clinical investigators, psychologists, patient advocacy groups, and representatives from professional societies and governmental agencies met at the National Institutes of Health in October, 2007 with the long-term goal of having the menstrual cycle accepted and understood as a marker of general health in adolescent girls. An equally important goal was to develop a research agenda for this area of investigation. This chapter comprises the highlights of discussions throughout that meeting, with an emphasis on ideas generated during a final session led by an internationally renowned physician-scientist, in which reports from four breakout groups were presented. The specific goal assigned to each group was to develop an agenda that would set the stage for how research should be conducted over the next 100 years, and to identify the pressing research questions that should be addressed related to the menstrual cycle and adolescent health. The four areas represented in discussion groups included: genetic research; metabolic and reproductive research; emotional health; and the promotion of conduct of clinical research. Insights are also provided by five clinical investigators, including two outside experts, on both topics of priority for a research agenda in the area of adolescent reproductive health, as well as how the research itself should be conducted. PMID:18574236

  12. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

  13. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  14. Economics of Education Research: A Review and Future Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dearden, Lorraine; Machin, Stephen; Vignoles, Anna

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we offer an appraisal of the economics of education research area, charting its history as a field and discussing the ways in which economists have contributed both to education research and to education policy-making. In particular, we highlight the theoretical and methodological contributions that economists have made to the field…

  15. Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

    This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

  16. IHY Activities in Africa: Current Status and Future Developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabiu, A. B.; Balogun, E. E.

    2006-11-01

    The International Heliophysical Year (IHY) has already gained a global acceptance as international research cooperation. This paper assesses the current status of IHY; its organization, activities and challenges in Nigeria and THE African continent as a whole. The tremendous impact and successes of the program is highlighted. Two successful annual workshops have been held at different locations with wide national representation. A few facilities already installed or secured are presented for probable exploration and forging of partnership in research. On-going research involvement with SCINDA, AWESOME and MAGDAS are presented. With the passing of the dip equator through the country, Nigeria is presented as a region for ground observation and measurements of geo- and helio-physical variables. Ways by which Nigerian scientists are taking advantage of the opportunities embedded in the international program are exposed. Benefits of IHY including training, collaboration, workshop participation and publications, are explored.

  17. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings. PMID:15368766

  18. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  19. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  20. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  1. Research on International Space Station - Building a Partnership for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gindl, Heinz; Scheimann, Jens; Shirakawa, Masaki; Suvorov, Vadim; Uri, John J.

    2004-01-01

    As its name implies, the International Space Station is a platform where the research programs of 16 partner nations are conducted. While each partner pursues its own research priorities, cooperation and coordination of the various national and agency research programs occurs at multiple levels, from strategic through tactical planning to experiment operations. Since 2000, a significant number of experiments have been carried out in the Russian ISS utilization program, which consists of the Russian national program of fundamental and applied research in 11 research areas and international cooperative programs and contract activities. The US research program began with simple payloads in 2000 and was significantly expanded with the addition of the US Laboratory module Destiny in 2001, and its outfitting with seven research racks to date. The Canadian Space Agency (CSA), the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) have made use of international cooperative arrangements with both the US and Russia to implement a variety of investigations in diverse research areas, and in the case of ESA included the flights of crewmembers to ISS as part of Soyuz Science Missions. In the future, ESA and JAXA will add their own research modules, Columbus and Kibo, respectively, to expand research capabilities both inside and outside ISS. In the aftermath of the Columbia accident and the temporary grounding of the Space Shuttle fleet, all ISS logistics have relied on Russian Progress and Sopz vehicles. The Russian national program has continued as before the Shuttle accident, as have international cooperative programs and contract activities, both during long-duration expeditions and visiting taxi missions. In several instances, Russian international cooperative activities with JAXA and ESA have also involved the use of US facilities and crewmembers in successful truly multilateral efforts. The US research program was rapidly refocused after the

  2. Active case finding of tuberculosis: historical perspective and future prospects

    PubMed Central

    Golub, J. E.; Mohan, C. I.; Comstock, G. W.; Chaisson, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite a history of remarkable scientific achievements in microbiology and therapeutics, tuberculosis (TB) continues to pose an extraordinary threat to human health. Case finding and treatment of TB disease are the principal means of controlling transmission and reducing incidence. This review presents a historical perspective of active case finding (ACF) of TB, detailing case detection strategies that have been used over the last century. This review is divided into the following sections: mass radiography, house-to-house surveys, out-patient case detection, enhanced case finding, high-risk populations and cost-effectiveness. The report concludes with a discussion and recommendations for future case finding strategies. Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of these methods will help inform and shape ACF as a TB control policy in the twenty-first century. PMID:16333924

  3. The future of psychotherapy outcome research: science or political rhetoric?

    PubMed

    Peebles, J

    2000-11-01

    Although the relationship between research and clinical psychology has at times been conflicted, it has also been productive. Psychologists from both specialties have benefited from each others' work. The area of psychotherapy outcome research represents an important interface between the fields of clinical and research psychology. In an era of scarce resources and demands for accountability, there is pressure for researchers to justify the value of clinical practices. Recently, numerous articles have appeared recommending changes to the way psychotherapy research is conducted. The authors of these articles emphasize with urgency the importance of conducting and reporting research in a manner that will influence the decisions of policymakers and sanction funding for psychotherapy services. This article is an exploration of the impact of these recommendations, whose objective appears to be the promotion of psychological techniques for inclusion in clinical practice guidelines. It is argued that such recommendations may be in conflict with the philosophy and methods of science and may adversely affect public perception, perhaps leading psychologists to be seen as political lobbyists rather than clinicians and researchers. PMID:11092419

  4. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  5. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  6. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna L.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  7. The future of intersite networking. [Office of Energy Research

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-11-01

    Copies of viewgraphs and summaries of three discussion groups are presented. The purpose of the workshop was to identify strategies for meeting the computer networking needs to the scientists under the Office of Energy Research. (WRF)

  8. Future Directions in Rotorcraft Technology at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Ormiston, Robert A; Young, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the NASA and Army rotorcraft research community at Ames Research Center have developed a vision for 'Vertical Flight 2025'. This paper describes the development of that vision and the steps being taken to implement it. In an effort to realize the vision, consistent with both NASA and Army Aviation strategic plans, two specific technology development projects have been identified: (1) one focused on a personal transportation system capable of vertical flight (the 'Roto-Mobile') and (2) the other on small autonomous rotorcraft (which is inclusive of vehicles which range in grams of gross weight for 'MicroRotorcraft' to thousands of kilograms for rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles). The paper provides a status report on these projects as well as a summary of other revolutionary research thrusts being planned and executed at Ames Research Center.

  9. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  10. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  11. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program: 1995 activities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.E.; Wright, L.L.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Since 1978, approximately $60 million has been invested in research projects involving more than 100 federal, university, and private research institutions. The research has been highly leveraged with cost-sharing from USDA Forest Service, private industry, and state agencies. The performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species has been examined in field trials across the U.S. Results of this effort include the prescription of silvi-cultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on pasture and crop land. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential to commercial enterprises over a more geographically diverse acreage. Environmental research on biomass crops is aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration and analysis aim to understand all factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policy-makers, and potential users and producers of energy crops. 15 refs.

  12. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages. PMID:22612344

  13. Complex plasma research on ISS past, present, and future facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seurig, R.; Morfill, G.; Fortov, V.; Hofmann, P.

    2007-11-01

    The research in dusty plasma, also known as complex plasma, under prolonged microgravity condition took its first steps in 1998 onboard the Russian Space Station MIR: cosmonauts Vladimir Solovyov and Pavel Vinogradov conducted the first experiments to obtain plasma-dust crystals in the 'Plazmennyi Kristall 1'(PK-1) device using the sun as a 'natural' ionization source. This experiment was followed afterwards by the PK-2 already utilizing its own DC plasma generator. A major step came only three years later with the PKE-Nefedov facility (formerly called PKE-3). Launched in February 2001 and operated in over 13 missions for five consecutive years in the Russian Segment of the International Space Station ISS, this bilateral German-Russian research facility has already shown some surprising, new behavior of radio-frequency induced complex plasmas. An advanced model of PKE-Nefedov, the PK-3 Plus experiment apparatus, is getting readied to be launched to ISS on Progress Cargo spacecraft 20P. Additional developments are in progress to continue this exciting growing research field with: (a) PK-4 utilizing high voltage DC controlled plasma, and (b) IMPACT Laboratory, the European Space Agency's next generation premier research laboratory for plasma and dust physics on the ISS. The paper will provide background information of each of the complex plasma research facilities.

  14. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  15. Accounting for context: future directions in bioethics theory and research.

