Science.gov

Sample records for activity future research

  1. Current and Future Research in Active Control of Lightweight, Flexible Structures Using the X-56 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, John J.; Bosworth, John T.; Burken, John J.; Suh, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    The X-56 Multi-Utility Technology Testbed aircraft system is a versatile experimental research flight platform. The system was primarily designed to investigate active control of lightweight flexible structures, but is reconfigurable and capable of hosting a wide breadth of research. Current research includes flight experimentation of a Lockheed Martin designed active control flutter suppression system. Future research plans continue experimentation with alternative control systems, explore the use of novel sensor systems, and experiments with the use of novel control effectors. This paper describes the aircraft system, current research efforts designed around the system, and future planned research efforts that will be hosted on the aircraft system.

  2. The Future of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report looks at the future opportunities and challenges facing the UK university research base and makes recommendations as to how the system can respond to these. It comes at a time when the UK has elected its first coalition government for 70 years and is facing unprecedented economic challenges. The report is aimed at policy makers…

  3. Hypergravity Facilities in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Program - Current Research Activities and Future Tasks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frett, Timo; Petrat, Guido; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Anken, Ralf

    2016-06-01

    Research on Artificial Gravity (AG) created by linear acceleration or centrifugation has a long history and could significantly contribute to realize long-term human spaceflight in the future. Employing centrifuges plays a prominent role in human physiology and gravitational biology. This article gives a short review about the background of Artificial Gravity with respect to hypergravity (including partial gravity) and provides information about actual ESA ground-based facilities for research on a variety of biosystems such as cells, plants, animals or, particularly, humans.

  4. The future of pediatric research.

    PubMed

    Boat, Thomas F

    2007-11-01

    The future of pediatric research will be enhanced by strengthening traditional biomedical approaches and embracing emerging opportunities. Biomedical discovery and translation of new knowledge, concepts, and devices into better diagnostic and therapeutic options will require more pediatric physician-scientists, rapid adoption of enabling technologies, increased funding for research and research training (including the creation of federally funded pediatric translational research centers), and a broader distribution of research activities across the academic pediatric community. Rapid improvement of child health outcomes also will be realized through robust health services research in pediatrics, including the application of rigorous quality improvement science that documents and disseminates successful interventions, leading to better access and effectiveness of care. Improving the value of pediatric care is a realistic goal. Achieving better outcomes through individually tailored (personalized) care for children should be tested experimentally. The future of pediatrics is bright, but will depend on the recognition of and response to a growing array of exciting opportunities.

  5. Evidence-based physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors: current guidelines, knowledge gaps and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Buffart, L M; Galvão, D A; Brug, J; Chinapaw, M J M; Newton, R U

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity during and after cancer treatment has beneficial effects on a number of physical and psychosocial outcomes. This paper aims to discuss the existing physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors and to describe future research directions to optimize prescriptions. Studies on physical activity during and after cancer treatment were searched in PubMed, Clinicaltrials.gov, Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, and Dutch Trial registry. Physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors suggest that physical activity should be an integral and continuous part of care for all cancer survivors. However, the development of these guidelines has been limited by the research conducted. To be able to develop more specific guidelines, future studies should focus on identifying clinical, personal, physical, psychosocial, and intervention moderators explaining 'for whom' or 'under what circumstances' interventions work. Further, more insight into the working mechanisms of exercise interventions on health outcomes in cancer survivors is needed to improve the efficacy and efficiency of interventions. Finally, existing programs should embrace interests and preferences of patients to facilitate optimal uptake of interventions. In conclusion, current physical activity guidelines for cancer survivors are generic, and research is needed to develop more personalized physical activity guidelines.

  6. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Heather K; Friedenreich, Christine M; Brockton, Nigel T; Millikan, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Convincing evidence now supports a probable preventive role for physical activity in postmenopausal breast cancer. The mechanisms by which long-term physical activity affect risk, however, remain unclear. The aims of this review were to propose a biological model whereby long-term physical activity lowers postmenopausal breast cancer risk and to highlight gaps in the epidemiologic literature. To address the second aim, we summarized epidemiologic literature on 10 proposed biomarkers, namely, body mass index (BMI), estrogens, androgens, sex hormone binding globulin, leptin, adiponectin, markers of insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity, respectively. Associations were deemed "convincing," "probable," "possible," or "hypothesized" using set criteria. Our proposed biological model illustrated the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation influencing cancer risk through interrelated mechanisms. The most convincing epidemiologic evidence supported associations between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, estrogens, and androgens, respectively. In relation to physical activity, associations were most convincing for BMI, estrone, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein. Only BMI and estrone were convincingly (or probably) associated with both postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity. There is a need for prospective cohort studies relating the proposed biomarkers to cancer risk and for long-term exercise randomized controlled trials comparing biomarker changes over time, specifically in postmenopausal women. Future etiologic studies should consider interactions among biomarkers, whereas exercise trials should explore exercise effects independently of weight loss, different exercise prescriptions, and effects on central adiposity.

  7. Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative nuclear education and training courses - Current activities and future challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Snoj, L.; Sklenka, L.; Rataj, J.; Boeck, H.

    2012-07-01

    The Eastern Europe Research Reactor Initiative was established in January 2008 to enhance cooperation between the Research Reactors in Eastern Europe. It covers three areas of research reactor utilisation: irradiation of materials and fuel, radioisotope production, neutron beam experiments, education and training. In the field of education and training an EERRI training course was developed. The training programme has been elaborated with the purpose to assist IAEA Member States, which consider building a research reactor (RR) as a first step to develop nuclear competence and infrastructure in the Country. The major strength of the reactor is utilisation of three different research reactors and a lot of practical exercises. Due to high level of adaptability, the course can be tailored to specific needs of institutions with limited or no access to research reactors. (authors)

  8. Viewgraph description of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center: Activity highlights and future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merkle, Charles L.

    1991-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented that describe the progress and status of Penn State's Propulsion Engineering Research Center. The Center was established in Jul. 1988 by a grant from NASA's University Space Engineering Research Centers Program. After two and one-half years of operation, some 16 faculty are participating, and the Center is supporting 39 graduate students plus 18 undergraduates. In reviewing the Center's status, long-term plans and goals are reviewed and then the present status of the Center and the highlights and accomplishments of the past year are summarized. An overview of plans for the upcoming year are presented.

  9. Using the Internet for B2B Activities: A Review and Future Directions for Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gattiker, Urs E.; Perlusz, Stefano; Bohmann, Kristoffer

    2000-01-01

    Illustrates some of the challenges that electronic commerce practitioners and researchers face, focusing on business to business (B2B) transactions. Highlights include a conceptual framework of Web user behavior; purchasing context; socio-demographic characteristics; cultural factors; economic factors; attitudes toward information technology;…

  10. The role of research in nuclear regulation: Status and future activities in Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Soda, K.

    1997-01-01

    The role of nuclear regulation is grouped into the three categories in the Basic Safety Principles for Nuclear Power Plants, the INSAG-3 document of IAEA published in 1988. First category is to specify and develop standards and regulations for safety, and to issue licenses to operating organization. Second category is to inspect, monitor and review the safety performances of nuclear power plants and operating organizations. In the second category, corrective action may be ordered if it is found necessary after inspection, monitoring and review. The third category is to advocate safety research and disseminate safety information. Nuclear safety research is closely related to nuclear regulation. The licensing procedures of nuclear facilities requires a two step approach in Japan, that is, those who wish to construct and operate a nuclear plant must apply for a government approval for construction and operation. Safety examination is then performed first by the government, and the second examination is carried out by the Nuclear Safety Commission. In this process, research information is supplied to the Advisory Committee on Technical Matters which is under the Ministry of Trade and Industry and to the Committee on Examination of Reactor Safety which is under the Science and Technology Agency. Research organizations are asked by those Committees to provide data needed for safety examination and to perform safety analyses for verification of analyses submitted to the Committees by the licensees. in addition in the licensing procedures, examination guides needed for the safety examination are based on experimental data and analyses performed by research organizations by the government request.

  11. The impact of interventions to promote physical activity in urban green space: a systematic review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Ruth F; Christian, Hayley; Veitch, Jenny; Astell-Burt, Thomas; Hipp, J Aaron; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2015-01-01

    Evidence is mounting on the association between the built environment and physical activity (PA) with a call for intervention research. A broader approach which recognizes the role of supportive environments that can make healthy choices easier is required. A systematic review was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of interventions to encourage PA in urban green space. Five databases were searched independently by two reviewers using search terms relating to 'physical activity', 'urban green space' and 'intervention' in July 2014. Eligibility criteria included: (i) intervention to encourage PA in urban green space which involved either a physical change to the urban green space or a PA intervention to promote use of urban green space or a combination of both; and (ii) primary outcome of PA. Of the 2405 studies identified, 12 were included. There was some evidence (4/9 studies showed positive effect) to support built environment only interventions for encouraging use and increasing PA in urban green space. There was more promising evidence (3/3 studies showed positive effect) to support PAprograms or PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment, for increasing urban green space use and PA of users. Recommendations for future research include the need for longer term follow-up post-intervention, adequate control groups, sufficiently powered studies, and consideration of the social environment, which was identified as a significantly under-utilized resource in this area. Interventions that involve the use of PA programs combined with a physical change to the built environment are likely to have a positive effect on PA. Robust evaluations of such interventions are urgently required. The findings provide a platform to inform the design, implementation and evaluation of future urban green space and PAintervention research.

  12. The Human Performance Envelope: Past Research, Present Activities and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Tamsyn

    2017-01-01

    Air traffic controllers (ATCOs) must maintain a consistently high level of human performance in order to maintain flight safety and efficiency. In current control environments, performance-influencing factors such as workload, fatigue and situation awareness can co-occur, and interact, to effect performance. However, multifactor influences and the association with performance are under-researched. This study utilized a high fidelity human in the loop enroute air traffic control simulation to investigate the relationship between workload, situation awareness and ATCO performance. The study aimed to replicate and extend Edwards, Sharples, Wilson and Kirwans (2012) previous study and confirm multifactor interactions with a participant sample of ex-controllers. The study also aimed to extend Edwards et als previous research by comparing multifactor relationships across 4 automation conditions. Results suggest that workload and SA may interact to produce a cumulative impact on controller performance, although the effect of the interaction on performance may be dependent on the context and amount of automation present. Findings have implications for human-automation teaming in air traffic control, and the potential prediction and support of ATCO performance.

  13. The Future of Research Communication

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Tim; De Waard, Anita; Herman, Ivan; Hovy, Eduard

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Perspectives Workshop 11331 “The Future of Research Communication”. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together researchers from these different disciplines, whose core research goal is changing the formats, standards, and means by which we communicate science. PMID:26317061

  14. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  15. Mentoring future Kenyan oncology researchers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of the 1st Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute research grant writing workshop organized in collaboration with the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and held in Kisumu, Kenya from January 16th to 18th, 2013. The goal of this meeting was to mentor future Kenyan scientists and prioritize research topics that would lead to improved cancer care and survival for the citizens of Kenya. PMID:24099090

  16. The Future Agenda for Alumni Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, John A., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Striving for a standardized alumni research terminology should parallel future research efforts in such areas as measurement of donor potential, modeling alumni giving patterns, and examination of involvement in alumni activities. A taxonomy and a strategy for achieving standardization are described. (MLW)

  17. Healthy Universities: current activity and future directions--findings and reflections from a national-level qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    Dooris, Mark; Doherty, Sharon

    2010-09-01

    This qualitative study used questionnaires to scope and explore 'healthy universities' activity taking place within English higher education institutions (HEIs). The findings revealed a wealth of health-related activity and confirmed growing interest in the healthy universities approach--reflecting an increasing recognition that investment for health within the sector will contribute not only to health targets but also to mainstream agendas such as staff and student recruitment, experience and retention; and institutional and societal productivity and sustainability. However, they also suggested that, while there is growing understanding of the need for a comprehensive whole system approach to improving health within higher education settings, there are a number of very real challenges--including a lack of rigorous evaluation, the difficulty of integrating health into a 'non-health' sector and the complexity of securing sustainable cultural change. Noting that health and well-being remain largely marginal to the core mission and organization of higher education, the article goes on to reflect on the wider implications for future research and policy at national and international levels. Within England, whereas there are Healthy Schools and Healthy Further Education Programmes, there is as yet no government-endorsed programme for universities. Similarly, at an international level, there has been no systematic investment in higher education mirroring the comprehensive and multifaceted Health Promoting Schools Programme. Key issues highlighted are: securing funding for evaluative research within and across HEIs to enable the development of a more robust evidence base for the approach; advocating for an English National Healthy Higher Education Programme that can help to build consistency across the entire spectrum of education; and exploring with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Union for Health Promotion and Education (IUHPE) the feasibility

  18. High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research

    PubMed Central

    Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Axmacher, Nikolai; Mormann, Florian; Halgren, Eric; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI. PMID:22750156

  19. Research Needs and Future Directions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The food safety challenges facing the growers, processors and consumers of fresh and fresh cut produce are complex and multi-faceted. Established and ongoing research has given new insights into the ways in which produce can be contaminated at any step in the supply chain. The goal of future researc...

  20. Research in a Scenario of Change: Why Research Institutions Should Begin To Plan for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Martha A.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses emerging ideas about the future of federal research and development activities as they relate to the future of industry and especially to institutions of higher learning. Discusses energy research today, a future perspective, the future of the research community, and challenges. Highlights the future orientation of the Office of Energy…

  1. Future Fundamental Combustion Research for Aeropropulsion Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    AD-MISS 771 FUTURE FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH FOR I AEROPROPULSION SYSTEMS(U) NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND I SPACE ADMINISTRATION CLEVELAND OH LEWIS... Future Fundamental Combustion Research for Aeropropulsion Systems u. Edward J. Mularz V Propulsion Laboratory A VSCOM Research and Technology Laboratories... FUTURE FUNDAMENTAL COMBUSTION RESEARCH FOR AEROPROPULSION SYSTEMS Edward J. Mularz

  2. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  3. Special report: workshop on 4D-treatment planning in actively scanned particle therapy--recommendations, technical challenges, and future research directions.

    PubMed

    Knopf, Antje; Bert, Christoph; Heath, Emily; Nill, Simeon; Kraus, Kim; Richter, Daniel; Hug, Eugen; Pedroni, Eros; Safai, Sairos; Albertini, Francesca; Zenklusen, Silvan; Boye, Dirk; Söhn, Matthias; Soukup, Martin; Sobotta, Benjamin; Lomax, Antony

    2010-09-01

    This article reports on a 4D-treatment planning workshop (4DTPW), held on 7-8 December 2009 at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) in Villigen, Switzerland. The participants were all members of institutions actively involved in particle therapy delivery and research. The purpose of the 4DTPW was to discuss current approaches, challenges, and future research directions in 4D-treatment planning in the context of actively scanned particle radiotherapy. Key aspects were addressed in plenary sessions, in which leaders of the field summarized the state-of-the-art. Each plenary session was followed by an extensive discussion. As a result, this article presents a summary of recommendations for the treatment of mobile targets (intrafractional changes) with actively scanned particles and a list of requirements to elaborate and apply these guidelines clinically.

  4. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  5. On Biomedical Research Policy in the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    0 ON BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE Albert P. Williams January 1989 DTIC ELECTE P-7520 "’T,, . The RAND Corporation Papers are issued by...BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH POLICY IN THE FUTURE[l] Mr. Walden, members of the Science Policy Task Force, I am honored to be invited to appear on this panel and...to offer my thoughts on future biomedical research policy . My perspective is that of an outsider with a longstanding interest in federal biomedical

  6. Future directions for EPA Superfund research.

    PubMed

    Wentsel, Randall S; Blaney, Ben; Kowalski, Lorelei; Bennett, David A; Grevatt, Peter; Frey, Sharon

    2002-03-01

    The EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) identifies and prioritizes future research areas through a Waste Research Coordination Team. The team works together to plan the ORD Superfund research program, and it has members from each of the ORD laboratories as well as representatives from the Superfund office. Superfund scientists have identified several research topics in applied research areas to improve risk assessment methods and reduce uncertainty in site-specific risk assessments. Research areas include: dermal exposure models and toxicity values, improved methods for exposure factors, pharmaco-kinetic dose-response models, bioavailability and statistical methods. This paper presents ORD future research plans in response to these identified research areas.

  7. Kennedy: Future Academic Research Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chemical and Engineering News, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The president of Stanford University discusses his views on problems facing research universities, including research secrecy, ethics, and economics of proprietary knowledge generated in the university, faculty conflict of interest, place of humanities in a society driven by technology, and decline of government support for academic research.…

  8. Future Directions in Second Language Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill

    Progress that has been made in second language research in the last two years and future directions in the research methodology of second language studies are discussed. In order to examine the continuation and expansion of current research, the research reported by Schumann (1976) is compared with current research as represented by the titles of…

  9. Virtually Shaping the Future of Polar Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baeseman, J. L.; Koldunov, N. V.; Jochum, K.

    2009-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists (APECS) is an international and interdisciplinary organization for undergraduate and graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, early faculty members, educators and others with interests in Polar Regions and the wider cryosphere that started as a result of the International Polar Year (IPY). APECS is leading the way for virtual communication of polar research through several activities: an online Polar Literature Discussion Forum, a Virtual Poster Session, and Communication beyond the conference setting. APECS has created an extensive online discussion forum where researchers share both classic and cutting-edge literature articles and critique techniques that were used by authors, helping to improve methods as well as discover new ways to approach polar research questions. Many researchers present their results as posters at conferences. APECS has taken this process to a new level by creating a format to display previously presented posters online instead of these files simply sitting on a researcher’s hard-drive. Not only are the posters online, a monthly conference call open to hundreds of participants allows researchers to share their work with a new audience - fellow researchers, community members, potential colleagues, policy makers and educators. These calls are recorded and archived online so the next time someone visits the poster, they can hear the researcher describe their work and communicate with the researcher questions they may have, potential ways to collaborate or share different methodologies to improve future endeavors. Peer-reviewed literature articles are the currency of science and APECS has capitalized on this by creating a way for researchers to increase the exposure of their publications beyond the table of contents published by journals. The Polar Literature Discussion Forum is a new way for researchers to share their papers, as well as discuss classic articles. This has become a popular

  10. EXPOSE - the ESA exposure facility on the ISS, exobiology research activity in support to the future missions to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baglioni, P.; von Heise-Rotenburg, R.

    2004-03-01

    EXPOSE will be installed on the external balconies of the International Space Station (ISS). EXPOSE will host nine experiments prepared by scientists from various European Research Institutes. Experiment specimen will be located in hundreds of tiny cells, pressurized or vented, protected with windows and filters of various geometries and materials. Most of the experiments deal with the understanding of the influence of the radiation environment, in all its different components, on selected biological samples and organic compounds. Some of them are part of a research programme that has, among its targets, the understanding of the survivability of organics matters to extra terrestrial conditions, such as on Mars. EXPOSE is planned to stay in orbit for 3 years.

  11. An appraisal of future space biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vinograd, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Three general classes of manned space flight missions of the future are described. These include: earth-orbital, lunar, and planetary. Biomedical science and technology is analyzed emphasizing areas of research needed to support future manned space flights and the information to be obtained from them.

  12. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization. PMID:26610539

  13. Air Pollution Exposure and Physical Activity in China: Current Knowledge, Public Health Implications, and Future Research Needs.

    PubMed

    Lü, Jiaojiao; Liang, Leichao; Feng, Yi; Li, Rena; Liu, Yu

    2015-11-20

    Deteriorating air quality in China has created global public health concerns in regard to health and health-related behaviors. Although emerging environmental regulations address ambient air pollution in China, the level of enforcement and long-term impact of these measures remain unknown. Exposure to air pollution has been shown to lead to multiple adverse health outcomes, including increased rates of heart disease and mortality. However, a lesser-known but increasingly significant concern is the relationship between air pollution and its effects on outdoor exercise. This is especially important in China, which has a culturally rooted lifestyle that encourages participation in outdoor physical activity. This article evaluates the intersection of air pollution and outdoor exercise and provides a discussion of issues related to its public health impact in China, where efforts to promote a healthy lifestyle may be adversely affected by the ambient air pollution that has accompanied rapid economic development and urbanization.

  14. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  15. Future of federal research and development

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D.T.

    1995-12-31

    This paper very briefly describes factors affecting federal funding for research and development. Historical, political, and economic aspects of funding are outlined. Projections of future funding is provided in general terms. The potential of the national laboratories for continued research and development contributions is described.

  16. Future directions in brain injury research.

    PubMed

    Gennarelli, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the potential future directions that are important for brain injury research, especially with regard to concussion. The avenues of proposed research are categorized according to current concepts of concussion, types of concussion, and a global schema for globally reducing the burden of concussion.

  17. Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-20

    Future Models for Federally Funded Research and Development Center Contracts Approved by the DBB 20 October 2016 Presentation on: Task Group... Development Center (FFRDC) contracts. Specifically, the DBB should;  Review existing governance models, compare management activities to those of the...USAF Establish DBB Task Group to ecommend an appropriate futur model and focus for DoD sponsor d Federally Funded Research and Development

  18. Future Earth - Research for Global Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Diana; Berkhout, Frans

    2014-05-01

    Future Earth is a 10-year international research programme that aims to provide the critical knowledge required for societies to understand and address challenges posed by global environmental change (GEC) and to seize opportunities for transitions to global sustainability. Future Earth research is organised around three broad and integrated research themes: Dynamic Planet; Global Development; and Transformations towards Sustainability. It builds upon and integrates the existing GEC Programmes: World Climate Research Programme (WCRP), the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP), DIVERSITAS (international programme of biodiversity science), the International Human Dimensions Programme (IHDP) and the Earth Systems Science Partnership (ESSP). This presentation will outline the key principles of Future Earth, such as the integration of natural and social science, and will describe how the programme intends to address the challenges of global environmental change. Some of the major research questions addressed by Future Earth could include: further understanding of the dynamics of the Earth system (including socio-ecology); risks relating to tipping points; how to ensure sustainable access to food, water and energy; and whether the present economic system provides the necessary framework for low carbon transition.

  19. Creating Futures Activity Cards and Teacher Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klenzman, Elizabeth; Taylor, Paula

    Teachers can use these learning activities to teach about the future in elementary and secondary social studies, science, math, language arts, and arts courses. The purpose of the activities is to help students practice creative-thinking skills, investigate problems relevant to their personal futures, experience the concept of change, and evaluate…

  20. Future directions for positive body image research.

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Emma

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of positive body image research during the last 10 years represents an important shift in the body image literature. The existing evidence provides a strong empirical basis for the study of positive body image and research has begun to address issues of age, gender, ethnicity, culture, development, and intervention in relation to positive body image. This article briefly reviews the existing evidence before outlining directions for future research. Specifically, six areas for future positive body image research are outlined: (a) conceptualization, (b) models, (c) developmental factors, (d) social interactions, (e) cognitive processing style, and (f) interventions. Finally, the potential role of positive body image as a protective factor within the broader body image literature is discussed.

  1. Futures Research, Policy Research, and the Policy Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonsdale, Richard C.

    1975-01-01

    Argues that a greatly expanded attention given to futurism in educational institutions and an intensive, systematic use of futures research applied to educational policy making can go a long way toward meeting criticisms that education is backwards looking and resistant to change, and that education tends to develop an in-capacity for future…

  2. [The future of biomedical research at universities].

    PubMed

    Jimenez García, Rodrigo; Gil Miguel, Angel

    2003-01-01

    The present article reviews the historic background of research in the Spanish University and particularly biomedical research in our country. We analyze the last set of data facilitated by the University Council and the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas. We also review the implications that the National Plan of Quality has had on university research, clearly stimulating and improving the system, and new transformations that the Organic Law of Universities brings implied, and more specifically the National System of Qualification for the access to university teaching staff, which has research work of the teachers as the essential key. Finally, we review the biomedical scientific production during the last years by topics and universities, reflecting the improvement seen during the last decade not only in quantity but also in quality, which is more important. In conclusion, the review reflects a notable change in biomedical research in our universities opening an encouraging track for the future of research.

  3. NASA Lewis Research Center Futuring Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boroush, Mark; Stover, John; Thomas, Charles

    1987-01-01

    On October 21 and 22, 1986, the Futures Group ran a two-day Futuring Workshop on the premises of NASA Lewis Research Center. The workshop had four main goals: to acquaint participants with the general history of technology forecasting; to familiarize participants with the range of forecasting methodologies; to acquaint participants with the range of applicability, strengths, and limitations of each method; and to offer participants some hands-on experience by working through both judgmental and quantitative case studies. Among the topics addressed during this workshop were: information sources; judgmental techniques; quantitative techniques; merger of judgment with quantitative measurement; data collection methods; and dealing with uncertainty.

  4. Future fundamental combustion research for aeropropulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    Physical fluid mechanics, heat transfer, and chemical kinetic processes which occur in the combustion chamber of aeropropulsion systems were investigated. With the component requirements becoming more severe for future engines, the current design methodology needs the new tools to obtain the optimum configuration in a reasonable design and development cycle. Research efforts in the last few years were encouraging but to achieve these benefits research is required into the fundamental aerothermodynamic processes of combustion. It is recommended that research continues in the areas of flame stabilization, combustor aerodynamics, heat transfer, multiphase flow and atomization, turbulent reacting flows, and chemical kinetics. Associated with each of these engineering sciences is the need for research into computational methods to accurately describe and predict these complex physical processes. Research needs in each of these areas are highlighted.

  5. Research Domain Criteria: toward future psychiatric nosologies.

    PubMed

    Cuthbert, Bruce N

    2015-03-01

    The Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project was initiated by the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) in early 2009 as the implementation of Goal 1.4 of its just-issued strategic plan. In keeping with the NIMH mission, to "transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses through basic and clinical research," RDoC was explicitly conceived as a research-related initiative. The statement of the relevant goal in the strategic plan reads: "Develop, for research purposes, new ways of classifying mental disorders based on dimensions of observable behavior and neurobiological measures." Due to the novel approach that RDoC takes to conceptualizing and studying mental disorders, it has received widespread attention, well beyond the borders of the immediate research community. This review discusses the rationale for the experimental framework that RDoC has adopted, and its implications for the nosology of mental disorders in the future.

  6. Hispanic Behavioral Science Research: Recommendations for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padilla, Amado M.; Lindholm, Kathryn J.

    1984-01-01

    Presents major developments in Hispanic behavioral science research over the past decade, and provides recommendations for future research, organized into three broad categories: life span issues (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and elderly, all including some education-related issues), delivery of mental health services, and prevention and…

  7. Research Requirements for Future Visual Guidance Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-02-01

    operations at SEATAC International Airport in Washington. Future research efforts will be needed to develop surface guidance systems that will assist air... Airport in Washington State. Because of frequently occurring low-visibility conditions, SEATAC was considered an ideal location for the testing of...been carried out in the United States at JFK Airport in New York in the late 1980’s (reference 21). The costs of retrofitting the SEATAC airport with

  8. Moral qualms, future persons, and embryo research.

    PubMed

    Shaw, David Martin

    2008-05-01

    Many people have moral qualms about embryo research, feeling that embryos must deserve some kind of protection, if not so much as is afforded to persons. This paper will show that these qualms serve to camouflage motives that are really prudential, at the cost of also obscuring the real ethical issues at play in the debate concerning embryo research and therapeutic cloning. This in turn leads to fallacious use of the Actions/Omissions Distinction and ultimately neglects the duties that we have towards future persons.

  9. Future Directions in Youth Involvement Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Youth activity involvement has received increasing research and theoretical attention and should be of particular interest to social development investigators. Involvement has been correlated with a wide range of positive developmental indices, although not for all activities nor for all children. However, our ability to interpret such findings…

  10. The Future of Nearshore Processes Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elko, N.; Feddersen, F.; Foster, D. L.; Holman, R. A.; McNinch, J.; Ozkan-Haller, H. T.; Plant, N. G.; Raubenheimer, B.; Elgar, S.; Hay, A. E.; Holland, K. T.; Kirby, J. T., Jr.; Lippmann, T. C.; Miller, J. K.; Stockdon, H. F.; Ashton, A. D.; Boehm, A. B.; Clark, D.; Cowen, E.; Dalyander, S.; Gelfenbaum, G. R.; Hapke, C. J.; MacMahan, J.; McNamara, D.; Mulligan, R. P.; Palmsten, M. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Sherwood, C. R.; Hsu, T. J.

    2014-12-01

    Over 70 members of the nearshore coastal processes research community convened in April 2014 to discuss a vision for the future of nearshore science while celebrating the memories and contributions of our recently departed colleague, Abby Sallenger. The participants reviewed community accomplishments over the past four decades. Federal agencies, including FEMA, NOAA, NPS, USGS, USACE, and NRL discussed the most pressing societal needs within the coastal zone. The group engaged in a retrospective of the last four decades of progress, assessed the current status and limitations of nearshore processes research, and developed a vision for the future that focuses on societally relevant problems. The top research topics identified included: Long-term Coastal Impacts: Meaningfully improve our understanding and prediction of the long-term coastal effects of sea level rise and changes in storminess patterns and associated efforts to protect coastal infrastructure. Extreme Events: Coastal flooding, overland flow, and concurrent morphological evolution during extreme events including the subsequent process of coastal recovery. Human and Ecosystem Health: Linkages between physical coastal processes (transport and mixing) and land-based pollution (pathogens, nutrients, toxic contaminants). Critical for addressing these research questions is enabling infrastructure, such as new observational tools and data sets, models, and nearshore-community communication and collaboration. Idea and concepts developed during the meeting (to be published in Shore and Beach) will be presented to foster collaboration and advocacy amongst the wider nearshore community. Meeting materials are available at: https://scripps.ucsd.edu/centers/nearshorefuture/.

  11. Artificial Intelligence Research Branch future plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Helen (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This report contains information on the activities of the Artificial Intelligence Research Branch (FIA) at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) in 1992, as well as planned work in 1993. These activities span a range from basic scientific research through engineering development to fielded NASA applications, particularly those applications that are enabled by basic research carried out in FIA. Work is conducted in-house and through collaborative partners in academia and industry. All of our work has research themes with a dual commitment to technical excellence and applicability to NASA short, medium, and long-term problems. FIA acts as the Agency's lead organization for research aspects of artificial intelligence, working closely with a second research laboratory at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and AI applications groups throughout all NASA centers. This report is organized along three major research themes: (1) Planning and Scheduling: deciding on a sequence of actions to achieve a set of complex goals and determining when to execute those actions and how to allocate resources to carry them out; (2) Machine Learning: techniques for forming theories about natural and man-made phenomena; and for improving the problem-solving performance of computational systems over time; and (3) Research on the acquisition, representation, and utilization of knowledge in support of diagnosis design of engineered systems and analysis of actual systems.

  12. Leadership: current theories, research, and future directions.

    PubMed

    Avolio, Bruce J; Walumbwa, Fred O; Weber, Todd J

    2009-01-01

    This review examines recent theoretical and empirical developments in the leadership literature, beginning with topics that are currently receiving attention in terms of research, theory, and practice. We begin by examining authentic leadership and its development, followed by work that takes a cognitive science approach. We then examine new-genre leadership theories, complexity leadership, and leadership that is shared, collective, or distributed. We examine the role of relationships through our review of leader member exchange and the emerging work on followership. Finally, we examine work that has been done on substitutes for leadership, servant leadership, spirituality and leadership, cross-cultural leadership, and e-leadership. This structure has the benefit of creating a future focus as well as providing an interesting way to examine the development of the field. Each section ends with an identification of issues to be addressed in the future, in addition to the overall integration of the literature we provide at the end of the article.

  13. Defining Future Directions for Endometriosis Research

    PubMed Central

    D’Hooghe, Thomas M.; Fazleabas, Asgerally; Giudice, Linda C.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Petraglia, Felice; Taylor, Robert N.

    2013-01-01

    Endometriosis, defined as estrogen-dependent lesions containing endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterus, is a chronic and often painful gynecological condition that affects 6% to 10% of reproductive age women. Endometriosis has estimated annual costs of US $12 419 per woman (approximately €9579), comprising one-third of the direct health care costs with two-thirds attributed to loss of productivity. Decreased quality of life is the most important predictor of direct health care and total costs. It has been estimated that there is a mean delay of 6.7 years between onset of symptoms and a surgical diagnosis of endometriosis, and each affected woman loses on average 10.8 hours of work weekly, mainly owing to reduced effectiveness while working. To encourage and facilitate research into this debilitating disease, a consensus workshop to define future directions for endometriosis research was held as part of the 11th World Congress on Endometriosis in September 2011 in Montpellier, France. The objective of this workshop was to review and update the endometriosis research priorities consensus statement developed following the 10th World Congress on Endometriosis in 2008.1 A total of 56 recommendations for research have been developed, grouped under 6 subheadings: (1) diagnosis, (2) classification and prognosis, (3) clinical trials, treatment, and outcomes, (4) epidemiology, (5) pathophysiology, and (6) research policy. By producing this consensus international research priorities statement, it is the hope of the workshop participants that researchers will be encouraged to develop new interdisciplinary research proposals that will attract increased funding support for work on endometriosis. PMID:23427182

  14. Auxin Activity: Past, present, and Future1

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Tara A.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2016-01-01

    Long before its chemical identity was known, the phytohormone auxin was postulated to regulate plant growth. In the late 1800s, Sachs hypothesized that plant growth regulators, present in small amounts, move differentially throughout the plant to regulate growth. Concurrently, Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin were discovering that light and gravity were perceived by the tips of shoots and roots and that the stimulus was transmitted to other tissues, which underwent a growth response. These ideas were improved upon by Boysen-Jensen and Paál and were later developed into the Cholodny–Went hypothesis that tropisms were caused by the asymmetric distribution of a growth-promoting substance. These observations led to many efforts to identify this elusive growth-promoting substance, which we now know as auxin. In this review of auxin field advances over the past century, we start with a seminal paper by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider titled “The relative activities of different auxins” from the American Journal of Botany, in which they compare the growth altering properties of several auxinic compounds. From this point, we explore the modern molecular understanding of auxin—including its biosynthesis, transport, and perception. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions in the auxin field. Over the past 100 yr, much of our progress in understanding auxin biology has relied on the steady and collective advance of the field of auxin researchers; we expect that the next 100 yr of auxin research will likewise make many exciting advances. PMID:25667071

  15. Auxin activity: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2015-02-01

    Long before its chemical identity was known, the phytohormone auxin was postulated to regulate plant growth. In the late 1800s, Sachs hypothesized that plant growth regulators, present in small amounts, move differentially throughout the plant to regulate growth. Concurrently, Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin were discovering that light and gravity were perceived by the tips of shoots and roots and that the stimulus was transmitted to other tissues, which underwent a growth response. These ideas were improved upon by Boysen-Jensen and Paál and were later developed into the Cholodny-Went hypothesis that tropisms were caused by the asymmetric distribution of a growth-promoting substance. These observations led to many efforts to identify this elusive growth-promoting substance, which we now know as auxin. In this review of auxin field advances over the past century, we start with a seminal paper by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider titled "The relative activities of different auxins" from the American Journal of Botany, in which they compare the growth altering properties of several auxinic compounds. From this point, we explore the modern molecular understanding of auxin-including its biosynthesis, transport, and perception. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions in the auxin field. Over the past 100 yr, much of our progress in understanding auxin biology has relied on the steady and collective advance of the field of auxin researchers; we expect that the next 100 yr of auxin research will likewise make many exciting advances.

  16. Perspectives of activated carbonpast, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Carrubba, R.V.; Urbanic, J.E.; Wagner, N.J.; Zanitsch, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Granular activated carbon has evolved a unique role as a broad spectrum solid adsorbent in its 75 years of commercial utilization. Creative applications development has established it as technology of choice for critical water purification, sweetener decolorization, air purification and solvent recovery applications, among others. New innovations in pressure swing adsorption and new vapor phase adsorbents promise equally significant future applications.

  17. Nanofluid Technology: Current Status and Future Research

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Stephen U.-S.

    1998-10-20

    Downscaling or miniaturization has been a recent major trend in modern science and technology. Engineers now fabricate microscale devices such as microchannel heat exchangers, and micropumps that are the size of dust specks. Further major advances would be obtained if the coolant flowing in the microchannels were to contain nanoscale particles to enhance heat transfer. Nanofluid technology will thus be an emerging and exciting technology of the 21st century. This paper gives a brief history of the Advanced Fluids Program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), discusses the concept of nanofluids, and provides an overview of the R&D program at ANL on the production, property characterization, and performance of nanofluids. It also describes examples of potential applications and benefits of nanofluids. Finally, future research on the fundamentals and applications of nanofluids is addressed.

  18. The Future of Research in Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Charles

    2006-03-01

    Since 1990 the environment for and execution of industrial research has changed profoundly. See, e.g., R. Buderi, Engines of Tomorrow (Simon and Shuster, New York, 2000); H. W. Chesbrough, Open Innovation (Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003); C. B. Duke, Creating Economic Value from Research Knowledge (The Industrial Physicist, Aug-Sept. 2004, pp. 29-31). According to Thomas L. Friedman (``The World is Flat,'' Farrar, Straus and Giroux, New York, 2005) a new global communications-collaboration platform has ``flattened'' the world. National alarms have been raised about the US capability to compete in this changed environment. See, e.g., ``America's Tech Might Slipping?,'' Business Week, March 14, 2004; ``Globalization and Engineering,'' The Bridge, National Academy of Engineering, Fall 2005; ``Rising Above the Gathering Storm,'' National Academy of Sciences, 2005. In this presentation I indicate why firms perform research and how they generate economic value from it. Then I discuss the profound changes in the environment for these activities since 1990. This leads to a consideration of how firms are modifying their Research and Development activities to deal with this situation. I close by noting implications of these developments on the role of physics and the careers of physical scientists in the 21st century.

  19. ISS Assembly Progress and Future Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holloway, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    we will expand the ISS structure, add more power and enable international support capability. All of the U.S. hardware for the next two years is completing processing and preparing for launch. Japan and Europe continue to work on their laboratories, "Kibo" and "Columbus," to prepare for arrival on orbit in 2004/ early 2005. Enhanced utilization and research is also a major goal for Phase 3. During increment 4, we'll take up two more research racks, bringing the total to seven racks on orbit, and install additional scientific equipment. There is a world of possibilities for future activities on ISS, including science, commerce, and education, in addition to the ground breaking international cooperation that is shaping human space flight for years to come.

  20. Cultural psychiatry: research strategies and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Ban, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    This chapter reviews some key aspects of current research in cultural psychiatry and explores future prospects. The first section discusses the multiple meanings of culture in the contemporary world and their relevance for understanding mental health and illness. The next section considers methodological strategies for unpacking the concept of culture and studying the impact of cultural variables, processes and contexts. Multiple methods are needed to address the many different components or dimensions of cultural identity and experience that constitute local worlds, ways of life or systems of knowledge. Quantitative and observational methods of clinical epidemiology and experimental science as well as qualitative ethnographic methods are needed to capture crucial aspects of culture as systems of meaning and practice. Emerging issues in cultural psychiatric research include: cultural variations in illness experience and expression; the situated nature of cognition and emotion; cultural configurations of self and personhood; concepts of mental disorder and mental health literacy; and the prospect of ecosocial models of health and culturally based interventions. The conclusion considers the implications of the emerging perspectives from cultural neuroscience for psychiatric theory and practice.

  1. Developing Intuition: The Key to Creative Futures Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen; Domzalski, Suzanne

    Futures research involves speculation about alternative developments based upon existing data and potential choices. Effective futures research requires creativity in scientific practice rather than an overemphasis on reason. In discussing the important role of intuition in futures research, characteristics of creative scientists are reviewed and…

  2. Neurosciences research in space Future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    Future research in the neurosciences can best be understood in the context of NASA's life sciences goals in the near term (1990-1995), mid term (1995-2000), and long term (2000 and beyond). Since NASA is planning short-duration Spacelab and International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) flights for many years to come, the acute effects of exposure to microgravity will continue to be of experimental and operational interest in the near term. To this end, major new areas of research will be devoted to ground-based studies of preflight adaptation trainers and their efficacy in preventing or reducing the incidence of space motion sickness. In addition, an extensive series of studies of the vestibular system will be conducted inflight on the IML-1 mission The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. In the mid-term period, Spacelab missions will employ new technology such as magnetic recording techniques in order to evaluate changes in the processing of sensory and motor inputs at the brainstem and cortical level during exposure to microgravity. Two Space Life Sciences (SLS) missions planned for the mid to late 1990's, SLS-4 and SLS-5, will utilize an onboard centrifuge facility that will enable investigators to study the effects of partial gravity on sensory and motor function. In the long term (2000 and beyond), Space Station Freedom and long-duration missions will provide opportunities to explore new options in the neurosciences, such as sensory substitution and augmentation, through the use of physical sensors to provide three-dimensional tactile-visual, tactile-auditory and tactile-somatosensory inputs. The use of this technology will be extremely important in the area of robotic telepresence. Finally, Space Station Freedom and proposed LifeSat missions will provide neuroscientists the opportunity to study the effects of partial gravity and microgravity on neuronal plasticity.

  3. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    DOE PAGES

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; ...

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installedmore » in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.« less

  4. Current and Future Research at DANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Jandel, M.; Baramsai, B.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Hayes, A.; Kawano, T.; Mosby, S.; Rusev, G.; Stetcu, I.; Taddeucci, T. N.; Talou, P.; Ullmann, J. L.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.