    PubMed

    Douglas-Steele, D; Hundert, E M

    1996-06-01

    Many physicians have found that the traditional approach to bioethics fails to account for important aspects of their moral experience in practice. New approaches to bioethics theory are challenging the traditional application of universal moral principles based in liberal moral theory. At the same time, a shift in both the goals and methods of bioethics education has accompanied its "coming of age" in the medical school curriculum. Taken together, these changes challenge both bioethics educators and theorists to come closer to the details and nuances of real clinical encounters. The emerging trend emphasizes the importance of context in bioethics education and in the moral theory and research undergirding it. This article introduces one research approach examining the practical life contexts of medical students' ethical experiences and learning. It calls for increased attention to research and theory in bioethics that more adequately accounts for the ways different contexts produce significant changes in meaning and understanding in medical encounters. PMID:8767639

  16. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation. PMID:11092063

  17. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  18. Biological underpinnings of psychogenic nonepileptic seizures: directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Asadi-Pooya, Ali A

    2016-07-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are relatively common occurrences in epilepsy centers, but their pathophysiology is still poorly understood. Research that elucidates the pathophysiology of PNES, including their neurobiological basis and biomarkers, may have important clinical implications. The literature provides some evidence that genetic factors, intrinsic factors, and environmental factors probably play a significant role as the biological underpinnings of PNES. Researchers may be able to learn more about the pathophysiology of PNES by investigating the effects of each of these factors on functional and structural brain connectivity. PMID:26956567

  19. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  20. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, Eric K.; Fulton, Anna L.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  1. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  2. Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research…

  3. Future challenges for nuclear data research in fission (u)

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, Mark B

    2010-01-01

    I describe some high priority research areas in nuclear fission, where applications in nuclear reactor technologies and in modeling criticality in general are demanding higher accuracies in our databases. We focus on fission cross sections, fission neutron spectra, and fission product data.

  4. Priorities in pediatric epilepsy research: improving children's futures today.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anne T; Baca, Christine B; Loddenkemper, Tobias; Vickrey, Barbara G; Dlugos, Dennis

    2013-09-24

    The Priorities in Pediatric Epilepsy Research workshop was held in the spirit of patient-centered and patient-driven mandates for developing best practices in care, particularly for epilepsy beginning under age 3 years. The workshop brought together parents, representatives of voluntary advocacy organizations, physicians, allied health professionals, researchers, and administrators to identify priority areas for pediatric epilepsy care and research including implementation and testing of interventions designed to improve care processes and outcomes. Priorities highlighted were 1) patient outcomes, especially seizure control but also behavioral, academic, and social functioning; 2) early and accurate diagnosis and optimal treatment; 3) role and involvement of parents (communication and shared decision-making); and 4) integration of school and community organizations with epilepsy care delivery. Key factors influencing pediatric epilepsy care included the child's impairments and seizure presentation, parents, providers, the health care system, and community systems. Care was represented as a sequential process from initial onset of seizures to referral for comprehensive evaluation when needed. We considered an alternative model in which comprehensive care would be utilized from onset, proactively, rather than reactively after pharmacoresistance became obvious. Barriers, including limited levels of evidence about many aspects of diagnosis and management, access to care--particularly epilepsy specialty and behavioral health care--and implementation, were identified. Progress hinges on coordinated research efforts that systematically address gaps in knowledge and overcoming barriers to access and implementation. The stakes are considerable, and the potential benefits for reduced burden of refractory epilepsy and lifelong disabilities may be enormous. PMID:23966254

  5. Research on Community Bands: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature was to synthesize findings of studies investigating community bands. This review of literature centers on research that has been conducted on community bands in status studies, historical/cultural studies, pedagogical studies, health and wellness studies, and intergenerational studies. The last section of…

  6. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  7. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  8. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  9. Exploring the Future of Lifelong Learning: Advocacy, Research and Footprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This reflective think-tank contribution begins by comparing advocacy and research as distinct modalities of professional and social action. In practice they frequently elide and merge into one another. While alliance and complementarity between the two modalities is constructive for shaping policy and practice, it poses risks when governments and…

  10. Multilingualism in Australia: Reflections on Current and Future Research Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubino, Antonia

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a critical overview of Australian research in the area of immigrant languages, arguing that this field of study is a significant component of the wider applied linguistics scene in Australia and has also contributed to enhancing the broad appreciation of the cultural and linguistic diversity of the country. It shows that research…

  11. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  12. Making Numbers Matter: Present and Future Research in Risk Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.; Smith, Dylan M.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. Methods: We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the "Social Sciences Citation Index". Results: Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication…

  13. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L.

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end,…

  14. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  15. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  16. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  17. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  18. Creating the Future: "New Directions" in American Research Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brint, Steven

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the causes and consequences of recent American efforts to configure the research university as an engine of economic and social change. Drawing upon interviews and strategic plans, the paper describes recent policies to encourage "interdisciplinary creativity," in a context of increasing income from private gifts and endowments.

  19. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  20. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  1. Douglas Aircraft HSCT status and future research needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welge, H. Robert

    1992-01-01

    Current activities on the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) at Douglas are focussed on baseline vehicle development at Mach 1.6 and 2.4. Parallel design activities incorporating the latest technologies in structures/materials, propulsion/noise, and aerodynamics are also being conducted and incorporated into the baseline to establish performance, economic viability, and environmental compliance. Studies are also being conducted to establish the feasibility of incorporating laminar flow control and minimized sonic boom concepts into the baseline. A decision point on these last two technologies is targeted prior to the start of the NASA HSR Phase 2 Program in 1993.

  2. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  3. Community-Based Participatory Clinical Research in Obesity by Adolescents: Pipeline for Researchers of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can efficiently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n = 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  4. The future radioactive ion beam research program at Oak Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, James B.

    1994-03-01

    Early in 1995, the ORNL Holifield Facility is scheduled to return to operation as a dedicated radioactive ion beam (RIB) facility. This enhanced capability will open up new possibilities for research on the structure of and phenomena occurring in proton-rich nuclei. Among the opportunities will be the creation of heavier N≈Z nuclei, approaching 100Sn, and the study of exotic nuclear shapes, extensions of studies of the p-n interaction and super-allowed beta decay, and examination of nuclear structure near the proton drip line. In addition to new nuclear and atomic physics research opportunities, the beams from the Holifield RIB facility are expected to provide new capabilities for measurements important to nuclear astrophysics. To carry out this experimental program, various upgrades are planned to the existing experimental apparatus, and a new, third-generation, recoil-mass separator is being constructed.

  5. Solar Irradiance: Recent Results and Future Research Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woods, Thomas N.

    2009-05-01

    The solar irradiance, being the radiance integrated over the full disk, is the primary energy input for Earth's environment. Understanding the solar input is key for several terrestrial research topics concerning, to name a few, atmospheric ozone photochemistry, natural forcings on climate change, and improving space weather forecasting. From a solar physics viewpoint, the solar irradiance offers interesting challenges on understanding the sources of the variability of the solar irradiance, which has a strong dependence in wavelength and varies over all time periods from seconds to centuries. Recent solar irradiance results from the TIMED and SORCE satellite missions, such as concerning the current solar cycle minimum, will be presented. In addition, some outstanding questions for solar irradiance research will be addressed within the context of how they can be answered with the new missions, SDO, Glory, and PICARD, that are expected to be launched in late 2009.

  6. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures.

    PubMed

    Rock, Adam J; Coventry, William L; Morgan, Methuen I; Loi, Natasha M

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147

  7. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Adam J.; Coventry, William L.; Morgan, Methuen I.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147

  8. [Clinical research on malaria: what for the future?].

    PubMed

    Cot, M

    2005-06-01

    Malaria still remains one of the main public health problems in the world. In spite of early and numerous clinical trials, the situation seems to have been worsening in the last ten years. Malaria clinical research involves several levels: Several meta-analyses have been performed on this topic (in particular, the Cochrane Database Library has published studies on malaria prevention during pregnancy, management of clinical malaria attacks, vaccine trials or impregnated bed net trials). All these studies show the uneven quality of trials (only 10% to 50% can be kept in the analysis for methodological reasons), which seldom lead to similar conclusions. Besides, as resistances of both parasites and vectors to drugs or insecticides are regularly increasing, trials have to be repeated and new molecules have to be found and evaluated. Finally, practical application of such interventions may be difficult, due to the heterogeneity of epidemiological situations and the poverty of target populations. Various initiatives aiming to develop malaria clinical research have recently been launched. Donators are public or international (Global Fund, Roll Back Malaria Initiative, NIH, EDCTP programme), as well as private (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). These substantial funds should enhance the research of new antimalarial drugs and large-scale, adequately designed trials. However, to make sure these trials really benefit to populations exposed to the disease, ethical principles should be co-elaborated with developing countries, within collaborative networks between laboratories from industrialized and developing countries. PMID:16227916

  9. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  10. The Heffter Research Institute: past and hopeful future.

    PubMed

    Nichols, David E

    2014-01-01

    This essay describes the founding of the Heffter Research Institute in 1993 and its development up to the present. The Institute is the only scientific research organization dedicated to scientific research into the medical value of psychedelics, and it has particularly focused on the use of psilocybin. The first clinical treatment study was of the value of psilocybin in obsessive-compulsive disorder. Next was a UCLA study of psilocybin to treat end-of-life distress in end-stage cancer patients. While that study was ongoing, a trial was started at Johns Hopkins University (JHU) to study the efficacy of psilocybin in treating anxiety and depression resulting from a cancer diagnosis. Following the successful completion of the UCLA project, a larger study was started at New York University, which is near completion. A pilot study of the value of psilocybin in treating alcoholism at the University of New Mexico also is nearing completion, with a larger two-site study being planned. Other studies underway involve the use of psilocybin in a smoking cessation program and a study of the effects of psilocybin in long-term meditators, both at JHU. The institute is now planning for a Phase 3 clinical trial of psilocybin to treat distress in end-stage cancer patients. PMID:24830182

  11. Zebrafish antipredatory responses: A future for translational research?

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Human neuropsychiatric conditions associated with abnormally exaggerated or misdirected fear (anxiety disorders and phobias) still represent a large unmet medical need because the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases are not well understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate this research. Here I review the literature with a focus on zebrafish, an upcoming laboratory organism in behavioral brain research. I argue that abnormal human fear responses are likely the result of the malfunction of neurobiological mechanisms (brain areas, circuits and/or molecular mechanisms) that originally evolved to support avoidance of predators or other harm in nature. I also argue that the understanding of the normal as well as pathological functioning of such mechanisms may be best achieved if one utilizes naturalistic experimental approaches. In case of laboratory model organisms, this may entail presenting stimuli associated with predators and measuring species-specific antipredatory responses. Although zebrafish is a relatively new subject of such inquiry, I review the recently rapidly increasing number of zebrafish studies in this area, and conclude that zebrafish is a promising research tool for the analysis of the neurobiology and genetics of vertebrate fear responses. PMID:19836422

  12. Indian Ocean Research Data: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Cynthia; Groman, Robert; Allison, Molly; Copley, Nancy; Gegg, Stephen; Kinkade, Danie; Rauch, Shannon; Glover, David; Wiebe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Open access to well-documented data is essential to enable improved understanding of the key processes and their complex interactions in the Indian Ocean. For decades, marine ecosystem data have been collected by expeditions conducting research in this fascinating region. The data from many of the projects including the International Indian Ocean Expedition of the 1960s, the US Joint Global Ocean flux Study (JGOFS) Arabian Sea Expedition of the 1990s, and several more recent projects have been contributed by the original investigators to the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO). BCO-DMO is funded by the US National Science Foundation to work with marine scientists to improve access to research data and ensure long term preservation of the data that comprise an important part of a research program's legacy. The data are freely available from the Web-accessible BCO-DMO system that supports data discovery, access, display, user-customizable export, and download. The authors will provide an overview of the BCO-DMO data system including examples of the range of data types and an introduction to system capabilities.

  13. Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and Their Impact on the Research, Training, and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and their impact on the Research, Training and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 18 and 19, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to new computing paradigms, including grid computing, pervasive computing, high-productivity computing, and the IBM-led autonomic computing; and b) identify future directions for research that have high potential for future aerospace workforce environments. The format of the workshop included twenty-one, half-hour overview-type presentations and three exhibits by vendors.

  14. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  15. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:27413710

  16. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, Leo R

    2016-06-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:27413710

  17. Nanoindentation in Materials Research: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Warren; Pharr, George Mathews

    2010-01-01

    The method we introduced in 1992 for measuring hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation testing has been widely adopted and used in the characterization of mechanical behavior at small scales. Since its original development, the method has undergone numerous refinements and changes brought about by improvements to testing equipment and techniques, as well as advances in our understanding of the mechanics of elastic-plastic contact. In this article, we briefly review the history of the method, comment on its capabilities and limitations, and discuss some of the emerging areas in materials research where it has played, or promises to play, an important role.

  18. Future research on animal temperatures using electronic equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Nott, S.B.; Seawright, G.L.

    1981-11-01

    Available literature on animal temperature is reviewed and research priorities, using newly developed electronic identification and temperature-sensing equipment, are suggested. Applications to beef-cattle, dairy-cattle, and swine operations receive major attention. Skepticism of existing temperature data obtained with rectal thermometers is expressed. Physiological control of animal temperature is described as is the new monitoring technology (transponders and battery-operated radio transmitters). Primary emphasis is given to the diseases and managerial applications where temperature monitoring equipment is likely to be most profitable.

  19. Microarrays—Current and Future Applications in Biomedical Research

    PubMed Central

    Certa, Ulrich

    2011-01-01

    Microarrays covers research where microarrays are applied to address complex biological questions. This new open access journal publishes articles where novel applications or state-of-the art technology developments in the field are reported. In addition, novel methods or data analysis algorithms are under the scope of Microarrays. This journal will serve as a platform for fast and efficient sharing of data within this large user community. As one of the first microarray users in Europe back in 1996, I am proud to serve as Editor-in-Chief and I believe we have assembled a highly proficient Editorial Board, responsible for a fair and fast peer-review of articles.

  20. Astroinformatics, data mining and the future of astronomical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brescia, Massimo; Longo, Giuseppe

    2013-08-01

    Astronomy, as many other scientific disciplines, is facing a true data deluge which is bound to change both the praxis and the methodology of every day research work. The emerging field of astroinformatics, while on the one end appears crucial to face the technological challenges, on the other is opening new exciting perspectives for new astronomical discoveries through the implementation of advanced data mining procedures. The complexity of astronomical data and the variety of scientific problems, however, call for innovative algorithms and methods as well as for an extreme usage of ICT technologies.

  1. Research directions for future generations of cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Clark, Graeme

    2004-09-01

    Physiological and psychophysical research indicates that improved hearing in noise and music appreciation are likely with cochlear implants, with better reproduction of the fine temporospatial patterns of neural response in the auditory pathways due to phase differences in neuron firing patterns as the result of the basilar membrane travelling wave. An initial speech-processing strategy, to in part reproduce this information, is showing better frequency discrimination and musical perception. However, more exact reproduction is likely with a new generation electrode array which could involve the use of neurotrophins and inherently conducting polymers. The siting and design of this, as well as safety, needs further investigation before it is implemented. PMID:18792214

  2. Melodic Intonation Therapy: Back to Basics for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca’s aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT’s efficacy do not match MIT’s therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies. PMID:24478754

  3. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  4. Connecting active living research and public policy: transdisciplinary research and policy interventions to increase physical activity.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Joseph M; Giles-Corti, Billie; Sallis, James F

    2009-01-01

    National and international organizations recommend creation of environments that support physical activity where people live, work, play, study, and travel. Policy changes can lead to activity-supportive environments and incentives. Research on environmental and policy influences on physical activity is well underway in many countries. An important use of the research is to inform policy debates, but the "translation" of research to policy is an emerging science. The papers in this supplement were presented at the 2008 Active Living Research Conference whose theme was "Connecting Active Living Research to Policy Solutions." The papers include evaluations of policy initiatives and research that suggests promising new policies. Commentaries propose principles for improving the translation of research to policy. Improving the rigor of research, asking policy-relevant questions, presenting country-specific data, and effectively communicating findings to policy makers are likely to contribute to greater impact of research on policy processes. PMID:19190567

  5. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  6. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  7. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this "perspective article" we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  8. Disaggregated Data and Beyond: Future Queries in Cancer Control Research

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Bao; Chawla, Neetu; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    The goal of health equity requires the collection and reporting of disaggregated data in underrepresented populations such as Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) communities. A recent Department of Health and Human Services report outlines the necessity for disaggregated data which would offer communities, providers and planners better tools to address health problems. In a recent collaboration, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and several registries published a series of papers tracking cancer incidence data on AA and NHOPI communities using data from the NCI’s Surveillance and Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. The findings indicate a need for concentrated focus and planning for the next stages of cancer prevention and control for AA and NHOPI subpopulations. In this article, we provide (a) the context for the perpetuation of the model minority myth as well as historical and socio-cultural factors that have shaped health and disease for AA and NHOPI subgroups; (b) potential strategies for research and public health policy for AA and NHOPI groups using subpopulation-based approaches while addressing challenges and limitations; and (c) a portfolio analysis of currently funded projects within the NCI/DCCPS to identify gaps and areas of potential research. PMID:25368401

  9. [Professional activity of "competent physician": actual troubles and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Ramistella, E; Maviglia, A

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Health has experienced a great transformation, due to the latest technological breakthroughs, the discovery of new drugs and changing social and economic conditions of our country. The professional activity of the "competent physician", even, from the definition of art. 33 of DPR 303/56, result in today's complex set of procedural formalities that make your role as a great professional and social responsibility. However, there are still areas of uncertainty in the law and different interpretations that make it difficult to work. The competent physicians faced with a series of problems that hinder the development of their work, instead, should be free from interference in order to always get the expected results in preserving the worker's health. After a brief discussion of the main weaknesses found, are made some concrete proposals to ensure that the physician in the foreseeable future is increasingly a qualified professional capable of responding adequately to the needs arising from modern scientific evidence and the expectations of workers and the whole society. PMID:21086700

  10. EPA'S RESEARCH PROGRAM IN GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research into Granular Activated Carbon (GAC) for use in drinking water treatment has a long history in the Drinking Water Research Division and its predecessor organizations. tudies were conducted by the U.S. Public Health Service in the late fifties and early sixties to examine...

  11. 77 FR 77038 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Futures Volume...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... COMMISSION Agency Information Collection Activities: Notice of Intent to Renew Collection, Futures Volume... comment in response to the notice. This notice solicits comments on futures volume, open interest, price... responses. Futures Volume, Open Interest, Price, Deliveries and Exchange of Futures for Physicals,...

  12. Future Research Directions for Multimorbidity Involving Cardiovascular Diseases.

    PubMed

    Salive, Marcel E

    2016-05-01

    Multimorbidity, defined as the co-occurrence of two or more chronic conditions, increases with age and may be found in approximately two-thirds of older adults in population studies, commonly including a variety of cardiovascular risk factors and chronic diseases. This article offers a research agenda for cardiovascular disease from a patient-centered multimorbidity perspective. Definitional issues remain for multimorbidity, along with high interest in understanding the inter-relationships between aging, diseases, treatments, and organ dysfunction in the development and progression of multimorbidity. Clinical trials, practice-based and population-based observational studies, and linkages of big data can play a role in improving health outcomes among persons with multimorbidity. PMID:27113155

  13. Concrete-polymer composites: current status and future research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L E

    1981-04-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the successes obtained to date, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is the concrete-polymer materials. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. In addition to the significant property enhancement, many combinations of siliceous materials with polymers require lower energy inputs per unit of performance than either component alone.