    2015-05-28

    An overview of the current experimental program on measurements of neutron capture and neutron induced fission at the Detector for Advanced Neutron Capture Experiments (DANCE) is presented. Three major projects are currently under way: 1) high precision measurements of neutron capture cross sections on Uranium isotopes, 2) research aimed at studies of the short-lived actinide isomer production in neutron capture on 235U and 3) measurements of correlated data of fission observables. New projects include developments of auxiliary detectors to improve the capability of DANCE. We are building a compact, segmented NEUtron detector Array at DANCE (NEUANCE), which will be installed in the central cavity of the DANCE array. It will thus provide experimental information on prompt fission neutrons in coincidence with the prompt fission gamma-rays measured by 160 BaF2 crystals of DANCE. Additionally, unique correlated data will be obtained for neutron capture and neutron-induced fission using the DANCE-NEUANCE experimental set up in the future.

  5. Research Agenda: Priorities for Future Research in Second Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoynoff, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    In a recent state-of-the-art (SoA) article (Stoynoff 2009), I reviewed some of the trends in language assessment research and considered them in light of validation activities associated with four widely used international measures of L2 English ability. This Thinking Allowed article presents an opportunity to revisit the four broad areas of L2…

  6. Carotid Baroreflex Activation: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Ingrid J. M.; Kroon, Abraham A.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical activation of the carotid baroreceptor system is an attractive therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension. In the past, several attempts were made to directly activate the baroreceptor system in humans, but the method had to be restricted to a few selected patients. Adverse effects, the need for better electrical devices and better surgical techniques, and the lack of knowledge about long-term effects has greatly hampered developments in this area for many years. Recently, a new and promising device was evaluated in a multicenter feasibility trial, which showed a clinically and statistically significant reduction in office systolic blood pressure (>20 mm Hg). This reduction could be sustained for at least 2 years with an acceptable safety profile. In the future, this new device may stimulate further application of electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex in treatment-resistant hypertension. PMID:20424959

  7. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1987-06-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade and future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, are discussed. The results can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world, including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will advance technology and serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Unique technology has been developed and successfully used in the discovery of major accumulations of hyrodcarbons. Continued technological advances are anticipated to have widespread Arctic applications in both exploratory and production operations.

  8. Does Arts-Based Research Have a Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisner, Elliot

    2006-01-01

    This article focuses on the future of arts-based research in education. The author contends that there are several features that need to be taken into account if arts-based educational research is to have a future. First, arts-based educational research needs to have a cadre of scholars committed to its exploration--individuals who regard…

  9. Future perspectives for glycolipid research in medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Timothy M

    2003-01-01

    definitive treatment is otherwise available. Future glycolipid research in medicine will be directed to experiments that shed light on the role of sphingolipids in signalling pathways, and in the comprehensive characterization and their secretory products in relation to the molecular pathogenesis of the storage disorders; experiments of use to improve the efficiency of complementing enzymatic delivery to the lysosomal compartment of storage cells are also needed. Further systematic screening for inhibitory compounds with specific actions in the pathways of glycosphingolipid biosynthesis will undoubtedly lead to clinical trials in the neuronopathic storage disorders and to wider applications in the fields of immunity and cancer biology. PMID:12803931

  10. Educational Action Research to Achieve the Essential Competencies of the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapenieks, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses the conformity of the educational action research (EAR) process for the improvement of selected competencies that will be necessary in the near future for each active and responsible person. The most requested competencies in the near and midterm future are determined in accordance with near future structural requirements of…

  11. US computer research networks: Current and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kratochvil, D.; Sood, D.; Verostko, A.

    1989-01-01

    During the last decade, NASA LeRC's Communication Program has conducted a series of telecommunications forecasting studies to project trends and requirements and to identify critical telecommunications technologies that must be developed to meet future requirements. The Government Networks Division of Contel Federal Systems has assisted NASA in these studies, and the current study builds upon these earlier efforts. The current major thrust of the NASA Communications Program is aimed at developing the high risk, advanced, communications satellite and terminal technologies required to significantly increase the capacity of future communications systems. Also, major new technological, economic, and social-political events and trends are now shaping the communications industry of the future. Therefore, a re-examination of future telecommunications needs and requirements is necessary to enable NASA to make management decisions in its Communications Program and to ensure the proper technologies and systems are addressed. This study, through a series of Task Orders, is helping NASA define the likely communication service needs and requirements of the future and thereby ensuring that the most appropriate technology developments are pursued.

  12. Research in olive oil: challenges for the near future.

    PubMed

    García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón

    2010-12-22

    Olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, is continually evolving toward a more competitive global market. Being one of the most studied foods across different disciplines, olive oil still needs intensive research activity to face some vulnerabilities and challenges. This perspective describes some of them and shows a vision of research on olive oil for the near future, bringing together those aspects that are more relevant for better understanding and protection of this edible oil. To accomplish the most urgent challenges, some possible strategies are outlined, taking advantage of the latest analytical advances, considering six areas: (i) olive growing; (ii) processing, byproduct, and environmental issues; (iii) virgin olive oil sensory quality; (iv) purity, authentication, and traceability; (v) health and nutrition; (vi) consumers. The coming research, besides achieving those challenges, would increase the understanding of some aspects that are still the subject of debate and controversy among scientists focused on olive oil.

  13. Research of Tianjin's future water consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Yinhe

    2017-03-01

    Water shortage has been a great issue in nowadays. Thus, the prediction of future water consumption situation in an area appears especially important. The water demand includes industrial water, agricultural water and domestic water. The paper take Tianjin, China as the study object to predict the Tianjin's water consumption in future 15 years. To get more accurate result, we use Grey Forecasting Model, to get the correlation degree between water consumption, domestic water consumption, industrial water consumption and agricultural water consumption, we successfully figure out the water demand in 2030 will be 2.47 billion cubic meters.

  14. Wildland fire ash: future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Martins, Deborah A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Balfour, Victoria N.; Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan H.; Pereira, Paulo; Mataix-Solera, Jorge

    2014-05-01

    depth, density, and size fraction distribution compared to that of the underlying soil, f) To measure the spatial variability of ash at the plot or hillslope scale, g) To address issues of how much ash stays on site after fire, especially how much is incorporated into underlying soil layers, compared to how much is eroded by wind and water and becomes incorporated into depositional environments located away from the site. iii) ash effects h) To study the connectivity of patches of ash to make progress in understanding the role of ash in infiltration, the generation of runoff and erosion, i) To take into account the role of ash in the fate of the ecosystem immediately after the fire, as well as the combination of ash and other cover, such as the needles, in the post-fire period, j) To study the amount and forms of C in ash, including studies characterizing its chemical and biological reactivity and degradability in soil and sedimentary environments, k) To understanding the legacy of atmospherically-deposited elements (e.g. P, Si, Mn) and dust to fully understand the complex chemistry of ash, and at the same time assess its effects on human health. iii) enhance collaboration across the globe on the multidisciplinary topic of ash research since research in large areas of the world that burn (e.g., Africa and Russia) is underrepresented. We are sure that several activities, such as land and water supply management, risk reduction, and planning for societal and ecosystem resilience in the face of a changing climate, will benefit from the insights gained from the ash research community. Acknowledgements The research projects GL2008-02879/BTE, LEDDRA 243857 and RECARE FP7 project 603498 supported this research. References: Bodí, M. B., Mataix-Solera, J., Doerr, S. H., Cerdà, A. 2011.The wettability of ash from burned vegetation and its relatioship to Mediterranean plant species type, burn. Geoderma 160: 599-607. Bodí, M.B. Doerr, S.H., Cerdà, A. and Mataix-Solera, J. 2012

  15. The Learning of Biology: A Structural Basis for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Darrel L.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews recent research studies and experiences relating the learning theories of Ausubel to biology instruction. Also some suggestions are made for future research on the learning of biology. (MR)

  16. Current and future offshore activities in Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Hnatiuk, J.

    1984-05-01

    The development of innovative exploratory drilling systems for Canada's harsh Arctic offshore areas over the past decade is described. Future activity in these areas, including possible production concepts, is also discussed. The results of the experience in Canadian waters can be applied in other Arctic areas of the world including offshore Alaska. This operating experience will serve to further advance the drilling technology and will serve as a basis for the design of Arctic offshore production and transportation systems. Artificial islands, first commenced in 1972, are still being constructed but with improved designs and equipment. A step forward has been the use of subsea berms on which concrete or steel segmented caissons have been placed. Integrated-type steel caissons have also been adapted for placement on subsea berms, one of which is half of a crude oil tanker and a second, a purpose-built steel caisson to be placed this summer.

  17. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    A review of factors related to the acquisition and life-cycle cost, and mission reliability of helicopters is given. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Special attention is given to advanced propulsion systems and related component technologies, and system requirements, powerplants and component thrusts, compressor designs, combustion systems, turbine efficiency, blade tip treatment concepts and shaft dynamics are discussed in detail.

  18. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  19. A Bright Future for Interdisciplinary Multilingualism Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Comanaru, Ruxandra-S.; Dewaele, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Multilingualism is a prevalent reality in today's world. From an individual level to a societal one, multilingualism incorporates many aspects that have been studied extensively by diverse social research disciplines. The present article will explore the potential directions which multilingualism research can take, concentrating mainly on the…

  20. Research Universities and the Future of America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duderstadt, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The crucial importance of the research university as a key asset in achieving economic prosperity and security is widely understood, as evidenced by the efforts that nations around the globe are making to create and sustain institutions of world-class quality. Yet, while America's research universities remain the strongest in the world, they are…

  1. Past applications and future potential of variable stability research helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hindson, W. S.

    1982-01-01

    The historical development of variable-stability research helicopters and some of their previous applications are presented as a guide for assessing their future potential. The features of three general-purpose rotary-wing flight research aircraft that provide complementary capabilities are described briefly, and a number of future applications are proposed.

  2. Component research for future propulsion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, C. L.; Weden, G. J.; Zuk, J.

    1981-01-01

    Factors affecting the helicopter market are reviewed. The trade-offs involving acquisition cost, mission reliability, and life cycle cost are reviewed, including civil and military aspects. The potential for advanced vehicle configurations with substantial improvements in energy efficiency, operating economics, and characteristics to satisfy the demands of the future market are identified. Advanced propulsion systems required to support these vehicle configurations are discussed, as well as the component technology for the engine systems. Considerations for selection of components in areas of economics and efficiency are presented.

  3. What is "neuromarketing"? A discussion and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nick; Broderick, Amanda J; Chamberlain, Laura

    2007-02-01

    Recent years have seen advances in neuroimaging to such an extent that neuroscientists are able to directly study the frequency, location, and timing of neuronal activity to an unprecedented degree. However, marketing science has remained largely unaware of such advances and their huge potential. In fact, the application of neuroimaging to market research--what has come to be called "neuromarketing"--has caused considerable controversy within neuroscience circles in recent times. This paper is an attempt to widen the scope of neuromarketing beyond commercial brand and consumer behaviour applications, to include a wider conceptualisation of marketing science. Drawing from general neuroscience and neuroeconomics, neuromarketing as a field of study is defined, and some future research directions are suggested.

  4. Space facilities: Meeting future needs for research, development, and operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The National Facilities Study (NFS) represents an interagency effort to develop a comprehensive and integrated long-term plan for world-class aeronautical and space facilities that meet current and projected needs for commercial and government aerospace research and development and space operations. At the request of NASA and the DOD, the National Research Council's Committee on Space Facilities has reviewed the space related findings of the NFS. The inventory of more than 2800 facilities will be an important resource, especially if it continues to be updated and maintained as the NFS report recommends. The data in the inventory provide the basis for a much better understanding of the resources available in the national facilities infrastructure, as well as extensive information on which to base rational decisions about current and future facilities needs. The working groups have used the inventory data and other information to make a set of recommendations that include estimates of cast savings and steps for implementation. While it is natural that the NFS focused on cost reduction and consolidations, such a study is most useful to future planning if it gives equal weight to guiding the direction of future facilities needed to satisfy legitimate national aspirations. Even in the context of cost reduction through facilities closures and consolidations, the study is timid about recognizing and proposing program changes and realignments of roles and missions to capture what could be significant savings and increased effectiveness. The recommendations of the Committee on Space Facilities are driven by the clear need to be more realistic and precise both in recognizing current incentives and disincentives in the aerospace industry and in forecasting future conditions for U.S. space activities.

  5. The Role of Research in the Future of Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, James J.

    The role of research in the future of special education is discussed. The impact of research on practice is exemplified in the rise of the mainstreaming movement from research findings unable to find benefits in special class instruction for the mildly handicapped. The continuing ambivalence of the practitioner toward research is noted. The past…

  6. Future human bone research in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeBlanc, A.; Shackelford, L.; Schneider, V.

    1998-01-01

    Skylab crewmembers demonstrated negative calcium (Ca) balance reaching about -300 mg/day by flight day 84. Limited bone density (BMD) measurements documented that bone was not lost equally from all parts of the skeleton. Subsequent BMD studies during long duration Russian flights documented the regional extent of bone loss. These studies demonstrated mean losses in the spine, femur neck, trochanter, and pelvis of about 1%-1.6% with large differences between individuals as well as between bone sites in a given individual. Limited available data indicate postflight bone recovery occurred in some individuals, but may require several years for complete restoration. Long duration bedrest studies showed a similar pattern of bone loss and calcium balance (-180 mg/day) as spaceflight. During long duration bedrest, resorption markers were elevated, formation markers were unchanged, 1,25 vitamin D (VitD) and calcium absorption were decreased, and serum ionized Ca was increased. Although this information is a good beginning, additional spaceflight research is needed to assess architectural and subregional bone changes, elucidate mechanisms, and develop efficient as well as effective countermeasures. Space research poses a number of unique problems not encountered in ground-based laboratory research. Therefore, researchers contemplating human spaceflight research need to consider a number of unique problems related to spaceflight in their experimental design.

  7. School Consultation Research: Methodological Critique and Future Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Frank M.; Kendell, Ginger K.

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the current status of school consultation research and critiques the research methodologies used in consultation research. Major theoretical models in which consultation research has been conducted are briefly described. Consultation research is reviewed in three primary areas of investigation: (1) outcome research; (2)…

  8. Roadmapping Future E-Government Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicking, Melanie

    Global electronic markets, virtual organisations, virtual identities, virtual products and services, and Internet-related crime are growing in prominence and importance. In a world that is increasingly non-physical and borderless, what are government's roles, responsibilities and limitations? The Internet plays a central role within the transformation process from traditional governments towards modern and innovative government that the requirements of an Information Society. Based on the findings of the eGovRTD2020 project, that aims at identifying key research challenges and at implementing a model for a holistic government with horizon 2020, this paper explains the necessity to investigate and understand the Internet and in particular government's role and responsibilities in it. Furthermore, the paper provides a research roadmap that details how to address certain issue related research questions.

  9. Future trends of AFRL cryocooler research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettyjohn, Erin

    2012-06-01

    Over the past year, Air Force Research Labs (AFRL), Space Vehicles Directorate, has significantly defined the science and technology (S&T) path forward for cryocoolers in support of Air Force space missions. There are two trends that are emerging for cryocooler S&T: the first is missile warning and the second is responsive space. Missile warning is moving towards larger Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs), which generate large heat loads. Responsive space is moving towards a cheap, fast alternative to augment, or reconstitute space capabilities. At first glance, these two trends require completely different approaches to cryocooler S&T. However, decreasing the size, weight, and power of cryocoolers supports both trends. This paper will discuss the technology path chosen by AFRL to meet the Air Force (AF) mission needs for cryocoolers to include AFRL's research path, and potential Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) opportunities to help support the research goals.

  10. The Future of Research in Tourette Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavanna, Andrea E.; Kavanagh, Conor; Robertson, Mary M.

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurological condition first described by Georges Gilles de la Tourette in 1885. TS was largely thought of as a rare and bizarre condition until the 1960s, when the beneficial effects of neuroleptics on tic symptoms led to an exponential increase in neuroscientific research. Today TS is known to be a relatively common condition that is frequently misdiagnosed due to a combination of its variable manifestation and the waxing and waning of tic frequency and severity. Although there has been a paucity of research on TS compared to other movement disorders, in recent years TS has garnered increasing interest and has shown a number of novel and complex sides, about which much is yet to be learnt. The present article discusses where research has taken us thus far and where it is heading in all the major facets of this fascinating condition. PMID:23187142

  11. Future directions in human-environment research.

    PubMed

    Moran, Emilio F; Lopez, Maria Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Human-environment research in the 21st century will need to change in major ways. It will need to integrate the natural and the social sciences; it will need to engage stakeholders and citizens in the design of research and in the delivery of science for the benefit of society; it will need to address ethical and democratic goals; and it will need to address a myriad of important theoretical and methodological challenges that continue to impede progress in the advance of sustainability science.

  12. Future Directions in ADHD Etiology Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nigg, Joel T.

    2012-01-01

    Reviews salient emerging themes in the scientific literature related to identifying etiology and pathophysiology of ADHD. While bypassing the need for new treatment research, the review highlights three themes. First, recognition of the epigenetic effects is expected to revitalize the search for and mapping of early environmental influences on the…

  13. Research and Development of Future Muon Collider

    SciTech Connect

    Yonehara, K.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01

    Muon collider is a considerable candidate of the next generation high-energy lepton collider machine. A novel accelerator technology must be developed to overcome several intrinsic issues of muon acceleration. Recent research and development of critical beam elements for a muon accelerator, especially muon beam phase space ionization cooling channel, are reviewed in this paper.

  14. Biology Education Research: Lessons and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Susan R.; Nielsen, Natalie R.; Schweingruber, Heidi A.

    2013-01-01

    Biologists have long been concerned about the quality of undergraduate biology education. Over time, however, biology faculty members have begun to study increasingly sophisticated questions about teaching and learning in the discipline. These scholars, often called biology education researchers, are part of a growing field of inquiry called…

  15. Creating the Future: Research and Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    With the many different technical talents, Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) continues to be an important force behind many scientific breakthroughs. The MSFC's annual report reviews the technology developments, research in space and microgravity sciences, studies in space system concepts, and technology transfer. The technology development programs include development in: (1) space propulsion and fluid management, (2) structures and dynamics, (3) materials and processes and (4) avionics and optics.

  16. Phototriggerable Liposomes: Current Research and Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Anu

    2013-01-01

    The field of cancer nanomedicine is considered a promising area for improved delivery of bioactive molecules including drugs, pharmaceutical agents and nucleic acids. Among these, drug delivery technology has made discernible progress in recent years and the areas that warrant further focus and consideration towards technological developments have also been recognized. Development of viable methods for on-demand spatial and temporal release of entrapped drugs from the nanocarriers is an arena that is likely to enhance the clinical suitability of drug-loaded nanocarriers. One such approach, which utilizes light as the external stimulus to disrupt and/or destabilize drug-loaded nanoparticles, will be the discussion platform of this article. Although several phototriggerable nanocarriers are currently under development, I will limit this review to the phototriggerable liposomes that have demonstrated promise in the cell culture systems at least (but not the last). The topics covered in this review include (i) a brief summary of various phototriggerable nanocarriers; (ii) an overview of the application of liposomes to deliver payload of photosensitizers and associated technologies; (iii) the design considerations of photoactivable lipid molecules and the chemical considerations and mechanisms of phototriggering of liposomal lipids; (iv) limitations and future directions for in vivo, clinically viable triggered drug delivery approaches and potential novel photoactivation strategies will be discussed. PMID:24662363

  17. Symposium melds past and future polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Leonard

    An international symposium, Perspectives of Modern Polar Research, was convened in Bad Durkeim, Germany to celebrate the 175th anniversary of the birth of Georg von Neumayer, the noted polar explorer and facilitator of German and international polar science. Neumayer, who lived from 1826 to 1909, began his career as a seaman in the merchant marine. Through his skill in geophysics and meteorology, he rose to become the founder and director of the Flagstaff Observatory in Melbourne, Australia, hydrographer to the German Navy, and director of the Hamburg Oceanic Observatory. He was instrumental in organizing the first International Polar Year (IPY) in 1882-1883.

  18. Energy storage using phase-change materials for active solar heating and cooling: An evaluation of future research and development direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, R. J.; Stovall, T. K.; Kedl, R. J.; Tomlinson, J. J.

    1982-04-01

    The current state of the art and commercial potential of active solar heating and cooling systems for buildings, and the use of thermal energy storage with these systems are assessed. The need for advanced latent heat storage subsystems in these applications and priorities for their development are determined. Latent storage subsystems are advantageous in applications where their compactness may be exploited. It is suggested that subsystems could facilitate storage in retrofit applications in which storage would be physically impossible otherwise.

  19. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2016-10-01

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  20. Tardigrades in Space Research - Past and Future.

    PubMed

    Weronika, Erdmann; Łukasz, Kaczmarek

    2016-10-20

    To survive exposure to space conditions, organisms should have certain characteristics including a high tolerance for freezing, radiation and desiccation. The organisms with the best chance for survival under such conditions are extremophiles, like some species of Bacteria and Archea, Rotifera, several species of Nematoda, some of the arthropods and Tardigrada (water bears). There is no denying that tardigrades are one of the toughest animals on our planet and are the most unique in the extremophiles group. Tardigrada are very small animals (50 to 2,100 μm in length), and they inhabit great number of Earth environments. Ever since it was proven that tardigrades have high resistance to the different kinds of stress factors associated with cosmic journeys, combined with their relatively complex structure and their relative ease of observation, they have become a perfect model organism for space research. This taxon is now the focus of astrobiologists from around the world. Therefore, this paper presents a short review of the space research performed on tardigrades as well as some considerations for further studies.

  1. Prediction of Research Self-Efficacy and Future Research Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Rosean M.; And Others

    Although graduate programs hope that their students will be committed to research in their careers, most students express ambivalence towards research. Identifying the variables that predict involvement in research thus seems crucial. In this study 136 doctoral students from a wide range of disciplines completed the Research Self-Efficacy Scale…

  2. Water, Society and the future of water resources research (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The subject of water and society is broad, but at heart is the study of water as a resource, essential to human activities, a vital input to food and energy production, the sustaining medium for ecosystems and yet also a destructive hazard. Society demands, withdraws, competes, uses and wastes the resource in dynamic counterpart. The science of water management emerges from this interface, a field at the nexus of engineering and geoscience, with substantial influence from economics and other social sciences. Within this purview are some of the most pressing environmental questions of our time, such as adaptation to climate change, direct and indirect connections between water and energy policy, the continuing dependence of agriculture on depletion of the world's aquifers, the conservation or preservation of ecosystems within increasingly human-influenced river systems, and food security and poverty reduction for the earth's poorest inhabitants. This presentation will present and support the hypothesis that water resources research is a scientific enterprise separate from, yet closely interrelated to, hydrologic science. We will explore the scientific basis of water resources research, review pressing research questions and opportunities, and propose an action plan for the advancement of the science of water management. Finally, the presentation will propose a Chapman Conference on Water and Society: The Future of Water Resources Research in the spring of 2015.

  3. Neurosciences research in space - Future directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sulzman, Frank M.; Wolfe, James W.

    1991-01-01

    In order to gain a better understanding of the effects of long-duration space missions on the central nervous system, near-term research, to take place from 1990-1995, will be directed at investigating the acute effects of microgravity and the 'space adaptation syndrome'. These include experiments scheduled for the Spacelab Life Sciences 1 which is designed to evaluate changes in the visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive systems. An extensive series of experiments, collectively termed Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI), is also planned for the IML-1 mission to be flown in 1992. The IML-2 mission will emphasize behavior and performance, biological rhythms, and further vestibular studies. Mid-term goals, projected to be achieved from 1995-2000, include the use of new technology such as magnetic recording techniques. Long-term goals are also discussed including studies dealing with neuronal plasticity and sensory substitution, augmentation, and robotic telepresence.

  4. Advancing vector biology research: a community survey for future directions, research applications and infrastructure requirements.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Alain; Pondeville, Emilie; Schnettler, Esther; Crisanti, Andrea; Supparo, Clelia; Christophides, George K; Kersey, Paul J; Maslen, Gareth L; Takken, Willem; Koenraadt, Constantianus J M; Oliva, Clelia F; Busquets, Núria; Abad, F Xavier; Failloux, Anna-Bella; Levashina, Elena A; Wilson, Anthony J; Veronesi, Eva; Pichard, Maëlle; Arnaud Marsh, Sarah; Simard, Frédéric; Vernick, Kenneth D

    2016-01-01

    Vector-borne pathogens impact public health, animal production, and animal welfare. Research on arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes, ticks, sandflies, and midges which transmit pathogens to humans and economically important animals is crucial for development of new control measures that target transmission by the vector. While insecticides are an important part of this arsenal, appearance of resistance mechanisms is increasingly common. Novel tools for genetic manipulation of vectors, use of Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria, and other biological control mechanisms to prevent pathogen transmission have led to promising new intervention strategies, adding to strong interest in vector biology and genetics as well as vector-pathogen interactions. Vector research is therefore at a crucial juncture, and strategic decisions on future research directions and research infrastructure investment should be informed by the research community. A survey initiated by the European Horizon 2020 INFRAVEC-2 consortium set out to canvass priorities in the vector biology research community and to determine key activities that are needed for researchers to efficiently study vectors, vector-pathogen interactions, as well as access the structures and services that allow such activities to be carried out. We summarize the most important findings of the survey which in particular reflect the priorities of researchers in European countries, and which will be of use to stakeholders that include researchers, government, and research organizations.

  5. Σ MRL Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory System for Future Development-An International Student Network-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Tadashi

    The Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University started in 2002 the project of “An International Student Network” on Multidisciplinary Research Laboratory System for Future Development. The concept, system and activity for encouraging students to create their international human-relation network for young researchers and engineers are described. Some typical activities are introduced in detail.

  6. Opening remarks: Current and future activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1993-01-01

    It is our custom to present the Propagation Program's recent accomplishments and future plans at the onset of a NAPEX meeting. A summary is presented. The data analysis phase of the U.S. Olympus Campaign is nearing its end. The final report will be published by Virginia Tech by midsummer 1993. The report will comprise measurement analysis for 12 months. It will include monthly and annual attenuation statistics and statistics on scintillation effects. A number of prediction models will be presented. The ACTS propagation experiment preparations are moving forward as expected. The mobile/personal channel characterization efforts continued during the last year. Data collected by the University of Texas in 1992 are being analyzed and will become available by September 1993. We have recently started a study to characterize LEO mobile/personal channels. Topics such as indoor reception, tree shadowing, blockage, and delay spread will be investigated. These results will become available in one to two years from now. We have also collected Ka-band mobile data using Olympus 20 GHz beacon transmissions. The University of Texas has already collected five years of low-elevation angle, 11GHz propagation data. The work on database for propagation models has progressed very well. The first release is ready, and the participants of this meeting will receive a copy of the software. We had an active year where CCIR is concerned. An input document on land mobile satellite system (LMSS) propagation models was submitted to the U.S. national committee and was approved and sent to Geneva.

  7. Opening remarks: Current and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davarian, Faramaz

    1993-08-01

    It is our custom to present the Propagation Program's recent accomplishments and future plans at the onset of a NAPEX meeting. A summary is presented. The data analysis phase of the U.S. Olympus Campaign is nearing its end. The final report will be published by Virginia Tech by midsummer 1993. The report will comprise measurement analysis for 12 months. It will include monthly and annual attenuation statistics and statistics on scintillation effects. A number of prediction models will be presented. The ACTS propagation experiment preparations are moving forward as expected. The mobile/personal channel characterization efforts continued during the last year. Data collected by the University of Texas in 1992 are being analyzed and will become available by September 1993. We have recently started a study to characterize LEO mobile/personal channels. Topics such as indoor reception, tree shadowing, blockage, and delay spread will be investigated. These results will become available in one to two years from now. We have also collected Ka-band mobile data using Olympus 20 GHz beacon transmissions. The University of Texas has already collected five years of low-elevation angle, 11GHz propagation data. The work on database for propagation models has progressed very well. The first release is ready, and the participants of this meeting will receive a copy of the software. We had an active year where CCIR is concerned.

  8. Computerized clinical guidelines: current status & principles for future research.

    PubMed

    Kondylakis, Haridimos; Tsiknakis, Manolis

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that the adoption of computerized clinical guidelines would improve the quality of the provided health care, their influence in the daily practice is limited. In this paper we provide insights on the core topics related to computer interpretable clinical guidelines and we present shortly the main approaches in the area. Then we discuss the current limitations, and we present three simple principles that according to our view should be adopted to enhance the penetration of computerized clinical guidelines in the health care organizations. The overall goal of this paper is not only to give readers a quick overview of the works in the area, but also to provide necessary insights for the practical understanding of the issues involved and draw directions for future research and development activities.

  9. Futurism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Jane Loring

    The objectives of this research report are to gain insight into the main problems of the future and to ascertain the attitudes that the general population has toward the treatment of these problems. In the first section of this report the future is explored socially, psychologically, and environmentally. The second section describes the techniques…

  10. Future lunar exploration activities in ESA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houdou, B.; Carpenter, J. D.; Fisackerly, R.; Koschny, D.; Pradier, A.; di Pippo, S.; Gardini, B.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in the Moon and various recent and coming orbital missions including Smart-1, Kaguya, Chandrayaan-1and Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter are advancing our understanding. In 2004 the US announced a new Vision for Space Exploration [1], whose objectives are focused towards human missions to the Moon and Mars. The European Space Agency has established similar objectives for Europe, described in [2] and approved at the ESA ministerial council (2009). There is considerable potential for international cooperation in these activities, as formulated in the recently agreed Global Exploration Strategy [3]. Present lunar exploration activities at ESA emphasise the development of European technologies and capabilities, to enable European participation in future international human exploration of the Moon. A major element in this contribution has been identified as a large lunar cargo lander, which would fulfill an ATV-like function, providing logistical support to human activities on the Moon, extending the duration of sorties and the capabilities of human explorers. To meet this ultimate goal, ESA is currently considering various possible development approaches, involving lunar landers of different sizes. Lunar Lander Mission Options A high capacity cargo lander able to deliver consumables, equipment and small infrastructure, in both sortie and outpost mission scenarios, would use a full Ariane 5 launch and is foreseen in the 2020-2025 timeframe. ESA is also considering an intermediate, smaller-scale mission beforehand, to mature the necessary landing technologies, to demonstrate human-related capabilities in preparation of human presence on the Moon and in general to gain experience in landing and operating on the lunar surface. Within this frame, ESA is currently leading several feasibility studies of a small lunar lander mission, also called "MoonNEXT". This mission is foreseen to be to be launched from Kourou with a

  11. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  12. Science and Observation Recommendations for Future NASA Carbon Cycle Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Collatz, G. J.; Kawa, S. R.; Gregg, W. W.; Gervin, J. C.; Abshire, J. B.; Andrews, A. E.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Demaio, L. D.; Knox, R. G.

    2002-01-01

    Between October 2000 and June 2001, an Agency-wide planning, effort was organized by elements of NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) to define future research and technology development activities. This planning effort was conducted at the request of the Associate Administrator of the Office of Earth Science (Code Y), Dr. Ghassem Asrar, at NASA Headquarters (HQ). The primary points of contact were Dr. Mary Cleave, Deputy Associate Administrator for Advanced Planning at NASA HQ (Headquarters) and Dr. Charles McClain of the Office of Global Carbon Studies (Code 970.2) at GSFC. During this period, GSFC hosted three workshops to define the science requirements and objectives, the observational and modeling requirements to meet the science objectives, the technology development requirements, and a cost plan for both the science program and new flight projects that will be needed for new observations beyond the present or currently planned. The plan definition process was very intensive as HQ required the final presentation package by mid-June 2001. This deadline was met and the recommendations were ultimately refined and folded into a broader program plan, which also included climate modeling, aerosol observations, and science computing technology development, for contributing to the President's Climate Change Research Initiative. This technical memorandum outlines the process and recommendations made for cross-cutting carbon cycle research as presented in June. A separate NASA document outlines the budget profiles or cost analyses conducted as part of the planning effort.

  13. Historical Perspective and Future Directions in Platelet Research

    PubMed Central

    Coller, Barry S.

    2011-01-01

    Platelets are a remarkable mammalian adaptation that are required for human survival by virtue of their ability to prevent and arrest bleeding. Ironically, however, in the past century, the platelets’ hemostatic activity became maladaptive for the increasingly large percentage of individuals who develop age-dependent progressive atherosclerosis. As a result, platelets also make a major contribution to ischemic thrombotic vascular disease, the leading cause of death worldwide. In this brief review, I provide historical descriptions of a highly selected group of topics to provide a framework for understanding our current knowledge and the trends that are likely to continue into the future of platelet research. For convenience, I separate the eras of platelet research into the “Descriptive Period” extending from ~1880-1960 and the “Mechanistic Period” encompassing the past ~50 years since 1960. We currently are reaching yet another inflection point, as there is a major shift from a focus on traditional biochemistry and cell and molecular biology to an era of single molecule biophysics, single cell biology, single cell molecular biology, structural biology, computational simulations, and the high-throughput, data-dense techniques collectively named with the “omics” postfix. Given the progress made in understanding, diagnosing, and treating many rare and common platelet disorders during the past 50 years, I think it appropriate to consider it a Golden Age of Platelet Research and to recognize all of the investigators who have made important contributions to this remarkable achievement. PMID:21781274

  14. Big Ideas for the Future: UK Research That Will Have a Profound Effect on Our Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Big ideas for the future is a joint report by Universities UK and Research Councils UK, published as part of the second annual Universities Week campaign. This new report explores the excellent research taking place in UK higher education today and what it will mean for us in 20 years' time. It demonstrates the value of public investment in higher…

  15. Future Secretariat: an innovation research coordination and governance structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojima, D. S.; Johan, R.; Cramer, W.; Fukushi, K.; Allard, S.

    2014-12-01

    Future Earth, an emerging global sustainability research program, will be managed by a novel, internationally distributed secretariat spanning the globe and providing a platform for co-design, co-production, and co-delivery of knowledge to support research on the earth system, global development and transformation toward sustainability. The Future Earth secretariat has an innovative structure consisting of five global hubs functioning as a single entity; these hubs are located in Canada, Japan, France, Sweden, and the United States. The secretariat's reach is extended through a set of regional hubs covering Latin America, the Middle East, Africa, Europe, and Asia, with the potential to expand to additional areas. This secretariat will operate under the auspices of the Future Earth Governing Council The Future Earth Secretariat will support and enable the implementation of knowledge-sharing between research and stakeholder communities to enable society to cope with and to alter global environmental trends, and to transition society toward sustainability. The secretariat will provide coordination support to over 25 global environmental core projects and committees; coordinate scientific work across the whole Future Earth agenda; develop and implement innovative mechanisms for bottom-up inputs, synthesis and integration. Future Earth, as a research program, aims to support global transformations toward sustainability through partnerships among scientific and stakeholder communities worldwide. It brings together existing international environmental research core projects associated with DIVERSITAS, the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme, the International Human Dimensions Programme, and the World Climate Research Programme—to support coordinated, interdisciplinary research that can be used by decision makers seeking to reduce their impact and provide more sustainable products and services. USGCRP partners with Future Earth through scientific participation in

  16. Research in Inertial Fusion Sciences: Now and in the Future

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, H T; Campbell, E M; Hogan, W J; Orth, C D

    2001-04-10

    We review the current and future state of research in inertial fusion sciences. We describe the National Ignition Facility (NIF), the IFE development plan, applications of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) to various high-energy sciences, uses of petawatt laser systems, and concepts for the ICF integrated research experiment (IRE) and IFE power plants.

  17. An Exploration of Future Trends in Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ardoin, Nicole M.; Clark, Charlotte; Kelsey, Elin

    2013-01-01

    This article describes future trends in environmental education (EE) research based on a mixed-methods study where data were collected through a content analysis of peer-reviewed articles published in EE journals between 2005 and 2010; interviews with experts engaged in EE research and sustainability-related fields; surveys with current EE…

  18. Television and Violence: Methodological Issues for Future Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Susman, Elizabeth J.

    This paper identifies limitations of previous investigations of the relation between televised violence and viewer aggression and suggests a framework for future research concerning the effects of media viewing on child development. It is suggested that typical research is short-term, cross-sectional, and laboratory-based. Factors which mediate…

  19. Presidential Address: Culture and the Future of Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halse, Christine

    2013-01-01

    Recent changes in higher education have confronted education research with a conundrum: how our traditionally multidisciplinary field can refine itself as a unified discipline. In this address I sketch out what this conundrum may mean for education research, both substantively and methodologically, in the future. I propose that one starting point…

  20. Clinical Research Informatics: Recent Advances and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objectives To summarize significant developments in Clinical Research Informatics (CRI) over the past two years and discuss future directions. Methods Survey of advances, open problems and opportunities in this field based on exploration of current literature. Results Recent advances are structured according to three use cases of clinical research: Protocol feasibility, patient identification/recruitment and clinical trial execution. Discussion CRI is an evolving, dynamic field of research. Global collaboration, open metadata, content standards with semantics and computable eligibility criteria are key success factors for future developments in CRI. PMID:26293865

  1. Future buildings Forum-2025: Toward a methodology for future buildings research

    SciTech Connect

    Briggs, R.S.

    1990-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore methods that could be used in studying buildings of the future. The methodology that the forum will develop will have a number of likely applications, among them: the development of research agendas for new building energy technologies; the development of information and analytical capabilities usable by other IEA annexes to address their technology assessment needs; and the generation of information that can serve as input to global energy models designed to inform energy policy decisions. This paper is divided into two major sections. The first is an overview of existing methods of futures research. Terms and concepts are explained, providing the basis for the second section. The second section proposes a framework and general methodology for studying future buildings. This preliminary, or strawman, methodology is intended to provoke early thinking and discussions on how the research should be approached. 24 refs., 8 figs.

  2. Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors (ORNL Perspectives)

    SciTech Connect

    Ilas, Germina; Bryan, Chris; Gehin, Jess C.

    2016-02-10

    The High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) is a vital national and international resource for neutron science research, production of radioisotopes, and materials irradiation. While HFIR is expected to continue operation for the foreseeable future, interest is growing in understanding future research reactors features, needs, and requirements. To clarify, discuss, and compile these needs from the perspective of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) research and development (R&D) missions, a workshop, titled “Needs and Requirements for Future Research Reactors”, was held at ORNL on May 12, 2015. The workshop engaged ORNL staff that is directly involved in research using HFIR to collect valuable input on the reactor’s current and future missions. The workshop provided an interactive forum for a fruitful exchange of opinions, and included a mix of short presentations and open discussions. ORNL staff members made 15 technical presentations based on their experience and areas of expertise, and discussed those capabilities of the HFIR and future research reactors that are essential for their current and future R&D needs. The workshop was attended by approximately 60 participants from three ORNL directorates. The agenda is included in Appendix A. This document summarizes the feedback provided by workshop contributors and participants. It also includes information and insights addressing key points that originated from the dialogue started at the workshop. A general overview is provided on the design features and capabilities of high performance research reactors currently in use or under construction worldwide. Recent and ongoing design efforts in the US and internationally are briefly summarized, followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  3. The Future of Qualitative Research in Psychology: Accentuating the Positive.

    PubMed

    Gough, Brendan; Lyons, Antonia

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we reflect on current trends and anticipate future prospects regarding qualitative research in Psychology. We highlight various institutional and disciplinary obstacles to qualitative research diversity, complexity and quality. At the same time, we note some causes for optimism, including publication breakthroughs and vitality within the field. The paper is structured into three main sections which consider: 1) the positioning of qualitative research within Psychology; 2) celebrating the different kinds of knowledge produced by qualitative research; and 3) implementing high quality qualitative research. In general we accentuate the positive, recognising and illustrating innovative qualitative research practices which generate new insights and propel the field forward. We conclude by emphasising the importance of research training: for qualitative research to flourish within Psychology (and beyond), students and early career researchers require more sophisticated, in-depth instruction than is currently offered.