  14. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  15. A look into the future of ALS research.

    PubMed

    Clerc, Pascaline; Lipnick, Scott; Willett, Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Although amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also referred as 'Lou Gehrig's Disease,' was first described in 1869 and the first disease-associated gene was discovered almost 20 years ago, the disease etiology is still not fully understood and treatment options are limited to one drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The slow translational progress suggests that current research models are not ideal to study such a complicated disease and need to be re-examined. Progress will require greater insight into human genes and biology involved in ALS susceptibility, as well as a deeper understanding of disease phenotype at the histological and molecular levels. Improving human disease outcome will require directing focus toward improved assessment technologies and innovative approaches. PMID:26861067

  16. Research in mosquito control: current challenges for a brighter future.

    PubMed

    Benelli, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are a key threat for millions of people worldwide, since they act as vectors for devastating pathogens and parasites. In this scenario, vector control is crucial. Mosquito larvae are usually targeted using organophosphates, insect growth regulators, and microbial agents. Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets are also employed. However, these chemicals have negative effects on human health and the environment and induce resistance in a number of vectors. Newer and safer tools have been recently implemented to enhance control of mosquitoes. Here, I focus on some crucial challenges about eco-friendly control of mosquito vectors, mainly the improvement of behavior-based control strategies (sterile insect technique ("SIT") and "boosted SIT") and plant-borne mosquitocidals, including green-synthesized nanoparticles. A number of hot areas that need further research and cooperation among parasitologists, entomologists, and behavioral ecologists are highlighted. PMID:26093499

  17. Some thoughts on future directions in margin research

    SciTech Connect

    Mutter, J.C. )

    1990-05-01

    Looking through the abstracts of presentations for this symposium, the authors see a science in transition. The quarter century since plate tectonic theory provided geoscience with a guiding framework in which to carry forward research into global tectonic phenomenon has witnessed a flourishing of research into the structure and evolution of continental margins. Margin evolution can now be placed firmly within this theoretical construct, thereby providing one of the key elaborations of the original theory that has given it its strength and value. What, then, is the next stage Are they in a period of normal science characterized by the detailed verification of an established paradigm, or can they hope for a really new direction Two approaches seem to present themselves. One is to focus attention on anomalies-things that don't quite fit or are not very easily covered by the present paradigm. Volcanic passive margins don't fit very well within the simple kinematic statement of plate tectonics, nor do eustasy and its effect on sedimentary sequences. While study of these square pegs in the round hole of plate theory may not bring them to a new paradigm, they might well provide significant modifications to the current wisdom. Perhaps a more fruitful approach is to propose that they are at a point in the development of other science at which the era of verification of the plate tectonic paradigm is sufficiently mature (perhaps even at its end) that the proper direction now is to establish a rigorous physical basis for the phenomena that are kinematically described by plate theory. The objective should be to created a higher order theory and thereby illuminate these known phenomena. Numerical and analytical modeling of deformational processes, magma generation, and migration are making leading contributions to this endeavor.

  18. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  19. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  20. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  1. Fire Research: Linking Past, Present, and Future Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Whitlock, Cathy; Barbante, Carlo; Brovkin, Victor; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Kaplan, Jed O.; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Power, Mitchell J.; Thonicke, Kirsten; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-11-01

    Increased levels of burning in the past 40 years are raising public and scientific concern about the relative importance of rising temperatures, climate variability, and human actions including management practices in initiating and supporting recent conflagrations. Enormous fires in Australia, North America, Europe, and Russia since 2000 have resulted in billions of dollars in property damage, loss of life, and threats to human and ecological health. Levels of fire activity are expected to increase in the coming decades in many regions as temperatures continue to rise and droughts intensify [Moritz et al., 2012]. Linked disturbances such as bark beetle infestations, nonnative plant invasions, and mass-wasting events have also exacerbated the effects of fire in many ecosystems.

  2. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  3. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all. PMID:20025109

  4. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  5. A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts. PMID:24416638

  6. Sleep disturbance due to noise: current issues and future research.

    PubMed

    Hume, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe) has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies. PMID:20472952

  7. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  8. Why is Neuroimmunopharmacology crucial for the future of addiction research?

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-01-01

    A major development in drug addiction research in recent years has been the discovery that immune signaling within the central nervous system contributes significantly to mesolimbic dopamine reward signaling induced by drugs of abuse, and hence is involved in the presentation of reward behaviors. Additionally, in the case of opioids, these hypotheses have advanced through to the discovery of the novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 as the necessary triggering event that engages this reward facilitating central immune signaling. Thus, the hypothesis of major proinflammatory contributions to drug abuse was born. This review will examine these key discoveries, but also address several key lingering questions of how central immune signaling is able to contribute in this fashion to the pharmacodynamics of drugs of abuse. It is hoped that by combining the collective wisdom of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology, into Neuroimmunopharmacology, we may more fully understanding the neuronal and immune complexities of how drugs of abuse, such as opioids, create their rewarding and addiction states. Such discoveries will point us in the direction such that one day soon we might successfully intervene to successfully treat drug addiction. PMID:23764149

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  10. CRYRING@ESR: present status and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Danared, H.; Engström, M.; Enders, W.; Fedotova, S.; Franzke, B.; Heinz, A.; Herfurth, F.; Källberg, A.; Kester, O.; Litvinov, Y.; Steck, M.; Reistad, D.; Simonsson, A.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Stöhlker, T.; Vorobjev, G.; the CRYRING@ESR working Group

    2015-11-01

    The former storage ring CRYRING has been shipped from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm to Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR. At its new location downstream of ESR all ion species presently accessible in ESR can be transferred to CRYRING, in which ions with rigidities between 1.44 and 0.054 Tm can be stored. The original Swedish layout has been modified by reconfiguring the sequence of straight sections and by slightly increasing the circumference to ESR/2. Ions can be injected from ESR or from an independent 300 keV/u RFQ test injector. The instrumentation of the ring includes an RF drift tube system for acceleration and deceleration (1 T s-1, with a possibility for an upgrade to 7 T s-1), electron cooling, a free experimental section, and both fast and slow extraction of ions. We report on the present progress of this project, give a prospective timeline, and summarize the new research which will be enabled by this project. First beam for commissioning of the storage ring is expected for 2015, final bakeout to restore ultrahigh vacuum conditions in 2016 and ion beams injected through ESR in ˜2017.

  11. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  12. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  13. The Future of Research Publishing: The eReport and eJournal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krantz, Murray

    2003-01-01

    Considers the future of online publication of scientific journals and how electronic research reports (eReports) and electronic research journals (eJournals) will change the way research is reported, disseminated, consumed, and conducted by the scientific community. Suggests there will be a more interactive dynamic discourse between authors and…

  14. The Past, Present and Future for the Early Childhood Education Researcher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almy, Millie

    This paper reviews past research in the area of early childhood education, points out current realities, and suggests future possibilities for investigation. Description of past research draws on the yearbooks of the National Society for the Study of Education and such sources as the "Handbook of Research in Early Childhood Education," edited by…

  15. Ecosystem functioning in the Mozambique Channel: Synthesis and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, F.; Barlow, R.; Ternon, J. F.; Ménard, F.; Roberts, M.

    2014-02-01

    straightforward as adult tunas caught by longline have the ability to explore different foraging habitats over a broad range of depths. Several suggestions for advancing eddy-related research from the current state of knowledge are proposed in the second part of the paper.

  16. "Ames Research Center: Linking our Origins to our Future"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Our research traces a path from interstellar materials to inhabited worlds and beyond. We examine how protoplanetary disks evolve and form terrestrial planets, the evolutionary paths of habitable planets, and how external factors (e.g., orbital eccentricity) and internal factors (atmospheric circulation) affect habitability. We trace, spectroscopically and chemically, the evolution of organic molecules from the interstellar medium onto habitable bodies. We examine how membranes might form under prebiotic planetary conditions. We evolve proteins capable of sustaining early metabolism, such as synthesis of biopolymers and transport of ions across membranes. We estimate the frequency of finding a functional prebiotic protein that formed spontaneously. We characterize the formation of diagnostic microbial biosignatures in rock-hosted ecosystems in ophiolite springs as an analog for subsurface life within our solar system, and photosynthetic microbial mats as biota that could be detected on extrasolar planets. We develop quantitative models that simulate energy relationships, biogeochemical cycling, trace gas exchange, and biodiversity. We examine the effects of climate variability on a vegetation-rich biosphere over intermediate time scales, using South American ecosystems as a model. We address natural transport of life beyond its planet of origin, such as on a meteorite, where survivors must withstand radiation, desiccation, and time in transit. We fly organisms and ecosystems in low Earth orbit to test their resistance to space. The Ames E&PO program disseminates these themes to national- and international-scale audiences through partnerships with the California Academy of Sciences, Yellow stone National Park, New York Hall of Science, and several K-14 educational organizations.