  4. Relational Inquiries and the Research Interview: Mentoring Future Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Marie L.; White, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    In this article we describe some of the challenges and constraints that students face when they engage in qualitative research interviews. We borrow extensively from Ron Pelias' in-depth description of "leaning in" during everyday life encounters. Although he refers to other kinds of relationships, we believe that the similarities…

  5. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  6. Active Gaming: The Future of Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witherspoon, Lisa; Manning, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examine technology-driven games--especially active gaming--as an evolving form of children's play. They offer an overview of play and its developmental benefits, describe the literature on the emergence of technology-driven play, and reflect on the diminishment of physical play in contemporary culture. They suggest that active gaming,…

  7. Munchausen by Internet: Current Research and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Jacqui

    2012-01-01

    Background The Internet has revolutionized the health world, enabling self-diagnosis and online support to take place irrespective of time or location. Alongside the positive aspects for an individual’s health from making use of the Internet, debate has intensified on how the increasing use of Web technology might have a negative impact on patients, caregivers, and practitioners. One such negative health-related behavior is Munchausen by Internet. Objective Munchausen by Internet occurs when medically well individuals fake recognized illnesses in virtual environments, such as online support groups. This paper focuses on the aspect of Munchausen by Internet in which individuals actively seek to disrupt groups for their own satisfaction, which has not yet been associated with the wider phenomena of Internet trolls (users who post with the intention of annoying someone or disrupting an online environment). Methods A wide-ranging review was conducted to investigate the causes and impacts of online identity deception and Munchausen by Internet drawing on academic research and case studies reported online and in the media. Results The limited research relating to motivation, opportunity, detection, effects, and consequences of Munchausen by Internet is highlighted and it is formally linked to aspects of trolling. Case studies are used to illustrate the phenomenon. What is particularly worrying is the ease with which the deception can be carried out online, the difficulty in detection, and the damaging impact and potential danger to isolated victims. Conclusions We suggest ways to deal with Munchausen by Internet and provide advice for health group facilitators. We also propose that Munchausen by Internet and Munchausen by Internet trolling should be formally acknowledged in a revised version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-5. This will assist in effectively identifying and minimizing the growth of this behavior as more people seek reassurance and support

  8. Proceeding of human exoskeleton technology and discussions on future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiqiang; Xie, Hanxing; Li, Weilin; Yao, Zheng

    2014-05-01

    After more than half a century of intense efforts, the development of exoskeleton has seen major advances, and several remarkable achievements have been made. Reviews of developing history of exoskeleton are presented, both in active and passive categories. Major models are introduced, and typical technologies are commented on. Difficulties in control algorithm, driver system, power source, and man-machine interface are discussed. Current researching routes and major developing methods are mapped and critically analyzed, and in the process, some key problems are revealed. First, the exoskeleton is totally different from biped robot, and relative studies based on the robot technologies are considerably incorrect. Second, biomechanical studies are only used to track the motion of the human body, the interaction between human and machines are seldom studied. Third, the traditional developing ways which focused on servo-controlling have inborn deficiency from making portable systems. Research attention should be shifted to the human side of the coupling system, and the human ability to learn and adapt should play a more significant role in the control algorithms. Having summarized the major difficulties, possible future works are discussed. It is argued that, since a distinct boundary cannot be drawn in such strong-coupling human-exoskeleton system, the more complex the control system gets, the more difficult it is for the user to learn to use. It is suggested that the exoskeleton should be treated as a simple wearable tool, and downgrading its automatic level may be a change toward a brighter research outlook. This effort at simplification is definitely not easy, as it necessitates theoretical supports from fields such as biomechanics, ergonomics, and bionics.

  9. Communicative Language Testing: Current Issues and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Luke

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses a range of current issues and future research possibilities in Communicative Language Testing (CLT) using, as its departure point, the key questions which emerged during the CLT symposium at the 2010 Language Testing Forum. The article begins with a summary of the 2010 symposium discussion in which three main issues related…

  10. Conclusions, Reflections, and Prospects for Future Research, Policy, and Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the…

  11. Future research directions in seeking countermeasures to weightlessness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, Kenneth M.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to briefly review the state of knowledge concerning the adaptive properties of mammalian skeletal muscle in response to varying duration in weightlessness, to identify voids in the understanding of this adaptive process, and to provide some insight for undertaking future research on this important topic.

  12. The Use of Computer-Communication Systems in Futures Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wasniowski, Ryszard

    1983-01-01

    Factors impeding communication during the performance of futures research include lack of a common body of theory, lack of common terminology, organizational barriers, inadequate access to data, and spatial separation of data. Computer communication systems can help overcome some of these problems and facilitate techniques as Delphi polling.…

  13. Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askell-Williams, Helen, Ed.

    2015-01-01

    The field of education is a vital component of today's society, enriching and facilitating the attainment of new knowledge. Progress continues to be achieved in this area as new methods are envisioned that increase education's value. "Transforming the Future of Learning with Educational Research" brings together diverse perspectives that…

  14. OCLC's Office of Research: Past, Present and Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, John V., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an overview of the Online Computer Library Center's (OCLC) Office of Research; describing its historical development within its institutional context, examining its present status, especially current projects; and predicting its future path. Provides a chronology of people, projects, and libraries involved in the OCLC Office of Research…

  15. Dissemination of Research to Parents: Issues, Barriers and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J.

    Intended for educational researchers, the paper stresses the importance of disseminating research knowledge to parents, particularly to parents of handicapped children. Barriers to disseminating research knowledge to parents include the low priority of this activity among members of the academic community, the trickles down theory of dissemination…

  16. Large-scale weather systems: A future research priority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Huw C.

    2006-12-01

    A brief assessment is provided of both the case against and the case for assigning priority to research on large-scale weather systems (LSWS). The three-fold case against is based upon: the emergence of new overarching themes in environmental science; the fresh emphasis upon other sub-disciplines of the atmospheric science; and the mature state of research and prediction of LSWS. The case for is also supported by three arguments. First is the assertion that LSWS research should not merely be an integral but a major component of future research related to both the new overarching themes and the other sub-disciplines. Second recent major developments in LSWS research, as epitomized by the paradigm shifts in the prediction strategy for LSWS and the emergence of the potential vorticity perspective, testify to the theme’s on-going vibrancy. Third the field’s future development, as exemplified by the new international THORPEX (The Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment) programme, embodies a perceptive dovetailing of intellectually challenging fundamental research with directed application(s) of societal and economic benefit. It is thus inferred that LSWS research, far from being in demise, will feature at the forefront of the new relationship between science and society.

  17. Town Hall Meeting: Future Directions in Dynamic High Pressure Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nellis, W. J.; Dlott, D.

    2007-12-01

    Shock-compression research began in the 1940s for reasons of national defense. While military-related research will continue to be a major motivator of shock research, war between nations is not as probable today as it was in the last century. Today other issues are gaining national and international importance. This situation raises the possibility of redistribution of federal funding into fields other than those related directly to military research. It is timely to consider possible future directions that would put us in a position to obtain support to address emerging needs of society, while maintaining traditional expertise. Possibilities for future research at national and military laboratories and at universities are suggested in the context of ideas and questions posed in a recent report of the National Research Council of the National Academies. Dynamic-compression research is positioned to play a prominent role in general scientific research and such results are needed to enhance probabilities of achieving present and emerging technological goals of national importance.

  18. Future volcanic lake research: revealing secrets from poorly studied lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouwet, D.; Tassi, F.; Mora-Amador, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    Volcanic lake research boosted after the 1986 Lake Nyos lethal gas burst, a limnic rather than volcanic event. This led to the formation of the IAVCEI-Commission on Volcanic Lakes, which grew out into a multi-disciplinary scientific community since the 1990's. At Lake Nyos, a degassing pipe is functional since 2001, and two additional pipes were added in 2011, aimed to prevent further limnic eruption events. There are between 150 and 200 volcanic lakes on Earth. Some acidic crater lakes topping active magmatic-hydrothermal systems are monitored continuously or discontinuously. Such detailed studies have shown their usefulness in volcanic surveillance (e.g. Ruapehu, Yugama-Kusatsu-Shiran, Poás). Others are "Nyos-type" lakes, with possible gas accumulation in bottom waters and thus potentially hazardous. "Nyos-type" lakes tend to remain stably stratified in tropical and sub-tropical climates (meromictic), leading to long-term gas build-up and thus higher potential risk. In temperate climates, such lakes tend to turn over in winter (monomictic), and thus liberating its gas charge yearly. We line out research strategies for the different types of lakes. We believe a complementary, multi-disciplinary approach (geochemistry, geophysics, limnology, biology, statistics, etc.) will lead to new insights and ideas, which can be the base for future following-up and monitoring. After 25 years of pioneering studies on rather few lakes, the scientific community should be challenged to study the many poorly studied volcanic lakes, in order to better constrain the related hazard, based on probabilistic approaches.

  19. Water management: Current and future challenges and research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosgrove, William J.; Loucks, Daniel P.

    2015-06-01

    Water distinguishes our planet compared to all the others we know about. While the global supply of available freshwater is more than adequate to meet all current and foreseeable water demands, its spatial and temporal distributions are not. There are many regions where our freshwater resources are inadequate to meet domestic, economic development and environmental needs. In such regions, the lack of adequate clean water to meet human drinking water and sanitation needs is indeed a constraint on human health and productivity and hence on economic development as well as on the maintenance of a clean environment and healthy ecosystems. All of us involved in research must find ways to remove these constraints. We face multiple challenges in doing that, especially given a changing and uncertain future climate, and a rapidly growing population that is driving increased social and economic development, globalization, and urbanization. How best to meet these challenges requires research in all aspects of water management. Since 1965, the journal Water Resources Research has played an important role in reporting and disseminating current research related to managing the quantity and quality and cost of this resource. This paper identifies the issues facing water managers today and future research needed to better inform those who strive to create a more sustainable and desirable future.

  20. Is there a future for computational chemistry in drug research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggiora, Gerald M.

    2012-01-01

    Improvements in computational chemistry methods have had a growing impact on drug research. But will incremental improvements be sufficient to ensure this continues? Almost all existing efforts to discover new drugs depend on the classic one target, one drug paradigm, although the situation is changing slowly. A new paradigm that focuses on a more systems biology approach and takes account of the reality that most drugs exhibit some level of polypharmacology is beginning to emerge. This will bring about dramatic changes that can significantly influence the role that computational methods play in future drug research. But these changes require that current methods be augmented with those from bioinformatics and engineering if the field is to have a significant impact on future drug research.

  1. Space robotics: Recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, Raymond C.; Buttrill, Carey S.; Dorsey, John T.; Juang, Jer-Nan; Lallman, Frederick J.; Moerder, Daniel D.; Scott, Michael A.; Troutman, Patrick; Williams, Robert L., II

    1992-01-01

    The Langley Guidance, Navigation, and Control Technical Committee (GNCTC) was one of six technical committees created in 1991 by the Chief Scientist, Dr. Michael F. Card. During the kickoff meeting Dr. Card charged the chairmen to: (1) establish a cross-Center committee; (2) support at least one workshop in a selected discipline; and (3) prepare a technical paper on recent accomplishments in the discipline and on opportunities for future research. The Guidance, Navigation, and Control Committee was formed and selected for focus on the discipline of Space robotics. This report is a summary of the committee's assessment of recent accomplishments and opportunities for future research. The report is organized as follows. First is an overview of the data sources used by the committee. Next is a description of technical needs identified by the committee followed by recent accomplishments. Opportunities for future research ends the main body of the report. It includes the primary recommendation of the committee that NASA establish a national space facility for the development of space automation and robotics, one element of which is a telerobotic research platform in space. References 1 and 2 are the proceedings of two workshops sponsored by the committee during its June 1991, through May 1992 term. The focus of the committee for the June 1992 - May 1993 term will be to further define to the recommended platform in space and to add an additional discipline which includes aircraft related GN&C issues. To the latter end members performing aircraft related research will be added to the committee. (A preliminary assessment of future opportunities in aircraft-related GN&C research has been included as appendix A.)

  2. The Research of the Personality Qualities of Future Educational Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolgova, V. I.; Salamatov, A. A.; Potapova, M. V.; Yakovleva, N. O.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors substantiate the existence of the personality qualities of future educational psychologists (PQFEP) that are, in fact, a sum of knowledge, skills, abilities, socially required qualities of personality allowing the psychologist to solve problems in all the fields of professional activities. A model of PQFEP predicts the…

  3. Half-century research developments in maritime accidents: Future directions.

    PubMed

    Luo, Meifeng; Shin, Sung-Ho

    2016-04-19

    Over the past 50 years, research in maritime accidents has undergone a series of fundamental changes. Understanding the evolution of these changes can help maritime communities to know what has been done in the past, how maritime safety can be improved in the future, and how to reduce or eliminate the risks to ships, the lives aboard them, the cargo they carry, and the marine environment. This study conducts a comprehensive literature review on research in maritime accidents, comprising 572 papers published in 125 journals over the 50 years from 1965 to 2014. The patterns of evolution of the researchers, the journals, the disciplines involved, the research methods, the major issues and causes, and the data sources are identified, and the changes explained. We find that the main focus of research in maritime accidents has shifted over the past 50 years from naval architecture to human error, and may continue to expand into socio-economic factors. In addition, future research in maritime accidents will be multi-disciplinary, use multiple data sources, and adopt advanced research methods, to account for complex interactions between the natural environment, the development of naval technology, human behavior, and shipping market conditions.

  4. REPORT OF RESEARCH ACCOMPLISHMENTS AND FUTURE GOALS HIGH ENERGY PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Wise, Mark B.; Kapustin, Anton N.; Schwarz, John Henry; Carroll, Sean; Ooguri, Hirosi; Gukov, Sergei; Preskill, John; Hitlin, David G.; Porter, Frank C.; Patterson, Ryan B.; Newman, Harvey B.; Spiropulu, Maria; Golwala, Sunil; Zhu, Ren-Yuan

    2014-08-26

    of activity include: CDMS II data analysis, contributions to SuperCDMS Soudan operations and analysis, R&D towards SuperCDMS SNOLAB, development of a novel screener for radiocontamination (the BetaCage), and development of new WIMP detector concepts. Ren-Yuan Zhu leads the HEP crystal laboratory for the advanced detector R&D effort. The crystal lab is involved in development of novel scintillating crystals and has proposed several crystal based detector concepts for future HEP experiments at the energy and intensity frontiers. Its current research effort is concentrated on development of fast crystal scintillators with good radiation hardness and low cost. II) THEORETICAL PHYSICS The main theme of Sergei Gukov's current research is the relation between the geometry of quantum group invariants and their categorification, on the one hand, and the physics of supersymmetric gauge theory and string theory, on the other. Anton Kapustin's research spans a variety of topics in non-perturbative Quantum Field Theory (QFT). His main areas of interest are supersymmetric gauge theories, non-perturbative dualities in QFT, disorder operators, Topological Quantum Field Theory, and non-relativistic QFT. He is also interested in the foundations and possible generalizations of Quantum Mechanics. Hirosi Ooguri's current research has two main components. One is to find exact results in Calabi-Yau compactification of string theory. Another is to explore applications of the AdS/CFT correspondence. He also plans to continue his project with Caltech postdoctoral fellows on BPS spectra of supersymmetric gauge theories in diverse dimensions. John Preskill works on quantum information science. This field may lead to important future technologies, and also lead to new understanding of issues in fundamental physics John Schwarz has been exploring a number of topics in superstring theory/M-theory, supersymmetric gauge theory, and their AdS/CFT relationships. Much of the motivation for these

  5. Trends toward the Future in Physical Activity Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, John M.; Charles, P. Kelly

    2016-01-01

    In the wake of multiple activity program eliminations and frequent downgrading of activity programs nationwide, the question to be addressed is how we can draw upon our interdisciplinary, intergenerational, and intercultural understandings of human movement to construct physical activity programs for the future that might withstand the test of…

  6. Qualitative psychotherapy research: the journey so far and future directions.

    PubMed

    Levitt, Heidi M

    2015-03-01

    This article documents the evolution of qualitative psychotherapy research over the past 3 decades. Clients' and therapists' accounts of their experiences in psychotherapy provide a window into the psychotherapy relationship and its mechanisms of change. A sizable body of literature has been generated that uses qualitative methods to collect and analyze these accounts and to shed light on the psychotherapy process. It notes changes in the field such as growing numbers of dissertations and publications using qualitative methods as well as a strengthening emphasis on qualitative research within graduate education and research funding bodies. Future recommendations include developing principles for practice from qualitative methods and conducting qualitative meta-analyses. Other recommendations include forming journal review policies that support the publication of qualitative research and that focus on coherence in adapting methods to meet research goals, in light of a study's characteristics and epistemological framework, rather than focusing on sets of procedures.

  7. Shaping the Future of Research: a perspective from junior scientists

    PubMed Central

    MacKellar, Drew C.; Mazzilli, Sarah A.; Pai, Vaibhav P.; Goodwin, Patricia R.; Walsh, Erica M.; Robinson-Mosher, Avi; Bowman, Thomas A.; Kraemer, James; Erb, Marcella L.; Schoenfeld, Eldi; Shokri, Leila; Jackson, Jonathan D.; Islam, Ayesha; Mattozzi, Matthew D.; Krukenberg, Kristin A.; Polka, Jessica K.

    2015-01-01

    The landscape of scientific research and funding is in flux as a result of tight budgets, evolving models of both publishing and evaluation, and questions about training and workforce stability. As future leaders, junior scientists are uniquely poised to shape the culture and practice of science in response to these challenges. A group of postdocs in the Boston area who are invested in improving the scientific endeavor, planned a symposium held on October 2 nd and 3 rd, 2014, as a way to join the discussion about the future of US biomedical research. Here we present a report of the proceedings of participant-driven workshops and the organizers’ synthesis of the outcomes. PMID:25653845

  8. Future directions in air quality research: economic issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard M; Horst, Robert L

    2003-06-01

    Our challenge was to address future directions in air quality research that involve economic issues. The paper outlines the role of economics in the evaluation of air pollution impacts on environmental systems and describes existing research. We identify studies that address economic effects in the agricultural sector, in the commercial forest sector, and in unmanaged natural systems. Effects related to ozone exposure are highlighted. The summary of available research is followed by a discussion of research recommendations. Several short-term recommendations are identified that can augment some of the new research being considered by scientists. A more ambitious, long-term research project is outlined for valuing air pollution impacts in unmanaged natural environments. Specifically, the paper describes possible advantages of an 'integrated assessment' framework that more formally brings together the complex relationships that exist in both ecological and economic systems. A final section contains thoughts on the importance of education (i.e., information transfer) in the research process, especially in relation to policy. It is further noted that education should be inclusive of all members of the research team, throughout all stages of the research process.

  9. Advances and future directions of research on spectral methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patera, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    Recent advances in spectral methods are briefly reviewed and characterized with respect to their convergence and computational complexity. Classical finite element and spectral approaches are then compared, and spectral element (or p-type finite element) approximations are introduced. The method is applied to the full Navier-Stokes equations, and examples are given of the application of the technique to several transitional flows. Future directions of research in the field are outlined.

  10. The microball and Gammasphere: Research highlights and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, M.; Sarantites, D.G.; LaFosse, D.R.; Lerma, F.

    1996-12-31

    The Microball, a compact, 4{pi} charged-particle detector array, has been used in conjunction with Gammasphere for numerous physics experiments, and more are planned in the near future. A summary of this research program is presented, and the device and its capabilities are described. An example of its use in the study of the population and entry state excitation energy distributions of normal and superdeformed bands in {sup 82}Sr is presented.

  11. The Future of Prostate Cancer Research and Treatment

    Cancer.gov

    On January 12, 2017 prostate cancer experts William Dahut, M.D. of the National Cancer Institute and Dr. Heather Cheng, M.D. of the University of Washington had a vibrant discussion about current and future research areas and treatment options for prostate cancer. The panel was moderated by Ana Fadich, MPH, CHES Vice President at Men’s Health of the Men's Health Network.

  12. Sirtuins in dermatology: applications for future research and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Serravallo, Melissa; Jagdeo, Jared; Glick, Sharon A; Siegel, Daniel M; Brody, Neil I

    2013-05-01

    Sirtuins are a family of seven proteins in humans (SIRT1-SIRT7) that are involved in multiple cellular processes relevant to dermatology. The role of sirtuins in other organ systems is established. However, the importance of these proteins in dermatology is less defined. Recently, sirtuins gained international attention because of their role as "longevity proteins" that may extend and enhance human life. Sirtuins function in the cell via histone deacetylase and/or adenosine diphosphate ribosyltransferase enzymatic activity that target histone and non-histone substrates, including transcription regulators, tumor suppressors, structural proteins, DNA repair proteins, cell signaling proteins, transport proteins, and enzymes. Sirtuins are involved in cellular pathways related to skin structure and function, including aging, ultraviolet-induced photoaging, inflammation, epigenetics, cancer, and a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle, DNA repair and proliferation. This review highlights sirtuin-related cellular pathways, therapeutics and pharmacological targets in atopic dermatitis, bullous dermatoses, collagen vascular disorders, psoriasis, systemic lupus erythematosus, hypertrophic and keloid scars, cutaneous infections, and non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer. Also discussed is the role of sirtuins in the following genodermatoses: ataxia telangiectasia, Cowden's syndrome, dyskeratosis congenita, Rubenstein-Taybi, Werner syndrome, and xeroderma pigmentosum. The pathophysiology of these inherited diseases is not well understood, and sirtuin-related processes represent potential therapeutic targets for diseases lacking suitable alternative treatments. The goal of this review is to bring attention to the dermatology community, physicians, and scientists, the importance of sirtuins in dermatology and provide a foundation and impetus for future discussion, research and pharmacologic discovery.

  13. Conclusions, reflections, and prospects for future research, policy, and programming.

    PubMed

    Clark-Kazak, Christina

    2012-01-01

    This concluding chapter draws together some of the key themes from the contributions and proposes some recommended areas for future research, policy, and programming. It highlights the artificiality of categorization processes related to both migration and childhood that independent child migrants encounter, and problematizes the vulnerability-agency binary. The author encourages more research into how power relations, relationships, and networks shape migration decisions and suggests the need to analyze comparative experiences of families and siblings who are "left behind." Finally, the chapter draws attention to the need for mixed methodological and disciplinary approaches and greater analysis of the intersection of social age and gender issues.

  14. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Stephen C.; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D.; Beauchamp, Gary K.

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute. PMID:26011903

  15. Substorms - Future of magnetospheric substorm-storm research

    SciTech Connect

    Akasofu, S.I. )

    1989-04-01

    Seven approaches and/or areas of magnetospheric substorm and storm science which should be emphasized in future research are briefly discussed. They are: the combining of groups of researchers who study magnetic storms and substorms in terms of magnetic reconnection with those that do not, the possible use of a magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling model to merge the groups, the development of improved input-output relationships, the complementing of satellite and ground-based observations, the need for global imaging of the magnetosphere, the complementing of observations with computer simulations, and the need to study the causes of changes in the north-south component of the IMF. 36 refs.

  16. Food reward system: current perspectives and future research needs.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Alonso, Miguel; Woods, Stephen C; Pelchat, Marcia; Grigson, Patricia Sue; Stice, Eric; Farooqi, Sadaf; Khoo, Chor San; Mattes, Richard D; Beauchamp, Gary K

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews current research and cross-disciplinary perspectives on the neuroscience of food reward in animals and humans, examines the scientific hypothesis of food addiction, discusses methodological and terminology challenges, and identifies knowledge gaps and future research needs. Topics addressed herein include the role of reward and hedonic aspects in the regulation of food intake, neuroanatomy and neurobiology of the reward system in animals and humans, responsivity of the brain reward system to palatable foods and drugs, translation of craving versus addiction, and cognitive control of food reward. The content is based on a workshop held in 2013 by the North American Branch of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  17. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board's program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  18. Polar Research Board annual report, 1987 and future plans

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-31

    This annual report describes the Polar Research Board, its origin and objectives, its work and plans, and its principle activities and accomplishments during calendar year 1987. The Overview presents a concise summary of the various aspects of the Board`s program and of its responsibilities as US National Committee for the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) of the International Council of Scientific Unins. Arctic and Antarctic activities are described.

  19. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda.

    PubMed

    Dinesen, Birthe; Nonnecke, Brandie; Lindeman, David; Toft, Egon; Kidholm, Kristian; Jethwani, Kamal; Young, Heather M; Spindler, Helle; Oestergaard, Claus Ugilt; Southard, Jeffrey A; Gutierrez, Mario; Anderson, Nick; Albert, Nancy M; Han, Jay J; Nesbitt, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management.

  20. Personalized Telehealth in the Future: A Global Research Agenda

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    As telehealth plays an even greater role in global health care delivery, it will be increasingly important to develop a strong evidence base of successful, innovative telehealth solutions that can lead to scalable and sustainable telehealth programs. This paper has two aims: (1) to describe the challenges of promoting telehealth implementation to advance adoption and (2) to present a global research agenda for personalized telehealth within chronic disease management. Using evidence from the United States and the European Union, this paper provides a global overview of the current state of telehealth services and benefits, presents fundamental principles that must be addressed to advance the status quo, and provides a framework for current and future research initiatives within telehealth for personalized care, treatment, and prevention. A broad, multinational research agenda can provide a uniform framework for identifying and rapidly replicating best practices, while concurrently fostering global collaboration in the development and rigorous testing of new and emerging telehealth technologies. In this paper, the members of the Transatlantic Telehealth Research Network offer a 12-point research agenda for future telehealth applications within chronic disease management. PMID:26932229

  1. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Abkowitz, Janis L; Coller, Barry S; DiMichele, Donna M

    2015-04-30

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology.

  2. Future Research and Policy Directions in Physician Reimbursement

    PubMed Central

    McMenamin, Peter

    1981-01-01

    Payments to physicians absorb the second largest share of the health care dollar in the United States. In 1979, the share was 19 percent of the total, or $40.6 billion (Gibson, 1980). The Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA) alone spent $8.6 billion for physician services, representing approximately 16 percent of all public funds disbursed under HCFA programs. This paper presents an overview of various issues concerning physician reimbursement. Several major areas have been identified (access, cost, quality, and improving or refining the Office of Research, Demonstrations, and Statistics' [ORDS] research techniques for analyzing topics concerning physician reimbursement). Each area is introduced with a brief discussion of some of the problems associated with the physician reimbursement systems relating to that area. Selected results are then presented from the previous research in each area, along with descriptions of continuing studies currently underway. Each section concludes with a discussion of potential future directions for new research or data development. PMID:10309465

  3. The future of murine sepsis and trauma research models

    PubMed Central

    Efron, Philip A.; Mohr, Alicia M.; Moore, Frederick A.; Moldawer, Lyle L.

    2015-01-01

    Recent comparisons of the murine and human transcriptome in health and disease have called into question the appropriateness of the use of murine models for human sepsis and trauma research. More specifically, researchers have debated the suitability of mouse models of severe inflammation that is intended for eventual translation to human patients. This mini-review outlines this recent research, as well as specifically defines the arguments for and against murine models of sepsis and trauma research based on these transcriptional studies. In addition, we review newer advancements in murine models of infection and injury and define what we envision as an evolving but viable future for murine studies of sepsis and trauma. PMID:26034205

  4. Planning for the future workforce in hematology research

    PubMed Central

    Abkowitz, Janis L.; Coller, Barry S.; DiMichele, Donna M.

    2015-01-01

    The medical research and training enterprise in the United States is complex in both its scope and implementation. Accordingly, adaptations to the associated workforce needs present particular challenges. This is particularly true for maintaining or expanding national needs for physician-scientists where training resource requirements and competitive transitional milestones are substantial. For the individual, these phenomena can produce financial burden, prolong the career trajectory, and significantly influence career pathways. Hence, when national data suggest that future medical research needs in a scientific area may be met in a less than optimal manner, strategies to expand research and training capacity must follow. This article defines such an exigency for research and training in nonneoplastic hematology and presents potential strategies for addressing these critical workforce needs. The considerations presented herein reflect a summary of the discussions presented at 2 workshops cosponsored by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Society of Hematology. PMID:25758827

  5. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, J.S.

    1990-01-05

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in eight projects in high energy physics research: Colliding Beams Physics; Accelerator Design Physics; MACRO Project; Proton Decay Project; Theoretical Particle Physics; Muon G-2 Project; and Hadron Collider Physics. The scope of each of these projects is presented in detail in this paper.

  6. The Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University: Fundamental Research Towards Future Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Jennifer L.; Sassoon, Richard E.; Hung, Emilie; Bosshard, Paolo; Benson, Sally M.

    The Global Climate and Energy Project (GCEP), at Stanford University, invests in research with the potential to lead to energy technologies with lower greenhouse gas emissions than current energy technologies. GCEP is sponsored by four international companies, ExxonMobil, GE, Schlumberger, and Toyota and supports research programs in academic institutions worldwide. Research falls into the broad areas of carbon based energy systems, renewables, electrochemistry, and the electric grid. Within these areas research efforts are underway that are aimed at achieving break-throughs and innovations that greatly improve efficiency, performance, functionality and cost of many potential energy technologies of the future including solar, batteries, fuel cells, biofuels, hydrogen storage and carbon capture and storage. This paper presents a summary of some of GCEP's activities over the past 7 years with current research areas of interest and potential research directions in the near future.

  7. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  8. The future of applied child development research and public policy.

    PubMed

    McCall, R B; Groark, C J

    2000-01-01

    After reviewing a brief general history of applied child development research, this paper suggests that in the future we should study questions that society needs to answer as well as questions that might contribute to theory, and that our research methods need to be adjusted to match these types of questions. Further, academics are urged to broaden their audience from a nearly exclusive focus on other academics to a focus on the three ps--practitioners, policymakers, and the public--and to recognize that scholarship is packaged differently for these audiences. Finally, it is suggested that applied child development research should market as well as sell, partner with nonacademic groups, disseminate results more vigorously, and focus efforts on local as well as national issues.

  9. A conceptual framework for future research on mode of delivery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jennifer M; Viswanathan, Meera; Ivy, Julie S

    2012-10-01

    Our goal was to develop a comprehensive conceptual research framework on mode of delivery and to identify research priorities in this topic area through a Delphi process. We convened a multidisciplinary team of 16 experts (North Carolina Collaborative on Mode of Delivery) representing the fields of obstetrics and gynecology, neonatology, midwifery, epidemiology, psychometrics, decision sciences, bioethics, health care engineering, health economics, health disparities, and women's studies. We finalized the conceptual framework after multiple iterations, including revisions during a one-day in-person conference. The conceptual framework illustrates the causal pathway for mode of delivery and the complex interplay and relationships among patient, fetal, family, provider, cultural, and societal factors as drivers of change from intended to actual mode of delivery. This conceptual framework on mode of delivery will help put specific research ideas into a broader context and identify important knowledge gaps for future investigation.

  10. Childhood Obesity Prevention and Treatment Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Charlotte A.; Stevens, June; Daniels, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group’s recommendations on future research directions in childhood obesity prevention and treatment. The Working Group consisted of leaders and representatives from public and private academic and medical institutions with expertise in a variety of health specialties. They reviewed the literature and discussed the findings as well as their own experiences in the prevention and treatment of childhood obesity. The Working Group made recommendations that were based on scientific importance, the potential likelihood of public health impact, and the feasibility and timeliness for childhood obesity prevention and treatment research. These recommendations are intended to assist investigators in the development of research agendas to advance the knowledge of effective childhood obesity prevention and treatment. PMID:18617353

  11. Satellite remote sensing, biodiversity research and conservation of the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettorelli, Nathalie; Safi, Kamran; Turner, Woody

    2014-01-01

    Assessing and predicting ecosystem responses to global environmental change and its impacts on human well-being are high priority targets for the scientific community. The potential for synergies between remote sensing science and ecology, especially satellite remote sensing and conservation biology, has been highlighted by many in the past. Yet, the two research communities have only recently begun to coordinate their agendas. Such synchronization is the key to improving the potential for satellite data effectively to support future environmental management decision-making processes. With this themed issue, we aim to illustrate how integrating remote sensing into ecological research promotes a better understanding of the mechanisms shaping current changes in biodiversity patterns and improves conservation efforts. Added benefits include fostering innovation, generating new research directions in both disciplines and the development of new satellite remote sensing products. PMID:24733945

  12. A few perspectives of solar physics research in China - current status and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingxiu; Ding, Mingde; Ji, Haisheng; Deng, Yuanyong; Liu, Yu; Liu, Zhong; Qu, Zhongquan; Wang, Huaning; Xia, Lidong; Yan, Yihua

    2016-07-01

    Solar physics research as an important discipline in astrophysics in China aims at improving the understanding of origin and variation of solar magnetic field and magnetic activity, and founding the basis for forecast of disastrous space weather. The current review is focused on the solar physics research in China in recent three years. Highlights in scientific research in solar magnetism, magnetic activity, coronal plasma, and space weather forecast are briefly summarized. Key advances in instrument development are reported in some necessary details. Future tendency and working direction are considered and discussed.

  13. Future Applications of Remote Sensing to Archeological Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sever, Thomas L.

    2003-01-01

    Archeology was one of the first disciplines to use aerial photography in its investigations at the turn of the 20th century. However, the low resolution of satellite technology that became available in the 1970 s limited their application to regional studies. That has recently changed. The arrival of the high resolution, multi-spectral capabilities of the IKONOS and QUICKBIRD satellites and the scheduled launch of new satellites in the next few years provides an unlimited horizon for future archeological research. In addition, affordable aerial and ground-based remote sensing instrumentation are providing archeologists with information that is not available through traditional methodologies. Although many archeologists are not yet comfortable with remote sensing technology a new generation has embraced it and is accumulating a wealth of new evidence. They have discovered that through the use of remote sensing it is possible to gather information without disturbing the site and that those cultural resources can be monitored and protected for the future.

  14. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8–12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers. PMID:18056303

  15. Identifying future scientists: predicting persistence into research training.

    PubMed

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end, and 8-12 months after their research experience. Of more than 200 themes considered, five characteristics predicted those students who went on to Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training or to M.D. training intending to do research: 1) Curiosity to discover the unknown, 2) Enjoyment of problem solving, 3) A high level of independence, 4) The desire to help others indirectly through research, and 5) A flexible, minimally structured approach to the future. Web-based surveys with different students confirmed the high frequency of curiosity and/or problem solving as the primary reason students planned research careers. No evidence was found for differences among men, women, and minority and nonminority students. Although these results seem logical compared with successful scientists, their constancy, predictive capabilities, and sharp contrast to students who chose clinical medicine were striking. These results provide important insights into selection and motivation of potential biomedical scientists and the early experiences that will motivate them toward research careers.

  16. Future Directions for Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Cara R.; Mazefsky, Carla A.; White, Susan W.; Dichter, Gabriel S.

    2014-01-01

    This article suggests future directions for research aimed at improved understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as pharmacologic and psychosocial interventions for ASD across the lifespan. The past few years have witnessed unprecedented transformations in the understanding of ASD neurobiology, genetics, early identification, and early intervention. However, recent increases in ASD prevalence estimates highlight the urgent need for continued efforts to translate novel ASD discoveries into effective interventions for all individuals with ASD. In this article we highlight promising areas for ongoing and new research expected to quicken the pace of scientific discovery and ultimately the translation of research findings into accessible and empirically supported interventions for those with ASD. We highlight emerging research in the following domains as particularly promising and pressing: (1) preclinical models; (2) experimental therapeutics; (3) early identification and intervention; (4) psychiatric comorbidities and the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) initiative; (5) ecological momentary assessment; (6) neurotechnologies; and (7) the needs of adults with ASD. Increased research emphasis in these areas has the potential to hasten the translation of knowledge on the etiological mechanisms of ASD to psychosocial and biological interventions to reduce the burden of ASD on affected individuals and their families. PMID:25216048

  17. Pineapple Nematode Research in Hawaii: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Caswell, E. P.; Apt, W. J.

    1989-01-01

    The first written record of pineapple in Hawaii is from 1813. In 1901 commercial pineapple production started, and in 1924 the Experiment Station for pineapple research was established. Nematode-related problems were recognized in the early 1900s by N. A. Cobb. From 1920 to approximately 1945 nematode management in Hawaiian pineapple was based on fallowing and crop rotation. During the 1920s and 1930s G. H. Godfrey conducted research on pineapple nematode management. In the 1930s and 1940s M. B. Linford researched biological control and described several new species of nematodes including Rotylenchulus reniformis. In 1941 nematology and nematode management were advanced by Walter Carter's discovery of the first economical soil fumigant for nematodes, D-D mixture. Subsequently, DBCP was discovered and developed at the Pineapple Research Institute (PRI). Since 1945 soil fumigation has been the main nematode management strategy in Hawaiian pineapple production. Recent research has focused on the development of the nonvolatile nematicides, their potential as systemic nematicides, and their application via drip irrigation. Current and future research addresses biological and cultural alternatives to nematicide-based nematode management. PMID:19287592

  18. Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine.

    PubMed

    Prochaska, James O

    2008-03-01

    Given the disease and cost burdens, Multiple Health Behavior Research represents the future of preventive medicine. Growing evidence in this special issue and beyond indicates that simultaneous and sequential interventions can be effective. The challenge for the future is to make such interventions more effective, cost effective and less demanding. Co-variation represents one innovative approach in which effective change on one treated behavior increases the odds of effective action on a second targeted behavior. Co-variation can occur when all behaviors received full treatment, when one receives full treatment and the others receive minimal treatment and when only one behavior is treated and others co-vary without treatment. Integrative treatments represent another innovation in which higher order constructs drive change on multiple behaviors related to the construct and treatment has to be only on one higher order behavior. A more integrated approach to research and practice involves new paradigms complementing established paradigms. Multiple behaviors proactively treated in populations at home or work by computer-based and stage-based interventions designed to generate co-variation that produces greater impacts can complement traditional paradigms that treat single behaviors in individual patients in clinics by clinicians with action-oriented modular interventions designed for specific behaviors to produce significant efficacy. More inclusive research to support more inclusive practices can hopefully lead to more inclusive care.

  19. Geological evidence and future detection of active tectonics on Mars.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pio Rossi, Angelo; Hauber, Ernst; Spagnuolo, Mauro; Fueten, Frank; Pondrelli, Monica; Breuer, Doris; Grott, Matthias; Knapmeyer, Martin; Quantin Nataf, Cathy; Unnithan, Vikram

    2013-04-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that recent tectonic deformation affected discrete areas on Mars (e.g. Spagnuolo et al., 2011; Roberts et al., 2012): Steep scarps cut bedrock and unconsolidated deposits, including mass wasting and eolian materials. The crater size frequency-based age estimate for some of these scarps, e.g. in Aureum Chaos is a few Myr only. The case for recent or very recent volcanism is sound on Mars (e.g. Hauber et al., 2011; Neukum et al., 2004), but comparably young tectonics on Mars had not been discovered until recently. Areas with linear or curvilinear, steep fault-like scarps (e.g., in Aureum or Aram Chaos) are relatively far from large volcanic edifices and provinces with recent effusive activity. Hence, a direct volcano-tectonic link, e.g., with Tharsis, seems unlikely. On the other hand, late collapses and subsidence in ~Hesperian or younger chaos/chasma areas could be responsible for the local deformation, which appears to be mainly extensional. Reactivation of older structures is also a possibility. Regardless the actual mechanism and geodynamic setting, present tectonic activity on Mars is a very real possibility, and it would open a range of opportunities for research such as geodynamics, hazards for future exploration, resources and exobiological potential: present faulting in chasmata and chaotic terrains could offer pathways for subsurface fluids to reach the surface or near subsurface, including potential degassing. Future missions such as InSight (NASA) and potentially Mars Network Science Mission (MNSM, ESA) could detect the first signs of Mars's tectonic activity. In addition, ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter could also investigate any potential outgassing in the vicinity of recently faulted candidate areas. References: Hauber et al. (2011) GLR, 38, 10, 1944-8007, doi:10.1029/2011GL047310 Neukum et al. (2004) Nature, 432, 971-979, doi:10.1038/nature03231 Roberts, G. P., et al. (2012), JGR, 117, E02009, doi:10.1029/2011JE003816

  20. Stem Cell Research in Pakistan; Past, Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Zahra, Sayeda Anum; Muzavir, Sayed Raheel; Ashraf, Sadia; Ahmad, Aftab

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Stem cells have proved to have great therapeutic potential as stem cell treatment is replacing traditional ways of treatment in different disorders like cancer, aplastic anemia, stroke, heart disorders. The developed and developing countries are investing differently in this area of research so research output and clinical translation of research greatly vary among developed and developing countries. Present study was done to investigate the current status of stem cells research in Pakistan and ways to improve it. Results Many advanced countries (USA, UK and Canada etc.) are investing heavily in stem cell research and treatment. Different developing countries like Iran, Turkey and India are also following the developed countries and investing a lot in stem cells research. Pakistan is also making efforts in establishing this field to get desired benefits but unfortunately the progress is at very low pace. If Government plays an active role along with private sector, stem cell research in Pakistan can be boosted up. The numbers of publications from Pakistan are very less compared to developed and neighboring countries and Pakistan also has very less number of institutes working in this area of research. Conclusions Stem cells research is at its initial stages in Pakistan and there is great need to bring Government, academia and industry together so they could make serious efforts to promote research in this very important field. This will help millions of patients suffering from incurable disorders and will also reduce economic loss. PMID:26019749

  1. Research accomplishments and future goals in particle physics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-30

    This document presents our proposal to continue the activities of Boston University researchers in high energy physics research. We have a broad program of participation in both non-accelerator and accelerator-based efforts. High energy research at Boston University has a special focus on the physics program of the Superconducting Supercollider. We are active in research and development for detector subsystems, in the design of experiments, and in study of the phenomenology of the very high energy interactions to be observed at the SSC. The particular areas discussed in this paper are: colliding beams physics; accelerator design physics; MACRO project; proton decay project; theoretical particle physics; muon G-2 project; fast liquid scintillators; SSCINTCAL project; TRD project; massively parallel processing for the SSC; and physics analysis and vertex detector upgrade at L3.

  2. Future Challenges and Opportunities in Online Prescription Drug Promotion Research

    PubMed Central

    Southwell, Brian G.; Rupert, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite increased availability of online promotional tools for prescription drug marketers, evidence on online prescription drug promotion is far from settled or conclusive. We highlight ways in which online prescription drug promotion is similar to conventional broadcast and print advertising and ways in which it differs. We also highlight five key areas for future research: branded drug website influence on consumer knowledge and behavior, interactive features on branded drug websites, mobile viewing of branded websites and mobile advertisements, online promotion and non-US audiences, and social media and medication decisions. PMID:26927597

  3. Research Diagnostic criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: current status & future relevance.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, S F

    2010-10-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD), published in 1992, was based on international expert recommendations and available empirical data. The major rationale was to offer a putative diagnostic and classification system whose reliability, validity and clinical usefulness for TMD diagnosis and classification could be scientifically evaluated and then revised using an evidence-based model for successive iterations. The present journal issue attests to the accomplishment of that major objective: the RDC/TMD has been translated into 18 languages and used very extensively in international research. One important component of that research has been to yield reliable and valid data resulting in an evidence-based revision of the RDC/TMD now available for continuing research and clinical application. The present article offers recommendations and speculations regarding how the RDC/TMD may continue to serve the function of guiding future research and, most importantly, serve as an evidence-based diagnostic and classification system to aid in the rational choice of clinical care for TMD sufferers around the world.

  4. FSA future directions: FSA technology activities in FY86

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1985-01-01

    The silicon material, advanced silicon sheet, device research, and process research activities are explained. There will be no new initiatives. Many activities are targeted for completion and the emphasis will then be on technology transfer. Industrial development of the fluidized-bed reactor (FBR) deposition technology is proceeding. Technology transfer and industry funding of sheet development are continuing.

  5. Repetition-Related Reductions in Neural Activity during Emotional Simulations of Future Events

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Simulations of future experiences are often emotionally arousing, and the tendency to repeatedly simulate negative future outcomes has been identified as a predictor of the onset of symptoms of anxiety. Nonetheless, next to nothing is known about how the healthy human brain processes repeated simulations of emotional future events. In this study, we present a paradigm that can be used to study repeated simulations of the emotional future in a manner that overcomes phenomenological confounds between positive and negative events. The results show that pulvinar nucleus and orbitofrontal cortex respectively demonstrate selective reductions in neural activity in response to frequently as compared to infrequently repeated simulations of negative and positive future events. Implications for research on repeated simulations of the emotional future in both non-clinical and clinical populations are discussed. PMID:26390294

  6. Building from In Vivo Research to the Future of Research on Relational Thinking and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schunn, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    This concluding commentary takes the perspective of research on practicing scientists and engineers to consider what open areas and future directions on relational thinking and learning should be considered beyond the impressive research presented in the special issue. Areas for more work include (a) a need to examine educational applications of…

  7. Three critical questions for future research on lesbian relationships.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Lisa M

    2017-01-02

    In this article I discuss three questions that should be priorities for future research on lesbian love and relationships. The first question concerns the very definition of "lesbian relationship," given how many women may be engaged in same-sex relationships without identifying as lesbian. The second question concerns the potential influence of childhood neglect and abuse on adult women's same-sex relationships, a topic that has important implications for both psychological well-being and relationship functioning. The third question concerns the potential downsides of legal marriage for women's same-sex relationships, a topic that is particularly important in light of the newfound legal recognition of same-sex marriage in all 50 states. Although there are many understudied questions in the domain of women's same-sex relationships, research on these three questions has particularly strong potential to advance our understanding of lesbian love and relationships in important ways.

  8. Transnational nurse migration: future directions for medical anthropological research.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Megan; Nichter, Mark

    2014-04-01

    Transnational nurse migration is a serious global health issue in which inequitably distributed shortages hinder health and development goals. This article selectively reviews the literature on nurse migration that has emerged from nursing, health planning, and the social sciences and offers productive directions for future anthropological research. The literature on global nurse migration has largely focused on push/pull economic logic and the concept of brain drain to understand the causes and effects of nurse migration. These concepts obscure political-economic, historical, and cultural factors that pattern nurse migration and influence the complex effects of nurse migration. Global nurse care chain analysis helps illuminate the numerous nodes in the production and migration of nurses, and management of this transnational process. Examples are provided from the Philippines and India to illustrate ways in which this analysis may be deepened, refined and rendered more critical by anthropological research.

  9. Rapid Response Teams: Policy Implications and Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Stolldorf, Deonni

    2008-07-01

    Health care organizations are continually challenged with improving the safety of and the quality of care delivered to patients. Research studies often bring to the forefront interventions that health care organizations may choose to institute in an effort to provide evidence-based, quality care. Rapid response teams are one such intervention. Rapid response teams were introduced by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement as part of their "100,000 Lives" Campaign. Rapid response teams are one initiative health care organizations can implement in an effort to improve the quality of care delivered to patients. This article uses Donabedian's model of structure, process, and outcomes to discuss the United States health care systems, rapid response teams, and the outcomes of rapid response teams. National and organizational policy implications associated with rapid response teams are discussed and recommendations made for future research.

  10. Past, Present, and Future of Traumatic Brain Injury Research.

    PubMed

    Hawryluk, Gregory W J; Bullock, M Ross

    2016-10-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the greatest cause of death and severe disability in young adults; its incidence is increasing in the elderly and in the developing world. Outcome from severe TBI has improved dramatically as a result of advancements in trauma systems and supportive critical care, however we remain without a therapeutic which acts directly to attenuate brain injury. Recognition of secondary injury and its molecular mediators has raised hopes for such targeted treatments. Unfortunately, over 30 late-phase clinical trials investigating promising agents have failed to translate a therapeutic for clinical use. Numerous explanations for this failure have been postulated and are reviewed here. With this historical context we review ongoing research and anticipated future trends which are armed with lessons from past trials, new scientific advances, as well as improved research infrastructure and funding. There is great hope that these new efforts will finally lead to an effective therapeutic for TBI as well as better clinical management strategies.

  11. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  12. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K

    1987-01-01

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/, /2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  13. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/,/2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  14. Future treatment and research directions in distal radius fracture.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Jesse

    2012-05-01

    Whether or not they will have their lives dramatically extended in the next few decades, it is clear that people are living longer, healthier, and more active lives. The two peak incidences of distal radius fractures will remain within the pediatric and geriatric age groups, with the latter experiencing a substantial increase in the coming years. This article attempts to project future developments with regard to epidemiology, risk and prevention, fracture assessment, and treatment of distal radius fractures, and the ever increasing concern for the economic impact of this prevalent injury.

  15. Building a Bright Future. The Hydro Research Foundation's Fellowship Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughn, Brenna; Linke, Deborah M.

    2015-12-29

    The Hydro Fellowship Program (program) began as an experiment to discover whether the hydropower industry could find mechanisms to attract new entrants through conducting relevant research to benefit the industry. This nationwide, new-to-the-world program was started through funding from the Wind and Water Power Technologies Office of the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Office of the Department of Energy (DOE). Between 2010-2015, the Hydro Research Foundation (HRF) designed and implemented a program to conduct valuable research and attract new entrants to the hydro workforce. This historic grant has empowered and engaged industry members from 25 organizations by working with 91 students and advisors at 24 universities in 19 states. The work funded answered pressing research needs in the fields of civil, mechanical, environmental, and electrical engineering, as well as law, energy engineering and materials innovation. In terms of number of individuals touched through funding, 148 individuals were supported by this work through direct research, mentorship, oversight of the work, partnerships and the day-to-day program administration. Based on the program results, it is clear that the funding achieved the hoped-for outcomes and has the capacity to draw universities into the orbit of hydropower and continue the conversation about industry research and development needs. The Foundation has fostered unique partnerships at the host universities and has continued to thrive with the support of the universities, advisors, industry and the DOE. The Foundation has demonstrated industry support through mentorships, partnerships, underwriting the costs and articulating the universities’ support through in-kind cost sharing. The Foundation recommends that future work be continued to nurture these graduate level programs using the initial work and improvements in the successor program, the Research Awards Program, while stimulating engagement of academia at the

  16. The Biodemography of Fertility: A Review and Future Research Frontiers.

    PubMed

    Mills, Melinda C; Tropf, Felix C

    The social sciences have been reticent to integrate a biodemographic approach to the study of fertility choice and behaviour, resulting in theories and findings that are largely socially-deterministic. The aim of this paper is to first reflect on reasons for this lack of integration, provide a review of previous examinations, take stock of what we have learned until now and propose future research frontiers. We review the early foundations of proximate determinants followed by behavioural genetic (family and twin) studies that isolated the extent of genetic influence on fertility traits. We then discuss research that considers gene and environment interaction and the importance of cohort and country-specific estimates, followed by multivariate models that explore motivational precursors to fertility and education. The next section on molecular genetics reviews fertility-related candidate gene studies and their shortcomings and on-going work on genome wide association studies. Work in evolutionary anthropology and biology is then briefly examined, focusing on evidence for natural selection. Biological and genetic factors are relevant in explaining and predicting fertility traits, with socio-environmental factors and their interaction still key in understanding outcomes. Studying the interplay between genes and the environment, new data sources and integration of new methods will be central to understanding and predicting future fertility trends.

  17. Preventing HIV among Young People: research priorities for the future

    PubMed Central

    Pettifor, Audrey; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Hosek, Sybil; DiClemente, Ralph; Rosenberg, Molly; Bull, Sheana; Allison, Susannah; Delany-Moretlwe, Sinead; Kapogiannis, Bill G.; Cowan, Frances

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the current state of knowledge on the prevention of sexual transmission of HIV in adolescents and to highlight existing gaps and priority areas for future research. Background A disproportionate burden of HIV infections falls on adolescents, a developmental stage marked by unique neural, biological, and social transition. Successful interventions are critical to prevent the spread of HIV in this vulnerable population. Methods We summarized the current state of research on HIV prevention in adolescents by providing examples of successful interventions and best practices, and highlighting current research gaps. Results Adolescent interventions fall into three main categories: biomedical, behavioral, and structural. The majority of current research has focused on individual behavior change, while promising biomedical and structural interventions have been largely understudied in adolescents. Combination prevention interventions may be particularly valuable to this group. Conclusions Adolescents have unique needs with respect to HIV prevention and, thus, interventions should be designed to most effectively reach this population with information and services that will be relevant to them. PMID:23764629

  18. Juvenile fibromyalgia: current status of research and future developments

    PubMed Central

    Kashikar-Zuck, Susmita; Ting, Tracy V.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile-onset fibromyalgia (JFM) is a poorly understood chronic pain condition most commonly affecting adolescent girls. The condition is characterized by widespread musculoskeletal pain and other associated symptoms, including fatigue, nonrestorative sleep, headaches, irritable bowel symptoms, dysautonomia and mood disorders such as anxiety and/or depression. In the past few years, there has been a greater focus on understanding JFM in adolescents. Research studies have provided insight into the clinical characteristics of this condition and its effect on both short-term and long-term psychosocial and physical functioning. The importance of early and effective intervention is being recognized, as research has shown that symptoms of JFM tend to persist and do not resolve over time as was previously believed. Efforts to improve treatments for JFM are underway, and new evidence strongly points to the potential benefits of cognitive–behavioural therapy on improving mood and daily functioning. Research into pharmacotherapy and other nonpharmacological options is in progress. Advancements in the understanding of adult fibromyalgia have paved the way for future studies on diagnosis, assessment and management of JFM. This Review focuses on our current knowledge of the condition, provides an update of the latest research advances, and highlights areas for further study. PMID:24275966

  19. Visions of the Future. Social Science Activities Text. Teacher's Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnick, Rob; Ronan, Bernard

    Intended to put both national and global issues into perspective and help students make decisions about their futures, this teacher's edition provides instructional objectives, ideas for discussion and inquiries, test blanks for each section, and answer keys for the 22 activities provided in the accompanying student text. Designed to provide high…

  20. Needs, Feedback, and the Future: Need Sensing Activities in 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    A needs sensing project was conducted to identify the general needs of the field of career and technical education (CTE), dissemination activities, and major forces in the environment judged likely to influence education in the foreseeable future. The need sensing took place with networks developed in regions assigned to the five primary partner…

  1. Past, present and future of laser fusion research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, C.

    1996-05-01

    The concept of laser fusion was devised very shortly after the invention of laser. In 1972, the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University was established by the author in accordance with the Edward Teller's special lecture on ``New Internal Combustion Engine'' for IQEC at Montreal which predicted the implosion fusion. In 1975 we invented the so called indirect drive fusion concept ``Cannonball Target'' which became later to be recognize as a same concept of ``Hohlraum Target'' from Livermore. As well known, ICF research in the US had been veiled for a long time due to the defense classification. While researchers from Japan, Germany and elsewhere have concentrated the efforts to investigate the inertial fusion energy which seems to be very interesting for a future civil energy. They were publishing their own works not only on the direct implosion scheme but also the indirect implosion experiment. These advanced results often frustrated the US researchers who were not allowed to talk about the details of their works. In 1988, international members of the ICF research society including the US scientists gathered together at ECLIM to discuss the necessity of freedom in the ICF research and concluded to make a statement ``Madrid Manifest'' which requested the declassification of the ICF research internationally. After 6 years of halt, the US DOE decided to declassify portions of the program as a part of secretary Hazel O'Leary's openness initiative. The first revealed presentation from the US was done at Seville 1994, which however were well known already. Classification impeded the progress by restricting the flow of information and did not allow the ICF work to compete by the open scientific security. The implosion experiments by GEKKO XII Osaka demonstrated a high temperature compression of DT fuel up to 10 keV, neutron yield 1013 and a high density compression of CDT hollow shell pellet to reach 1000 g/cm3 respectively. These results gave us a strong

  2. Concepts of hydrological connectivity: Research approaches, pathways and future agendas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracken, L. J.; Wainwright, J.; Ali, G. A.; Tetzlaff, D.; Smith, M. W.; Reaney, S. M.; Roy, A. G.

    2013-04-01

    For effective catchment management and intervention in hydrological systems a process-based understanding of hydrological connectivity is required so that: i) conceptual rather than solely empirical understanding drives how systems are interpreted; and ii) there is an understanding of how continuous flow fields develop under different sets of environmental conditions to enable managers to know when, where and how to intervene in catchment processes successfully. In order to direct future research into process-based hydrological connectivity this paper: i) evaluates the extent to which different concepts of hydrological connectivity have emerged from different approaches to measure and predict flow in different environments; ii) discusses the extent to which these different concepts are mutually compatible; and iii) assesses further research to contribute to a unified understanding of hydrological processes. Existing research is categorised into five different approaches to investigating hydrological connectivity: i) evaluating soil-moisture patterns (soil-moisture connectivity); ii) understanding runoff patterns and processes on hillslopes (flow-process connectivity); iii) investigating topographic controls (terrain-connectivity) including the impact of road networks on hydrological connectivity and catchment runoff; iv) developing models to explore and predict hydrological connectivity; and v) developing indices of hydrological connectivity. Analysis of published research suggests a relationship between research group, approach, geographic setting and the interpretation of hydrological connectivity. For further understanding of hydrological connectivity our knowledge needs to be developed using a range of techniques and approaches, there should be common understandings between researchers approaching the concept from different perspectives, and these meanings need to be communicated effectively with those responsible for land management.

  3. An Undergraduate Research Fellowship Program to Prepare Nursing Students for Future Workforce Roles.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Mary Jo; Logan, Bridget Linehan; Mudge, Bridget; Secore, Karen; von Reyn, Linda J; Maue, Robert A

    It is important for nurses today and for those joining the workforce in the future to have familiarity and training with respect to interprofessional research, evidence-based practice, and quality improvement. In an effort to address this need, we describe a 10-week summer research program that immerses undergraduate nursing students in a broad spectrum of clinical and translational research projects as part of their exposure to advanced nursing roles. In doing so, the program increases the ability of the students to participate in research, effectively interact with academic medical center researchers, and incorporate elements of evidence-based practice into future nursing interventions. Their mentors are nurses practicing in roles as nurse researcher, advanced practice nurses involved in evidence-based practice or quality improvement, and clinical trials research nurses. Each student is matched with 3 of these mentors and involved in 3 different projects. Through this exposure, the students benefit from observing multiple nursing roles, taking an active role in research-related activities participating in interdisciplinary learning experiences. Overall, the program provides benefits to the students, who demonstrate measured improvement with respect to the program objectives, and to their mentors and each of the participating organizations.

  4. Future Research Priorities for Morbidity Control of Lymphedema

    PubMed Central

    Narahari, S R; Aggithaya, Madhur Guruprasad; Moffatt, Christine; Ryan, T J; Keeley, Vaughan; Vijaya, B; Rajendran, P; Karalam, S B; Rajagopala, S; Kumar, N K; Bose, K S; Sushma, K V

    2017-01-01

    Background: Innovation in the treatment of lower extremity lymphedema has received low priority from the governments and pharmaceutical industry. Advancing lymphedema is irreversible and initiates fibrosis in the dermis, reactive changes in the epidermis and subcutis. Most medical treatments offered for lymphedema are either too demanding with a less than satisfactory response or patients have low concordance due to complex schedules. A priority setting partnership (PSP) was established to decide on the future priorities in lymphedema research. Methods: A table of abstracts following a literature search was published in workshop website. Stake holders were requested to upload their priorities. Their questions were listed, randomized, and sent to lymphologists for ranking. High ranked ten research priorities, obtained through median score, were presented in final prioritization work shop attended by invited stake holders. A free medical camp was organized during workshop to understand patients’ priorities. Results: One hundred research priorities were selected from priorities uploaded to website. Ten priorities were short listed through a peer review process involving 12 lymphologists, for final discussion. They were related to simplification of integrative treatment for lymphedema, cellular changes in lymphedema and mechanisms of its reversal, eliminating bacterial entry lesions to reduce cellulitis episodes, exploring evidence for therapies in traditional medicine, improving patient concordance to compression therapy, epidemiology of lymphatic filariasis (LF), and economic benefit of integrative treatments of lymphedema. Conclusion: A robust research priority setting process, organized as described in James Lind Alliance guidebook, identified seven priority areas to achieve effective morbidity control of lymphedema including LF. All stake holders including Department of Health Research, Government of India, participated in the PSP. PMID:28216723

  5. Tendon Mechanobiology: Current Knowledge and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Lavagnino, Michael; Wall, Michelle E.; Little, Dianne; Banes, Albert J.; Guilak, Farshid; Arnoczky, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Tendons mainly function as load-bearing tissues in the muscloskeletal system, transmitting loads from muscle to bone. Tendons are dynamic structures that respond to the magnitude, direction, frequency, and duration of physiologic as well as pathologic mechanical loads via complex interactions between cellular pathways and the highly specialized extracellular matrix. This paper reviews the evolution and current knowledge of mechanobiology in tendon development, homeostasis, disease, and repair. In addition, we review several novel mechanotransduction pathways that have been identified recently in other tissues and cell types, providing potential research opportunities in the field of tendon mechanobiology. We also highlight current methods, models, and technologies being used in a wide variety of mechanobiology research that could be investigated in the context of their potential applicability for answering some of the fundamental unanswered questions in this field. The article concludes with a review of the major questions and future goals discussed during the recent ORS/ISMMS New Frontiers in Tendon Research Conference held September 10–11, 2014 in New York City. PMID:25763779

  6. Vaccine criticism on the Internet: Propositions for future research

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jeremy K.; Peretti-Watel, Patrick; Verger, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Research on vaccine criticism on the Internet is now at a crossroads, with an already important body of knowledge published on the subject but also a continuous and even growing interest in the scientific community. In this commentary, we reflect on the published literature from the standpoint of sociologists interested in social movements and their activists and the influence they can have on vaccination behaviors. We suggest several avenues of research for future studies of vaccine criticism on the Internet: 1) paying more attention to the actors who publish vaccine critical contents and to their use of the Internet in relationship to the other means through which they try to mobilize the population - the production of vaccine critical information on the Internet, and not only its nature and its reception, should therefore become one of the main objects of this strand of research -; 2) paying closer attention to what distinguishes the different strands of vaccine criticism regarding both what they dislike about vaccines (or about a given vaccine) and how this fight is integrated in a more general political or cultural struggle; 3) investigating further how the new forms of social interactions allowed by the Internet affect the transmission of vaccine related information and the capacity of vaccine critical actors to enroll members of the public in their political or cultural struggle. PMID:26900646

  7. Future directions of sickle cell disease research: the NIH perspective.

    PubMed

    Hoots, W Keith; Shurin, Susan B

    2012-08-01

    Efforts to enhance therapy for children and adults with sickle cell disease (SCD) have proven more challenging than might have been predicted from the fact that an understanding of the underlying pathogenesis antedated that of many other diseases for which good treatments presently exist. The multi-organ injury that occurs with SCD certainly contributes to this clinical reality. Research over decades indicates that the primary defect in hemoglobin that results in polymerization of the protein under low oxygen conditions and resultant cellular deformity of the red blood cell initiates a complex downstream pathogenesis associated with vascular injury and organ ischemia. Deciphering this in a manner that informs successful therapies that improve all target organs continues to challenge hematologists. The National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) is dedicated to support research across the basic science, translational and clinical spectrum to achieve these clinical outcomes. The following provides a brief summary of the research strategies which NHLBI is presently supporting and will support in the future to enhance care and ultimately, to effect cure of this hemoglobin disease that causes such suffering to those who inherit this monogenic disease.

  8. Research in culture and psychology: past lessons and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Igor; Na, Jinkyung

    2014-01-01

    Since the dawn of psychology as a science, conceptual and methodological questions have accompanied research at the intersection of culture and psychology. We review some of these questions using two dominant concepts-independent versus interdependent social orientation and analytic versus holistic cognitive style. Studying the relationship between culture and psychology can be difficult due to sampling restrictions and response biases. Since these challenges have been mastered, a wealth of research has accumulated on how culture influences cognition, emotion, and the self. Building on this work, we outline a set of new challenges for culture and psychology. Such challenges include questions about conceptual clarity, within-cultural and subcultural variations (e.g., variations due to social class), differentiation and integration of processes at the group versus individual level of analysis, modeling of how cultural processes unfold over time, and integration of insights from etic and emic methodological approaches. We review emerging work addressing these challenges, proposing that future research on culture and psychology is more exciting than ever. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:1-14. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1267 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  9. Past missions - the best way to train future planetary researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlova, Natalia; Solodovnikova, Anastasiya; Zubarev, Anatoly; Garov, Andrey; Patraty, Vyacheslav; Kokhanov, Alexander; Karachevtseva, Irina; Nadezhdina, Irina; Konopikhin, Anatoly; Oberst, Juergen

    2015-04-01

    Practice shows that it is much more interesting and useful to learn from real examples than on imaginary tasks from exercise books. The more technologies and software improves and develops, the more information and new products can be obtained from new processing of archive information collected by past planetary missions. So at MIIGAiK we carry out modern processing of lunar panoramic images obtained by Soviet Lunokhod missions (1970-1973). During two years of the study, which is a part of PRoViDE project (http://www.provide-space.eu/), many students, PhD students, young scientists, as well as professors have taken part in this research. Processing of the data obtained so long ago requires development of specific methods, techniques, special software and extraordinary approach. All these points help to interest young people in planetary science and develop their skills as researchers. Another advantage of data from previous missions is that you can compare your results with the ones obtained during the mission. This also helps to test the developed techniques and software on real data and adjust them for implementation in future missions. The work on Lunokhod data processing became the basis of master and PhD theses of MIIGAiK students and scientists at MExLab. Acknowledgments: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No 312377 PRoViDE.

  10. Advances in low-level jet research and future prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongbo; He, Mingyang; Wang, Bin; Zhang, Qinghong

    2014-02-01

    The low-level jet (LLJ) is closely related to severe rainfall events, air pollution, wind energy utilization, aviation safety, sandstorms, forest fire, and other weather and climate phenomena. Therefore, it has attracted considerable attention since its discovery. Scientists have carried out many studies on LLJs and made significant achievements during the past five or six decades. This article summarizes and assesses the current knowledge on this subject, and focuses in particular on three aspects: 1) LLJ classification, definition, distribution, and structure; 2) LLJ formation and evolutionary mechanisms; and 3) relationships between LLJ and rainfall, as well as other interdisciplinary fields. After comparing the status of LLJ research at home (China) and abroad, we then discuss the shortcomings of LLJ research in China. We suggest that this includes: coarse definitions of the LLJ, lack of observations and inadequate quality control, few thorough explorations of LLJ characteristics and formation mechanisms, and limited studies in interdisciplinary fields. The future prospects for several LLJ research avenues are also speculated.

  11. Langley Research Center Utility Risk from Future Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, Russell J.; Ganoe, Rene

    2015-01-01

    The successful operation of NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) depends on services provided by several public utility companies. These include Newport News Waterworks, Dominion Virginia Power, Virginia Natural Gas and Hampton Roads Sanitation District. LaRC's plan to respond to future climate change should take into account how these companies plan to avoid interruption of services while minimizing cost to the customers. This report summarizes our findings from publicly available documents on how each company plans to respond. This will form the basis for future planning for the Center. Our preliminary findings show that flooding and severe storms could interrupt service from the Waterworks and Sanitation District but the potential is low due to plans in place to address climate change on their system. Virginia Natural Gas supplies energy to produce steam but most current steam comes from the Hampton trash burning plant, thus interruption risk is low. Dominion Virginia Power does not address climate change impacts on their system in their public reports. The potential interruption risk is considered to be medium. The Hampton Roads Sanitation District is projecting a major upgrade of their system to mitigate clean water inflow and infiltration. This will reduce infiltration and avoid overloading the pump stations and treatment plants.

  12. Thermoregulatory models. Recent research, current applications and future development.

    PubMed

    Werner, J

    1989-01-01

    This review traces the efforts of different fields of thermoregulatory modeling. The aims of the three diverging branches can be characterized by (i) insight into functional physiological mechanisms and prediction of physiological phenomena, (ii) prediction of human performance for the protection of industrial workers or military personnel, and (iii) prediction of the impact of accidents, diseases, and clinical treatments. Common current and future efforts may be recognized which improve the physiological quality of the models for purposes either of physiological research itself or of promotion of the field of application, namely, (i) to approach the models to real geometry and anatomy of the human body, (ii) to simulate more adequately heat transport processes induced by the circulating blood, (iii) to implement more sophisticated regulatory concepts, (iv) to take into account interaction with other regulatory systems. "Environmental Ergonomics" should be an adequate forum for linking these diversified fields together.

  13. Endometriosis research using capture microdissection techniques: Progress and future applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Luyang; Gu, Chenglei; Huang, Ke; Han, Weidong; Fu, Meng; Meng, Yuanguang

    2016-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common gynecological disease with high prevalence, while its etiology and pathophysiology have remained to be fully elucidated. Previous evidence suggested that this disorder may be in part or completely of somatic origin. However, traditional endometrial samples may not be ideal for investigation, as target cells, including epithelial and stromal cells, in endometriotic lesions are too sparse to be analyzed. Recently, capture microdissection techniques have been used to overcome these limitations and eliminate tissue heterogeneity in endometriosis research. Therefore, the present review summarized the alterations in epithelial and stromal cells in endometriosis tissues isolated through capture microdissection, outlined recent progress and provided directions for future investigation of the pathogenesis of endometriosis. PMID:27882213

  14. Water research to support society: past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    Scientists are nowadays claiming that we are leaving the geological era of Holocene and have entered the Anthropocene (the Age of Man), a man-made world, in which humans are not observers of nature but central to its workings and commanding the planet's features, fluxes and material cycles. Both the hydrological and the biogeochemical cycles are radically changed compared to pristine conditions and the biodiversity is radically declining as the human population is growing. The co-evolution between society and environment is complex and not always reversible and we therefore need more research on effects of change to raise awareness and prepare for consequences. Many problems caused by humans are also well recognized and can be remediated. As the society develops also the environmental concerns normally becomes more important leading to remedial measures and pollution control. The change in water quality for many rivers world-wide shows similar flux over time related to level of economic development, going from deterioration to recovery as an effect of improved water management. Water management is of major importance for sustainable development, both for efficient water use and ecosystem protection. Water management should be based on (i) best available site information and (ii) best practices from understanding cause-effect relationships; yet, large areas still remains un-monitored and the relations between processes are complex and often not well understood. These knowledge gaps hamper the societal development and are thus two key challenges to address in the hydrological sciences initiative Panta Rhei. This presentation will address some of these challenges for water research in the past, present and future. Hydrology is by tradition an applied research, in which scientific questions co-evolve with societal needs. This will be exemplified this by giving a brief overview of the shift in research questions at one national institute, SMHI, during the last 100 years

  15. 3D geo-database research: Retrospective and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Martin; Zlatanova, Sisi

    2011-07-01

    3D geo-database research is a promising field to support challenging applications such as 3D urban planning, environmental monitoring, infrastructure management, and early warning or disaster management and response. In these fields, interdisciplinary research in GIScience and related fields is needed to support the modelling, analysis, management, and integration of large geo-referenced data sets, which describe human activities and geophysical phenomena. Geo-databases may serve as platforms to integrate 2D maps, 3D geo-scientific models, and other geo-referenced data. However, current geo-databases do not provide sufficient 3D data modelling and data handling techniques. New 3D geo-databases are needed to handle surface and volume models. This article first presents a 25-year retrospective of geo-database research. Data modelling, standards, and indexing of geo-data are discussed in detail. New directions for the development of 3D geo-databases to open new fields for interdisciplinary research are addressed. Two scenarios in the fields of early warning and emergency response demonstrate the combined management of human and geophysical phenomena. The article concludes with a critical outlook on open research problems.

  16. Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities

    Cancer.gov

    Cancer Treatment-Related Cardiotoxicity: Understanding the Current State of Knowledge and Developing Future Research Priorities, a 2013 workshop sponsored by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program.

  17. Future developments in brain-machine interface research

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, Mikhail A; Tate, Andrew J; Hanson, Timothy L; Li, Zheng; O'Doherty, Joseph E; Winans, Jesse A; Ifft, Peter J; Zhuang, Katie Z; Fitzsimmons, Nathan A; Schwarz, David A; Fuller, Andrew M; An, Je Hi; Nicolelis, Miguel A L

    2011-01-01

    Neuroprosthetic devices based on brain-machine interface technology hold promise for the restoration of body mobility in patients suffering from devastating motor deficits caused by brain injury, neurologic diseases and limb loss. During the last decade, considerable progress has been achieved in this multidisciplinary research, mainly in the brain-machine interface that enacts upper-limb functionality. However, a considerable number of problems need to be resolved before fully functional limb neuroprostheses can be built. To move towards developing neuroprosthetic devices for humans, brain-machine interface research has to address a number of issues related to improving the quality of neuronal recordings, achieving stable, long-term performance, and extending the brain-machine interface approach to a broad range of motor and sensory functions. Here, we review the future steps that are part of the strategic plan of the Duke University Center for Neuroengineering, and its partners, the Brazilian National Institute of Brain-Machine Interfaces and the École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) Center for Neuroprosthetics, to bring this new technology to clinical fruition. PMID:21779720

  18. 50 years of Arabidopsis research: highlights and future directions.

    PubMed

    Provart, Nicholas J; Alonso, Jose; Assmann, Sarah M; Bergmann, Dominique; Brady, Siobhan M; Brkljacic, Jelena; Browse, John; Chapple, Clint; Colot, Vincent; Cutler, Sean; Dangl, Jeff; Ehrhardt, David; Friesner, Joanna D; Frommer, Wolf B; Grotewold, Erich; Meyerowitz, Elliot; Nemhauser, Jennifer; Nordborg, Magnus; Pikaard, Craig; Shanklin, John; Somerville, Chris; Stitt, Mark; Torii, Keiko U; Waese, Jamie; Wagner, Doris; McCourt, Peter

    2016-02-01

    922 I. 922 II. 922 III. 925 IV. 925 V. 926 VI. 927 VII. 928 VIII. 929 IX. 930 X. 931 XI. 932 XII. 933 XIII. Natural variation and genome-wide association studies 934 XIV. 934 XV. 935 XVI. 936 XVII. 937 937 References 937 SUMMARY: The year 2014 marked the 25(th) International Conference on Arabidopsis Research. In the 50 yr since the first International Conference on Arabidopsis Research, held in 1965 in Göttingen, Germany, > 54 000 papers that mention Arabidopsis thaliana in the title, abstract or keywords have been published. We present herein a citational network analysis of these papers, and touch on some of the important discoveries in plant biology that have been made in this powerful model system, and highlight how these discoveries have then had an impact in crop species. We also look to the future, highlighting some outstanding questions that can be readily addressed in Arabidopsis. Topics that are discussed include Arabidopsis reverse genetic resources, stock centers, databases and online tools, cell biology, development, hormones, plant immunity, signaling in response to abiotic stress, transporters, biosynthesis of cells walls and macromolecules such as starch and lipids, epigenetics and epigenomics, genome-wide association studies and natural variation, gene regulatory networks, modeling and systems biology, and synthetic biology.

  19. Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders: Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Gary C.; Gonzalez, Yoly M.; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L.; Sommers, Earl; Look, John O.; Schiffman, Eric L.

    2011-01-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Validation Project provided the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of the original Axis I and II. In addition, Axis I of the RDC/TMD was revised with estimates of reliability and validity. These findings are reported in previous papers. Further revisions for Axis I and II are presented for consideration by the TMD research and clinical communities. Potential Axis I revisions include addressing concerns with orofacial pain differential diagnosis and changes in nomenclature in an attempt to provide improved consistency with other musculoskeletal diagnostic systems. In addition, expansion of the RDC/TMD to include the less common TMD conditions and disorders would make it more comprehensive and clinically useful. The original standards for diagnostic sensitivity (≤0.70) and specificity (≤0.95) should be reconsidered to reflect changes in the field since the RDC/TMD was published in 1992. Pertaining to Axis II, current recommendations for all chronic pain conditions include standardized instruments and expansion of the domains assessed. In addition there is need for improved clinical efficiency of Axis II instruments and exploring methods to better integrate Axis I and II in clinical settings. To that end, this paper recommends an international symposium to provide future direction. PMID:20213033

  20. Results from LBA and a vision for future Amazonian research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batistella, M.; Artaxo, P.; Nobre, C.; Bustamante, M.; Luizão, F.

    This chapter summarizes selected results from the Large-Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) and briefly describes a vision for future Amazonian research. The need for research on people and environment interactions is emphasized in the context of regional and global change. LBA developed institutional and scientific capacity in Amazonia, but its performance to promote sustainable development was restricted because the program has predominantly emphasized the advancement of basic knowledge, with less emphasis on integrative studies explicitly designed to influence public policies with consequences on land use and land cover. The challenge of transforming the natural goods of Amazonia into human and economic benefits in an environmentally sustainable manner requires a new level of consciousness and collaborative work through the ability to move from simple diagnosis in the direction of actions at local, regional, and national levels. From the results of LBA, we may evolve to new experiences in which society will add value to the interactions between the biosphere and the atmosphere.

  1. Photovoltaic manufacturing: Present status, future prospects, and research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Wolden, C.A.; Fthenakis, V.; Kurtin, J.; Baxter, J.; Repins, I.; Shasheen, S.; Torvik, J.; Rocket, A.; Aydil, E.

    2011-03-29

    In May 2010 the United States National Science Foundation sponsored a two-day workshop to review the state-of-the-art and research challenges in photovoltaic (PV) manufacturing. This article summarizes the major conclusions and outcomes from this workshop, which was focused on identifying the science that needs to be done to help accelerate PV manufacturing. A significant portion of the article focuses on assessing the current status of and future opportunities in the major PV manufacturing technologies. These are solar cells based on crystalline silicon (c-Si), thin films of cadmium telluride (CdTe), thin films of copper indium gallium diselenide, and thin films of hydrogenated amorphous and nanocrystalline silicon. Current trends indicate that the cost per watt of c-Si and CdTe solar cells are being reduced to levels beyond the constraints commonly associated with these technologies. With a focus on TW/yr production capacity, the issue of material availability is discussed along with the emerging technologies of dye-sensitized solar cells and organic photovoltaics that are potentially less constrained by elemental abundance. Lastly, recommendations are made for research investment, with an emphasis on those areas that are expected to have cross-cutting impact.

  2. Vitamin D and the brain: key questions for future research.

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiaoying; Gooch, Helen; Groves, Natalie J; Sah, Pankaj; Burne, Thomas H; Eyles, Darryl W; McGrath, John J

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade a convergent body of evidence has emerged from epidemiology, animal experiments and clinical trials which links low vitamin D status with a range of adverse neuropsychiatric outcomes. This research demonstrates that the timing of exposure to low vitamin D influences the nature of brain phenotypes, as exposures during gestation versus adulthood result in different phenotypes. With respect to early life exposures, there is robust evidence from rodent experiments indicating that transient developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency is associated with changes in brain structure, neurochemistry, gene and protein expression and behavior. In particular, DVD deficiency is associated with alterations in the dopaminergic neurotransmitter systems. In contrast, recently published animal experiments indicate that adult vitamin D (AVD) deficiency is associated with more subtle neurochemical and behavioral phenotypes. This paper explores key issues that need to be addressed in future research. There is a need to define the timing and duration of the 'critical window' during which low vitamin D status is associated with differential and adverse brain outcomes. We discuss the role for 'two-hit hypotheses', which propose that adult vitamin D deficiency leaves the brain more vulnerable to secondary adverse exposures, and thus may exacerbate disease progression. Finally, we explore the evidence implicating a role for vitamin D in rapid, non-genomic mechanisms that may involve L-type calcium channels and brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop'.

  3. NCRP Vision for the Future and Program Area Committee Activities.

    PubMed

    Boice, John D

    2017-02-01

    The National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) believes that the most critical need for the nation in radiation protection is to train, engage, and retain radiation professionals for the future. Not only is the pipeline shrinking, but for some areas there is no longer a pipe! When the call comes to respond, there may be no one to answer the phone! The NCRP "Where are the Radiation Professionals?" initiative, Council Committee (CC) 2, and this year's annual meeting are to focus our efforts to find solutions and not just reiterate the problems. Our next major initiative is CC 1, where the NCRP is making recommendations for the United States on all things dealing with radiation protection. Our last publication was NCRP Report No. 116, Limitation of Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, in 1993-time for an update. NCRP has seven active Program Area Committees on biology and epidemiology, operational concerns, emergency response and preparedness, medicine, environmental issues and waste management, dosimetry, and communications. A major scientific research initiative is the Million Person Study of Low Dose Radiation Health Effects. It includes workers from the Manhattan Project, nuclear weapons test participants (atomic veterans), industrial radiographers, and early medical workers such as radiologists and technologists. This research will answer the one major gap in radiation risk evaluation: what are the health effects when the exposure occurs gradually over time? Other cutting edge initiatives include a re-evaluation of science behind recommendations for lens of the eye dose limits, recommendations for emergency responders on dosimetry after a major radiological incident, guidance to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration with regard to possible central nervous system effects from galactic cosmic rays (the high energy, high mass particles bounding through space), re-evaluating the population exposure to medical radiation (NCRP Report No

  4. Past and future changes in Canadian boreal wildfire activity.

    PubMed

    Girardin, Martin P; Mudelsee, Manfred

    2008-03-01

    Climate change in Canadian boreal forests is usually associated with increased drought severity and fire activity. However, future fire activity could well be within the range of values experienced during the preindustrial period. In this study, we contrast 21st century forecasts of fire occurrence (FireOcc, number of large forest fires per year) in the southern part of the Boreal Shield, Canada, with the historical range of the past 240 years statistically reconstructed from tree-ring width data. First, a historical relationship between drought indices and FireOcc is developed over the calibration period 1959-1998. Next, together with seven tree-ring based drought reconstructions covering the last 240 years and simulations from the CGCM3 and ECHAM4 global climate models, the calibration model is used to estimate past (prior to 1959) and future (post 1999) FireOcc. Last, time-dependent changes in mean FireOcc and in the occurrence rate of extreme fire years are evaluated with the aid of advanced methods of statistical time series analysis. Results suggest that the increase in precipitation projected toward the end of the 21st century will be insufficient to compensate for increasing temperatures and will be insufficient to maintain potential evapotranspiration at current levels. Limited moisture availability would cause FireOcc to increase as well. But will future FireOcc exceed its historical range? The results obtained from our approach suggest high probabilities of seeing future FireOcc reach the upper limit of the historical range. Predictions, which are essentially weighed on northwestern Ontario and eastern boreal Manitoba, indicate that, by 2061-2100, typical FireOcc could increase by more than 34% when compared with the past two centuries. Increases in fire activity as projected by this study could negatively affect the implementation in the next century of forest management inspired by historical or natural disturbance dynamics. This approach is indeed

  5. Nutrition and neurodegeneration: epidemiological evidence and challenges for future research.

    PubMed

    Gillette-Guyonnet, Sophie; Secher, Marion; Vellas, Bruno

    2013-03-01

    The prevention of dementias, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a growing public health concern, due to a lack of effective curative treatment options and a rising global prevalence. Various potential risk or preventive factors have been suggested by epidemiological research, including modifiable lifestyle factors such as diet. Current epidemiological data are in favour of a protective role of certain micronutrients (B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish) in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Some factors have been targeted by interventions tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs), but many of the results are conflicting with observational evidence. Epidemiological analysis of the relations between nutrient consumption and cognitive decline is complex and it is highly unlikely that a single component plays a major role. In addition, since multiple factors across the life course influence brain function in late life, multidomain interventions might be more promising in the prevention of cognitive decline and dementia/AD. Designing such trials remains very challenging for researchers. The main objective of this paper is to review the epidemiologic data linking potential protective factors to cognitive decline or dementia/AD, focusing particularly on the roles of adiposity, caloric restriction, micro (group B vitamins related to homocysteine metabolism, the anti-oxidant vitamins C and E, flavonoids, polyunsatured omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin D) and macronutrients (fish). Limitations of the current data, divergence with results of interventional prevention studies and challenges for future research are discussed.

  6. Use of cyclotrons in medical research: Past, present, future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smathers, James B.; Myers, Lee T.