  17. The Quality-of-Life (QOL) Research Movement: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Michalos, Alex C.; Ferriss, Abbott L.; Easterlin, Richard A.; Pavot, William; Patrick, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of the social indicators or quality-of-life (QOL) research movement up to today, forecast future developments, and pave the way for future growth. Broadly speaking, we tried to review historical antecedents from the point of view of different disciplines, with specialists in each discipline…

  18. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    Twenty six Icelandic outlet glaciers, ranging from 0.5-1.500 km2, are known to surge, with terminal advances ranging from of few tens of meters to about 10 km. The geomorphic signatures of surges vary, from large-scale folded and thrusted end moraine systems, extensive dead-ice fields and drumlinized forefields to drift sheets where fast ice-flow indicators are largely missing. Case studies from the forefields of Brúarjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and Múlajökull surging glaciers will be presented. At Brúarjökull, extremely rapid ice flow during surge was sustained by overpressurized water causing decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. The ice-marginal position of the 1890 surge is marked by a sedimentary wedge formed within five days and a large moraine ridge that formed in about one day ("instantaneous end-moraine"). Three different qualitative and conceptual models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines: a narrow, single-crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport; large lobate end moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting; moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end moraine continuum. A parallel study highlighting the surge history of Eyjabakkajökull over the last 4400 years suggests climate control on surge frequencies. The Múlajökull studies concern an active drumlin field (>100 drumlins) that is being exposed as the glacier retreats. The drumlins form through repeated surges, where each surge causes deposition of till bed onto the drumlin while similtaneously eroding the sides. Finally, a new landsystem model for surging North Iceland cirque glaciers will be introduced. References Benediktsson,I. Ö., Schomacker, A., Lokrantz, H. & Ing

  19. Preface: Joint Discussion JD7: Space-time reference systems for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Kaplan, G.; Klioner, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Discussion on Space-time reference systems for future research (JD7) was held at the XXVIIIth General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing, on 27-29 August 2012. It was organized by IAU Division I (Fundamental Astronomy), with the support of Division III (Planetary Systems Sciences), Division IX (Optical & Infrared Techniques), Division XI (Space & High Energy Astrophysics), and Division XII (Union-Wide Activities). The scientific organizing committee was composed of Nicole Capitaine (France; co-Chair), George H. Kaplan (USA), Sergei Klioner (Germany; co-Chair), Zoran Knezevic (Republic of Serbia), Dafydd Wyn Evans (UK), Dennis McCarthy (USA; co-Chair), Harald Schuh (Austria), Richard N. Manchester (Australia) and Gérard Petit (France).

  20. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  1. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2013-07-30

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  2. Infrared Detector Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, T. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Amzajerdian, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared detector development and characterization at NASA Langley Research Center will be reviewed. These detectors were intended for ground, airborne, and space borne remote sensing applications. Discussion will be focused on recently developed single-element infrared detector and future development of near-infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The FPA will be applied to next generation space-based instruments. These activities are based on phototransistor and avalanche photodiode technologies, which offer high internal gain and relatively low noise-equivalent-power. These novel devices will improve the sensitivity of active remote sensing instruments while eliminating the need for a high power laser transmitter.

  3. Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

    2012-01-01

    A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

  4. ESP in Applied Linguistics: Refining Research Agenda Implications and Future Directions of Research on Second Language Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrell, Patricia L.

    1987-01-01

    Recent research has shown that effective second-language reading involves an interaction of the reader with the text. This interactive view has relevance for other areas of second-language processing, including listening comprehension, writing, and English for special purposes. Future research is needed in metacognition, relationships among…

  5. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  6. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  7. Preparing Future Teachers to Anticipate Student Difficulties in Physics in a Graduate-Level Course in Physics, Pedagogy, and Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John R.; Christensen, Warren M.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe courses designed to help future teachers reflect on and discuss both physics content and student knowledge thereof. We use three kinds of activities: reading and discussing the literature, experiencing research-based curricular materials, and learning to use the basic research methods of physics education research. We present a general…

  8. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  9. Constructing an Evidence-Base for Future CALL Design with "Engineering Power": The Need for More Basic Research and Instrumental Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research should be to construct a reliable evidence-base with "engineering power" and generality upon which the design of future CALL software and activities can be based. In order to establish such an evidence base for future CALL design, it suggests that CALL…

  10. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorder: Challenges, promise, and roadmap for future research.

    PubMed

    Oberman, Lindsay M; Enticott, Peter G; Casanova, Manuel F; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; McCracken, James T

    2016-02-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined complex neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impairments in social communication, by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests and activities, and by abnormalities in sensory reactivity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising, emerging tool for the study and potential treatment of ASD. Recent studies suggest that TMS measures provide rapid and noninvasive pathophysiological ASD biomarkers. Furthermore, repetitive TMS (rTMS) may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing some of the core and associated ASD symptoms. However, the available literature on the TMS use in ASD is preliminary, composed of studies with methodological limitations. Thus, off-label clinical rTMS use for therapeutic interventions in ASD without an investigational device exemption and outside of an IRB approved research trial is premature pending further, adequately powered and controlled trials. Leaders in this field have gathered annually for a two-day conference (prior to the 2014 and 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research, IMFAR) to share recent progress, promote collaboration across laboratories, and establish consensus on protocols. Here we review the literature in the use of TMS in ASD in the context of the unique challenges required for the study and exploration of treatment strategies in this population. We also suggest future directions for this field of investigations. While its true potential in ASD has yet to be delineated, TMS represents an innovative research tool and a novel, possibly transformative approach to the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26536383

  11. Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Riffin, Catherine; Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D.; Reid, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7databases (2005–2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice–end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n = 648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and inter-disciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

  12. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  13. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  14. Research Activities within NASA's Morphing Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, Anna-Maria R.; Horta, Lucas G.; Harrison, Joycelyn S.; Raney, David L.

    2000-01-01

    In the last decade, smart technologies have become important enabling technologies that cut across traditional boundaries in science and engineering. Here smart is defined as the ability to respond to a stimulus in a predictable and reproducible manner. While multiple successes have been achieved in the laboratory, we have yet to see the general applicability of smart technologies to actual aircraft and spacecraft. The NASA Morphing program is an attempt to couple research across a wide range of disciplines to integrate smart technologies into high payoff applications on aircraft and spacecraft. The program bridges research in several technical disciplines and combines the effort into applications that include active aerodynamic control, active aeroelastic control, and vehicle performance improvement. System studies are used to assess the highest-payoff program objectives, and specific research activities are defined to address the technologies required for development of smart aircraft and spacecraft. This paper will discuss the overall goals of NASA's Morphing program, highlight some of the recent research efforts and discuss the multidisciplinary studies that support that research and some of the challenges associated with bringing the smart technologies to real applications on flight vehicles.

  15. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högström, E.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-08-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interests in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics, permafrost thermal modeling, integration of traditional knowledge, spatial distribution of ground ice, and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  16. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högtröm, E.; Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-02-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interest in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics; permafrost thermal modelling; integration of traditional knowledge; spatial analysis of permafrost types and vulnerability; and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  17. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life. PMID:26447061

  18. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  19. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  20. Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future. Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

    This is the final report on future directions for Federal support of research and development (R&D) for information technology. This report adds detail to the findings and recommendations in the interim report dated August 1998, and strengthens previous recommendations regarding the importance of social and economic research on the impacts of…

  1. Our Future Research Agenda: Confronting Challenges...or Our Dying Grasp?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Richard F.

    1990-01-01

    Offers an agenda for the future of mass communication research. Suggests that equating mass communication with mass media invites the risk of economic success for mass media and societal failure for mass communication. Advocates conducting experiments in democratic behavior from a research and development context. (MG)

  2. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  3. Expanding the Teaching Games for Understanding Model: New Avenues for Future Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Strean, William B.; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach in physical education, noting that many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and neglected the affective domain. An extended TGfU model is presented, suggesting new avenues for future research and practice (e.g., consideration of…

  4. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  5. Viewing the Future of University Research Libraries through the Perspectives of Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorne, Jon Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a map for the transformation of human resources and technology in the university research libraries. The scenarios offer managerial leaders an opportunity to envision new roles…

  6. Governance in the Digital Age: A Research and Action Framework for an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Sharon S.

    2009-01-01

    Research into relationships among government, society and technology has grown substantially over the past 30 years. However, most research and most advances in practice address narrowly defined categories of concern such as government organization, citizen services, interoperability, or personal privacy. By contrast, the future presents complex…

  7. Fidelity in Models-Based Practice Research in Sport Pedagogy: A Guide for Future Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a commentary on research on models-based practice within physical education and presents a tutorial that aims to guide the reporting of future research using pedagogical models. Three key elements are presented that could be considered as essential for inclusion in any methods section in order for readers to gain an accurate…

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. Researching Possible Futures to Guide Leaders towards More Effective Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to inform institutional leaders by producing and disseminating a system wide view of what tertiary education might look like in Aotearoa New Zealand, five years into the future. The researchers were responding to a challenge in a speech at the DEANZ 2010 conference by a highly respected national leader (Dr. Peter Coolbear). The…

  10. "The Future of Scholarly Inquiry in Music Education": 1996 Senior Researcher Award Acceptance Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Cornelia

    1996-01-01

    Provides a statistical profile of the current state of music research as well as recommendations for future research. These recommendations explore and define approaches including the acquisition of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills, the importance of philosophical inquiry, and the definition and isolation of variables affecting musical…