    1985-05-01

    The use of cyclotrons in medical research started in the late 1930s with the most prominent use being neutron irradiation in cancer therapy. Due to a lack of understanding of the biological effect of neutrons, the results were less than encouraging. In the 1940s and 1950s, small cyclotrons were used for isotope production and in the mid 60s, the biological effect of neutrons was more thoroughly studied, with the result that a second trial of neutron therapy was initiated at Hammersmith Hospital, England. Concurrent with this, work on the use of high energy charged particles, initially protons and alphas, was initiated in Sweden and Russia and at Harvard and Berkeley. The English success in neutron therapy led to some pilot studies in the USA using physics cyclotrons of various energies and targets. These results in turn lead to the present series of machines presently being installed at M.D. Anderson Hospital (42 MeV), Seattle (50 MeV) and UCLA (46 MeV). The future probably bodes well for cyclotrons at the two extremes of the energy range. For nuclear medicine the shift is away from the use of multiple isotopes, which requires a large range of particles and energies to 11C, 13N, 15O, and 18F, which can be incorporated in metabolic specific compounds and be made with small 8-10 MeV p+ "table top" cyclotrons. For tumor therapy machines of 60 MeV or so will probably be the choice for the future, as they allow the treatment of deep seated tumors with neutrons and the charged particles have sufficient range to allow the treatment of ocular tumors.

  7. When the future becomes the past: Differences in brain activation patterns for episodic memory and episodic future thinking.

    PubMed

    Weiler, Julia A; Suchan, Boris; Daum, Irene

    2010-10-15

    Episodic memory and episodic future thinking activate a network of overlapping brain regions, but little is known about the mechanism with which the brain separates the two processes. It was recently suggested that differential activity for memory and future thinking may be linked to differences in the phenomenal properties (e.g., richness of detail). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in healthy subjects and a novel experimental design, we investigated the networks involved in the imagery of future and the recall of past events for the same target occasion, i.e. the Christmas and New Year's holidays, thereby keeping temporal distance and content similar across conditions. Although ratings of phenomenal characteristics were comparable for future thoughts and memories, differential activation patterns emerged. The right posterior hippocampus exhibited stronger memory-related activity during early event recall, and stronger future thought-related activity during late event imagination. Other regions, e.g., the precuneus and lateral prefrontal cortex, showed the reverse activation pattern with early future-associated and late past-associated activation. Memories compared to future thoughts were further related to stronger activation in several visual processing regions, which accords with a reactivation of the original perceptual experience. In conclusion, the results showed for the first time unique neural signatures for both memory and future thinking even in the absence of differences in phenomenal properties and suggested different time courses of brain activation for episodic memory and future thinking.

  8. NASA's Future Active Remote Sensing Missing for Earth Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartley, Jonathan B.

    2000-01-01

    Since the beginning of space remote sensing of the earth, there has been a natural progression widening the range of electromagnetic radiation used to sense the earth, and slowly, steadily increasing the spatial, spectral, and radiometric resolution of the measurements. There has also been a somewhat slower trend toward active measurements across the electromagnetic spectrum, motivated in part by increased resolution, but also by the ability to make new measurements. Active microwave instruments have been used to measure ocean topography, to study the land surface. and to study rainfall from space. Future NASA active microwave missions may add detail to the topographical studies, sense soil moisture, and better characterize the cryosphere. Only recently have active optical instruments been flown in space by NASA; however, there are currently several missions in development which will sense the earth with lasers and many more conceptual active optical missions which address the priorities of NASA's earth science program. Missions are under development to investigate the structure of the terrestrial vegetation canopy, to characterize the earth's ice caps, and to study clouds and aerosols. Future NASA missions may measure tropospheric vector winds and make vastly improved measurements of the chemical components of the earth's atmosphere.

  9. What the future holds for ectodermal dysplasias: future research and treatment directions.

    PubMed

    Slavkin, Harold C

    2009-09-01

    A contrarian view suggests that the ectodermal dysplasias, including more than 200 different disorders, represent clinical variability and molecular heterogeneity as well as complex multigene heritable conditions often characterized by dysmorphogenesis of derivatives of embryonic ectoderm and beyond. Controversy exists over which syndromes do or do not belong in the classification of the clinical features that characterize ectodermal dysplasias. For example, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome is characterized by abnormalities of the teeth and hair, as well as of the skeleton and the cardiovascular system. Precision in diagnosis often is a preamble for improved patient diagnosis, treatment and desired outcomes. In tandem, molecular studies of complex epithelial-mesenchymal interactions required for ectodermal derivatives (e.g., hair, nail, skin, teeth, and exocrine glands) continue to identify and explain many signal transduction pathways and networks related to ectodermal dysplasias. Meanwhile, major international investments in fundamental biomedical research continue to yield significant benefits to the larger society. The convergence of informatics, nanotechnology, genomics, and epigenetic studies with clinical medicine and dentistry promise major progress for special needs patients such as ectodermal dysplasias. For example, investments in the molecular biology of genes and their regulation and function now provide more than 30 candidates for specific biomarkers to improve diagnosis, prognosis, treatments, therapeutics, and biomaterials for ectodermal dysplasias. Innovations in high throughput genotyping, gene mapping, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), interference RNA treatments, bioimaging, tissue engineering and related biomimetic approaches to design and fabricate biomaterials, offer enormous promise for the future of ectodermal dysplasias.

  10. Childhood leukaemia risks: from unexplained findings near nuclear installations to recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Laurier, D; Grosche, B; Auvinen, A; Clavel, J; Cobaleda, C; Dehos, A; Hornhardt, S; Jacob, S; Kaatsch, P; Kosti, O; Kuehni, C; Lightfoot, T; Spycher, B; Van Nieuwenhuyse, A; Wakeford, R; Ziegelberger, G

    2014-09-01

    Recent findings related to childhood leukaemia incidence near nuclear installations have raised questions which can be answered neither by current knowledge on radiation risk nor by other established risk factors. In 2012, a workshop was organised on this topic with two objectives: (a) review of results and discussion of methodological limitations of studies near nuclear installations; (b) identification of directions for future research into the causes and pathogenesis of childhood leukaemia. The workshop gathered 42 participants from different disciplines, extending widely outside of the radiation protection field. Regarding the proximity of nuclear installations, the need for continuous surveillance of childhood leukaemia incidence was highlighted, including a better characterisation of the local population. The creation of collaborative working groups was recommended for consistency in methodologies and the possibility of combining data for future analyses. Regarding the causes of childhood leukaemia, major fields of research were discussed (environmental risk factors, genetics, infections, immunity, stem cells, experimental research). The need for multidisciplinary collaboration in developing research activities was underlined, including the prevalence of potential predisposition markers and investigating further the infectious aetiology hypothesis. Animal studies and genetic/epigenetic approaches appear of great interest. Routes for future research were pointed out.

  11. The age of citizen science: Stimulating future environmental research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, S. N.

    2010-12-01

    Public awareness of the state of the ocean is growing with issues such as climate change, over-harvesting, marine pollution, coral bleaching, ocean acidification and sea level rise appearing regularly in popular media outlets. Society is also placing greater value on the range of ecosystem services the ocean provides. This increased consciousness of environmental change due to a combination of anthropogenic activities and impacts from climate change offers scientists the opportunity of engaging citizens in environmental research. The term citizen science refers to scientific research carried out by citizens and led by professionals, which involves large scale data collection whilst simultaneously engaging and educating those who participate. Most projects that engage citizen scientists have been specifically designed to provide an educational benefit to the volunteer and benefit the scientific inquiry by collecting extensive data sets over large geographical areas. Engaging the public in environmental science is not a new concept and successful projects (such as the Audobon Christmas Bird Count and Earthwatch) have been running for several decades resulting in hundreds of thousands of people conducting long-term field research in partnership with scientists based at universities worldwide. The realm of citizen science projects is continually expanding, with public engagement options ranging from science online; to backyard afternoon studies; to fully immersive experiential learning projects running for weeks at a time. Some organisations, such as Earthwatch also work in partnership with private industry; giving scientists access to more funding opportunities than those avenues traditionally available. These scientist -industry partnerships provide mutual benefits as the results of research projects in environments such as coastal ecosystems feed directly back into business risk strategies; for example mitigating shoreline erosion, storm surges, over fishing and

  12. Present and Future Automotive Composite Materials Research Efforts at DOE

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-07-03

    Automobiles of the future will be forced to travel fi.uther on a tank of fuel while discharging lower levels of pollutants. Currently, the United States uses in excess of 16.4 million barrels of petroleum per day. Sixty-six percent of that petroleum is used in the transportation of people and goods. Automobiles currently account for just under two-thirds of the nation's gasoline consumptio~ and about one-third of the total United States energy usage. [1] By improving transportation related fiel efficiency, the United States can lessen the impact that emissions have on our environment and provide a cleaner environment for fiture generations. In 1992, The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Transportation Materials completed a comprehensive program plan entitled, The Lightweight MateriaIs (LWko Multi-Year Program Plan, for the development of technologies aimed at reducing vehicle mass [2]. This plan was followed in 1997 by the more comprehensive Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies research and development plan titled, Energy Eficient Vehicles for a Cleaner Environment [3] which outlines the department's plans for developing more efficient vehicles during the next ~een years. Both plans identi~ potential applications, technology needs, and R&D priorities. The goal of the Lightweight Materials Program is to develop materials and primary processing methods for the fabrication of lighter weight components which can be incorporated into automotive systems. These technologies are intended to reduce vehicle weight, increase fuel efficiency and decrease emissions. The Lightweight Materials program is jointly managed by the Department of Energy(DOE) and the United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP). Composite materiak program work is coordinated by cooperative research efforts between the DOE and the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC).

  13. Review of the Status of Learning in Research on Sport Education: Future Research and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Research concerning Sport Education’s educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students’ personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model’s impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students’ learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students’ learning, as well as teachers’ and students’ perceptions about student learning has shown students’ improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students’ learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches’ preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students’ learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students’ learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to

  14. Review of the status of learning in research on sport education: future research and practice.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Rui; Mesquita, Isabel; Hastie, Peter A

    2014-12-01

    Research concerning Sport Education's educational impact has shown unequivocal results according to students' personal and social development. Nevertheless, research is still sparse with respect to the model's impact on student learning outcomes. The goal of the present review is to therefore scrutinize what is currently known regarding students' learning during their participation in Sport Education. This research spans a variety of studies, cross various countries, school grades, the sports studied, as well as the methods applied and dimensions of student learning analyzed. While research on the impact of Sport Education on students' learning, as well as teachers' and students' perceptions about student learning has shown students' improvements during the participation in Sport Education seasons, there is still considerable variance in these results. For example, some studies report superior learning opportunities to boys and higher skill-level students while other studies have identified superior learning opportunities for girls and lower skill-level students. These inconsistent results can be explained by factors not considered in the Sport Education research, such as the effect of time on students' learning and the control of the teaching-learning process within Sport Education units. In this review directions for future research and practice are also described. Future research should define, implement, and evaluate protocols for student-coaches' preparation in order to understand the influence of this issue on students' learning as well as consider the implementation of hybrid approaches. Moreover, future studies should consider the interaction of gender and skill level and a retention test in the analysis of students' learning improvements in order to obtain a more realist and complete portrait of the impact of Sport Education. Finally, in order to reach an entirely understanding of the teaching-learning process, it is necessary to use research designs that

  15. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria.

    PubMed

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990's by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research.

  16. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism.

  17. Alcohol and NMDA receptor: current research and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekar, Raman

    2013-01-01

    The brain is one of the major targets of alcohol actions. Most of the excitatory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system is mediated by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. However, one of the most devastating effects of alcohol leads to brain shrinkage, loss of nerve cells at specific regions through a mechanism involving excitotoxicity, oxidative stress. Earlier studies have indicated that chronic exposure to ethanol both in vivo and in vitro, increases NR1 and NR2B gene expression and their polypeptide levels. The effect of alcohol and molecular changes on the regulatory process, which modulates NMDAR functions including factors altering transcription, translation, post-translational modifications, and protein expression, as well as those influencing their interactions with different regulatory proteins (downstream effectors) are incessantly increasing at the cellular level. Further, I discuss the various genetically altered mice approaches that have been used to study NMDA receptor subunits and their functional implication. In a recent countable review, epigenetic dimension (i.e., histone modification-induced chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation, in the process of alcohol related neuroadaptation) is one of the key molecular mechanisms in alcohol mediated NMDAR alteration. Here, I provide a recount on what has already been achieved, current trends and how the future research/studies of the NMDA receptor might lead to even greater engagement with many possible new insights into the neurobiology and treatment of alcoholism. PMID:23754976

  18. Killing Me Softly—Future Challenges in Apoptosis Research

    PubMed Central

    Westhoff, Mike-Andrew; Brühl, Oliver; Nonnenmacher, Lisa; Karpel-Massler, Georg; Debatin, Klaus-Michael

    2014-01-01

    The induction of apoptosis, a highly regulated and clearly defined mode of cell dying, is a vital tenet of modern cancer therapy. In this review we focus on three aspects of apoptosis research which we believe are the most crucial and most exciting areas currently investigated and that will need to be better understood in order to enhance the efficacy of therapeutic measures. First, we discuss which target to select for cancer therapy and argue that not the cancer cell as such, but its interaction with the microenvironment is a more promising and genetically stable site of attack. Second, the complexity of combination therapy is elucidated using the PI3-K-mediated signaling network as a specific example. Here we show that the current clinical approach to sensitize malignancies to apoptosis by maximal, prolonged inhibition of so-called survival pathways can actually be counter productive. Third, we propose that under certain conditions which will need to be clearly defined in future, chronification of a tumor might be preferable to the attempt at a cure. Finally, we discuss further problems with utilizing apoptosis induction in cancer therapy and propose a novel potential therapeutic approach that combines the previously discussed features. PMID:24595238

  19. Future research trends in the major chemical language of bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Venturi, Vittorio; Subramoni, Sujatha

    2009-01-01

    Microbiology was revolutionized in the 1990’s by the discovery that many different bacterial species coordinate their behavior when they form a group. In fact, bacteria are now considered multicellular organisms capable of communicating and changing behavior in relation to their cell-density; since 1994 this has been called quorum sensing. This group behavior ensures survival and propagation of the community in many natural environments. Bacterial intercellular communication is mediated by different chemical signals that are synthesized by bacteria which are then either secreted or diffused in the external environment. Bacteria are then able to detect the type and concentration of the signal resulting in regulation of gene expression and, consequently, a synchronized response by the community. The predominant signalling molecules produced by Gram-negative bacteria are N-acyl derivatives of homoserine lactone (AHLs) which have been shown to be produced by over seventy bacterial species. In this essay we discuss the importance of quorum sensing via AHLs and highlight current and future trends in this important field of research. PMID:19794815

  20. Immunological control of ectoparasites: past achievements and future research priorities.

    PubMed

    Willadsen, P

    1999-11-01

    Recombinant vaccines are available for the control of the tick Boophilus microplus, while progress has been made in the development of vaccines against Lucilia cuprina and Chrysomya bezziana. Literature suggests that the control of other ectoparasites is feasible, either through the duplication in a vaccine of naturally acquired immunity or through 'concealed' antigen vaccines. Major deficiencies in our current knowledge however point to possible research opportunities for the future. The identification of protective antigens from all species is proceeding slowly, particularly for the antigens of naturally acquired immunity. Our capacity to produce effective recombinant antigens has progressed greatly, though there remains a major difficulty where some or all of the protective effect is due to immunogenic oligosaccharide. Our understanding of protective mechanisms is limited. The delivery of the appropriate immunological response remains difficult. Nevertheless, some of the most critical areas of ignorance are in basic biological issues: factors which affect the susceptibility of particular pest species to immunological attack and the implications of vaccine-induced effects for pest and disease control under field conditions. Increasingly too, effective pest control is likely to demand the integration of a variety of control technologies. The study of this integration is in its infancy.

  1. Fog Research: A Review of Past Achievements and Future Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gultepe, I.; Tardif, R.; Michaelides, S. C.; Cermak, J.; Bott, A.; Bendix, J.; Müller, M. D.; Pagowski, M.; Hansen, B.; Ellrod, G.; Jacobs, W.; Toth, G.; Cober, S. G.

    2007-06-01

    The scientific community that includes meteorologists, physical scientists, engineers, medical doctors, biologists, and environmentalists has shown interest in a better understanding of fog for years because of its effects on, directly or indirectly, the daily life of human beings. The total economic losses associated with the impact of the presence of fog on aviation, marine and land transportation can be comparable to those of tornadoes or, in some cases, winter storms and hurricanes. The number of articles including the word ``fog'' in Journals of American Meteorological Society alone was found to be about 4700, indicating that there is substantial interest in this subject. In spite of this extensive body of work, our ability to accurately forecast/nowcast fog remains limited due to our incomplete understanding of the fog processes over various time and space scales. Fog processes involve droplet microphysics, aerosol chemistry, radiation, turbulence, large/small-scale dynamics, and surface conditions (e.g., partaining to the presence of ice, snow, liquid, plants, and various types of soil). This review paper summarizes past achievements related to the understanding of fog formation, development and decay, and in this respect, the analysis of observations and the development of forecasting models and remote sensing methods are discussed in detail. Finally, future perspectives for fog-related research are highlighted.

  2. Research on the International Space Station: Understanding Future Potential from Current Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, Julie A.

    2007-01-01

    In November 2007, the International Space Station (ISS) will have supported seven years of continuous presence in space, with 15 Expeditions completed. These years have been characterized by the numerous technical challenges of assembly as well as operational and logistical challenges related to the availability of transportation by the Space Shuttle. During this period, an active set of early research objectives have also been accomplished alongside the assembly. This paper will review the research accomplishments on ISS to date, with the objective of drawing insights on the potential of future research following completion of ISS assembly. By the end of Expedition 15, an expected 121 U.S.-managed investigations will have been conducted on ISS, with 91 of these completed. Many of these investigations include multiple scientific objectives, with an estimated total of 334 scientists served. Through February 2007, 101 scientific publications have been identified. Another 184 investigations have been sponsored by ISS international partners, which independently track their scientists served and results publication. Through this survey of U.S. research completed on ISS, three different themes will be addressed: (1) How have constraints on transportation of mass to orbit affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for increasing the success of ISS as a research platform during the period following the retirement of the Space Shuttle? (2) How have constraints on crew time for research during assembly and the active participation of crewmembers as scientists affected the types of research successfully completed on the ISS to date? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return following the increase in capacity from 3 to 6 crewmembers (planned for 2009)? What lessons can be learned for optimizing research return after assembly is complete? (3) What do early research results indicate about the various

  3. Animal biowarfare research: historical perspective and potential future attacks.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Jung-Yong; Park, Jee-Yong; Cho, Yun Sang; Cho, In-Soo

    2012-12-01

    A biological attack on livestock or poultry could result in the loss of valuable animals, costs related to the containment of outbreaks and the disposal of carcasses, lost trade and other economic effects involving suppliers, transporters, distributors and restaurants; however, it is not possible to secure all livestock, and livestock are much less well guarded than human targets. Thus, the vulnerability of the livestock industry to the introduction of biological agents varies for the following reasons: (i) the majority of lethal and contagious biological agents are environmentally resilient, endemic in foreign countries and harmless to humans, making it easier for terrorists to acquire, handle and deploy these pathogens, (ii) with animals concentrated in fewer production facilities and frequently transported between these facilities, a single pathogen introduction could cause widespread infection and (iii) the extent of human travel around the globe makes it difficult to exclude exotic animal diseases as possible biological agents. Historically, many governments have developed and planned to use biological agents for direct attacks on livestock or poultry. In the past, developed nations have actively developed biological weapons to target animals. The potential spectrum of bioterrorism ranges from isolated acts against individuals by individuals to tactical and strategic military attacks and state-sponsored international terrorism intended to cause mass casualties in animals, humans or both. This review provides an overview of the past development and use of biological weapons and describes potential future attacks.

  4. Present and Future Activities on Neutron Imaging in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Aureliano; Blostein, Jerónimo; Cantargi, Florencia; Marín, Julio; Baruj, Alberto; Meyer, Gabriel; Santisteban, Javier; Sánchez, Fernando

    We present here a short review of the main work which has been done in the latest years in neutron imaging in Argentina, and the future plans for the development of this technique in the country, mainly focused in the design of a new neutron imaging instrument to be installed in the future research reactor RA10. We present here the results of the implementation of the technique in samples belonging to the Argentinean cultural heritage and experiments related with hydrogen storage. At the same time, the Argentinean RA10 project for the design and construction of a 30 MW multipurpose research reactor is rapidly progressing. It started to be designed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the technology company INVAP SE, both from Argentina, in June 2010. The construction will start in the beginning of 2015 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center, at 36 km from Buenos Aires City, and is expected to be finished by 2020. One of the main aims of the project is to offer to the Argentinean scientific and technology system new capabilities based on neutron techniques. We present here the conceptual design of a neutron imaging facility which will use one of the cold neutron beams, and will be installed in the reactor hall. Preliminary simulation results show that at the farthest detection position, at about 17 m from the cold source, a uniform neutron beam on a detection screen with an intensity of about 108 n/cm2/s is expected.

  5. Some Recent Advances and Future Directions in Permafrost Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Grosse, G.; Marchenko, S. S.

    2010-12-01

    The impact of climate warming on permafrost and the potential of climate feedbacks resulting from permafrost thawing have recently received a great deal of attention. Field-based studies, remote sensing and modeling are revealing complex feedbacks of permafrost degradation to terrestrial and offshore environments in Polar Regions and the Earth’s atmosphere. Major research questions that remain to be adequately answered involve uncertainties about the vulnerability of permafrost to thaw, a projected decline in permafrost extent during the coming decades, ecosystem feedbacks, and the global consequences to climate change of mobilizing ancient carbon from permafrost as it thaws. Some of these important questions are: How resilient is permafrost to climate change and external disturbance, and what are the feedbacks to permafrost stability? How will permafrost degradation and landform changes alter hydrology and ecosystems? How large are carbon pools in and beneath permafrost including subsea permafrost, how vulnerable are they to disturbance related to degradation of permafrost, and to what extent will altered carbon and energy cycles affect the global climate? Ground temperatures are a primary indicator of permafrost stability. The monitoring network of the Thermal State of Permafrost (TSP) program under the Fourth International Polar Year (IPY) has more than 550 sites across the circumpolar region. TSP measurements, combined with numerical thermal modeling, now provide a relatively comprehensive assessment of panarctic permafrost dynamics during the last ~100 years. However, current numerical models project the future state of permafrost largely based on subsurface thermal dynamics driven by regional or global climate model projections and internal surface and ground properties. These models largely ignore complicated sub-grid scale feedbacks associated with dynamic ecological components and disturbance. Disturbances of the ground thermal regime can be triggered by

  6. Aeronautical Communications Research and Development Needs for Future Air Traffic Management Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.

    2002-01-01

    Continuing growth in regional and global air travel has resulted in increasing traffic congestion in the air and on the ground. In spite of occasional temporary downturns due to economic recessions and catastrophic events, average growth rates of air travel have remained high since the 1960s. The resulting congestion, which constrains expansion of the air transportation industry, inflicts schedule delays and decreases overall system efficiency, creating a pressing need to develop more efficient methods of air traffic management (ATM). New ATM techniques, procedures, air space automation methods, and decision support tools are being researched and developed for deployment in time frames stretching from the next few years to the year 2020 and beyond. As these methods become more advanced and increase in complexity, the requirements for information generation, sharing and transfer among the relevant entities in the ATM system increase dramatically. However, current aeronautical communications systems will be inadequate to meet the future information transfer demands created by these advanced ATM systems. Therefore, the NASA Glenn Research Center is undertaking research programs to develop communication, methods and key technologies that can meet these future requirements. As part of this process, studies, workshops, testing and experimentation, and research and analysis have established a number of research and technology development needs. The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical research and technology needs that have been identified in these activities, and explain how these needs have been determined.

  7. 75 FR 80853 - Designing a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-23

    ... Technology AGENCY: National Coordination Office (NCO) for the Networking and Information Technology Research... Technology''. ACTION: Request for Information (RFI). SUMMARY: Networking and Information Technology Research... a Digital Future: Federally Funded Research and Development in Networking and Information...

  8. Electroactive Biofilms: Current Status and Future Research Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Reguera, Gemma; Ringeisen, Bradley; Wang, Zhiwu; Feng, Yujie; Kim, Byung Hong

    2011-01-01

    Electroactive biofilms generated by electrochemically active microorganisms have many potential applications in bioenergy and chemicals production. This review assesses the effects of microbiological and process parameters on enrichment of such biofilms as well as critically evaluates the current knowledge of the mechanisms of extracellular electron transfer in BES systems. First we discuss the role of biofilm forming microorganisms vs. planktonic microorganisms. Physical, chemical and electrochemical parameters which dictate the enrichment and subsequent performance of the biofilms are discussed. Potential dependent biological parameters including biofilm growth rate, specific electron transfer rate and others and their relationship to BES system performance is assessed. A review of the mechanisms of electron transfer in BES systems is included followed by a discussion of biofilm and its exopolymeric components and their electrical conductivity. A discussion of the electroactive biofilms in biocathodes is also included. Finally, we identify the research needs for further development of the electroactive biofilms to enable commercial applications.

  9. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cline, M.; Perry, F. V.; Valentine, G. A.; Smistad, E.

    2005-12-01

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgement, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 X 10-8 per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 X 10-8 be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered; 1) igneous intrusion-groundwater transport case and 2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the contents of

  10. Potential Future Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    M. Cline; F. Perry; G. Valentine; E. Smistad

    2005-05-26

    Location, timing, and volumes of post-Miocene volcanic activity, along with expert judgment, provide the basis for assessing the probability of future volcanism intersecting a proposed repository for nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Analog studies of eruptive centers in the region that may represent the style and extent of possible future igneous activity at Yucca Mountain have aided in defining the consequence scenarios for intrusion into and eruption through a proposed repository. Modeling of magmatic processes related to magma/proposed repository interactions has been used to assess the potential consequences of a future igneous event through a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain. Results of work to date indicate future igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region has a very low probability of intersecting the proposed repository. Probability of a future event intersecting a proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is approximately 1.7 x 10{sup -8} per year. Since completion of the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Assessment (PVHA) in 1996, anomalies representing potential buried volcanic centers have been identified from aeromagnetic surveys. A re-assessment of the hazard is currently underway to evaluate the probability of intersection in light of new information and to estimate the probability of one or more volcanic conduits located in the proposed repository along a dike that intersects the proposed repository. US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations for siting and licensing a proposed repository require that the consequences of a disruptive event (igneous event) with annual probability greater than 1 x 10{sup -8} be evaluated. Two consequence scenarios are considered: (1) igneous intrusion-poundwater transport case and (2) volcanic eruptive case. These scenarios equate to a dike or dike swarm intersecting repository drifts containing waste packages, formation of a conduit leading to a volcanic eruption through the repository that carries the

  11. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  12. Research Strategy 2002-5. Influencing the Future: Informing Policy and Improving Practice through Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dewsbury, Angela, Ed.

    England's Learning and Skills Research Centre (LSRC) is working to build a strong body of evidence from rigorous research that is focused on critical and innovative thinking and models and solutions for the long-term development of post-16 learning. In 2002-2005, the LSRC will focus on the following activities and goals: identify key priorities;…

  13. Active Videogames and Weight Management: Is There a Future?

    PubMed

    Maddison, Ralph; Jull, Andrew; Marsh, Samantha; Direito, Artur; Mhurchu, Cliona Ni

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the effects of an active videogame (AVG) intervention (Sony [Tokyo, Japan] PlayStation(®) EyeToy(®)) compared with non-AVGs on body composition, physical activity, sedentary behavior, and snack food consumption among overweight 10-12-year-old children over 24 weeks. Our research showed a treatment effect on body mass index and percentage body fat in favor of the intervention group. There was no difference between groups for total physical activity levels, but there was an increase in self-reported AVG play and reductions in non-AVG play and snack food consumption in the intervention group. Research is needed to determine how to augment the effects observed in this study.

  14. Exploring Astrobiology: Future and In-Service Teacher Research Experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, J.; Williams, L. D.; Snell, T.; Gaucher, E.; Harris, B.; Usselman, M. C.; Millman, R. S.

    2009-12-01

    The Georgia Tech Center for Ribosome Adaptation and Evolution, a center funded by the NASA Astrobiology Institute, developed an educational Astrobiology program titled, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology.” The purpose of the program was to provide educators with the materials, exposure, and skills necessary to prepare our future workforce and to foster student interest in scientific discovery on Earth and throughout the universe. A one-week, non-residential summer enrichment program for high school students was conducted and tested by two high school educators, an undergraduate student, and faculty in the Schools of Biology, and Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech. In an effort to promote and encourage entry into teaching careers, Georgia Tech paired in-service teachers in the Georgia Intern-Fellowship for Teachers (GIFT) program with an undergraduate student interested in becoming a teacher through the Tech to Teaching program. The GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows investigated extremophiles which have adapted to life under extreme environmental conditions. As a result, extremophiles became the focus of a week-long, “Life on the Edge: Astrobiology” curriculum aligned with the Georgia Performance Standards in Biology. Twenty-five high school students explored the adaptation and survival rates for various types of extremophiles exposed to UV radiation and desiccation; students were also introduced to hands-on activities and techniques such as genomic DNA purification, gel electrophoresis, and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). The impact on everyone invested and involved in the Astrobiology program including the GIFT and Tech to Teaching fellows, high school students, and faculty are discussed.

  15. Current research and future directions in pattern identification: Results of an international symposium.

    PubMed

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Ju Ah; Alraek, Terje; Bian, Zhao-Xiang; Birch, Stephen; Goto, Hirozo; Jung, Jeeyoun; Kao, Shung-Te; Moon, Sang-Kwan; Park, Bongki; Park, Kyung-Mo; You, Sooseong; Yun, Kyung-Jin; Zaslawski, Chris

    2016-12-01

    A symposium on pattern identification (PI) was held at the Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) on October 2, 2013, in Daejeon, South Korea. This symposium was convened to provide information on the current research in PI as well as suggest future research directions. The participants discussed the nature of PI, possible research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research. With eight presentations and an extensive panel discussion, the symposium allowed participants to discuss research methods in traditional medicine for PI. One speaker presented the topic, 'Clinical pattern differentiation and contemporary research in PI.' Two speakers presented current trends in research on blood stasis while the remaining five other delegates discussed the research methods and future directions of PI research. The participants engaged in in-depth discussions regarding the nature of PI, potential research questions, strategies and future international collaborations in pattern research.

  16. UAS Integration in the NAS Project and Future Autonomy Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation highlights NASA use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) and related technologies for civil purposes. This briefing will give more insight into the UAS projects progress and future goals.

  17. Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Im, E

    2001-04-01

    Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed.

  18. Motor Imagery during Action Observation: A Brief Review of Evidence, Theory and Future Research Opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Eaves, Daniel L.; Riach, Martin; Holmes, Paul S.; Wright, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have traditionally been viewed as two separate techniques, which can both be used alongside physical practice to enhance motor learning and rehabilitation. Their independent use has largely been shown to be effective, and there is clear evidence that the two processes can elicit similar activity in the motor system. Building on these well-established findings, research has now turned to investigate the effects of their combined use. In this article, we first review the available neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (AO+MI) on motor processes. We next describe a conceptual framework for their combined use, and then discuss several areas for future research into AO+MI processes. In this review, we advocate a more integrated approach to AO+MI techniques than has previously been adopted by movement scientists and practitioners alike. We hope that this early review of an emergent body of research, along with a related set of research questions, can inspire new work in this area. We are optimistic that future research will further confirm if, how, and when this combined approach to AO+MI can be more effective in motor learning and rehabilitation settings, relative to the more traditional application of MI or AO independently. PMID:27917103

  19. Prebiotics and the health benefits of fiber: current regulatory status, future research, and goals.

    PubMed

    Brownawell, Amy M; Caers, Wim; Gibson, Glenn R; Kendall, Cyril W C; Lewis, Kara D; Ringel, Yehuda; Slavin, Joanne L

    2012-05-01

    First defined in the mid-1990s, prebiotics, which alter the composition and activity of gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota to improve health and well-being, have generated scientific and consumer interest and regulatory debate. The Life Sciences Research Organization, Inc. (LSRO) held a workshop, Prebiotics and the Health Benefits of Fiber: Future Research and Goals, in February 2011 to assess the current state of the science and the international regulatory environment for prebiotics, identify research gaps, and create a strategy for future research. A developing body of evidence supports a role for prebiotics in reducing the risk and severity of GI infection and inflammation, including diarrhea, inflammatory bowel disease, and ulcerative colitis as well as bowel function disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. Prebiotics also increase the bioavailability and uptake of minerals and data suggest that they reduce the risk of obesity by promoting satiety and weight loss. Additional research is needed to define the relationship between the consumption of different prebiotics and improvement of human health. New information derived from the characterization of the composition and function of different prebiotics as well as the interactions among and between gut microbiota and the human host would improve our understanding of the effects of prebiotics on health and disease and could assist in surmounting regulatory issues related to prebiotic use.

  20. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  1. Modeling Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experiences: An Agenda for Future Research and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Corwin, Lisa A.; Graham, Mark J.; Dolan, Erin L.

    2015-01-01

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed. PMID:25687826

  2. Modeling course-based undergraduate research experiences: an agenda for future research and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Corwin, Lisa A; Graham, Mark J; Dolan, Erin L

    2015-03-02

    Course-based undergraduate research experiences (CUREs) are being championed as scalable ways of involving undergraduates in science research. Studies of CUREs have shown that participating students achieve many of the same outcomes as students who complete research internships. However, CUREs vary widely in their design and implementation, and aspects of CUREs that are necessary and sufficient to achieve desired student outcomes have not been elucidated. To guide future research aimed at understanding the causal mechanisms underlying CURE efficacy, we used a systems approach to generate pathway models representing hypotheses of how CURE outcomes are achieved. We started by reviewing studies of CUREs and research internships to generate a comprehensive set of outcomes of research experiences, determining the level of evidence supporting each outcome. We then used this body of research and drew from learning theory to hypothesize connections between what students do during CUREs and the outcomes that have the best empirical support. We offer these models as hypotheses for the CURE community to test, revise, elaborate, or refute. We also cite instruments that are ready to use in CURE assessment and note gaps for which instruments need to be developed.

  3. Household Equipment Research: Past Accomplishments, Challenges for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovingood, Rebecca P.; Lytton, Ruth H.

    1984-01-01

    Reviewing household equipment research over 75 years, this study found researchers responding to needs for information on new appliances, energy, and consumer protection. Since 1950 research has increasingly reflected marketers' concerns. Researchers have been hampered by problems of conceptualization, visibility, funding, and a reactive…

  4. From comparative effectiveness research to patient-centered outcomes research: policy history and future directions.

    PubMed

    D'Arcy, Laura P; Rich, Eugene C

    2012-07-01

    Containing growth in health care expenditures is considered to be essential to improving both the long-term fiscal outlook of the federal government and the future affordability of health care in the US. As health care expenditures have increased, so too have concerns about the quality of health care. Better information on the clinical effectiveness of alternative treatments and other interventions is needed to improve the quality of care and restrain growth in expenditures. This article explains the key role played by the federal government in defining the context and process of comparative effectiveness research as well as its funding. Subsequently, the article explores the mission, priorities, and research agenda of the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, which is an independent, nonprofit corporation established in 2010 by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

  5. Work group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair

    2009-04-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.

  6. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  7. TU-EF-BRD-04: Summing It Up: The Future of Quality and Safety Research

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, E.

    2015-06-15

    Research related to quality and safety has been a staple of medical physics academic activities for a long time. From very early on, medical physicists have developed new radiation measurement equipment and analysis techniques, created ever increasingly accurate dose calculation models, and have vastly improved imaging, planning, and delivery techniques. These and other areas of interest have improved the quality and safety of radiotherapy for our patients. With the advent of TG-100, quality and safety is an area that will garner even more research interest in the future. As medical physicists pursue quality and safety research in greater numbers, it is worthwhile to consider what actually constitutes research on quality and safety. For example, should the development of algorithms for real-time EPID-based in-vivo dosimetry be defined as “quality and safety” research? How about the clinical implementation of such as system? Surely the application of failure modes and effects analysis to a clinical process would be considered quality and safety research, but is this type of research that should be included in the medical physics peer-reviewed literature? The answers to such questions are of critical importance to set researchers in a direction that will provide the greatest benefit to our field and the patients we serve. The purpose of this symposium is to consider what constitutes research in the arena of quality and safety and differentiate it from other research directions. The key distinction here is developing the tool itself (e.g. algorithms for EPID dosimetry) vs. studying the impact of the tool with some quantitative metric. Only the latter would I call quality and safety research. Issues of ‘basic’ versus ‘applied’ quality and safety research will be covered as well as how the research results should be structured to provide increasing levels of support that a quality and safety intervention is effective and sustainable. Examples from existing

  8. Adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular consequences of chronic emotional stress: Review and perspectives for future research.

    PubMed

    Crestani, Carlos C

    2017-03-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Adolescence has been proposed as a developmental period of vulnerability to stress. This idea has been mainly supported by experimental research in animals demonstrating a higher impact of chronic emotional stress in adolescents compared with adults. Adolescent vulnerability is also based on evidence that stress during this developmental period affects development, so that enduring changes are found in adult animals that experienced stress during adolescence. The purpose of the present review is to discuss experimental research in rodent models that investigated the impact of long-term exposure to stressful events during adolescence on cardiovascular function. The development of cardiovascular function and autonomic activity in rodents is initially reviewed. Then, a discussion of an adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular effects of chronic stress is presented. From the reviewed literature, perspective for future research is proposed to better elucidate adolescent vulnerability to cardiovascular complications evoked by chronic emotional stress.

  9. CCMC/Space Weather Research Center: Overview and Future Space Weather Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.

    2015-12-01

    Space Weather Research Center (SWRC), part of the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC), was established in 2010 to address emerging space weather needs of NASA robotic missions. By leveraging CCMC's modeling capabilities and through collaborations with different NASA centers, government agencies, educational institutions and multiple entities worldwide, SWRC provides research-based space weather forecasting, monitoring and anomaly support to NASA users. SWRC analyst team has also helped to identify limitations of current models and thus accelerate R2O-O2R process. In addition, the establishment of SWRC has added a new dimension to CCMC's education program. In this presentation, an overview of SWRC activities will be given. Future research and modeling needs will be discussed from the perspective of a space weather analyst.

  10. Scientific research in school psychology: Leading researchers weigh in on its past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Kent; Martinez, Rebecca S; Ty, Sophie V; McClain, Maryellen B

    2013-06-01

    A survey of established researchers in school psychology was conducted to reflect on the state of the science of school psychology research. A total of 54 members of the Society for the Study of School Psychology shared their perceptions of (a) the most significant findings of the past 25years that have influenced research and practice in school psychology, (b) current, exciting research topics, and (c) topics that are likely to guide the future of research in school psychology. Qualitative analyses revealed 6 major categories and 17 minor categories within the major categories. Four major categories were present across each of the three time periods: (a) Data-Informed Practices and their Implementation, (b) Theory Development, (c) Changing Role and Function, and (d) Biological Bases of Behavior. Additional major categories included Advances in Research Methodology and Psychometrics (found across past and present time periods) and There is Not One Single Most Important Idea (found during only the past time period). Quotations are provided to illustrate these categories and share the respondents' ideas in their own words.

  11. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda.

  12. Ayurvedic research and methodology: Present status and future strategies

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ashutosh; Semwal, Deepak Kumar; Mishra, Satyendra Prasad; Semwal, Ruchi Badoni

    2015-01-01

    Ayurveda is a science of life with a holistic approach to health and personalized medicine. It is one of the oldest medical systems, which comprises thousands of medical concepts and hypothesis. Interestingly, Ayurveda has ability to treat many chronic diseases such as cancer, diabetes, arthritis, and asthma, which are untreatable in modern medicine. Unfortunately, due to lack of scientific validation in various concepts, this precious gift from our ancestors is trailing. Hence, evidence-based research is highly needed for global recognition and acceptance of Ayurveda, which needs further advancements in the research methodology. The present review highlights various fields of research including literary, fundamental, drug, pharmaceutical, and clinical research in Ayurveda. The review further focuses to improve the research methodology for Ayurveda with main emphasis on the fundamental research. This attempt will certainly encourage young researchers to work on various areas of research for the development and promotion of Ayurveda. PMID:27833362

  13. Large-Eddy Simulation: Current Capabilities, Recommended Practices, and Future Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Rizzetta, Donald P.; Fureby, Christer

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an activity by the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) Working Group of the AIAA Fluid Dynamics Technical Committee to (1) address the current capabilities of LES, (2) outline recommended practices and key considerations for using LES, and (3) identify future research needs to advance the capabilities and reliability of LES for analysis of turbulent flows. To address the current capabilities and future needs, a survey comprised of eleven questions was posed to LES Working Group members to assemble a broad range of perspectives on important topics related to LES. The responses to these survey questions are summarized with the intent not to be a comprehensive dictate on LES, but rather the perspective of one group on some important issues. A list of recommended practices is also provided, which does not treat all aspects of a LES, but provides guidance on some of the key areas that should be considered.