  11. Determinants of leisure-time physical activity and future intention to practice in Spanish college students.

    PubMed

    Molina-García, Javier; Castillo, Isabel; Pablos, Carlos

    2009-05-01

    Few studies analyze determinants and patterns of physical activity among college students, so it has not been possible to carry out effective interventions to promote this practice. The aim of this study was to analyze the associations between some personal, social, and environmental determinants, practice of physical activity and future intention to practice in a sample of 639 university students (321 men and 318 women), mean age 21.43 years (+/- 2.78). Physical fitness self-perception, physical activity history, and coach's support to practice physical activity have a direct effect on the practice of physical activity and an indirect effect on future intention to practice, both in men and women. The practice of physical activity has also a direct effect on future intention to practice. Likewise, the participation in sport competitions predicts practice of physical activity and future intention in men, whereas being a member of a sports club predicts practice and future intention in women. PMID:19476226

  12. Evaluating the Potential of NASA's Earth Science Research Results for Improving Future Operational Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, M. E.; Cox, E. L.; Friedl, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Theme is charged with implementing NASA Strategic Goal 3A to "study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." In the course of meeting this objective, NASA produces research results, such as scientific observatories, research models, advanced sensor and space system technology, data active archives and interoperability technology, high performance computing systems, and knowledge products. These research results have the potential to serve society beyond their intended purpose of answering pressing Earth system science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences Program systematically evaluates the potential of the portfolio of research results to serve society by conducting projects in partnership with regional/national scale operational partners with the statutory responsibility to inform decision makers. These projects address NASA's National Applications and the societal benefit areas under the IEOS and GEOSS. Prototyping methods are used in two ways in NASA's Applied Sciences Program. The first is part of the National Applications program element, referred to as Integrated Systems Solutions (ISS) projects. The approach for these projects is to use high fidelity prototypes to benchmark the assimilation of NASA research results into our partners' decision support systems. The outcome from ISS projects is a prototype system that has been rigorously tested with the partner to understand the scientific uncertainty and improved value of their modified system. In many cases, these completed prototypes are adopted or adapted for use by the operational partners. The second falls under the Crosscutting Solutions program element, referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) experiments. The approach for RP experiments is to use low fidelity prototypes that are low cost and quickly produced to evaluate the potential of the breadth of NASA research results to serve society. The outcome from the set of RP experiments is an

  13. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA. PMID:15880904

  14. US CLIVAR Accomplishments Over the Past 15 Years and Research Challenges for the Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhlenbrock, K.; Patterson, M. W.

    2014-12-01

    The US Climate Variability and Predictability Program (CLIVAR) has brought meaningful contributions to the understanding of the role the ocean plays in the global climate system since its launch in 1998. By fostering community-based planning and implementation, US CLIVAR has made strides in increasing our understanding of the climate system and its predictability. Key accomplishments include a better understanding of intraseasonal-to-centennial timescales, expansion of a sustained ocean observing system for monitoring and assessing climate variability and change, improved understanding of critical physical processes and their representation in climate and Earth system models, and coordinated inter-comparisons of ocean and coupled simulations that have led to improved predictive capability. Building upon these advancements, the new US CLIVAR Science Plan presents revised goals, strategies, and research challenges that emphasize strengthened ties to the broader Earth science community and relevance to societal impacts. We will highlight the scope and priorities for each of the following four research challenges: (i) decadal variability and predictability; (ii) climate and extreme events; (iii) polar climate; and (iv) climate and ocean biogeochemistry. We will also provide information on how scientists can participate in future planning and implementation activities.

  15. Future of muscle research in diabetes: a look into the crystal ball.

    PubMed

    Roden, Michael

    2015-08-01

    In type 2 diabetes, skeletal muscle is not only responsible for early metabolic abnormalities, but its contractile activity also offers an efficient prevention and treatment strategy. This outlook into the coming decades summarises challenges and opportunities for translational research on skeletal muscle in diabetes and related diseases. Currently, our understanding of the interactions between myocellular networks, the master regulators of resting metabolism, and muscle's position within multi-organ crosstalk, is incomplete. In the face of an ageing population, changes within muscle tissue appear to be the predominant mechanisms responsible for sarcopenia, but the relative roles of obesity and ageing as driving forces of its development are less clear. To address these research questions, innovative approaches to optimising exercise training or minimising sedentarism will need to be devised and tested in large-scale standardised prospective studies. Finally, another major challenge will be the identification and evaluation of muscle targets to prevent and treat metabolic diseases. This is one of a series of commentaries under the banner '50 years forward', giving personal opinions on future perspectives in diabetes, to celebrate the 50th anniversary of Diabetologia (1965-2015). PMID:26003326

  16. Past Strategies and Future Directions for Identifying AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Modulators

    PubMed Central

    Sinnett, Sarah E.; Brenman, Jay E.

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a promising therapeutic target for cancer, type II diabetes, and other illnesses characterized by abnormal energy utilization. During the last decade, numerous labs have published a range of methods for identifying novel AMPK modulators. The current understanding of AMPK structure and regulation, however, has propelled a paradigm shift in which many researchers now consider ADP to be an additional regulatory nucleotide of AMPK. How can the AMPK community apply this new understanding of AMPK signaling to translational research? Recent insights into AMPK structure, regulation, and holoenzyme-sensitive signaling may provide the hindsight needed to clearly evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of past AMPK drug discovery efforts. Improving future strategies for AMPK drug discovery will require pairing the current understanding of AMPK signaling with improved experimental designs. PMID:24583089

  17. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  18. Viewpoint: the future of research in pediatric allergy: what should the focus be?

    PubMed

    Van Bever, Hugo P S; Lee, Bee Wah; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi; Shek, Lynette

    2012-02-01

    Allergic diseases have been increasing during the last three decades, and exact reasons for this are still debated. Despite intense ongoing research, a lot of aspects of allergic diseases are still poorly understood, resulting in limitations in current therapeutic approach to allergies. In this viewpoint, important unanswered research questions are raised mainly on novel therapeutic approaches to allergic children, and suggestions for future research are raised. Three aspects of pediatric allergy are distinguished: the prevention, control, and cure. PMID:22283402

  19. Heuristic Programming of Educational - Research Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoev, Alexey

    HEURISTIC PROGRAMMING OF EDUCATIONAL - RESEARCH ACTIVITY OF THE STUDENTS OF ASTRONOMY AT PUBLIC ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATORIES A.Stoev Yu. Gagarin Public Astronomical Observatory Stara Zagora Bulgaria Seeking for optimal conditions of the students’ investigation skills development is exceptionally actual task in Astronomy school at Public astronomical observatory. The didactic plan of its solving is connected with a realization of the concept of the problematic approach in astronomical education. In addition different means of astronomical educative activity organization are used depending on the didactic task. In some cases they are algorithmic but in others - mainly heuristic. Educational - research skills are defined as skills of scientific method use in the conditions of seeking for educational problem solving the astronomical educational - research task. The influence of the system of heuristic programming didactic means on the process of teaching and the use of system of didactic means for out of the school education on astronomy aimed mainly to this activity rule are analyzed. In conclusion the process of optimization of the didactic conditions for students’ self-organization during the individual or collective completion of the educational - research astronomical tasks at the transition from secondary to high education.

  20. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  1. Memory for serial order across domains: An overview of the literature and directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Hurlstone, Mark J; Hitch, Graham J; Baddeley, Alan D

    2014-03-01

    From vocabulary learning to imitating sequences of motor actions, the ability to plan, represent, and recall a novel sequence of items in the correct order is fundamental for many verbal and nonverbal higher level cognitive activities. Here we review phenomena of serial order documented across the verbal, visual, and spatial short-term memory domains and interpret them with reference to the principles of serial order and ancillary assumptions instantiated in contemporary computational theories of memory for serial order. We propose that functional similarities across domains buttress the notion that verbal, visual, and spatial sequences are planned and controlled by a competitive queuing (CQ) mechanism in which items are simultaneously active in parallel and the strongest item is chosen for output. Within the verbal short-term memory CQ system, evidence suggests that serial order is represented via a primacy gradient, position marking, response suppression, and cumulative matching. Evidence further indicates that output interference operates during recall and that item similarity effects manifest during both serial order encoding and retrieval. By contrast, the principles underlying the representation of serial order in the visual and spatial CQ systems are unclear, largely because the relevant studies have yet to be performed. In the spatial domain, there is some evidence for a primacy gradient and position marking, whereas in the visual domain there is no direct evidence for either of the principles of serial order. We conclude by proposing some directions for future research designed to bridge this and other theoretical gaps in the literature. PMID:24079725

  2. Minimizing disparities in surgical care: a research focus for the future.

    PubMed

    Ryoo, Joan J; Ko, Clifford Y

    2008-04-01

    The wide array of questions and opportunities for surgical health services research offers important prospects for inquiry into surgical disparities. In this essay we discuss research that directly or indirectly addresses disparities in surgery, highlighting the strengths and the future directions such research efforts intimate as potential foci of collective attention. We then consider possible research approaches-including community-based participatory models-for confronting disparity and the potential role of research in quality improvement to help achieve the ultimate aim, an optimal level of health care for all. PMID:18204986

  3. Nursing Informatics Research Priorities for the Future: Recommendations from an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Topaz, Maxim; Ronquillo, Charlene; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Badger, Martha K; Ali, Samira; Lewis, Adrienne; Georgsson, Mattias; Jeon, Eunjoo; Tayaben, Jude L; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Islam, Tasneem; Sommer, Janine; Jung, Hyunggu; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    We present one part of the results of an international survey exploring current and future nursing informatics (NI) research trends. The study was conducted by the International Medical Informatics Association Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group (IMIA-NISIG) Student Working Group. Based on findings from this cross-sectional study, we identified future NI research priorities. We used snowball sampling technique to reach respondents from academia and practice. Data were collected between August and September 2015. Altogether, 373 responses from 44 countries were analyzed. The identified top ten NI trends were big data science, standardized terminologies (clinical evaluation/implementation), education and competencies, clinical decision support, mobile health, usability, patient safety, data exchange and interoperability, patient engagement, and clinical quality measures. Acknowledging these research priorities can enhance successful future development of NI to better support clinicians and promote health internationally. PMID:27332195

  4. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research

    PubMed Central

    McLain, David L.; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity. PMID:25972818

  5. How can ergonomics influence design? Moving from research findings to future systems.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Sidney W A; Nyce, James M

    2004-12-01

    Ergonomics design is about the creation of future work. So how can ergonomics research support and inform design if its findings are cast in a language oriented towards current work derived from field observations or laboratory settings? In this paper we assess instances of three different strands (experimental, ethnomethodological, and surveys) of ergonomics research on paper flight strips in air traffic control, for how they analytically confront future work and how they make the findings relevant or credible with respect to future work. How these justifications come about, or how valid (or well argued for) they are, is rarely considered in the ergonomics literature. All three strands appear to rely on rhetoric and argument as well as method and analysis, to justify findings in terms of their future applicability. Closing the gap between research results and future work is an important aim of the ergonomic enterprise. Better understanding of the processes necessary to bridge this gap may be critical for progress in ergonomics research and for the use of its findings in actual design processes. PMID:15545236

  6. Association of physical activity with future mental health in older, mid-life and younger women

    PubMed Central

    Kouvonen, Anne; Pentti, Jaana; Oksanen, Tuula; Virtanen, Marianna; Salo, Paula; Väänänen, Ari; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Mental ill-health, particularly depression and anxiety, is a leading and increasing cause of disability worldwide, especially for women. Methods: We examined the prospective association between physical activity and symptoms of mental ill-health in younger, mid-life and older working women. Participants were 26 913 women from the ongoing cohort Finnish Public Sector Study with complete data at two phases, excluding those who screened positive for mental ill-health at baseline. Mental health was assessed using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire. Self-reported physical activity was expressed in metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week. Logistic regression models were used to analyse associations between physical activity levels and subsequent mental health. Results: There was an inverse dose–response relationship between physical activity and future symptoms of mental ill-health. This association is consistent with a protective effect of physical activity and remained after adjustments for socio-demographic, work-related and lifestyle factors, health and body mass index. Furthermore, those mid-life and older women who reported increased physical activity by more than 2 MET hours per week demonstrated a reduced risk of later mental ill-health in comparison with those who did not increase physical activity. This protective effect of increased physical activity did not hold for younger women. Conclusions: This study adds to the evidence for the protective effect of physical activity for later mental health in women. It also suggests that increasing physical activity levels may be beneficial in terms of mental health among mid-life and older women. The alleviation of menopausal symptoms may partly explain age effects but further research is required. PMID:24532567

  7. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  8. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  9. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  10. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  11. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26-27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  12. Worker productivity outcome measures: OMERACT filter evidence and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Escorpizo, Reuben; Luime, Jolanda J; Lacaille, Diane; Fautrel, Bruno; Bosworth, Ailsa; Cifaldi, Mary; Gignac, Monique A M; Hofstetter, Cathy; Leong, Amye; Montie, Pam; Petersson, Ingemar F; Purcaru, Oana; Bombardier, Claire; Tugwell, Peter S; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Worker Productivity working group is to identify worker productivity outcome measures that meet the requirements of the OMERACT filter. At the OMERACT 11 Workshop, we focused on the at-work limitations/productivity component of worker productivity (i.e., presenteeism) - an area with diverse conceptualization and instrumentation approaches. Various approaches to quantify at-work limitations/productivity (e.g., single-item global and multi-item measures) were examined, and available evidence pertaining to OMERACT truth, discrimination, and feasibility were presented to conference participants. Four candidate global measures of presenteeism were put forth for a plenary vote to determine whether current evidence meets the OMERACT filter requirements. Presenteeism globals from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (72% support) and Rheumatoid Arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (71% support) were endorsed by conference participants; however, neither the presenteeism global item from the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire nor the Quantity and Quality method achieved the level of support required for endorsement at the present time. The plenary was also asked whether the central item from the Work Ability Index should also be considered as a candidate measure for potential endorsement in the future. Of participants at the plenary, 70% supported this presenteeism global measure. Progress was also made in other areas through discussions at individual breakout sessions. Topics examined include the merits of various multi-item measures of at-work limitations/productivity, methodological issues related to interpretability of outcome scores, and approaches to appraise and classify contextual factors of worker productivity. Feedback gathered from conference participants will inform the future research agenda of the working group. PMID:24128774

  13. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  14. Current and Future Directions for Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Regional Research Center

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Research directed at discovering and developing new ways to use cotton, new and valuable end use attributes and new functional properties will expand the volume and value of cotton fiber through increased demand for cotton containing products. The Cotton Utilization Research at the USDA Southern Reg...

  15. The First Big Wave of Astronomy Education Research Dissertations and Some Directions for Future Research Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2008-01-01

    The past several years have presented the astronomy education research community with a host of foundational research dissertations in the teaching and learning of astronomy. These PhD candidates have been studying the impact of instructional innovations on student learning and systematically validating astronomy learning assessment instruments,…

  16. Radio Active Waste Plants - Back to the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Earp, J.E.; Thompson, D.R.

    2008-07-01

    This paper outlines the potential to provide smaller, potentially modular radwaste plants, suitable for new reactor proposals, within increasingly strict environmental control regimes, and with reduced discharge authorisations. Aker Kvaerner have been involved in the design, build and commissioning of radwaste plants over many years and provided the plant for Sizewell B, one of the last major PWRs to be built anywhere in the world. Unit operations and design characteristics of radioactive waste processing plant are discussed. It is concluded that these have changed little in the past 30 years. The traditional build characteristics and metrics of large radioactive waste processing facilities are described in both the reprocessing and the power generation industries. New reactor and fuel characteristics are described and used to highlight areas of potential design improvement, reducing the size, complexity, construction programme and cost of future power reactor radwaste facilities. In summary - implications for Design: Taking these factors into account, we can now expect that compared to Sizewell B radwaste plant, it is possible to match the AP1000 metrics given in Figure 4 above. In principle, this could deliver a building and plant volume of the order of one third to one half of that for Sizewell. It may be possible to make larger reductions in building volume although this is primarily due to the removal of evaporation and relocation of gaseous waste processing. The expected improvements are: - Reduced complexity and interactions significantly improve operational safety - Process intensification and close alignment of processes against reactor waste streams deliver reduced plant size. - Accelerated construction; this becomes possible because of reduced building size, and improved, fit-for-purpose building design. - Programme: The use of skid mounted package plant, modular 'pack' systems for filters and ion exchangers, can shorten construction time. - Allowance

  17. Building an ocean research coordination network for Future Earth: an opportunity for innovative collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarincik, K.; Gagosian, R. B.; Cerveny, K.; Zimmermann, L.; Hauser, J.; Morell, M.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth is an ambitious international and interdisciplinary research program on global change. While the program demands a "step-change" in how we do Earth system research, it will also build on the large suite of projects already established under the Global Environmental Change programs, and the Future Earth framework will need to support these in rising to the challenge of the new research model. Ocean research is deserving of a focused coordination network given: the ocean's scale (71% of the planet) and role in global change and in human society; the numerous existing Global Environmental Change core projects related to ocean science (as many as 19) and numerous other relevant ICSU and international programs to be considered; and the resources and infrastructure required to access the ocean. We propose a model for ocean research coordination that will work with existing Global Environmental Change projects and the Future Earth Secretariat to facilitate research collaboration, communication, and stakeholder co-design of an integrative ocean science program focus beyond the level or responsibility of any individual project, with the goal of building capacity for cross-cutting research and deliverables.

  18. Physical activity parenting measurement and research: challenges, explanations, and solutions.

    PubMed

    Davison, Kirsten K; Mâsse, Louise C; Timperio, Anna; Frenn, Marilyn D; Saunders, Julie; Mendoza, Jason A; Gobbi, Erica; Hanson, Phillip; Trost, Stewart G

    2013-08-01

    Physical activity (PA) parenting research has proliferated over the past decade, with findings verifying the influential role that parents play in children's emerging PA behaviors. This knowledge, however, has not translated into effective family-based PA interventions. During a preconference workshop to the 2012 International Society for Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity annual meeting, a PA parenting workgroup met to: (1) Discuss challenges in PA parenting research that may limit its translation, (2) identify explanations or reasons for such challenges, and (3) recommend strategies for future research. Challenges discussed by the workgroup included a proliferation of disconnected and inconsistently measured constructs, a limited understanding of the dimensions of PA parenting, and a narrow conceptualization of hypothesized moderators of the relationship between PA parenting and child PA. Potential reasons for such challenges emphasized by the group included a disinclination to employ theory when developing measures and examining predictors and outcomes of PA parenting as well as a lack of agreed-upon measurement standards. Suggested solutions focused on the need to link PA parenting research with general parenting research, define and adopt rigorous standards of measurement, and identify new methods to assess PA parenting. As an initial step toward implementing these recommendations, the workgroup developed a conceptual model that: (1) Integrates parenting dimensions from the general parenting literature into the conceptualization of PA parenting, (2) draws on behavioral and developmental theory, and (3) emphasizes areas which have been neglected to date including precursors to PA parenting and effect modifiers. PMID:23944918

  19. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  20. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  1. Activities at Fermilab related to collider present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goderre, G. P.; Holt, J.