  14. The benefits associated with volunteering among seniors: a critical review and recommendations for future research.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nicole D; Damianakis, Thecla; Kröger, Edeltraut; Wagner, Laura M; Dawson, Deirdre R; Binns, Malcolm A; Bernstein, Syrelle; Caspi, Eilon; Cook, Suzanne L

    2014-11-01

    There is an urgent need to identify lifestyle activities that reduce functional decline and dementia associated with population aging. The goals of this article are to review critically the evidence on the benefits associated with formal volunteering among older adults, propose a theoretical model of how volunteering may reduce functional limitations and dementia risk, and offer recommendations for future research. Database searches identified 113 papers on volunteering benefits in older adults, of which 73 were included. Data from descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective cohort studies, along with 1 randomized controlled trial, most consistently reveal that volunteering is associated with reduced symptoms of depression, better self-reported health, fewer functional limitations, and lower mortality. The extant evidence provides the basis for a model proposing that volunteering increases social, physical, and cognitive activity (to varying degrees depending on characteristics of the volunteer placement) which, through biological and psychological mechanisms, leads to improved functioning; we further propose that these volunteering-related functional improvements should be associated with reduced dementia risk. Recommendations for future research are that studies (a) include more objective measures of psychosocial, physical, and cognitive functioning; (b) integrate qualitative and quantitative methods in prospective study designs; (c) explore further individual differences in the benefits associated with volunteering; (d) include occupational analyses of volunteers' specific jobs in order to identify their social, physical, and cognitive complexity; (e) investigate the independent versus interactive health benefits associated with volunteering relative to engagement in other forms of activity; and (f) examine the relationship between volunteering and dementia risk.

  15. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  16. The Gulf of Nicoya Estuary, Costa Rica: Past, present, and future cooperative research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas, J. A.

    1995-03-01

    The Gulf of Nicoya is a tectonic estuary on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica (10°N 85°W), extending about 100 km from the Tempisque river to the 500 m isobath. A dry season (December April) and a rainy season (May November) exert a significant impact on its water characteristics. The estuary is the most important fishing ground of Costa Rica, and the main Pacific ports are located within it. Coastal zone development has increased in recent years. In 1979 a research programme to study the Gulf was established at the University of Costa Rica, and foreign scientists were invited to work jointly with local experts to achieve the goals of the evaluation. More than 80 papers have been published to date, making the Gulf one of the best known tropical estuaries. The study of soft-bottom communities is an important component of this research programme. Past benthic research focused on the description of the structure of communities, while future efforts will find an unexplored field in the study of energy flow and community interactions. More than 200 species of fish, and 400 of benthic invertebrates have been identified. Future cooperative research is most welcome in larval ecology, interactions between size groups, and physiological tolerances. Considerable experience has been accumulated in the experimental manipulation of soft-bottom communities of high latitudes. This branch of ecology, however, remains little explored in the tropics. Future cooperative efforts in the Gulf of Nicoya will be established on solid ground, formed by a data base that has been improved since 1979, the existence of a marine research centre and a group of active, local scientists who have experience in working together with foreign expertise.

  17. Biofuels Feedstock Development Program: 1995 activities and future directions

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrell, J.E.; Wright, L.L.; Tuskan, G.A.

    1995-12-31

    The Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP) has led the nation in developing short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) and herbaceous energy crops (HEC) as feedstocks for renewable energy. Since 1978, approximately $60 million has been invested in research projects involving more than 100 federal, university, and private research institutions. The research has been highly leveraged with cost-sharing from USDA Forest Service, private industry, and state agencies. The performance of 154 woody species and 35 herbaceous species has been examined in field trials across the U.S. Results of this effort include the prescription of silvi-cultural systems for hybrid poplars and hybrid willows and agricultural systems for switchgrass. Selected clones of woody species are producing dry weight yields in research plots on agricultural land that are 3 to 7 times greater than those obtained from mixed species stands on forest land, and at least 2 times the yields of southern plantation pines. Selected switchgrass varieties are producing dry weight yields 2 to 7 times greater than average forage grass yields on pasture and crop land. Crop development research is continuing efforts to translate this potential to commercial enterprises over a more geographically diverse acreage. Environmental research on biomass crops is aimed at developing sustainable systems that will contribute to the biodiversity of agricultural landscapes. Systems integration and analysis aim to understand all factors affecting price and potential supplies of biomass crops at regional and national scales. Scale-up studies, feasibility analysis and demonstrations are establishing actual costs and facilitating the commercialization of integrated biomass systems. Information management and dissemination activities are facilitating the communication of results among a community of researchers, policy-makers, and potential users and producers of energy crops. 15 refs.

  18. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  19. Affordances of Augmented Reality in Science Learning: Suggestions for Future Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kun-Hung; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2013-08-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is currently considered as having potential for pedagogical applications. However, in science education, research regarding AR-aided learning is in its infancy. To understand how AR could help science learning, this review paper firstly has identified two major approaches of utilizing AR technology in science education, which are named as image- based AR and location- based AR. These approaches may result in different affordances for science learning. It is then found that students' spatial ability, practical skills, and conceptual understanding are often afforded by image-based AR and location-based AR usually supports inquiry-based scientific activities. After examining what has been done in science learning with AR supports, several suggestions for future research are proposed. For example, more research is required to explore learning experience (e.g., motivation or cognitive load) and learner characteristics (e.g., spatial ability or perceived presence) involved in AR. Mixed methods of investigating learning process (e.g., a content analysis and a sequential analysis) and in-depth examination of user experience beyond usability (e.g., affective variables of esthetic pleasure or emotional fulfillment) should be considered. Combining image-based and location-based AR technology may bring new possibility for supporting science learning. Theories including mental models, spatial cognition, situated cognition, and social constructivist learning are suggested for the profitable uses of future AR research in science education.

  20. Telecommunications Policy Research Conference. Future of Cable TV Section. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Telecommunications Policy Research Conference, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This group of four papers considers the future of the cable television industry, and in particular, examines the impact of recent court and regulatory decisions in this field. The papers presented are: (1) "The First Amendment, Cable TV, and the Must-Carry Rule: Moving towards a Cost-Benefit Analysis" (John R. Woodbury, Federal Trade…

  1. Hawaii's Communication Futures: Policy and Planning Issues; A Conference Report of the Hawaii Research Center for Futures Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Richard J., Ed.

    This volume represents a fairly complete record of a conference held in January 1977, of more than 100 individuals from Hawaiian businesses, governments, educational institutions, and other groups, which was organized by the University of Hawaii's Research Center for Futures Study. Transcripts and papers from participants, on the following topics,…

  2. Perceived Value of Research Preparation Opportunities for Future Music Education Professors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie; Svec, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to describe research leaders' perceptions of the relative importance of various research preparation opportunities for future music education professors. The 122 questionnaire respondents answered 38 Likert-type and open-ended content questions that asked about research experiences, research skills, research resources,…

  3. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research - conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}3{sup {minus}} linear colliders.

  4. Phenomenology and Mass Communication Research: An Uncertain Past and a Promising Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, D. Charles; Barkin, Steve M.

    Future research on mass media and mass communication organizations might profitably emphasize phenomenological methods (phenomenology being an interpersonal, subjective reality construction as contrasted to an objective, rationalistic, institutional reality construction). Some major phenomenological concepts important to such research were…

  5. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  6. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future needs of research and extension in forage utilization.

    PubMed

    Rouquette, F M; Redmon, L A; Aiken, G E; Hill, G M; Sollenberger, L E; Andrae, J

    2009-01-01

    Forage-animal production agriculture is implementing infrastructure changes and management strategies to adjust to increased energy-related costs of fuel, feed grains, fertilizers, and seeds. The primary objectives of this position paper are to assess future research and extension scientific needs in forage utilization, financial support for the discipline, and changing status and number of scientists. A survey questionnaire returned from 25 land-grant universities in the eastern half of the United States rated the top 4 research needs as 1) pasture systems and efficiency of production; 2) interfacing with energy concerns; 3) forage cultivar evaluations and persistence; and 4) environment impacts. Plant-animal future research needs at 11 USDA-ARS regional locations are targeted at sustainable management and improved livestock performance, ecophysiology and ecology of grasslands, environment impacts, and improved technologies for nutritive value assessments. Extension scientists from 17 southern and northeastern states listed the top 3 needs as forage persistence, soil fertility and nutrient management, and pasture systems and efficiency of production. Grant funds currently provide more than 40% of land-grant university research and extension efforts in forage utilization, and scientists estimate that this support base will increase to 55 to 60% of the funding total by 2013. Reduced allocation of state and federal funding has contributed to a reduction in the number of full-time equivalent (FTE) scientists engaged in forage utilization research and extension activities. The current 25 state FTE conducting research number about 2.8 per state. This includes 10 states with >3, 11 states with <2, and 3 states with <1 FTE. Increased interest in cellulosic energy, climate change, and environmental impact may offer new opportunities for these FTE to participate in integrated cross-discipline research Extension programming, and technology transfer methods will change to

  7. Simulator Training Requirements and Effectiveness Study (STRES): Future Research Plans.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    simulation technology. The AFHRL/OT program, using the ASPT and SAAC devices, is already embarked on an extensive visual technology research effort, one...facilities that would be required to conduct the research described. In some cases, specific research devices are mentioned, such as ASPT , SAAC, and the...configuration of a particular device cannot be foreseen at this point (e.g., the ASPT might have a variety of possible specific cockpit configurations), no

  8. [Guides and guidelines for physical activity for Canadians: facts and future].

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Shephard, Roy J; Brawley, Lawrence R; Cameron, Christine; Craig, Cora Lynn; Duggan, Mary; Esliger, Dale W; Hearst, William; Hicks, Audrey; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Latimer, Amy E; McGuire, Ashlee; Paterson, Donald H; Sharratt, Michael; Spence, John C; Timmons, Brian; Warburton, Darren; Young, T Kue; Zehr, Lori

    2007-01-01

    This article summarizes the main findings from the papers included in this journal supplement. It consolidates the evidence currently available to inform and advance the development of physical activity guidelines for Canadians, and it highlights the specific needs of various population subgroups. The challenges of translating guideline information into effective and persuasive physical activity messages, of campaigns to disseminate messages and of related evaluations are underlined. Recommendations on how to proceed are based on the evidence base provided by this series of papers; the immediate next steps mandated by this initiative are outlined and priorities for future research are indicated.

  9. Constructing a Roadmap for Future Universal Screening Research beyond Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Clayton R.; Volpe, Robert J.; Livanis, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The majority of the literature on universal screening in education is devoted to academic screeners. However, research clearly indicates that other aspects of student functioning are closely associated with outcomes inside and outside of school. As a result, there are gaps in the current literature that call for additional research extending…

  10. Relationship Education Research: Current Status and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markman, Howard J.; Rhoades, Galena K.

    2012-01-01

    The overarching aim of this article is to review the research on relationship education programs and approaches that has been published or accepted for publication since the last review article in 2003. This article provides a critical overview of the relationship education field and sets an agenda for research and practice for the next decade. A…

  11. The Future of Teaching Research in the Social Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, C.

    2009-01-01

    Current literature on teaching research methodology in the social sciences highlights the changing nature of our world in terms of its complexity and diversity, and points to how this affects the way in which we search for answers to related problems (Brew 2003, 3; Tashakkori and Teddlie 2003, 74). New ways of approaching research problems that…

  12. Research Models of the Future for Industrial and Organizational Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrett, Gerald V.

    This paper presents three different aspects of research in industrial and organizational psychology. First, characteristics of major advances in science, and in the social and behavioral sciences are given, including: (1) team research is more common for major advances; and (2) young men under 35 are responsible for many major contributions.…

  13. The Research on School Marketing: Current Issues and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oplatka, Izhar; Hemsley-Brown, Jane

    2004-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of the scholarship that has sought to expand the understanding of educational marketing practice in schools. The following research questions guided this review. What are the common themes and characteristics that emerge from research about marketing in schools? What remains underdeveloped in the characterization…

  14. Future Directions in Community Power Research: A Colloquium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wirt, Frederick M., Ed.

    This compilation of symposium papers on community power structure research focuses on the theme that community power structure research must shift away from case study methods and move toward aggregate data analysis. Advocating comparative analysis, seven authors present their views under the following topics: (1) Charles R. Adrian, "Several Loose…

  15. Mind, brain, and teaching: Some directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Pasquinelli, Elena; Zalla, Tiziana; Gvodzic, Katarina; Potier-Watkins, Cassandra; Piazza, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In line with Kline's taxonomy, highlighting teaching as an array of behaviors with different cognitive underpinnings, we advocate the expansion of a specific line of research on mind, brain, and teaching. This research program is devoted to the understanding of the neurocognitive mechanisms and the evolutionary determinants of teaching skills, with the ultimate goal of helping teachers improve teaching quality.

  16. The Future of Educational Research: Has Nietzsche Led the Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Paul

    2016-01-01

    This brief editorial suggests that educational research has allowed itself to be constructed in a very narrow way, that seeks, sometimes despite itself, even when the research is of excellent quality, to support the underlying neoliberal values and practices that support its current educational regime. Rather than lamenting this state of affairs,…

  17. Literacy and Research: Past, Present and Future. Literacy Lessons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Daniel A.

    The importance of research in literacy is that it provides some routes to greater efficiency in literacy provision. Research from the past shows how important reading and writing have been over the centuries. Literacy was often invested with social and moral power as well, and religious literacy was the predominant form of reading and writing from…

  18. Race and racism in nursing research: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Porter, Cornelia P; Barbee, Evelyn

    2004-01-01

    Nursing research on race and racism began in the 1970s. However, because these concepts were seen as cultural attitudes, race and racism were obscured. The evidence on the presence of negative attitudes, biases, and stereotypes about different racial and ethnic groups is inconsistent. During the past two decades, research on race and racism has grown, but there is still an urgent need for more high-quality research on this subject. The major recommendations from this review are to conduct observational research on racism in clinical and practice settings, not as an intellectual end in itself; to assist in eliminating of the historically based disparities among members of racial and ethnic groups; and to conduct research about racism as it affects mobility in educational and practice settings.

  19. Imagine! On the Future of Teaching and Learning and the Academic Research Library

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    In the future, what role will the academic research library play in achieving the mission of higher education? This essay describes seven strategies that academic research libraries can adopt to become future-present libraries--libraries that foster what Douglas Thomas and John Seely Brown have called "a new culture of learning." Written…

  20. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  1. Semantic Support Environment for Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Yaacob, Mashkuri; Kareem, Sameem Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Scholarly activities are a collection of academic related activities such as research, teaching and consultation work which result in research outputs such as journals, theses and articles in proceedings. The output will then be disseminated to researchers all over the world by means of the WWW. The four pillars of this scholarship i.e. discovery,…

  2. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually...

  3. How consumer physical activity monitors could transform human physiology research.

    PubMed

    Wright, Stephen P; Hall Brown, Tyish S; Collier, Scott R; Sandberg, Kathryn

    2017-03-01

    A sedentary lifestyle and lack of physical activity are well-established risk factors for chronic disease and adverse health outcomes. Thus, there is enormous interest in measuring physical activity in biomedical research. Many consumer physical activity monitors, including Basis Health Tracker, BodyMedia Fit, DirectLife, Fitbit Flex, Fitbit One, Fitbit Zip, Garmin Vivofit, Jawbone UP, MisFit Shine, Nike FuelBand, Polar Loop, Withings Pulse O2, and others have accuracies similar to that of research-grade physical activity monitors for measuring steps. This review focuses on the unprecedented opportunities that consumer physical activity monitors offer for human physiology and pathophysiology research because of their ability to measure activity continuously under real-life conditions and because they are already widely used by consumers. We examine current and potential uses of consumer physical activity monitors as a measuring or monitoring device, or as an intervention in strategies to change behavior and predict health outcomes. The accuracy, reliability, reproducibility, and validity of consumer physical activity monitors are reviewed, as are limitations and challenges associated with using these devices in research. Other topics covered include how smartphone apps and platforms, such as the Apple ResearchKit, can be used in conjunction with consumer physical activity monitors for research. Lastly, the future of consumer physical activity monitors and related technology is considered: pattern recognition, integration of sleep monitors, and other biosensors in combination with new forms of information processing.

  4. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Darnall, Beth D; Suarez, Edward C

    2009-07-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided.

  5. Sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research: Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Darnall, Beth D.; Suarez, Edward C.

    2009-01-01

    To date, research suggests that sex and gender impact pathways central to the foci of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI). This review provides a historical perspective on the evolution of sex and gender in psychoneuroimmunology research. Gender and sexually dimorphic pathways may have synergistic effects on health differences in men and women. We provide an overview of the literature of sex and gender differences in brain structure and function, sex steroids, gender role identification, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function, genetics, immunology and cytokine response. Specific examples shed light on the importance of attending to sex and gender methodology in PNI research and recommendations are provided. PMID:19272440

  6. Research reactor of the future: The advanced neutron source

    SciTech Connect

    Appleton, B.; West, C.

    1994-12-31

    Agents for cancer detection and treatment, stronger materials, better electronic gadgets, and other consumer and industrial products - these are assured benefits of a research reactor project proposed for Oak Ridge. Just as American companies have again assumed world leadership in producing semiconductor chips as well as cars and trucks, the United States is poised to retake the lead in neutron science by building and operating the $2.9 billion Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) research reactor by the start of the next century. In 1985, the neutron community, led by ORNL researchers, proposed a pioneering project, later called the ANS. Scheduled to begin operation in 2003, the ANS is seen not only as a replacement for the aging HFIR and HFBR but also as the best laboratory in the world for conducting neutron-based research.

  7. Nest predation research: Recent findings and future perspectives

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.

    2016-01-01

    Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.

  8. Future Directions in Rotorcraft Technology at Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiken, Edwin W.; Ormiston, Robert A; Young, Larry A.

    2000-01-01

    Members of the NASA and Army rotorcraft research community at Ames Research Center have developed a vision for 'Vertical Flight 2025'. This paper describes the development of that vision and the steps being taken to implement it. In an effort to realize the vision, consistent with both NASA and Army Aviation strategic plans, two specific technology development projects have been identified: (1) one focused on a personal transportation system capable of vertical flight (the 'Roto-Mobile') and (2) the other on small autonomous rotorcraft (which is inclusive of vehicles which range in grams of gross weight for 'MicroRotorcraft' to thousands of kilograms for rotorcraft uninhabited aerial vehicles). The paper provides a status report on these projects as well as a summary of other revolutionary research thrusts being planned and executed at Ames Research Center.

  9. Philanthropic partnerships and the future of cancer research.

    PubMed

    Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R

    2015-02-01

    Complementing government and industry funding, philanthropies have made distinct contributions to altering the trajectory of cancer research, often in ways that reflect both the business training of their donors and their close ties to the lay public.

  10. International Arctic Research Collaborations: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kintisch, E. S.

    2015-12-01

    International cooperation on Arctic research has a long and storied history, predating even the first International Polar Year in 1881. But scientists want to improve and expand current efforts to conduct international Arctic research, despite politcal and legal barriers that can hamper it. A review of the past and present aspects of such research can inform that effort. As part of a six month fellowship at the Center for Science Diplomacy at the American Association for the Advancement of Science I studied the history and current status of international cooperation in the Arctic. I will report on my findings, which include the fact that some of the first substantial international environmental research and regulatory cooperation began in the far North. My session will identify the elements that make international research collaborations successful, for example more than a century of cooperative work by Russian and Norwegian fishery scientists to monitor and regulate the cod trade in the Barents Sea. And it will explore the challenges that can threaten such collaborations. These can include rules that stymie data collection, block the import of certain analytical equipment across national boundaries, and bar the export of soil or water samples. I will mention specific complications to recent international arctic research projects. These include the SWERUS cruise, a joint effort between Sweden, Russia and the US, an effort to study carbon fluxes over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf in 2014. The session will also review progress towards a new international agreeement, first proposed by the US, on improving arctic research cooperation. That deal is focused on removing the bureacratic and legal barriers to scientists seeking to conduct arctic research on foreign waters and land.

  11. ASAS Centennial Paper: Future research in physiology and endocrinology.

    PubMed

    Seidel, G E

    2009-01-01

    Over the next quarter century in North America, the following eventualities are likely for physiology and endocrinology research with agricultural animals. 1) Total funding adjusted for inflation will change little but will come less from public sources, and most of that will be in the context of human health. Much of the privately funded research will be herd specific and remain proprietary. 2) The numbers of MS, PhD, and postdoctoral students probably will decrease, but research in the context of credentialing will remain important. 3) Resources such as expanded databases in genomics and proteomics, and remarkable new tools such as small inhibitory RNA will continue to become available, likely at a faster rate than in the previous 25 yr. 4) The huge amounts of data from production agriculture will make agricultural animals ideal models for some kinds of basic research, such as studying fetal programming, resulting in synergy with more applied research. Most of these experimental animals will be in private production herds and flocks, even when work is publicly funded. 5) The trend toward more interdisciplinary research will continue, especially considering interactions among reproduction, health, nutrition, selective breeding, management factors, and societal concerns; reductionist research probing deeper into cellular and molecular mechanisms will remain important, as will whole-animal approaches. 6) Agricultural animals are a product of evolution plus selective breeding. Insights drawn from the former will aid progress in the latter. One focus of research in physiology and endocrinology will be understanding heterosis, inbreeding depression, and epigenetic effects as it becomes possible to manipulate and identify the allelic structure of individual animals. 7) Additional insightful concepts will evolve that will simplify thinking in some respects, such as the maternal to embryonic shift in transcribed RNA in early embryos; however, animal biology will turn out

  12. Social Change, the Future of the Community College, and the Future of Community College Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Bernard H.

    Focusing on the social forces acting upon community colleges, this paper reviews possible modes of response by the colleges, focusing specifically on the role of institutional research. The first section presents an overview of the social forces affecting community colleges, discussing the 16% increase in two-year college enrollments in the…

  13. Saliva proteome research: current status and future outlook.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Benjamin L; Cooper-White, Justin; Punyadeera, Chamindie K

    2013-09-01

    Human saliva harbours proteins of clinical relevance and about 30% of blood proteins are also present in saliva. This highlights that saliva can be used for clinical applications just as urine or blood. However, the translation of salivary biomarker discoveries into clinical settings is hampered by the dynamics and complexity of the salivary proteome. This review focuses on the current status of technological developments and achievements relating to approaches for unravelling the human salivary proteome. We discuss the dynamics of the salivary proteome, as well as the importance of sample preparation and processing techniques and their influence on downstream protein applications; post-translational modifications of salivary proteome and protein: protein interactions. In addition, we describe possible enrichment strategies for discerning post-translational modifications of salivary proteins, the potential utility of selected-reaction-monitoring techniques for biomarker discovery and validation, limitations to proteomics and the biomarker challenge and future perspectives. In summary, we provide recommendations for practical saliva sampling, processing and storage conditions to increase the quality of future studies in an emerging field of saliva clinical proteomics. We propose that the advent of technologies allowing sensitive and high throughput proteome-wide analyses, coupled to well-controlled study design, will allow saliva to enter clinical practice as an alternative to blood-based methods due to its simplistic nature of sampling, non-invasiveness, easy of collection and multiple collections by untrained professionals and cost-effective advantages.

  14. ICARUS T600: physics results and future activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zani, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector has proven the effectiveness of Liquid Argon TPC technology with a successful three-year long run at the INFN Gran Sasso National Laboratories (LNGS). ICARUS T600 LNGS data strongly contributed to the global effort in searching for neutrino oscillations mediated by sterile states. A definitive clarification of the sterile neutrino puzzle will come from the new multi-station, Short Baseline Neutrino (SBN) experiment at the Booster Neutrino Beam (BNB) at Fermilab, where a refurbished T600 will act as Far Detector. Presently the T600 detector is located at CERN, undergoing a major overhauling which will allow its participation in the 5 years program of the Fermilab upcoming SBN project. Moreover, ICARUS T600 is also foreseen to collect data with the NUMI Beam to be later exploited in the wider picture of the DUNE Long-Baseline project, recently undertaken by the United States community. This contribution will report the present physics results obtained by the ICARUS Collaboration, as well as describe the overhauling activities and the physics program for the detector in its future deployment at Fermilab.

  15. Transfusion recipient epidemiology and outcomes research: possibilities for the future.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Christopher D; Blumberg, Neil; Glynn, Simone A; Ness, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) supports major research programs related to the field of transfusion medicine, which encompass blood banking, the practice of transfusion medicine itself, and cellular therapies. Specific programmatic elements have included 1) the Transfusion Medicine/Hemostasis Clinical Trials Network (TMH CTN) charged with conducting clinical trials in transfusion medicine and hemostasis; 2) the Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II (REDS-II), which includes domestic and international efforts dedicated to blood donor safety and blood availability issues; 3) the Specialized Centers of Clinically Oriented Research (SCCOR) in Transfusion Biology and Medicine that include two major projects, the Biologic and Immunologic Aspects of Transfusion Medicine Program and the Transfusion and Lung Injury Program, and 4) the Transfusion Therapy Trial for Functional Outcomes in Cardiovascular Patients Undergoing Surgical Hip Fracture Repair (FOCUS), a Phase III clinical trial that has as its major goal to determine whether a more aggressive transfusion strategy in surgery patients with cardiovascular disease (or risk factors) is associated with improved functional recovery and decreased risk of adverse postoperative outcomes. Notably, none of these programs supports epidemiologic and clinical outcomes research focused on transfusion recipients. Thus, on October 31, 2007, a Working Group on Transfusion Recipient Epidemiology and Outcomes Research was convened by the NHLBI. This group was asked to discuss the current status of the field, identify critical research needs, and make recommendations to the NHLBI program staff.

  16. Workplace Outcomes in Work-Disability Prevention Research: A Review with Recommendations for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Young, Amanda E; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Boot, Cécile R L; Chan, Chetwyn; de Porras, David Gimeno Ruiz; Linton, Steven J

    2016-12-01

    use more consistent outcomes in disability prevention in the future. The research area would also benefit from more involvement of employers as stakeholders, and multilevel conceptualizations of disability outcomes.

  17. Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling.

    PubMed

    Dickerson, M; Baron, E

    2000-08-01

    The recent healthy increase in research into all aspects of gambling is noted. The dominant theme accounting for most of this research is the mental disorder model of pathological gambling and measures that have been derived from this conceptualization. It is suggested that an alternative approach focusing on the construct of choice or subjective control over gambling may be a research direction that will ensure that progress is maintained. In this paper a context for the discussion is provided by first identifying briefly fundamental conceptual and methodological issues associated with the mental disorder model. In particular it is argued that the heterogeneity of the diagnosis of pathological gambling makes the research task of assessing truly independent variables extremely difficult. Subsequently an illustrative schema is presented that demonstrates both the potential advantages and some of the complexities associated with the dependent variable of self-control over gambling behaviour. The main advantages are argued to be (a) the focus of research is narrowed to one potential cause of harmful impacts rather than the great diversity of impacts themselves, (b) prospective studies of regular gamblers in real gambling venues may be a key source of insight into the development of pathological gambling and (c) it promotes the development of theoretical links with the mainstream of the discipline of psychology. Despite the conceptual difficulties that may be associated with the variable of self-control, it is suggested that these may be overcome because contemporary research into the addictive behaviours has demonstrated considerable success in the definition and measurement of control and related themes such as craving, restraint and temptation.

  18. Behavioral Intervention Technologies: Evidence review and recommendations for future research

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, David C.; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Schueller, Stephen M.; Clarke, Gregory; Klinkman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings of a technical expert panel convened by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality and the National Institute of Mental Health, charged with reviewing the state of research on behavioral intervention technologies (BITs) in mental health and identifying the top research priorities. BITs is the comprehensive term used to refer to behavioral and psychological interventions that use information and communication technology features to address behavioral and mental health outcomes. Mental health BITs using videoconferencing and standard telephone technologies to deliver psychotherapy have been wellvalidated. Web-based interventions have shown efficacy across a broad range of mental health outcomes, although outcomes vary widely. Social media such as online support groups have produced generally disappointing outcomes when used alone. Mobile technologies have received limited attention for mental health outcomes, although findings from behavioral health suggest they are promising. Virtual reality has shown good efficacy for anxiety and pediatric disorders. Serious gaming has received relatively little work in mental health. Recommendations for next step research in each of these are made. Research focused on understanding of reach, adherence, barriers and cost is recommended. As BITs can generate large amounts of data, improvements in the collection, storage, analysis, and visualization of big data will be required. Traditional psychological and behavioral theories have proven insufficient to understand how BITs produce behavioral change. Thus new theoretical models, as well as new evaluation strategies, will be required. Finally, for BITs to have a public health impact, research on implementation and application to prevention will be required. PMID:23664503

  19. Regulatory environment for clinical research: Recent past and expected future.

    PubMed

    Bhave, Amita; Menon, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, there have been numerous updates to policy and guidelines governing the conduct of clinical research in India. These measures were taken by regulators considering safety of Indian patients as the topmost priority although the overall regulatory environment became challenging. However, in the recent past, Indian regulations have evolved positively to favorably support clinical research in India while appropriately balancing patient safety as well. These regulatory changes are expected to bring newer innovative medicines to Indian patients at an earliest.

  20. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research.

    PubMed

    Sackmann, Eric K; Fulton, Anna L; Beebe, David J

    2014-03-13

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  1. Regulatory environment for clinical research: Recent past and expected future

    PubMed Central

    Bhave, Amita; Menon, Suresh

    2017-01-01

    In the past few years, there have been numerous updates to policy and guidelines governing the conduct of clinical research in India. These measures were taken by regulators considering safety of Indian patients as the topmost priority although the overall regulatory environment became challenging. However, in the recent past, Indian regulations have evolved positively to favorably support clinical research in India while appropriately balancing patient safety as well. These regulatory changes are expected to bring newer innovative medicines to Indian patients at an earliest. PMID:28194332

  2. DOE Automotive Composite Materials Research: Present and Future Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, C.D.

    1999-08-10

    One method of increasing automotive energy efficiency is through mass reduction of structural components by the incorporation of composite materials. Significant use of glass reinforced polymers as structural components could yield a 20--30% reduction in vehicle weight while the use of carbon fiber reinforced materials could yield a 40--60% reduction in mass. Specific areas of research for lightweighting automotive components are listed, along with research needs for each of these categories: (1) low mass metals; (2) polymer composites; and (3) ceramic materials.

  3. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sackmann, Eric K.; Fulton, Anna L.; Beebe, David J.

    2014-03-01

    Microfluidics, a technology characterized by the engineered manipulation of fluids at the submillimetre scale, has shown considerable promise for improving diagnostics and biology research. Certain properties of microfluidic technologies, such as rapid sample processing and the precise control of fluids in an assay, have made them attractive candidates to replace traditional experimental approaches. Here we analyse the progress made by lab-on-a-chip microtechnologies in recent years, and discuss the clinical and research areas in which they have made the greatest impact. We also suggest directions that biologists, engineers and clinicians can take to help this technology live up to its potential.

  4. Future Directions for Fusion Propulsion Research at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, Robert B.; Cassibry, Jason T.

    2005-01-01

    Fusion propulsion is inevitable if the human race remains dedicated to exploration of the solar system. There are fundamental reasons why fusion surpasses more traditional approaches to routine crewed missions to Mars, crewed missions to the outer planets, and deep space high speed robotic missions, assuming that reduced trip times, increased payloads, and higher available power are desired. A recent series of informal discussions were held among members from government, academia, and industry concerning fusion propulsion. We compiled a sufficient set of arguments for utilizing fusion in space. .If the U.S. is to lead the effort and produce a working system in a reasonable amount of time, NASA must take the initiative, relying on, but not waiting for, DOE guidance. Arguments for fusion propulsion are presented, along with fusion enabled mission examples, fusion technology trade space, and a proposed outline for future efforts.

  5. Deaf children and bullying: directions for future research.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Mary T; Miller, Margery

    2006-01-01

    U.S. SCHOOLS are currently addressing bullying and its effects on children. Bullying is characterized as repetitive verbal teasing, threatening, physical intimidation, demeaning others, violent acts, torture, and other forms of verbal and physical aggression (Smith and Sharp, 1994a). Little is known about bullying and its impact on deaf children. Measures to describe and quantify bullying factors in this population should be developed and validated that address characteristics of deaf victims and bullies, various types of school settings deaf children attend, bullying dynamics that may be unique to this population and its peers, and other environmental factors. The presence of disabilities besides deafness, social support systems of deaf children and their families, sociocultural background, degree of hearing loss, parental educational levels and occupations, socioeconomic status, and linguistic backgrounds should also be considered. This discussion highlights issues and precautions concerning future directions for studying bullying with deaf children.

  6. Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and Their Impact on the Research, Training, and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, Ahmed K. (Compiler)

    2003-01-01

    The document contains the proceedings of the training workshop on Emerging and Future Computing Paradigms and their impact on the Research, Training and Design Environments of the Aerospace Workforce. The workshop was held at NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, March 18 and 19, 2003. The workshop was jointly sponsored by Old Dominion University and NASA. Workshop attendees came from NASA, other government agencies, industry and universities. The objectives of the workshop were to a) provide broad overviews of the diverse activities related to new computing paradigms, including grid computing, pervasive computing, high-productivity computing, and the IBM-led autonomic computing; and b) identify future directions for research that have high potential for future aerospace workforce environments. The format of the workshop included twenty-one, half-hour overview-type presentations and three exhibits by vendors.

  7. Gifted Male Readers: Current Understandings and Suggestions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pagnani, Alexander R.

    2013-01-01

    Research literature concerning gifted male readers relies primarily on more extensive bodies of work regarding gifted males and male readers. Studied as a whole, the two halves portray a worrisome state of affairs for gifted male readers, who lag behind their female counterparts in the same patterns found across the ability spectrum. This literacy…

  8. BIO2010: Transforming Undergraduate Education for Future Research Biologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The report discusses incorporating more math, physics, chemistry, engineering and computer science into classes and laboratory work and emphasizing independent research will help undergraduate education reflect real-world science. Schools, professional societies and funding agencies should develop new teaching materials and facilitate faculty…

  9. Psychological Issues in Cancer Genetics: Current Research and Future Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Penelope

    1997-01-01

    Data concerning the psychological impact of high risk of cancer are reviewed, including implications of genetic testing, breast screening,and accuracy of women's risk estimates. Work in progress on prophylactic mastectomy and chemoprevention is reviewed. Research on cancer families, and interventions and prevention strategies for high-risk…

  10. Research gaps in psoriasis: opportunities for future studies.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Caitriona; Korman, Neil J; Gelfand, Joel M; Lim, Henry W; Elmets, Craig A; Feldman, Steven R; Gottlieb, Alice B; Koo, John Y M; Lebwohl, Mark; Leonardi, Craig L; Van Voorhees, Abby S; Bhushan, Reva; Menter, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, considerable progress has been made to further elucidate the complex pathogenesis of psoriasis, facilitating the development of a new armamentarium of more effective, targeted therapies. Despite these important advances, substantial deficits remain in our understanding of psoriasis and its treatment, necessitating further research in many areas. In the sixth section of the American Academy of Dermatology Psoriasis Guidelines of Care, gaps in research and care were identified. We discuss the most important gaps in research that currently exist and make suggestions for studies that should be performed to address these deficits. These encompass both basic science and clinical research studies, including large, prospective epidemiologic studies to determine the true prevalence and natural history of psoriasis; further molecular studies in patients with psoriatic and psoriatic arthritis to understand the function of psoriasis susceptibility genes and to identify novel therapeutic targets; studies to examine the role of environmental factors in the development of psoriasis; further investigation of the relationship between psoriasis and cardiometabolic disease; studies that examine the role of adjunctive therapies such as psychological interventions in appropriate patient groups; and finally, studies to identify biomarkers of disease severity and treatment response to optimize patient therapy.

  11. Exploring the Future of Lifelong Learning: Advocacy, Research and Footprinting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chisholm, Lynne

    2013-01-01

    This reflective think-tank contribution begins by comparing advocacy and research as distinct modalities of professional and social action. In practice they frequently elide and merge into one another. While alliance and complementarity between the two modalities is constructive for shaping policy and practice, it poses risks when governments and…

  12. Measuring Change: Current Trends and Future Directions in Microgenetic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Emma; Siegler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This special issue is dedicated to research that adopts the microgenetic method in order to investigate change as it is happening. In this commentary we reflect on the diversity of the articles included in this special issue, and examine how the findings from these articles relate to five critical features of change: path, rate, breadth,…

  13. Campgrounds and Camping 1980: Trends, Research, Future Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale.

    The objectives of the reported conference were: 1) to determine what significant changes are occurring in campground management; 2) to view demonstration campground areas and discuss related information dissemination efforts; 3) to determine what campground research is presently underway, and whether more is needed; and, 4) to determine possible…

  14. Future Directions for NCI’s Surveillance Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Since the early 1970s, NCI’s SEER program has been an invaluable resource for statistics on cancer in the United States. For the past several years, SEER researchers have been working toward a much broader and comprehensive goal for providing cancer stati

  15. Reconciling (Seemingly) Discrepant Findings: Implications for Practice and Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…

  16. Research on Community Bands: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohwer, Debbie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review of literature was to synthesize findings of studies investigating community bands. This review of literature centers on research that has been conducted on community bands in status studies, historical/cultural studies, pedagogical studies, health and wellness studies, and intergenerational studies. The last section of…

  17. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research: nurses shaping nursing's future.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Karen H; Weiss, Jason; Welton, John; Reeder, Blaine; Ozkaynak, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    Nurses in the present health care environment have been reduced too often to being providers of safe, competent care rather than quality care. In response, the Institute of Medicine has recommended that nurses become more involved in making changes to the health care system and use data more effectively. If nursing intends to follow these recommendations, the profession needs (a) fresh perspectives to assist in making health care system changes, (b) partnerships between nurse scientists and nurse clinicians to generate and implement data, and (c) capture of the proper value of nursing as distinct from other elements of health care delivery. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research is an effort to meet the recommendations of the Institute of Medicine. The Colorado Collaborative for Nursing Research has a three-arm structure: a research forum where nurse academicians and nurse clinicians can launch collaborative projects; a research support services arm from which nurse collaborators can obtain help with modeling, statistics, writing, and funding; and a data extraction/data sharing mechanism to inform the decision making of nurse leaders.

  18. Current and Future Trends in Adult Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Even, Mary Jane

    1978-01-01

    The author reviews and discusses results of current adult education research in the areas of cognitive styles, learning strategies, adult learning, hemispheres of the brain, adult development stages, open learning systems, nontraditional forms of learning, social action, nature of adult participation, and other concepts. (MF)

  19. Building Futures: The Head Start Impact Study. Research Design Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael; Bell, Stephen; Shapiro, Gary; Broene, Pam; Cook, Ronna; Friedman, Janet; Heid, Camilla

    Along with the rapid expansion over the past decade of Head Start, a program providing comprehensive early childhood development services to low-income children, their families, and their communities, has come the demand for rigorous research to demonstrate program effectiveness. This report describes the proposed design of a national study of the…

  20. Women in Management: Leadership Theories, Research Results, and Future Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Linda L.

    This review of the literature about women in management advocates the pursuit of research on women executives as unique components in the organizational setting, with the warning that careful and unremitting attention be paid to the selection of theoretical perspectives. It examines trait and role theory, and discusses such factors as…

  1. The Past, Present and Future of Widening Participation Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kettley, Nigel

    2007-01-01

    The provisions of the Higher Education Act (2004) have renewed interest in widening participation research. Therefore, this paper explores the development of this scholarly field, primarily in the United Kingdom, by examining major trends in the study of higher education. Political debates related to higher education, the prevailing structure of…

  2. A Critical Look at Communication Strategies: Possibilities for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doqaruni, Vahid Rahmani

    2015-01-01

    Like general theories of human communication, previous research into second language (L2) communication strategies (CSs) has also been characterized on either interactional conceived account or cognitively conceived one. However, this paper is a critical attempt to show that CSs' full significance can only be understood if the domain of CSs…

  3. Making Numbers Matter: Present and Future Research in Risk Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagerlin, Angela; Ubel, Peter A.; Smith, Dylan M.; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To summarize existing research on individual numeracy and methods for presenting risk information to patients. Methods: We selectively retrieved articles from MEDLINE and the "Social Sciences Citation Index". Results: Many Americans have low numeracy skills, a deficit that impedes effective health care. Approaches to risk communication…

  4. Research on Hearing and Balance--Current and Future Developments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow, James B., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    This article reviews current research that has located disease genes causing hearing impairments, discovered the ability of sensory cells of the inner ear to regenerate, developed vaccines to prevent otitis media, developed programmable hearing aids, improved cochlear implants, and demonstrated the positive effects of physical therapy with balance…

  5. Collaborative Online Distance Learning: Issues for Future Practice and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard, Robert M.; Rubalcava, Beatriz Rojo de; St-Pierre, Denise

    2000-01-01

    Provides an overview of issues relating to practice and research regarding collaborative online learning in distance education. Topics include traditional problems of distance education; instructional design issues, including course preparation, social climate and sense of community, instructor's role, and the effective use of technology; and…

  6. Identifying Future Scientists: Predicting Persistence into Research Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGee, Richard; Keller, Jill L.

    2007-01-01

    This study used semistructured interviews and grounded theory to look for characteristics among college undergraduates that predicted persistence into Ph.D. and M.D./Ph.D. training. Participants in the summer undergraduate and postbaccalaureate research programs at the Mayo Clinic College of Medicine were interviewed at the start, near the end,…

  7. Studying Science Teacher Identity: Current Insights and Future Research Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avraamidou, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 10?years an increasing number of articles have been published in leading science education journals that report on research about teacher identity and describe interventions that support teacher identity development. My purpose in this review paper is to examine how the construct of science teacher identity has been conceptualised…

  8. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Adam J.; Coventry, William L.; Morgan, Methuen I.; Loi, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology. PMID:27014147

  9. Teaching Research Methods and Statistics in eLearning Environments: Pedagogy, Practical Examples, and Possible Futures.