    1992-11-01

    The long-range Fermilab program requires fully capitalizing on the world's highest energy accelerator, the Tevatron, throughout the decade of the 90's. The program calls for increasing the collider luminosity with each successive run until peak luminosities of ≳5×1031 cm-2 s-1 and integrated luminosities of ≳100 pb-1 per run are achieved, effectively doubling the mass range accessible for discovery. If the quark lies at the upper range of the mass of the Tevatron, then increasing the energy of the collider operation could prove to be a crucial factor in the future program as well. In order to achieve these goals, we present a highly challenging upgrade of the present accelerator complex, called Fermilab III. In order to increase this performance level by a factor of 50, many changes are needed. Such a plan, of necessity, has modifications in almost all areas of the accelerator as the present system is reasonably optimized. (AIP)

  2. Re-Mediating Current Activity for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.

    2012-01-01

    The growing poverty and inequity in America should create a sense of urgency in researchers to leverage what they know for the public good--to intervene more productively and vigorously in an ever more fragile public educational system and to address the increasing vulnerability of far too many youth in the United States. The current worldwide…

  3. The Future of the Oceans Past: Towards a Global Marine Historical Research Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the “History of Marine Animal Populations” project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists. PMID:24988080

  4. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  5. AGU Activities to Promote Undergraduate Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, K.; Johnson, R.; Giesler, J.

    2001-05-01

    A primary goal of the AGU Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) is to significantly increase the participation of undergraduate students at AGU meetings. Involving students in scientific meetings at this level of their education helps them to better prepare for graduate school and for a career in the geophysical sciences. Ongoing CEHR activities to promote undergraduate participation include: (1) sponsoring technical sessions to showcase undergraduate research; (2) sponsoring sessions about careers and other topics of special interest to students; (3) sponsoring workshops to inform faculty about doing research with undergraduates; (4) sponsoring meeting events to partner graduate student mentors with first-time undergraduate attendees; (5) working with sections to create situations where undergraduates and section scientists can interact; (6) creating a guide for first-time meeting attendees; (7) sponsoring an Academic Recruiting Forum at meetings to connect undergraduates with geophysical graduate programs; (8) running a Career Center at meetings to connect students and employers; (9) raising funds for more travel grants to provide more student support to attend meetings; (10) developing a listserve to inform AGU members about opportunities to do research with undergraduates and to involve more members in mentoring activities; and (11) collecting data, such as career outcomes and demographic characteristics of recent Ph.D. recipients, that are of interest to students.

  6. STAR: Preparing future science and math teachers through authentic research experiences at national laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Rebar, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides 9-week paid summer research experiences at national research laboratories for future science and math teachers. The program, run by the Cal Poly Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) on behalf of the entire California State University (CSU) System, has arranged 290 research internships for 230 STEM undergraduates and credential candidates from 43 campuses over the past 6 years. The program has partnered with seven Department of Energy labs, four NASA centers, three NOAA facilities, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Primary components of the summer experience include a) conducting research with a mentor or mentor team, b) participating in weekly 2-3 hour workshops focused on translating lessons learned from summer research into classroom practice, and c) presenting a research poster or oral presentation and providing a lesson plan linked to the summer research experience. The central premise behind the STAR Program is that future science and math teachers can more effectively prepare the next generation of science, math, and engineering students if they themselves have authentic experiences as researchers.

  7. Community-Based Participatory Research: Its Role in Future Cancer Research and Public Health Practice

    PubMed Central

    Simonds, Vanessa W.; Duran, Bonnie; Villegas, Malia

    2013-01-01

    The call for community-based participatory research approaches to address cancer health disparities is increasing as concern grows for the limited effectiveness of existing public health practice and research in communities that experience a disparate burden of disease. A national study of participatory research projects, Research for Improved Health, funded by the National Institutes of Health (2009–2013), identified 64 of 333 projects focused on cancer and demonstrated the potential impact participatory approaches can have in reducing cancer disparities. Several projects highlight the success of participatory approaches to cancer prevention and intervention in addressing many of the challenges of traditional practice and research. Best practices include adapting interventions within local contexts, alleviating mistrust, supporting integration of local cultural knowledge, and training investigators from communities that experience cancer disparities. The national study has implications for expanding our understanding of the impact of participatory approaches on alleviating health disparities and aims to enhance our understanding of the barriers and facilitators to effective community-based participatory research. PMID:23680507

  8. More Optimism About Future Events with Relative Left Hemisphere Activation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Roger A.

    Unrealistic personal optimism is the perception that undesirable events are less likely and desirable events are more likely to happen to oneself than they are to happen to other similar people. Three experiments were performed to study the relationships among personal optimism, perceived control, and selective activation of the cerebral…

  9. Stem cell technology for tendon regeneration: current status, challenges, and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Pauline Po Yee

    2015-01-01

    Tendon injuries are a common cause of physical disability. They present a clinical challenge to orthopedic surgeons because injured tendons respond poorly to current treatments without tissue regeneration and the time required for rehabilitation is long. New treatment options are required. Stem cell-based therapies offer great potential to promote tendon regeneration due to their high proliferative, synthetic, and immunomodulatory activities as well as their potential to differentiate to the target cell types and undergo genetic modification. In this review, I first recapped the challenges of tendon repair by reviewing the anatomy of tendon. Next, I discussed the advantages and limitations of using different types of stem cells compared to terminally differentiated cells for tendon tissue engineering. The safety and efficacy of application of stem cells and their modified counterparts for tendon tissue engineering were then summarized after a systematic literature search in PubMed. The challenges and future research directions to enhance, optimize, and standardize stem cell-based therapies for augmenting tendon repair were then discussed. PMID:26715856

  10. Children Left Alone: Latchkey Problems--Future Research Questions and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fosarelli, Patricia D.

    A brief discussion of some myths associated with latchkey children is followed by a statement that an insufficient number of after-school care programs for children makes it likely that children will continue in self-care or sibling care. It is suggested that future research endeavors take the following parental/familial variables into account:…

  11. Tour Brookhaven Lab's Future Hub for Energy Research: The Interdisciplinary Science Building

    ScienceCinema

    Gerry Stokes; Jim Misewich

    2013-07-19

    Construction is under way for the Interdisciplinary Science Building (ISB), a future world-class facility for energy research at Brookhaven Lab. Meet two scientists who will develop solutions at the ISB to tackle some of the nation's energy challenges, and tour the construction site.

  12. Research on Technology and Teacher Education: Current Status and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Jerry; Thompson, Ann; Sadera, William

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the emergence of information technology in teacher education (ITTE) as a discipline; describes paradigms for research and development work, including empiricism, critical theory, and interpretivism; examines literature reviews, policy issues, diffusion of innovation, and component studies; and considers future possibilities. (Contains 89…

  13. The Claims of Games: A Comprehensive Review and Directions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Foster, Aroutis N.

    2007-01-01

    Educational games have become the lightning rod for learning and preparing a future skilled workforce. Both the people, who argue against and for games agree that learning is possible, but what is learned is another issue. However, the claims about games for learning lacks substantial research and for the most part remains merely philosophical…

  14. Future Directions for Research on the Development and Prevention of Early Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel S.

    2013-01-01

    This article describes our state of knowledge regarding the development and prevention of conduct problems in early childhood, then identifies directions that would benefit future basic and applied research. Our understanding about the course and risk factors associated with early-developing conduct problems has been significantly enhanced during…

  15. The Changing Marketplace in the Global Economy: Implications for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shim, Soyeon

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a research agenda for family and consumer sciences based on Thurow's five economic forces shaping the future and how they will affect consumers: (1) end of communism; (2) shift to "brainpower" industries; (3) demographic changes; (4) global economy; and (5) no dominant world power. (SK)

  16. SHAPING OUR ENVIRONMENTAL FUTURE: FORESIGHT IN THE OFFICE OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Futures analysis is a structured process that uses a variety of analytical tools to help organizations to better understand, anticipate, and influence the potential events and conditions of tomorrow. In its 2001 Strategic Plan, EPA’s Office of Research and Development (ORD)...

  17. Future Directions in Etiologic, Prevention, and Treatment Research for Eating Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; South, Kelsey; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Significant advances have occurred regarding the understanding of etiologic processes that give rise to eating disorders and the design and evaluation of efficacious prevention programs and treatment interventions. Herein we offer suggestions regarding potentially fruitful directions for future research in these areas. We suggest it would be…

  18. The Future of Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice. Conference Proceedings (College Station, Texas, May 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Dean C., Ed.; And Others

    This book contains seven papers presented at a conference on the future of teacher education. Richard M. Hersh examines the social organization of the school and the school's instruction and curriculum in "What Makes Some Schools and Teachers More Effective." In "Teacher Education: Needed Research and Practice for the Preparation of Teaching…

  19. The Idea of a World University: Can Foucauldian Research Offer a Vision of Educational Futures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ansgar

    2011-01-01

    Foucauldian research, as it is currently practised, is generally unwilling to offer a vision of alternative futures. This article examines the recent work (2007 and 2009) of Jan Masschelein and Maarten Simons which appears to be an exception. They offer a critique of contemporary trends in higher education and propose an alternative model: the…

  20. ASAS centennial paper: future needs of research and extension in forage utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs i...