    PubMed

    Rock, Adam J; Coventry, William L; Morgan, Methuen I; Loi, Natasha M

    2016-01-01

    Generally, academic psychologists are mindful of the fact that, for many students, the study of research methods and statistics is anxiety provoking (Gal et al., 1997). Given the ubiquitous and distributed nature of eLearning systems (Nof et al., 2015), teachers of research methods and statistics need to cultivate an understanding of how to effectively use eLearning tools to inspire psychology students to learn. Consequently, the aim of the present paper is to discuss critically how using eLearning systems might engage psychology students in research methods and statistics. First, we critically appraise definitions of eLearning. Second, we examine numerous important pedagogical principles associated with effectively teaching research methods and statistics using eLearning systems. Subsequently, we provide practical examples of our own eLearning-based class activities designed to engage psychology students to learn statistical concepts such as Factor Analysis and Discriminant Function Analysis. Finally, we discuss general trends in eLearning and possible futures that are pertinent to teachers of research methods and statistics in psychology.

  10. Livestock in biomedical research: history, current status and future prospective.

    PubMed

    Polejaeva, Irina A; Rutigliano, Heloisa M; Wells, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Livestock models have contributed significantly to biomedical and surgical advances. Their contribution is particularly prominent in the areas of physiology and assisted reproductive technologies, including understanding developmental processes and disorders, from ancient to modern times. Over the past 25 years, biomedical research that traditionally embraced a diverse species approach shifted to a small number of model species (e.g. mice and rats). The initial reasons for focusing the main efforts on the mouse were the availability of murine embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and genome sequence data. This powerful combination allowed for precise manipulation of the mouse genome (knockouts, knockins, transcriptional switches etc.) leading to ground-breaking discoveries on gene functions and regulation, and their role in health and disease. Despite the enormous contribution to biomedical research, mouse models have some major limitations. Their substantial differences compared with humans in body and organ size, lifespan and inbreeding result in pronounced metabolic, physiological and behavioural differences. Comparative studies of strategically chosen domestic species can complement mouse research and yield more rigorous findings. Because genome sequence and gene manipulation tools are now available for farm animals (cattle, pigs, sheep and goats), a larger number of livestock genetically engineered (GE) models will be accessible for biomedical research. This paper discusses the use of cattle, goats, sheep and pigs in biomedical research, provides an overview of transgenic technology in farm animals and highlights some of the beneficial characteristics of large animal models of human disease compared with the mouse. In addition, status and origin of current regulation of GE biomedical models is also reviewed.

  11. 2008 C. H. McCloy lecture. Social psychology and physical activity: back to the future.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L

    2009-12-01

    In the early 1970s, both my academic career and the psychology subdiscipline within kinesiology began as "social psychology and physical activity. "Since then, sport and exercise psychology research has shifted away from the social to a narrower biopsycho-(no social) approach, and professional practice has focused on the elite rather than the larger public. Psychology can contribute to an integrative and relevant professional discipline by going back to the future as social psychology and physical activity and by incorporating three of C. H. McCloy's themes (a) evidence-based practice, (b) beyond dualisms, and (c) commitment to public service. Our scholarship must move beyond dualisms to recognize complexities and connections and be truly scholarship for practice. Social psychology and physical activity can serve the public by advocating for inclusive, empowering physical activity programs that promote health and well being for all.

  12. Support for international agricultural research: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zeigler, Robert S; Mohanty, Samarendu

    2010-11-30

    The success of the first Green Revolution in the form of abundant food supplies and low prices over the past two decades has diverted the world's attention from agriculture to other pressing issues. This has resulted in lower support for the agricultural research work primarily undertaken by the 15 research centers of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR). The total support in real dollars for most of the last three decades has been more or less flat although the number of centers increased from 4 to 15. However, since 2000, the funding situation has improved for the CGIAR centers, with almost all the increase coming from grants earmarked for specific research projects. Even for some centers such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI), the downward trend continued as late as 2006 with the budget in real dollars reaching the 1978 level of support. The recent food crisis has renewed the call for a second Green Revolution by revitalizing yield growth to feed the world in the face of growing population and a shrinking land base for agricultural use. The slowdown in yield growth because of decades of neglect in agricultural research and infrastructure development has been identified as the underlying reason for the recent food crisis. For the second Green Revolution to be successful, the CGIAR centers will have to play a complex role by expanding productivity in a sustainable manner with fewer resources. Thus, it is crucial to examine the current structure of support for the CGIAR centers and identify the challenges ahead in terms of source and end use of funds for the success of the second Green Revolution. The objective of this paper is to provide a historical perspective on the support to the CGIAR centers and to examine the current status of funding, in particular, the role of project-specific grants in rebuilding capacity of these centers. The paper will also discuss the nature of the support (unrestricted vs. project

  13. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Muscles—ESNAM', entirely focused on EAPs and gathering the most active research institutes, as well as key industrial developers and end users. The ESNAM network has received financial support from the European COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme (COST Action MP1003), leading to fruitful collaboration, of which some results are showcased in this issue. This focus issue deals with a number of relevant topics on ionic and electronic EAPs. The contents, which span highly heterogeneous and cross diverse disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, material science and engineering, embrace size scales from nano to macro, and cover different areas, such as new materials, devices and applications. This collection of papers helps elucidate, on the one hand, how heterogeneous and dynamic the EAP field is in general and, on the other hand, the state of the art of the EAP research in Europe. We hope that this focus issue might help to stimulate future work in this emerging field of research and generate new applications. Acknowledgments We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, and the Smart Materials and Structures Editor-in-Chief, Professor Garcia, for having accepted our proposal to organize this focus issue. Special thanks also go to Natasha Leeper, from the IOP Publishing team, for her continued support and impeccable professionalism in arranging this focus issue. We also gratefully acknowledge financial support from COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) in the framework of 'ESNAM—European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles' (COST Action MP1003), which made possible cooperation that led to contributions to this issue.

  14. Future Directions in Malignant Hyperthermia Research and Patient Care

    PubMed Central

    Hirshey Dirksen, Sharon J.; Larach, Marilyn Green; Rosenberg, Henry; Brandom, Barbara W.; Parness, Jerome; Lang, Robert Scott; Gangadharan, Meera; Pezalski, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a complex pharmacogenetic disorder of muscle metabolism. To more closely examine the complexities of MH and other related muscle disorders, the Malignant Hyperthermia Association of the United States recently sponsored a scientific conference at which an interdisciplinary group of experts gathered to share new information and ideas. In this Special Article, we highlight key concepts and theories presented at the conference along with exciting new trends and challenges in MH research and patient care. PMID:21709147

  15. Sleep Apnea Research in Animals. Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Swati; Polotsky, Vsevolod Y.

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder that describes recurrent collapse of the upper airway during sleep. Animal models have been pivotal to the understanding of OSA pathogenesis, consequences, and treatment. In this review, we highlight the history of OSA research in animals and include the discovery of animals with spontaneous OSA, the induction of OSA in animals, and the emulation of OSA using exposures to intermittent hypoxia and sleep fragmentation. PMID:26448201

  16. Future directions of CAM research in pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Post-White, Janice; Hawks, Ria; O'Mara, Ann; Ott, Mary Jane

    2006-01-01

    Children with cancer are using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to relieve symptoms, reduce side effects of treatment, and cope with the emotional aspects of having a life-threatening illness. Parental decisions about using CAM should be based on studies of efficacy and safety. Unfortunately, little evidence of efficacy is available for the majority of CAM therapies. This article discusses the methodological challenges to conducting CAM research in children and the evidence needed to support integrative medicine in pediatric oncology.

  17. Future Directions in Rotorcraft Technology at Ames Research Center

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-05-01

    being pursued within the Army/NASA Rotorcraft Division. High Lift Airfoils and the Stall Free Rotor Unlike fixed wing aircraft, helicopter rotors have...pitch angle control inputs, a revolutionary new concept will become a reality - the Stall- Free Rotor. The implications for rotorcraft, beyond the...Rotorcraft Algorithm Development and Integrated Control Laws ( RADICL ) program, the U.S. Army, Sikorsky, ZF Luftfahrttechnik, and NASA Ames Research Center

  18. Animal Research in Space: Past, Present, and Future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souza, Kenneth; Sun, Sidney; Tomko, David

    Animals, principally non-human primates, were the early pioneers of spaceflight demonstrating that higher organisms could survive the rigors of launch to low earth orbit and the unique microgravity and radiation environment of orbital spaceflight. Following dispelling the fears that spaceflight could cause major disruptions in key body systems, non-human primates gave way to rodent research, particularly rats, in order to increase the number of specimens per flight opportunity, reduce the cost of support equipment, and to focus on how animals adapt to the near absence of gravity. In the virtual absence of gravity, changes were observed in the musculoskeletal system, sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and other systems. To accommodate rodents during spaceflight special facilities had to be developed for both crewed and unscrewed space vehicles. e.g. the Space Shuttle, and free flyers like the Russian Cosmos biosatellites, respectively. With a crew onboard, scientists have the opportunity to use them to obtain samples from the animals, measure physiological function, observe and record animal behavior, and administer drugs or challenges. However, on free flyers one can utilize materials and techniques not possible on crewed spacecraft due to safety, cost, and/or flight resources or competing priorities. This presentation will provide a brief glimpse of some of the highlights in the history of animal research in space, recent results, and current prospects for the next decade, i.e., flight opportunities, rodent habitats, and support equipment for rodent research.

  19. [Clinical research on malaria: what for the future?].

    PubMed

    Cot, M

    2005-06-01

    Malaria still remains one of the main public health problems in the world. In spite of early and numerous clinical trials, the situation seems to have been worsening in the last ten years. Malaria clinical research involves several levels: Several meta-analyses have been performed on this topic (in particular, the Cochrane Database Library has published studies on malaria prevention during pregnancy, management of clinical malaria attacks, vaccine trials or impregnated bed net trials). All these studies show the uneven quality of trials (only 10% to 50% can be kept in the analysis for methodological reasons), which seldom lead to similar conclusions. Besides, as resistances of both parasites and vectors to drugs or insecticides are regularly increasing, trials have to be repeated and new molecules have to be found and evaluated. Finally, practical application of such interventions may be difficult, due to the heterogeneity of epidemiological situations and the poverty of target populations. Various initiatives aiming to develop malaria clinical research have recently been launched. Donators are public or international (Global Fund, Roll Back Malaria Initiative, NIH, EDCTP programme), as well as private (Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation). These substantial funds should enhance the research of new antimalarial drugs and large-scale, adequately designed trials. However, to make sure these trials really benefit to populations exposed to the disease, ethical principles should be co-elaborated with developing countries, within collaborative networks between laboratories from industrialized and developing countries.

  20. Zebrafish antipredatory responses: A future for translational research?

    PubMed Central

    Gerlai, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Human neuropsychiatric conditions associated with abnormally exaggerated or misdirected fear (anxiety disorders and phobias) still represent a large unmet medical need because the biological mechanisms underlying these diseases are not well understood. Animal models have been proposed to facilitate this research. Here I review the literature with a focus on zebrafish, an upcoming laboratory organism in behavioral brain research. I argue that abnormal human fear responses are likely the result of the malfunction of neurobiological mechanisms (brain areas, circuits and/or molecular mechanisms) that originally evolved to support avoidance of predators or other harm in nature. I also argue that the understanding of the normal as well as pathological functioning of such mechanisms may be best achieved if one utilizes naturalistic experimental approaches. In case of laboratory model organisms, this may entail presenting stimuli associated with predators and measuring species-specific antipredatory responses. Although zebrafish is a relatively new subject of such inquiry, I review the recently rapidly increasing number of zebrafish studies in this area, and conclude that zebrafish is a promising research tool for the analysis of the neurobiology and genetics of vertebrate fear responses. PMID:19836422

  1. The Future of Endothelin Research: Scientific Mentoring and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Pollock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone was one of the key discoveries in physiology in the 1980s, including the characterization of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors such as endothelin. Young investigators, often while starting research as part of their PhD degree, have been instrumental in carrying out the work that led some of the most important discoveries in the endothelin field. This article reviews the importance of mentoring for research in general and for endothelin research in particular, including examples of outstanding young investigators that have been instrumental in some of the key discoveries in the endothelin field. Recognizing scientific excellence among young investigators has a long tradition in the history of the International Conferences on Endothelin. Winners of “Young Investigator Awards” of the past five endothelin conferences (ET-8, ET-9, ET-10, ET-11, and ET-12) are presented, as well as recipients of the “ET-12 Best Presentation Awards” established on the occasion of the Twelfth International Conference on Endothelin ET-12 in Cambridge in September 2011. PMID:22796368

  2. Factors Required for Successful Future Research in Decision Making

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-06-01

    Foresight Activities in Central Europe," Technology Forecasting and Social Chanf !C’ Jan� . 1 999 21 Ibid, refering to Martin. B. R and lr\\lnc. J...northeastern USA Po_Qulation forecasts Weather forecasts Forecasts of spreading epidemics Global climate models Population forecasts International

  3. Melodic intonation therapy: back to basics for future research.

    PubMed

    Zumbansen, Anna; Peretz, Isabelle; Hébert, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    We present a critical review of the literature on melodic intonation therapy (MIT), one of the most formalized treatments used by speech-language therapist in Broca's aphasia. We suggest basic clarifications to enhance the scientific support of this promising treatment. First, therapeutic protocols using singing as a speech facilitation technique are not necessarily MIT. The goal of MIT is to restore propositional speech. The rationale is that patients can learn a new way to speak through singing by using language-capable regions of the right cerebral hemisphere. Eventually, patients are supposed to use this way of speaking permanently but not to sing overtly. We argue that many treatment programs covered in systematic reviews on MIT's efficacy do not match MIT's therapeutic goal and rationale. Critically, we identified two main variations of MIT: the French thérapie mélodique et rythmée (TMR) that trains patients to use singing overtly as a facilitation technique in case of speech struggle and palliative versions of MIT that help patients with the most severe expressive deficits produce a limited set of useful, readymade phrases. Second, we distinguish between the immediate effect of singing on speech production and the long-term effect of the entire program on language recovery. Many results in the MIT literature can be explained by this temporal perspective. Finally, we propose that MIT can be viewed as a treatment of apraxia of speech more than aphasia. This issue should be explored in future experimental studies.

  4. Defining Priorities for Future Research: Results of the UK Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Leanne; O’Donoghue, Katriona; Ball, Simon T.; Beale, Angela; Beale, William; Hilton, Rachel; Hodkinson, Keith; Lipkin, Graham W.; Loud, Fiona; Marson, Lorna P.; Morris, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    transplant process, including access to transplantation, living donation, organ preservation, post-transplant care and management of the failing transplant. This list of priorities will provide an invaluable resource for researchers and funders to direct future activity. PMID:27776143

  5. Community-Based Participatory Clinical Research in Obesity by Adolescents: Pipeline for Researchers of the Future

    PubMed Central

    Branch, Robert; Chester, Ann

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel, untapped opportunity, challenging cultural and man-power barriers to transferring advances in biomedical science knowledge that will improve community health care (Type II Clinical Translational Research) in a medically underserved community. We describe a pilot model in which adolescents apply principles of Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) at the epicenter of the obesity diabetes epidemic in rural Appalachia in West Virginia. The model invites minority, financially disadvantaged, and educationally disadvantaged adolescents to become educated on ethics, then provides infrastructure to support study design and conduct of CBPR. This experience demonstrates that these adolescents can efficiently, with quality and integrity, reach into the most vulnerable of communities and their own families to show that the prevalence of obesity is at 50% and diabetes 10.4% (n = 989). Our experience illustrates the infrastructure requirements for this strategy to be successful and emphasizes the substantial benefit that could accrue if the model is successfully sustained. The benefit includes not only the translation of knowledge to influence community lifestyle behavior but also the creation of a pipeline of new biomedical scientists for the future. PMID:20443918

  6. Measuring the Burden—Current and Future Research Trends

    PubMed Central

    Breslow, Rosalind A.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol has a significant impact on health and well-being, from the beneficial aspects of moderate drinking to the detrimental effects of alcoholism. The broad implications of alcohol use on public health have been addressed through a wide range of epidemiological and clinical studies, many of which are described in this issue of Alcohol Research: Current Reviews. Where chronic disease is involved, alcohol use can be a risk factor that not only affects the onset of various chronic diseases but also exacerbates the ongoing extent and severity of those diseases. Lifestyle choices and genetic influences also contribute to, or help to alleviate, that risk. PMID:24881334

  7. Nephrology research--the past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Floege, Jürgen; Mak, Robert H; Molitoris, Bruce A; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Ronco, Pierre

    2015-11-01

    Important advances have been made in basic and clinical nephrology research over the past decade, with improved pathological insights into various disease processes and the introduction of new treatments for diseases such as atypical haemolytic uraemic syndrome. However, many challenges remain. In this Viewpoint, we asked five Nature Reviews Nephrology Advisory Board members, who have been associated with the journal since its launch in November 2005, to reflect on the progress and roadblocks of the past 10 years. They also comment on areas where effort and money should be invested and how they expect the field to progress in the next 10 years.

  8. Oral submucous fibrosis: etiology, pathogenesis, and future research.

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, R.

    1994-01-01

    Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF), a precancerous condition of the oral cavity, has been studied by a number of workers in the field. The available epidemiological data showed a clear-cut geographical and ethnic predisposition, which suggested that certain customs/habits prevalent among the population groups in south-east Asia might be possible etiological factors. However, none of these customs was shown to be causally linked and the association in many cases was 'casual'. This led some workers to consider the importance of systemic predisposition, in addition to the effects of local factors on the oral mucosa. More research is needed to elucidate this problem. PMID:7867145

  9. Nanoindentation in Materials Research: Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, Warren; Pharr, George Mathews

    2010-01-01

    The method we introduced in 1992 for measuring hardness and elastic modulus by nanoindentation testing has been widely adopted and used in the characterization of mechanical behavior at small scales. Since its original development, the method has undergone numerous refinements and changes brought about by improvements to testing equipment and techniques, as well as advances in our understanding of the mechanics of elastic-plastic contact. In this article, we briefly review the history of the method, comment on its capabilities and limitations, and discuss some of the emerging areas in materials research where it has played, or promises to play, an important role.

  10. Anticoagulation, ferrotoxicity and the future of translational lung cancer research

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that elements of coagulation reactions mediate tumor cell proliferation, motility (invasiveness), tissue remodeling and metastasis. Coagulation activation is virtually a universal feature of human malignancy that differs from the clotting response to injury in that it is self-perpetuating rather than self-attenuating. Coagulation activation participates in tumor matrix deposition and local inflammation, and predicts subsequent cancer risk and adverse cancer outcomes. Several clinical trials of anticoagulants have shown improved outcomes in small cell carcinoma of the lung (SCCL) that have been correlated with assembly on the tumor cells of an intact coagulation pathway. However, variable efficacy of anticoagulant therapy has raised doubts about the coagulation hypothesis. Recently, initiators of coagulation and fibrinolytic pathways have been identified that mediate tumor inception and progression. Notable among these is oxidative stress driven by iron-catalyzed reactive oxygen species that may be the basis for local coagulation activation, tumor matrix deposition, inflammation and aberrant properties characteristic of the malignant phenotype. Recognition of important biological characteristics of individual tumor types, disease stage, choice of standard therapy including chemotherapy and the iron status of the host may clarify mechanisms. All of these are subject to modification based on controlled clinical trial design. Further tests of the coagulation hypothesis may lead to novel, low cost and relatively non-toxic approaches to treatment of malignancy including lung cancer that contrast with certain current cancer treatment paradigms. PMID:27413710

  11. Current trends and future directions in flower development research

    PubMed Central

    Scutt, Charlie P.; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  12. Current trends and future directions in flower development research.

    PubMed

    Scutt, Charlie P; Vandenbussche, Michiel

    2014-11-01

    Flowers, the reproductive structures of the approximately 400 000 extant species of flowering plants, exist in a tremendous range of forms and sizes, mainly due to developmental differences involving the number, arrangement, size and form of the floral organs of which they consist. However, this tremendous diversity is underpinned by a surprisingly robust basic floral structure in which a central group of carpels forms on an axis of determinate growth, almost invariably surrounded by two successive zones containing stamens and perianth organs, respectively. Over the last 25 years, remarkable progress has been achieved in describing the molecular mechanisms that control almost all aspects of flower development, from the phase change that initiates flowering to the final production of fruits and seeds. However, this work has been performed almost exclusively in a small number of eudicot model species, chief among which is Arabidopsis thaliana. Studies of flower development must now be extended to a much wider phylogenetic range of flowering plants and, indeed, to their closest living relatives, the gymnosperms. Studies of further, more wide-ranging models should provide insights that, for various reasons, cannot be obtained by studying the major existing models alone. The use of further models should also help to explain how the first flowering plants evolved from an unknown, although presumably gymnosperm-like ancestor, and rapidly diversified to become the largest major plant group and to dominate the terrestrial flora. The benefits for society of a thorough understanding of flower development are self-evident, as human life depends to a large extent on flowering plants and on the fruits and seeds they produce. In this preface to the Special Issue, we introduce eleven articles on flower development, representing work in both established and further models, including gymnosperms. We also present some of our own views on current trends and future directions of the

  13. Discovery Genetics - The History and Future of Spontaneous Mutation Research.

    PubMed

    Davisson, Muriel T; Bergstrom, David E; Reinholdt, Laura G; Donahue, Leah Rae

    2012-06-01

    Historically, spontaneous mutations in mice have served as valuable models of heritable human diseases, contributing substantially to our understanding of both disease mechanisms and basic biological pathways. While advances in molecular technologies have improved our ability to create mouse models of human disease through targeted mutagenesis and transgenesis, spontaneous mutations continue to provide valuable research tools for discovery of novel genes and functions. In addition, the genetic defects caused by spontaneous mutations are molecularly similar to mutations in the human genome and, therefore often produce phenotypes that more closely resemble those characteristic of human disease than do genetically engineered mutations. Due to the rarity with which spontaneous mutations arise and the animal intensive nature of their genetic analysis, large-scale spontaneous mutation analysis has traditionally been limited to large mammalian genetics institutes. More recently, ENU mutagenesis and new screening methods have increased the rate of mutant strain discovery, and high-throughput DNA sequencing has enabled rapid identification of the underlying genes and their causative mutations. Here, we discuss the continued value of spontaneous mutations for biomedical research.

  14. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders. VI: future directions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Gary C; Gonzalez, Yoly M; Ohrbach, Richard; Truelove, Edmond L; Sommers, Earl; Look, John O; Schiffman, Eric L

    2010-01-01

    The Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) Validation Project has provided the first comprehensive assessment of reliability and validity of the original Axis I and II. In addition, Axis I of the RDC/TMD was revised with estimates of reliability and validity. These findings are reported in the five preceding articles in this series. The aim of this article is to present further revisions of Axis I and II for consideration by the TMD research and clinical communities. Potential Axis I revisions include addressing concerns with orofacial pain differential diagnosis and changes in nomenclature in an attempt to provide improved consistency with other musculoskeletal diagnostic systems. In addition, expansion of the RDC/TMD to include the less common TMD conditions and disorders would make it more comprehensive and clinically useful. The original standards for diagnostic sensitivity ( < or = 0.70) and specificity (< or = 0.95) should be reconsidered to reflect changes in the field since the RDC/TMD was published in 1992. Pertaining to Axis II, current recommendations for all chronic pain conditions include standardized instruments and expansion of the domains assessed. In addition, there is need for improved clinical efficiency of Axis II instruments and for exploring methods to better integrate Axis I and II in clinical settings.

  15. Fatigue in Multiple Sclerosis: Misconceptions and Future Research Directions

    PubMed Central

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H.; Ketelhut, Nathaniel B.

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue is one of the most disabling side effects in people with multiple sclerosis. While this fact is well known, there has been a remarkable lack of progress in determining the pathophysiological mechanisms behind fatigue and the establishment of effective treatments. The main barrier has been the lack of a unified definition of fatigue that can be objectively tested with validated experimental models. In this “perspective article” we propose the use of the following model and definition of fatigue: the decrease in physical and/or mental performance that results from changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors. These changes depend on the task being performed, the environmental conditions it is performed in, and the physical and mental capacity of the individual. Our definition and model of fatigue outlines specific causes of fatigue and how it affects task performance. We also outline the strengths and weaknesses of commonly used measures of fatigue and suggest, based on our model and definition, new research strategies, which should include multiple measures. These studies should be mechanistic with validated experimental models to determine changes in central, psychological, and/or peripheral factors that explain fatigue. The proposed new research strategies may lead to the identification of the origins of MS related fatigue and the development of new, more effective treatments. PMID:27531990

  16. Disaggregated data and beyond: future queries in cancer control research.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Anh Bao; Chawla, Neetu; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2014-11-01

    The goal of health equity requires the collection and reporting of disaggregated data in underrepresented populations such as Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) communities. A recent Department of Health and Human Services report outlines the necessity for disaggregated data, which would offer communities, providers, and planners better tools to address health problems. In a recent collaboration, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and several registries published a series of articles tracking cancer incidence data on AA and NHOPI communities using data from the NCI's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program. The findings indicate a need for concentrated focus and planning for the next stages of cancer prevention and control for AA and NHOPI subpopulations. In this article, we provide (i) the context for the perpetuation of the model minority myth as well as historical and sociocultural factors that have shaped health and disease for AA and NHOPI subgroups; (ii) potential strategies for research and public health policy for AA and NHOPI groups using subpopulation-based approaches while addressing challenges and limitations; and (iii) a portfolio analysis of currently funded projects within the NCI/DCCPS to identify gaps and areas of potential research.

  17. Disaggregated Data and Beyond: Future Queries in Cancer Control Research

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Bao; Chawla, Neetu; Noone, Anne-Michelle; Srinivasan, Shobha

    2014-01-01

    The goal of health equity requires the collection and reporting of disaggregated data in underrepresented populations such as Asian American (AA) and Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander (NHOPI) communities. A recent Department of Health and Human Services report outlines the necessity for disaggregated data which would offer communities, providers and planners better tools to address health problems. In a recent collaboration, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and several registries published a series of papers tracking cancer incidence data on AA and NHOPI communities using data from the NCI’s Surveillance and Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program. The findings indicate a need for concentrated focus and planning for the next stages of cancer prevention and control for AA and NHOPI subpopulations. In this article, we provide (a) the context for the perpetuation of the model minority myth as well as historical and socio-cultural factors that have shaped health and disease for AA and NHOPI subgroups; (b) potential strategies for research and public health policy for AA and NHOPI groups using subpopulation-based approaches while addressing challenges and limitations; and (c) a portfolio analysis of currently funded projects within the NCI/DCCPS to identify gaps and areas of potential research. PMID:25368401

  18. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  19. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  20. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  1. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research activities. 1... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U... paragraphs, patient medical record information covered by §§ 1.460 through 1.499 of this part may...

  2. Clinical Research with Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS): Challenges and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Brunoni, Andre Russowsky; Nitsche, Michael A.; Bolognini, Nadia; Bikson, Marom; Wagner, Tim; Merabet, Lotfi; Edwards, Dylan J.; Valero-Cabre, Antoni; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Ferrucci, Roberta; Priori, Alberto; Boggio, Paulo; Fregni, Felipe

    2011-01-01

    Background Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique that delivers low-intensity, direct current to cortical areas facilitating or inhibiting spontaneous neuronal activity. In the past ten years, tDCS physiological mechanisms of action have been intensively investigated giving support for the investigation of its applications in clinical neuropsychiatry and rehabilitation. However, new methodological, ethical, and regulatory issues emerge when translating the findings of preclinical and phase I studies into phase II and III clinical studies. The aim of this comprehensive review is to discuss the key challenges of this process and possible methods to address them. Methods We convened a workgroup of researchers in the field to review, discuss and provide updates and key challenges of neuromodulation use for clinical research. Main Findings/Discussion We reviewed several basic and clinical studies in the field and identified potential limitations, taking into account the particularities of the technique. We review and discuss the findings into four topics: (i) mechanisms of action of tDCS, parameters of use and computer-based human brain modeling investigating electric current fields and magnitude induced by tDCS; (ii) methodological aspects related to the clinical research of tDCS as divided according to study phase (i.e., preclinical, phase I, phase II and phase III studies); (iii) ethical and regulatory concerns; (iv) future directions regarding novel approaches, novel devices, and future studies involving tDCS. Finally, we propose some alternative methods to facilitate clinical research on tDCS. PMID:22037126

  3. Workshop on the Current Status and Future of Underwater Hearing Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    Hearing Research Dorian S. Houser National Marine Mammal Foundation 2240 Shelter Island Drive, #200 San Diego, CA 92107 phone: (877) 360-5527...GOALS An assessment of the current state of research on marine mammal is needed in order to evaluate the contributions of current research programs...technology and access to marine mammals. The assessment supports the long-term goal of an understanding of research progress and future research potential

  4. Epigenetics and childhood asthma: current evidence and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Muhammad T; Zhang, Ying; Begum, Kohinoor

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting one in eight children in the USA and worldwide. It is a complex disease, influenced by both environmental exposures and genetic factors. Although epigenetic modifications (DNA methylation, histone modification and miRNA) can affect transcriptional activity in multiple genetic pathways relevant for asthma development, very limited work has been carried out so far to examine the role of epigenetic variations on asthma development and management. This review provides a brief overview of epigenetic modifications, summarizes recent findings, and discusses some of the major methodological concerns that are relevant for asthma epigenetics. PMID:22920181

  5. Research in Online and Blended Learning in the Business Disciplines: Key Findings and Possible Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arbaugh, J. B.; Godfrey, Michael R.; Johnson, Marianne; Pollack, Birgit Leisen; Niendorf, Bruce; Wresch, William

    2009-01-01

    In this literature review, we examine and assess the state of research of online and blended learning in the business disciplines with the intent of assessing the state of the field and identifying opportunities for meaningful future research. We review research from business disciplines such as Accounting, Economics, Finance, Information Systems…

  6. A Scoping Review of Health Game Research: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Amy Shirong; Gharghabi, Fardad; Coleman, Whitney

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Health game research has flourished over the last decade. The number of peer-reviewed scientific publications has surged as the clinical application of health games has diversified. In response to this growth, several past literature reviews have assessed the effectiveness of health games in specific clinical subdomains. The past literature reviews, however, have not provided a general scope of health games independent of clinical context. The present systematic review identified 149 publications. All sources were published before 2011 in a peer-reviewed venue. To be included in this review, publications were required (1) to be an original research, (2) to focus on health, (3) to utilize a sound research design, (4) to report quantitative health outcomes, and (5) to target healthcare receivers. Initial findings showed certain trends in health game publications: Focus on younger male demographics, relatively low number of study participants, increased number of controlled trials, short duration of intervention periods, short duration and frequency of user–game interaction, dominance of exercise and rehab games, lack of underlying theoretical frameworks, and concentration on clinical contexts such as physical activity and nutrition. The review concludes that future research should (1) widen the demographics to include females and elderly, (2) increase the number of participants in controlled trials, (3) lengthen both the intervention period and user–game interaction duration, and (4) expand the application of health games in new clinical contexts. PMID:24416638

  7. Concrete-polymer composites: current status and future research needs

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L E

    1981-04-01

    When plastics are combined with mixtures of inorganic materials, high-strength, durable, fast-setting composites are produced. These materials are used in structural engineering and other applications, and as a result of the successes obtained to date, considerable research and development work is in progress throughout the world. One family of polymer-based composites receiving considerable attention is the concrete-polymer materials. Work in this area is directed toward developing new high-strength durable materials by combining cement and concrete technology with that of polymer chemistry. In addition to the significant property enhancement, many combinations of siliceous materials with polymers require lower energy inputs per unit of performance than either component alone.

  8. Enhancing water cycle measurements for future hydrologic research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loescher, H.W.; Jacobs, J.M.; Wendroth, O.; Robinson, D.A.; Poulos, G.S.; McGuire, K.; Reed, P.; Mohanty, B.P.; Shanley, J.B.; Krajewski, W.

    2007-01-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Sciences, Inc., established the Hydrologic Measurement Facility to transform watershed-scale hydrologic research by facilitating access to advanced instrumentation and expertise that would not otherwise be available to individual investigators. We outline a committee-based process that determined which suites of instrumentation best fit the needs of the hydrological science community and a proposed mechanism for the governance and distribution of these sensors. Here, we also focus on how these proposed suites of instrumentation can be used to address key scientific challenges, including scaling water cycle science in time and space, broadening the scope of individual subdisciplines of water cycle science, and developing mechanistic linkages among these subdisciplines and spatio-temporal scales. ?? 2007 American Meteorological Society.

  9. [Rett syndrome: the state of research, and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Toyojiro

    2013-11-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by normal early psychomotor development followed by the loss of psychomotor and acquired purposeful hand skills and the onset of stereotyped movement of the hands and gait disturbance. The causative gene was discovered, and the disease was found to be caused by a mutation of methyl-CpG-binding protein 2. However, in many ways this clinically peculiar condition remains a mystery. I review the current status of clinical and basic research on RTT including data on the neurophysiology of the disease, neurotransmitter involvement, neuroimaging and neuropathology findings, molecular biology, animal models, regenerative medicine including ES cells and iPS cells, and other interventions and therapeutic trials.

  10. Stem cell researches in Brazil: present and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Zatz, Mayana

    2009-06-01

    A bill allowing researches with human embryonic stem cells has been approved by the Brazilian Congress, originally in 2005 and definitively by the Supreme Court in 2008. However, several years before, investigations in Brazil with adult stem cells in vitro in animal models as well as clinical trials, were started and are currently underway. Here, we will summarize the main findings and the challenges of going from bench to bed, focusing on heart, diabetes, cancer, craniofacial, and neuromuscular disorders. We also call attention to the importance of publishing negative results on experimental trials in scientific journals and websites. They are of great value to investigators in the field and may avoid the repeating of unsuccessful experiments. In addition, they could be referred to patients seeking information, aiming to protect them against financial and psychological harm.

  11. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  12. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  13. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  14. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  15. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  16. Recent and future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    2012-07-01

    PlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter located in northern country-regionplaceSweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have an unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern country-regionplaceCanada. The Swedish and Russian Governments have signed an agreement for peaceful exploration of space on 19 March 2010, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we are able to offer the science community long duration balloon flights in the Northern Hemisphere with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at placePlaceNameEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern country-regionplaceSweden. We have also received requests from placePlaceNameJapanese PlaceTypeUniversities and JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall was ready for use in April 2011. Circumpolar balloon flights from PlaceNameplaceEsrange PlaceNameSpace PlaceTypeCenter are possible due to the specific conditions during the Arctic summer with continuous daylight and nearly constant solar heating keeping the balloon at a constant altitude with a minimum of ballast. In total 10 payloads have been flying for 4 to 5 days from Esrange westwards with landing in northern Canada since 2005. The SUNRISE balloon borne solar telescope is one example which made in June metricconverterProductID2009 a2009 a more than 4 days semi-circular balloon flight from Esrange. The CitySunrise project is a collaborative project between the Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Katlenburg-Lindau and

  17. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  18. [Climate chance and research activity].

    PubMed

    Manuel, Celie

    2009-10-26

    There are three main focus areas relevant to health in research related to climate change: 1) disentangling of the complex associations between climate-sensitive risk factors and health 2) guidance as to where, when and how effective health adaptation strategies may be implemented for maximum effect, and 3) health impact assessment (with a focus on health co-benefits) of climate-related policies in other sectors. Further development in each of these areas will provide important opportunities for strengthening health promotion and protection.

  19. Education and Capacity Building with Research: A Possible Case for Future Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Ishimura, Gakushi; Komasinski, Andrew James; Omoto, Reiko; Managi, Shunsuke

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to suggest the structure of a platform for education and capacity building for Future Earth, which is an intensive program open to the eight stakeholders and which utilizes existing research programs/facilities associated with Future Earth. An intention of this paper is to facilitate a policy brief for projects associated…

  20. The Quality-of-Life (QOL) Research Movement: Past, Present, and Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirgy, M. Joseph; Michalos, Alex C.; Ferriss, Abbott L.; Easterlin, Richard A.; Pavot, William; Patrick, Donald

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to trace the history of the social indicators or quality-of-life (QOL) research movement up to today, forecast future developments, and pave the way for future growth. Broadly speaking, we tried to review historical antecedents from the point of view of different disciplines, with specialists in each discipline…

  1. The cyber threat landscape: Challenges and future research directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Santiago; Kott, Alexander; Barabási, Albert-László

    2014-07-01

    While much attention has been paid to the vulnerability of computer networks to node and link failure, there is limited systematic understanding of the factors that determine the likelihood that a node (computer) is compromised. We therefore collect threat log data in a university network to study the patterns of threat activity for individual hosts. We relate this information to the properties of each host as observed through network-wide scans, establishing associations between the network services a host is running and the kinds of threats to which it is susceptible. We propose a methodology to associate services to threats inspired by the tools used in genetics to identify statistical associations between mutations and diseases. The proposed approach allows us to determine probabilities of infection directly from observation, offering an automated high-throughput strategy to develop comprehensive metrics for cyber-security.

  2. Fire Research: Linking Past, Present, and Future Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie M.; Whitlock, Cathy; Barbante, Carlo; Brovkin, Victor; Daniau, Anne-Laure; Kaplan, Jed O.; Marlon, Jennifer R.; Power, Mitchell J.; Thonicke, Kirsten; Werf, Guido R.

    2013-11-01

    Increased levels of burning in the past 40 years are raising public and scientific concern about the relative importance of rising temperatures, climate variability, and human actions including management practices in initiating and supporting recent conflagrations. Enormous fires in Australia, North America, Europe, and Russia since 2000 have resulted in billions of dollars in property damage, loss of life, and threats to human and ecological health. Levels of fire activity are expected to increase in the coming decades in many regions as temperatures continue to rise and droughts intensify [Moritz et al., 2012]. Linked disturbances such as bark beetle infestations, nonnative plant invasions, and mass-wasting events have also exacerbated the effects of fire in many ecosystems.

  3. The past, present and future tasks of Hungarian dendrological research.

    PubMed

    Bartha, D

    2010-01-01

    Hungarian dendrological research (research of living woody plants) has more than 200 years old history; the first general work by János Keresztély Grossinger was published in 1797. Further basic works in our time yet are: Forest Botany by Lajos Fekete and Sándor Mágócsy-Dietz (1896); and the chorological work, Distribution of trees and shrubs of sylvicultural importance in the region of Hungarian State by Lajos Fekete and Tibor Blattny (1913). A few dendrologists and many botanists have helped to get better knowledge of Hungarian dendroflora. From the point of view of taxonomy, chorology and habitat - which are interested by field botanists - it can be said that knowledge is fairly heterogeneous. There are sufficient information about most of the rare (protected/endangered) woody plants (an about 50 species) and the important adventives, above all invasive trees and shrubs (an about 10 species). From these two groups beyond there are only few taxa which can be said thoroughly worked up and known (e.g. Castanea sativa, Cornus mas, Fraxinus spp., Quercus spp.). List of the dendrotaxa, hardly known in the above-mentioned point of view is rich in species that are important for forestry or horticulture (e.g. Alnus glutinosa, Acer spp., Betula pendula, Corylusavellana and most of Salix spp.), supplemented with other species (e.g. Clematis vitalba, Colutea arborescens, Lonicera xylosteum, Padus avium, Sambucus nigra, Staphylea pinnata, Viburnum spp.).Followings can be asked from our field botanists: i) look for a specialist in cases of critical dendrotaxa; ii) a circumspect identification is necessary - especially in the case of leaves - by right of great number of samples from the adequate part of shoot; iii) keep in view frequent hybridization (e.g. in the case of Betula, Crataegus, Pyrus, Tilia), and frequent appearance of hybrids (e.g. Betula × rhombifolia, Cerasus × eminens, Salix × rubens); iv) appearance of interim forms are usually typical in the cases of

  4. Soil Contamination and Remediation Strategies. Current research and future challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petruzzelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    eliminating the source of pollution, but also on blocking the pathways from contaminants to receptors or reducing the exposure to contaminants,. Future challenge integration of sustainability into remediation decision-making. Soil is not a waste! There is a growing interest in the clean up approaches that maintain soil quality after remediation treatments. This issue is of great importance in the U.S.A. where the EPA from 2009 is promoting innovative clean-up strategies (Green Remediation). Green remediation is defined as the practice of considering all environmental effects of remedy and incorporating options to maximize environmental benefit of cleanup actions . These remediation strategies restore contaminated sites to productive use with a great attention to the global environmental quality, including the preservation of soil functionality according to the following principles: use minimally invasive technologies; use passive energy technologies such as bioremediation and phytoremediation as primary remedies or finishing steps where possible and effective; minimize soil and habitat disturbance; minimize bioavailability of contaminants trough adequate contaminant source and plume control If we move from the current definition of remedial targets based on total concentrations, technologies with low impact on the environment can be utilized reducing the wrong choice to disposal soil in landfill destroying quickly a not renewable essential resource.

  5. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Feary, David A.; Burt, John A.; Bauman, Andrew G.; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A.; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A.; Anderson, Donald M.; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H.; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L.; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M.; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M.; Jones, David A.; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R.; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/ Persian Gulf (thereafter ‘Gulf’) coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region. PMID:23643407

  6. Critical research needs for identifying future changes in Gulf coral reef ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Feary, David A; Burt, John A; Bauman, Andrew G; Al Hazeem, Shaker; Abdel-Moati, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Khalifa A; Anderson, Donald M; Amos, Carl; Baker, Andrew; Bartholomew, Aaron; Bento, Rita; Cavalcante, Geórgenes H; Chen, Chaolun Allen; Coles, Steve L; Dab, Koosha; Fowler, Ashley M; George, David; Grandcourt, Edwin; Hill, Ross; John, David M; Jones, David A; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Mahmoud, Huda; Moradi Och Tapeh, Mahdi; Mostafavi, Pargol Ghavam; Naser, Humood; Pichon, Michel; Purkis, Sam; Riegl, Bernhard; Samimi-Namin, Kaveh; Sheppard, Charles; Vajed Samiei, Jahangir; Voolstra, Christian R; Wiedenmann, Joerg

    2013-07-30

    Expert opinion was assessed to identify current knowledge gaps in determining future changes in Arabian/Persian Gulf (thereafter 'Gulf') coral reefs. Thirty-one participants submitted 71 research questions that were peer-assessed in terms of scientific importance (i.e., filled a knowledge gap and was a research priority) and efficiency in resource use (i.e., was highly feasible and ecologically broad). Ten research questions, in six major research areas, were highly important for both understanding Gulf coral reef ecosystems and also an efficient use of limited research resources. These questions mirrored global evaluations of the importance of understanding and evaluating biodiversity, determining the potential impacts of climate change, the role of anthropogenic impacts in structuring coral reef communities, and economically evaluating coral reef communities. These questions provide guidance for future research on coral reef ecosystems within the Gulf, and enhance the potential for assessment and management of future changes in this globally significant region.

  7. Cancer patients' attitudes toward future research uses of stored human biological materials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Champion, Victoria L; Eckles, Rachael; Johnson, Cynthia S; Meslin, Eric M

    2007-09-01

    THE POLICY DEBATE CONCERNING INFORMED consent for future, unspecified research of stored human biological materials (HBM) would benefit from an understanding of the attitudes of individuals who contribute tissue specimens to HBM repositories. Cancer patients who contributed leftover tissue to the Indiana University Cancer Center Tissue Bank under such conditions were recruited for a mail survey study of their attitudes. Our findings suggest that a clear majority of subjects would permit unlimited future research on stored HBMs without re-contact and reconsent, and a significant minority appear to desire ongoing control over future research uses of their tissue. These differences merit further investigation and suggest that a policy of blanket consent for all future, unspecified research would be premature.

  8. CRYRING@ESR: present status and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestinsky, M.; Bräuning-Demian, A.; Danared, H.; Engström, M.; Enders, W.; Fedotova, S.; Franzke, B.; Heinz, A.; Herfurth, F.; Källberg, A.; Kester, O.; Litvinov, Y.; Steck, M.; Reistad, D.; Simonsson, A.; Skeppstedt, Ö.; Stöhlker, T.; Vorobjev, G.; the CRYRING@ESR working Group

    2015-11-01

    The former storage ring CRYRING has been shipped from the Manne Siegbahn Laboratory in Stockholm to Darmstadt as a Swedish in-kind contribution to FAIR. At its new location downstream of ESR all ion species presently accessible in ESR can be transferred to CRYRING, in which ions with rigidities between 1.44 and 0.054 Tm can be stored. The original Swedish layout has been modified by reconfiguring the sequence of straight sections and by slightly increasing the circumference to ESR/2. Ions can be injected from ESR or from an independent 300 keV/u RFQ test injector. The instrumentation of the ring includes an RF drift tube system for acceleration and deceleration (1 T s-1, with a possibility for an upgrade to 7 T s-1), electron cooling, a free experimental section, and both fast and slow extraction of ions. We report on the present progress of this project, give a prospective timeline, and summarize the new research which will be enabled by this project. First beam for commissioning of the storage ring is expected for 2015, final bakeout to restore ultrahigh vacuum conditions in 2016 and ion beams injected through ESR in ˜2017.

  9. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Unresolved issues and future research directions.

    PubMed Central

    Okun, N.; Verma, A.; Demianczuk, N.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To summarize the controversial aspects of gestational diabetes (GDM) and introduce readers to possible relevant research questions that could be examined to provide clinicians with good-quality data on which to base decisions about this relatively common pregnancy-related issue. DATA SOURCES AND STUDY SELECTION: Ongoing review of the English literature related to GDM. Sources were not restricted to prospective, controlled trials, as these are severely limited in number. SYNTHESIS: Controversial issues include the relevance of GDM to clinically meaningful outcomes in the index pregnancy, the effectiveness of current therapy in altering these outcomes, and the resultant questionable relevance of routine screening and diagnosis of an entity with as yet uncertain significance in pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: Suggested questions to be addressed in multicentre controlled trials include randomization with respect to screening and with respect to treatment. Until such trials are completed, continuing with a standard approach to screening, diagnosis, and treatment, such as that suggested by the third international workshop on GDM, is recommended. PMID:9626427

  10. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    SciTech Connect

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B-M; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  11. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    DOE PAGES

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; ...

    2016-10-03

    Here, this paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Taskmore » is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.« less

  12. Asthma in the Elderly: Current Understanding and Future Research Needs

    PubMed Central

    Hanania, Nicola A.; King, Monroe J.; Braman, Sidney S.; Saltoun, Carol; Wise, Robert A.; Enright, Paul; Falsey, Ann A; Mathur, Sameer K.; Ramsdell, Joe W.; Rogers, Linda; Stempel, David A.; Lima, John J.; Fish, James E.; Wilson, Sandra R.; Boyd, Cynthia; Patel, Kushang V.; Irvin, Charles G.; Yawn, Barbara P.; Halm, Ethan A; Wasserman, Stephen I.; Sands, Mark F.; Ershler, William B.; Ledford, Dennis K.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma in the elderly (AIE) is under diagnosed and under treated and there is a paucity of knowledge. The National Institute on Aging convened this workshop to identify what is known, what gaps in knowledge remain and suggest research directions needed to improve the understanding and care of AIE. Asthma presenting at an advanced age often has similar clinical and physiologic consequences as seen with younger individuals but co-morbid illnesses and the psychosocial effects of aging may affect the diagnosis, clinical presentation and care of asthma in this population. At least two phenotypes exist among elderly asthma; those with long-standing asthma have more severe airflow limitation and less complete reversibility than those with late-onset asthma. Many challenges exist in the recognition and treatment of asthma in the elderly. Furthermore, the pathophysiological mechanisms of AIE are likely to be different from those seen in young asthmatics and these differences may influence the clinical course and outcomes of asthma in this population. PMID:21872730

  13. Genetic research in schizophrenia: new tools and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bertram, Lars

    2008-09-01

    Genetically, schizophrenia is a complex disease whose pathogenesis is likely governed by a number of different risk factors. While substantial efforts have been made to identify the underlying susceptibility alleles over the past 2 decades, they have been of only limited success. Each year, the field is enriched with nearly 150 additional genetic association studies, each of which either proposes or refutes the existence of certain schizophrenia genes. To facilitate the evaluation and interpretation of these findings, we have recently created a database for genetic association studies in schizophrenia ("SzGene"; available at http://www.szgene.org). In addition to systematically screening the scientific literature for eligible studies, SzGene also reports the results of allele-based meta-analyses for polymorphisms with sufficient genotype data. Currently, these meta-analyses highlight not only over 20 different potential schizophrenia genes, many of which represent the "usual suspects" (eg, various dopamine receptors and neuregulin 1), but also several that were never meta-analyzed previously. All the highlighted loci contain at least one variant showing modest (summary odds ratios approximately 1.20 [range 1.06-1.45]) but nominally significant risk effects. This review discusses some of the strengths and limitations of the SzGene database, which could become a useful bioinformatics tool within the schizophrenia research community.

  14. Sleep disturbance due to noise: current issues and future research.

    PubMed

    Hume, Ken

    2010-01-01

    There is growing interest in carrying out further research to understand and reduce the impact of aircraft noise on airport neighborhood in anticipation of the projected substantial increase in global aviation. Soundscapes provide new analytical methods and a broader, more comprehensive appreciation of the aural environment, which may have a useful role in understanding noise-induced sleep disturbance and annoyance. Current noise metrics like Leq do not provide a common language to report noise environment to residents, which is a key obstacle to effective noise management and acceptance. Non-auditory effects complicate the production of consistent dose-response functions for aircraft noise affecting sleep and annoyance. There are various end-points that can be chosen to assess the degree of sleep disturbance, which has detracted from the clarity of results that has been communicated to wider audiences. The World Health Organization (WHO-Europe) has produced Night Noise Guidelines for Europe, which act as a clear guide for airports and planners to work towards. Methodological inadequacies and the need for simpler techniques to record sleep will be considered with the exciting potential to greatly increase cost-effective field data acquisition, which is needed for large scale epidemiological studies.

  15. Wind power forecasting: IEA Wind Task 36 & future research issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, G.; Cline, J.; Frank, H.; Shaw, W.; Pinson, P.; Hodge, B.-M.; Kariniotakis, G.; Madsen, J.; Möhrlen, C.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents the new International Energy Agency Wind Task 36 on Forecasting, and invites to collaborate within the group. Wind power forecasts have been used operatively for over 20 years. Despite this fact, there are still several possibilities to improve the forecasts, both from the weather prediction side and from the usage of the forecasts. The new International Energy Agency (IEA) Task on Forecasting for Wind Energy tries to organise international collaboration, among national meteorological centres with an interest and/or large projects on wind forecast improvements (NOAA, DWD, MetOffice, met.no, DMI,...), operational forecaster and forecast users. The Task is divided in three work packages: Firstly, a collaboration on the improvement of the scientific basis for the wind predictions themselves. This includes numerical weather prediction model physics, but also widely distributed information on accessible datasets. Secondly, we will be aiming at an international pre-standard (an IEA Recommended Practice) on benchmarking and comparing wind power forecasts, including probabilistic forecasts. This WP will also organise benchmarks, in cooperation with the IEA Task WakeBench. Thirdly, we will be engaging end users aiming at dissemination of the best practice in the usage of wind power predictions. As first results, an overview of current issues for research in short-term forecasting of wind power is presented.

  16. Why is Neuroimmunopharmacology crucial for the future of addiction research?

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Mark R; Watkins, Linda R

    2013-01-01

    A major development in drug addiction research in recent years has been the discovery that immune signaling within the central nervous system contributes significantly to mesolimbic dopamine reward signaling induced by drugs of abuse, and hence is involved in the presentation of reward behaviors. Additionally, in the case of opioids, these hypotheses have advanced through to the discovery of the novel site of opioid action at the innate immune pattern recognition receptor Toll-like receptor 4 as the necessary triggering event that engages this reward facilitating central immune signaling. Thus, the hypothesis of major proinflammatory contributions to drug abuse was born. This review will examine these key discoveries, but also address several key lingering questions of how central immune signaling is able to contribute in this fashion to the pharmacodynamics of drugs of abuse. It is hoped that by combining the collective wisdom of neuroscience, immunology and pharmacology, into Neuroimmunopharmacology, we may more fully understanding the neuronal and immune complexities of how drugs of abuse, such as opioids, create their rewarding and addiction states. Such discoveries will point us in the direction such that one day soon we might successfully intervene to successfully treat drug addiction. PMID:23764149

  17. Preparing Future Teachers to Anticipate Student Difficulties in Physics in a Graduate-Level Course in Physics, Pedagogy, and Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, John R.; Christensen, Warren M.; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    We describe courses designed to help future teachers reflect on and discuss both physics content and student knowledge thereof. We use three kinds of activities: reading and discussing the literature, experiencing research-based curricular materials, and learning to use the basic research methods of physics education research. We present a general…

  18. Preface: Joint Discussion JD7: Space-time reference systems for future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Kaplan, G.; Klioner, S.

    2015-03-01

    The Joint Discussion on Space-time reference systems for future research (JD7) was held at the XXVIIIth General Assembly of the IAU in Beijing, on 27-29 August 2012. It was organized by IAU Division I (Fundamental Astronomy), with the support of Division III (Planetary Systems Sciences), Division IX (Optical & Infrared Techniques), Division XI (Space & High Energy Astrophysics), and Division XII (Union-Wide Activities). The scientific organizing committee was composed of Nicole Capitaine (France; co-Chair), George H. Kaplan (USA), Sergei Klioner (Germany; co-Chair), Zoran Knezevic (Republic of Serbia), Dafydd Wyn Evans (UK), Dennis McCarthy (USA; co-Chair), Harald Schuh (Austria), Richard N. Manchester (Australia) and Gérard Petit (France).

  19. Ecosystem functioning in the Mozambique Channel: Synthesis and future research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsac, F.; Barlow, R.; Ternon, J. F.; Ménard, F.; Roberts, M.

    2014-02-01

    straightforward as adult tunas caught by longline have the ability to explore different foraging habitats over a broad range of depths. Several suggestions for advancing eddy-related research from the current state of knowledge are proposed in the second part of the paper.

  20. "Ames Research Center: Linking our Origins to our Future"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.

    2005-01-01

    Our research traces a path from interstellar materials to inhabited worlds and beyond. We examine how protoplanetary disks evolve and form terrestrial planets, the evolutionary paths of habitable planets, and how external factors (e.g., orbital eccentricity) and internal factors (atmospheric circulation) affect habitability. We trace, spectroscopically and chemically, the evolution of organic molecules from the interstellar medium onto habitable bodies. We examine how membranes might form under prebiotic planetary conditions. We evolve proteins capable of sustaining early metabolism, such as synthesis of biopolymers and transport of ions across membranes. We estimate the frequency of finding a functional prebiotic protein that formed spontaneously. We characterize the formation of diagnostic microbial biosignatures in rock-hosted ecosystems in ophiolite springs as an analog for subsurface life within our solar system, and photosynthetic microbial mats as biota that could be detected on extrasolar planets. We develop quantitative models that simulate energy relationships, biogeochemical cycling, trace gas exchange, and biodiversity. We examine the effects of climate variability on a vegetation-rich biosphere over intermediate time scales, using South American ecosystems as a model. We address natural transport of life beyond its planet of origin, such as on a meteorite, where survivors must withstand radiation, desiccation, and time in transit. We fly organisms and ecosystems in low Earth orbit to test their resistance to space. The Ames E&PO program disseminates these themes to national- and international-scale audiences through partnerships with the California Academy of Sciences, Yellow stone National Park, New York Hall of Science, and several K-14 educational organizations.

  1. Market Research: Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    MARKET RESEARCH Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies Report to the...currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE OCT 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Market ...2014 MARKET RESEARCH Better Documentation Needed to Inform Future Procurements at Selected Agencies is Why GAO Did This Study The federal

  2. McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Company independent research and development: Preparing for the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haggerty, Allen C.

    1988-01-01

    During the 1970's and 80's, research has produced the technology that is seen in aircraft such as the LHX and future models. The technology is discussed that is reaching maturity and moving into the application stage of future programs. Technology is discussed in six major areas: advanced concepts, analysis techniques, structures, systems, simulation, and research and development facilities. The partnership of McDonnell Douglas Helicopter Co. and the government in developing these technologies is illustrated in several programs.

  3. The future of research on electroreception and electrocommunication

    PubMed

    Bullock

    1999-05-01

    Beyond continuation of currently active areas, some less studied ones are selected for predictions of marked advance. (1) Most discoveries will be in cellular components and molecular mechanisms for different classes of receptor or central pathways. (2) More major taxa, possibly birds, reptiles or invertebrates, will be found to have electroreceptive species representing independent evolutionary 'inventions'. (3) Electric organs with weak and episodic electric discharges will be found in new taxa; first, among siluriforms. (4) New examples are to be expected, such as lampreys, where synchronized muscle action potentials sum to voltages in the range of weakly electric fish. Some of these will look like intermediates in the evolution of electric organs. (5) Ethological significance will be found for a variety of known physiological features; e.g. uranoscopids, skates and weakly electric catfish with episodic electric discharges; electroreceptive ability of animals such as lampreys, chimaeras, lungfish, sturgeons, paddlefish and salamanders with Lorenzinian-type ampullae; gymnotiform and mormyrid detection of the capacitative component of impedance. (6) The organization of some higher functions in the cerebellum and forebrain will gradually come to light.

  4. Enhanced recovery after surgery: Current research insights and future direction

    PubMed Central

    Abeles, Aliza; Kwasnicki, Richard Mark; Darzi, Ara

    2017-01-01

    Since the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) was introduced in the late 1990s the idea of implementing specific interventions throughout the peri-operative period to improve patient recovery has been proven to be beneficial. Minimally invasive surgery is an integral component to ERAS and has dramatically improved post-operative outcomes. ERAS can be applicable to all surgical specialties with the core generic principles used together with added specialty specific interventions to allow for a comprehensive protocol, leading to improved clinical outcomes. Diffusion of ERAS into mainstream practice has been hindered due to minimal evidence to support individual facets and lack of method for monitoring and encouraging compliance. No single outcome measure fully captures recovery after surgery, rather multiple measures are necessary at each stage. More recently the pre-operative period has been the target of a number of strategies to improve clinical outcomes, described as prehabilitation. Innovation of technology in the surgical setting is also providing opportunities to overcome the challenges within ERAS, e.g., the use of wearable activity monitors to record information and provide feedback and motivation to patients peri-operatively. Both modernising ERAS and providing evidence for key strategies across specialties will ultimately lead to better, more reliable patient outcomes. PMID:28289508

  5. Surging glaciers in Iceland - research status and future challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingolfsson, Olafur

    2013-04-01

    Twenty six Icelandic outlet glaciers, ranging from 0.5-1.500 km2, are known to surge, with terminal advances ranging from of few tens of meters to about 10 km. The geomorphic signatures of surges vary, from large-scale folded and thrusted end moraine systems, extensive dead-ice fields and drumlinized forefields to drift sheets where fast ice-flow indicators are largely missing. Case studies from the forefields of Brúarjökull, Eyjabakkajökull and Múlajökull surging glaciers will be presented. At Brúarjökull, extremely rapid ice flow during surge was sustained by overpressurized water causing decoupling beneath a thick sediment sequence that was coupled to the glacier. The ice-marginal position of the 1890 surge is marked by a sedimentary wedge formed within five days and a large moraine ridge that formed in about one day ("instantaneous end-moraine"). Three different qualitative and conceptual models are required to explain the genesis of the Eyjabakkajökull moraines: a narrow, single-crested moraine ridge at the distal end of a marginal sediment wedge formed in response to decoupling of the subglacial sediment from the bedrock and associated downglacier sediment transport; large lobate end moraine ridges with multiple, closely spaced, asymmetric crests formed by proglacial piggy-back thrusting; moraine ridges with different morphologies may reflect different members of an end moraine continuum. A parallel study highlighting the surge history of Eyjabakkajökull over the last 4400 years suggests climate control on surge frequencies. The Múlajökull studies concern an active drumlin field (>100 drumlins) that is being exposed as the glacier retreats. The drumlins form through repeated surges, where each surge causes deposition of till bed onto the drumlin while similtaneously eroding the sides. Finally, a new landsystem model for surging North Iceland cirque glaciers will be introduced. References Benediktsson,I. Ö., Schomacker, A., Lokrantz, H. & Ing

  6. Constructing an Evidence-Base for Future CALL Design with "Engineering Power": The Need for More Basic Research and Instrumental Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Handley, Zöe

    2014-01-01

    This paper argues that the goal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) research should be to construct a reliable evidence-base with "engineering power" and generality upon which the design of future CALL software and activities can be based. In order to establish such an evidence base for future CALL design, it suggests that CALL…

  7. The future of nutrition research at the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Davis, Cindy D; Ohlhorst, Sarah

    2014-09-01

    Cuts to the NIH budget decreased funding for nutrition research. It is even more necessary now to understand and elevate the role of nutrition research at the NIH. This symposium shed light on where nutrition research stands today and what the future holds for nutrition research at the NIH. In his introduction, the ASN president shared an overview of nutrition research at the NIH and a description of what the ASN is doing to advance the future of nutrition research. Nutrition program directors from various NIH institutes and offices, including the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease, the National Cancer Institute, and the Office of Dietary Supplements, discussed nutrition research advances supported by past and present federal funding and highlighted nutrition research opportunities through forthcoming funding opportunity announcements of interest to ASN members.

  8. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  9. High-Resolution Modeling to Assess Tropical Cyclone Activity in Future Climate Regimes

    SciTech Connect

    Lackmann, Gary

    2013-06-10

    Applied research is proposed with the following objectives: (i) to determine the most likely level of tropical cyclone intensity and frequency in future climate regimes, (ii) to provide a quantitative measure of uncertainty in these predictions, and (iii) to improve understanding of the linkage between tropical cyclones and the planetary-scale circulation. Current mesoscale weather forecasting models, such as the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, are capable of simulating the full intensity of tropical cyclones (TC) with realistic structures. However, in order to accurately represent both the primary and secondary circulations in these systems, model simulations must be configured with sufficient resolution to explicitly represent convection (omitting the convective parameterization scheme). Most previous numerical studies of TC activity at seasonal and longer time scales have not utilized such explicit convection (EC) model runs. Here, we propose to employ the moving nest capability of WRF to optimally represent TC activity on a seasonal scale using a downscaling approach. The statistical results of a suite of these high-resolution TC simulations will yield a realistic representation of TC intensity on a seasonal basis, while at the same time allowing analysis of the feedback that TCs exert on the larger-scale climate system. Experiments will be driven with analyzed lateral boundary conditions for several recent Atlantic seasons, spanning a range of activity levels and TC track patterns. Results of the ensemble of WRF simulations will then be compared to analyzed TC data in order to determine the extent to which this modeling setup can reproduce recent levels of TC activity. Next, the boundary conditions (sea-surface temperature, tropopause height, and thermal/moisture profiles) from the recent seasons will be altered in a manner consistent with various future GCM/RCM scenarios, but that preserves the large-scale shear and incipient disturbance

  10. Future Marine Polar Research Capacities - Science Planning and Research Services for a Multi-National Research Icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biebow, N.; Lembke-Jene, L.; Wolff-Boenisch, B.; Bergamasco, A.; De Santis, L.; Eldholm, O.; Mevel, C.; Willmott, V.; Thiede, J.

    2011-12-01

    Despite significant advances in Arctic and Antarctic marine science over the past years, the polar Southern Ocean remains a formidable frontier due to challenging technical and operational requirements. Thus, key data and observations from this important region are still missing or lack adequate lateral and temporal coverage, especially from time slots outside optimal weather seasons and ice conditions. These barriers combined with the obligation to efficiently use financial resources and funding for expeditions call for new approaches to create optimally equipped, but cost-effective infrastructures. These must serve the international science community in a dedicated long-term mode and enable participation in multi-disciplinary expeditions, with secured access to optimally equipped marine platforms for world-class research in a wide range of Antarctic science topics. The high operational and technical performance capacity of a future joint European Research Icebreaker and Deep-sea Drilling Vessel (the AURORA BOREALIS concept) aims at integrating still separately operating national science programmes with different strategic priorities into joint development of long-term research missions with international cooperation both in Arctic and Antarctica. The icebreaker is planned to enable, as a worldwide first, autonomous year-round operations in the central Arctic and polar Southern Ocean, including severest ice conditions in winter, and serving all polar marine disciplines. It will facilitate the implementation of atmospheric, oceanographic, cryospheric or geophysical observatories for long-term monitoring of the polar environment. Access to the biosphere and hydrosphere e.g. beneath ice shelves or in remote regions is made possible by acting as advanced deployment platform for instruments, robotic and autonomous vehicles and ship-based air operations. In addition to a report on the long-term strategic science and operational planning objectives, we describe foreseen

  11. Mapping Future Research in Disabilities--Research Initiatives in Intellectual Disabilities in India: Report of a National Interdisciplinary Meeting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Libby; Brown, Roy I.

    2012-01-01

    A meeting organized under the auspices of the International Association for the Scientific Study of Intellectual Disabilities (IASSID) Academy on Education, Teaching and Research was held in March 2011 at the India International Centre in New Delhi, India, with the explicit purpose of helping establish a road map for future research in…

  12. Identifying Key Priorities for Future Palliative Care Research Using an Innovative Analytic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Pillemer, Karl; Chen, Emily K.; Warmington, Marcus; Adelman, Ronald D.; Reid, M. C.

    2015-01-01

    Using an innovative approach, we identified research priorities in palliative care to guide future research initiatives. We searched 7 databases (2005–2012) for review articles published on the topics of palliative and hospice–end-of-life care. The identified research recommendations (n = 648) fell into 2 distinct categories: (1) ways to improve methodological approaches and (2) specific topic areas in need of future study. The most commonly cited priority within the theme of methodological approaches was the need for enhanced rigor. Specific topics in need of future study included perspectives and needs of patients, relatives, and providers; underrepresented populations; decision-making; cost-effectiveness; provider education; spirituality; service use; and interdisciplinary approaches to delivering palliative care. This review underscores the need for additional research on specific topics and methodologically rigorous research to inform health policy and practice. PMID:25393169

  13. Young Children with Type 1 Diabetes: Challenges, Research, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Streisand, Randi; Monaghan, Maureen

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in young children (age <6 years) is rising. Diabetes management guidelines offered by the American Diabetes Association and health care teams understandably place a high burden of responsibility on caregivers to check young children's blood glucose levels, administer insulin, and monitor diet and physical activity with the ultimate goal of maintaining tight glycemic control. Unfortunately, this tight control is needed during a vulnerable developmental period when behavior is unpredictable, T1D can be physiologically difficult to control, parenting stress can be elevated, and caregivers are strained by normal child caretaking routines. Despite the potentially different management needs, specific education and clinical services for managing diabetes in young children are rarely offered, and behavioral research with this young child age group has been limited in scope and quantity. Research findings pertinent to young children with T1D are reviewed, and potential clinical implications, as well as areas for future research, are discussed. PMID:25009119

  14. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in autism spectrum disorder: Challenges, promise, and roadmap for future research

    PubMed Central

    Oberman, Lindsay M.; Enticott, Peter G.; Casanova, Manuel F.; Rotenberg, Alexander; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; McCracken, James T.

    2016-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a behaviorally defined complex neurodevelopmental syndrome characterized by impairments in social communication, by the presence of restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests and activities, and by abnormalities in sensory reactivity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a promising, emerging tool for the study and potential treatment of ASD. Recent studies suggest that TMS measures provide rapid and noninvasive pathophysiological ASD biomarkers. Furthermore, repetitive TMS (rTMS) may represent a novel treatment strategy for reducing some of the core and associated ASD symptoms. However, the available literature on the TMS use in ASD is preliminary, composed of studies with methodological limitations. Thus, off-label clinical rTMS use for therapeutic interventions in ASD without an investigational device exemption and outside of an IRB approved research trial is premature pending further, adequately powered and controlled trials. Leaders in this field have gathered annually for a two-day conference (prior to the 2014 and 2015 International Meeting for Autism Research, IMFAR) to share recent progress, promote collaboration across laboratories, and establish consensus on protocols. Here we review the literature in the use of TMS in ASD in the context of the unique challenges required for the study and exploration of treatment strategies in this population. We also suggest future directions for this field of investigations. While its true potential in ASD has yet to be delineated, TMS represents an innovative research tool and a novel, possibly transformative approach to the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26536383

  15. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond.

  16. Overview of Langley activities in active controls research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active controls technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. The activities of the Langley Research Center (laRC) in advancing active controls technology. Activities are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  17. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högström, E.; Malenfant-Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-08-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interests in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics, permafrost thermal modeling, integration of traditional knowledge, spatial distribution of ground ice, and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  18. Brief Communication: Future avenues for permafrost science from the perspective of early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Deshpande, B. N.; Bouchard, F.; Högtröm, E.; Lepage, J.; Morgenstern, A.; Nieuwendam, A.; Oliva, M.; Paquette, M.; Rudy, A. C. A.; Siewert, M. B.; Sjöberg, Y.; Weege, S.

    2015-02-01

    Accelerating climate change and increased economic and environmental interest in permafrost-affected regions have resulted in an acute need for more directed permafrost research. In June 2014, 88 early career researchers convened to identify future priorities for permafrost research. This multidisciplinary forum concluded that five research topics deserve greatest attention: permafrost landscape dynamics; permafrost thermal modelling; integration of traditional knowledge; spatial analysis of permafrost types and vulnerability; and engineering issues. These topics underline the need for integrated research across a spectrum of permafrost-related domains and constitute a contribution to the Third International Conference on Arctic Research Planning (ICARP III).

  19. Expanding the Teaching Games for Understanding Model: New Avenues for Future Research and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Strean, William B.; Bengoechea, Enrique Garcia

    2002-01-01

    Reviews research on the Teaching Games for Understanding (TGfU) approach in physical education, noting that many discussions of TGfU have focused on cognitive and psychomotor learning outcomes and neglected the affective domain. An extended TGfU model is presented, suggesting new avenues for future research and practice (e.g., consideration of…

  20. ASSESSMENT OF ALLERGENIC POTENTIAL OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED FOODS: AN AGENDA FOR FUTURE RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract
    Speakers and participants in the Workshop Assessment of the Allergenic Potential of Genetically Modified Foods met in breakout groups to discuss a number of issues including needs for future research. There was agreement that research should move forward quickly in t...

  1. Information Technology Research: Investing in Our Future. Report to the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coordination Office for Information Technology Research and Development, Arlington, VA.

    This is the final report on future directions for Federal support of research and development (R&D) for information technology. This report adds detail to the findings and recommendations in the interim report dated August 1998, and strengthens previous recommendations regarding the importance of social and economic research on the impacts of…

  2. Viewing the Future of University Research Libraries through the Perspectives of Scenarios

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawthorne, Jon Edward

    2013-01-01

    This research highlights the scenarios that might serve as a strategic vision to describe a future beyond the current library, one which both guides provosts and creates a map for the transformation of human resources and technology in the university research libraries. The scenarios offer managerial leaders an opportunity to envision new roles…

  3. Equipped for the Future Research Report: Building the Framework, 1993-1997. EFF Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrifield, Juliet

    This report focuses on the research aspects of the Equipped for the Future (EFF) project that works toward system reform for adult literacy and lifelong learning. Section 1 describes the EFF process 1993-97, the impetus for EFF, and approaches to system reform. Section 2 explores the research processes EFF uses to build a framework that could…

  4. Researching Possible Futures to Guide Leaders towards More Effective Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Niki; Higgins, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to inform institutional leaders by producing and disseminating a system wide view of what tertiary education might look like in Aotearoa New Zealand, five years into the future. The researchers were responding to a challenge in a speech at the DEANZ 2010 conference by a highly respected national leader (Dr. Peter Coolbear). The…

  5. Status and future directions for advanced accelerator research-conventional and non-conventional collider concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Siemann, R.H.

    1997-03-01

    The relationship between advanced accelerator research and future directions for particle physics is discussed. Comments are made about accelerator research trends in hadron colliders, muon colliders, and e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear colliders. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Governance in the Digital Age: A Research and Action Framework for an Uncertain Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Sharon S.

    2009-01-01

    Research into relationships among government, society and technology has grown substantially over the past 30 years. However, most research and most advances in practice address narrowly defined categories of concern such as government organization, citizen services, interoperability, or personal privacy. By contrast, the future presents complex…

  7. Preparing for the Revolution: Information Technology and the Future of the Research University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC.

    The National Academies launched a study in early 2000 on the implications of information technology for the future of the U.S. research university. The study was designed to identify the information technologies that are likely to evolve in the near term (a decade or less) that could have major impact on the research university and to examine the…

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF Instrumentation Status: New, Current, and Future)

    SciTech Connect

    JW Voyles

    2008-01-30

    The purpose of this report is to provide a concise but comprehensive overview of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility instrumentation status. The report is divided into the following four sections: (1) new instrumentation in the process of being acquired and deployed, (2) existing instrumentation and progress on improvements or upgrades, (3) proposed future instrumentation, and (4) Small Business Innovation Research instrument development.

  9. A Review of Research on Metacognition in Science Education: Current and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Barzilai, Sarit

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study is to map the current state of research in the field of metacognition in science education, to identify key trends, and to discern areas and questions for future research. We conducted a systematic analysis of 178 studies published in peer-reviewed journals in the years 2000-2012 and indexed in the ERIC database. The…

  10. On the Future of Media Research: No More Full Acceleration in Neutral Gear

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomon, Gavriel

    1978-01-01

    Media research in the future is seen as focusing on the educational potentialities of the distinguishing qualities that cut across media in interaction with personal, social, and cultural qualities. Media research will also become better oriented toward understanding and generating theoretical constructs. (Author/STS)

  11. Fidelity in Models-Based Practice Research in Sport Pedagogy: A Guide for Future Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastie, Peter A.; Casey, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a commentary on research on models-based practice within physical education and presents a tutorial that aims to guide the reporting of future research using pedagogical models. Three key elements are presented that could be considered as essential for inclusion in any methods section in order for readers to gain an accurate…

  12. Preparing Future School Administrators To Reach Out to Families through Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Linda T.; Blendinger, Jack

    This paper focuses on the role that action research can serve in preparing future school administrators to involve families in their children's education. For purposes of the paper, action research is defined as structured field-based investigations conducted in field environments that engage teachers preparing to become school administrators in…

  13. What Future for Educational Research in Europe? Political, Epistemological and Ethical Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2015-01-01

    This article reflects on the future of European educational research (EER) and its politics of knowledge. EER is interpreted as a field of power/knowledge, where a hegemonic epistemic framework is raised that assembles an evidence-based epistemology, a "what works" political rationality and a technocratic model of educational research.…

  14. Research activities on robotics at the Electrotechnical Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakikura, M.

    Various robotics research activities carried out at the Electrotechnical Laboratory in Japan are discussed. The history of robotics research, which has been going on since the late 1960s as a part of artificial-intelligence research is described. Consideration is given to the full-scale robot system called ETL-ROBOT Mk. 1, to the carpenter robot, to the intelligent locomotive-handling robot, to the flexible finger, and to the hand-eye robot. The present aspect of the research in relation to past results is examined and includes the development of new robot systems such as a vision system based on a three-dimensional model, an interactive modeling system, a direct-drive manipulator, a robot vision language, and a language-aided robotic teleoperation system. Research themes planned for the near future include manipulation techniques, sensor techniques, autonomous robot control techniques, advanced teleoperation techniques, and system totalizing techniques.

  15. Accession Medical Standards Analysis and Research Activity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    Chief, Accession Medical Standards Analysis & Research Activity Li Yuanzhang, PhD Senior Statistician Department of Epidemiology David N...ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AMSARA, Department of Epidemiology , Division of Preventive Medicine Walter Reed Army Institute of Research 503... Epidemiology of Injury form the Assessment of Recruit Strength and Motivation study ARMS) and Program

  16. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  17. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  18. Evaluating the Potential of NASA's Earth Science Research Results for Improving Future Operational Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederick, M. E.; Cox, E. L.; Friedl, L. A.

    2006-12-01

    NASA's Earth Science Theme is charged with implementing NASA Strategic Goal 3A to "study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." In the course of meeting this objective, NASA produces research results, such as scientific observatories, research models, advanced sensor and space system technology, data active archives and interoperability technology, high performance computing systems, and knowledge products. These research results have the potential to serve society beyond their intended purpose of answering pressing Earth system science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences Program systematically evaluates the potential of the portfolio of research results to serve society by conducting projects in partnership with regional/national scale operational partners with the statutory responsibility to inform decision makers. These projects address NASA's National Applications and the societal benefit areas under the IEOS and GEOSS. Prototyping methods are used in two ways in NASA's Applied Sciences Program. The first is part of the National Applications program element, referred to as Integrated Systems Solutions (ISS) projects. The approach for these projects is to use high fidelity prototypes to benchmark the assimilation of NASA research results into our partners' decision support systems. The outcome from ISS projects is a prototype system that has been rigorously tested with the partner to understand the scientific uncertainty and improved value of their modified system. In many cases, these completed prototypes are adopted or adapted for use by the operational partners. The second falls under the Crosscutting Solutions program element, referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) experiments. The approach for RP experiments is to use low fidelity prototypes that are low cost and quickly produced to evaluate the potential of the breadth of NASA research results to serve society. The outcome from the set of RP experiments is an

  19. Linking Aerosol Source Activities to Present and Future Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Bond, T. C.; Streets, D.; Menon, S.; Unger, N.

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol source sectors (transport, power, industry, residential, biomass burning) generate distinct mixtures of aerosol species. These mixtures in turn have different effects on climate. As sectoral emissions change in coming decades, whether by regulation or not, it is helpful to link pollution from source types to climate consequences. We do so, using our global (GISS GCM) aerosol model for present and future IPCC SRES scenarios. According to our model, residential and transport sectors have net positive 1995 aerosol forcings (0.04 and 0.03 W m-2) due to their large black carbon contents. However, the sulfate-dominated power and industry sectors have net negative 1995 forcings (-0.10 and -0.09 W m-2). Due to the near-balance of absorbing and scattering components, biomass burning forcing is small. For the 2050 SRES A1B scenario, the net (negative) aerosol forcing is double 1995 due primarily to increased sulfur emissions in the industry and power sectors. For 2050 B1 the net (negative) forcing decreases relative to 1995, as sulfur emissions are reduced. Both future scenarios project decreasing residential emissions. Yet transport emissions are expected to remain significant and thus become the dominant source of warming aerosols in the future. Aerosol pollution is projected to shift southward relative to the present, as the current industrialized regions generally reduce emissions and tropical and southern hemispheric regions continue to develop. Similar to these SRES scenarios, IIASA scenarios project a decline in residential emissions; however IIASA is more optimistic about transport sector emissions reductions. We will conduct present-day climate experiments, including aerosol direct and indirect effects, to study impacts of power and transport sectors on climate features such as air temperature and hydrologic cycle.

  20. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  1. Workshop on future directions for plant research at NASA: a report.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Fundamental Space Biology Division and the Advanced Human Support Technology Program convened a workshop in December 2003 [correction of 2004] at Kennedy Space Center, Florida, to chart future directions for plant research at NASA. The purpose of the workshop was to bring together key managers and principal investigators in NASA's plant research community as well as non-NASA funded researchers to formulate a strategy to guide future plant research for the Office of Biological and Physical Research (OBPR). Subsequent to the workshop, on Wednesday, January 14, 2004, President George W. Bush announced a proposal for NASA to go back to the moon and later send a manned mission to Mars. The following is a summary of workshop recommendations provided by the plant research community within the framework of the new exploration vision as set for by NASA.

  2. Exergaming: Hope for future physical activity? or blight on mankind?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and maybe even light physical activity, have been related to better health, motor skills, and cognitive outcomes in virtually all age and ability groups. However, most people in general are not prone to enjoy and participate in substantial amo...

  3. Reduced-activation steels: Future development for improved creep strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klueh, R. L.

    2008-08-01

    Reduced-activation steels for fusion applications were developed in the 1980s to replace the elevated-temperature commercial steels first considered. The new steels were patterned after the commercial steels, with the objective that the new steels have yield stress and ultimate tensile strength and impact toughness in a Charpy test comparable to or better than the steels they replaced. That objective was achieved in reduced-activation steels developed in Japan, Europe, and the United States. Although tensile and impact toughness of the reduced-activation steels exceed those of the commercial steels they were patterned after, their creep-rupture properties are inferior to some commercial steels they replaced. They are even more inferior to commercial steels developed since the 1980s. In this paper, compositional differences between reduced-activation steels and new commercial steels are examined, and compositions are proposed for development of new-and-improved reduced-activation steels.

  4. Infrared Detector Activities at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abedin, M. N.; Refaat, T. F.; Sulima, O. V.; Amzajerdian, F.

    2008-01-01

    Infrared detector development and characterization at NASA Langley Research Center will be reviewed. These detectors were intended for ground, airborne, and space borne remote sensing applications. Discussion will be focused on recently developed single-element infrared detector and future development of near-infrared focal plane arrays (FPA). The FPA will be applied to next generation space-based instruments. These activities are based on phototransistor and avalanche photodiode technologies, which offer high internal gain and relatively low noise-equivalent-power. These novel devices will improve the sensitivity of active remote sensing instruments while eliminating the need for a high power laser transmitter.

  5. Kawasaki disease: an evidence based approach to diagnosis, treatment, and proposals for future research

    PubMed Central

    Brogan, P; Bose, A; Burgner, D; Shingadia, D; Tulloh, R; Michie, C; Klein, N; Booy, R; Levin, M; Dillon, M

    2002-01-01

    This article proposes a clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of Kawasaki disease in the UK based on the best available evidence to date, and highlights areas of practice where evidence is anecdotal or based on retrospective data. Future research as proposed by the London Kawasaki Disease Research Group is outlined, and clinicians are invited to prospectively enrol their suspected cases into this collaborative research project. PMID:11919108

  6. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  7. A review of ONERA aerodynamic research in support of a future supersonic transport aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibert, J. J.; Arnal, D.

    2000-11-01

    The ONERA activities concerning the aerodynamics of the future supersonic transport aircraft are reviewed. Section 1 is devoted to the performance prediction and detailed comparisons between CFD and wind-tunnel data are presented and discussed. Section 2 addresses the problem of the drag prediction in cruise flight conditions from wind-tunnel data. Skin friction coefficients values measured in flight are compared to the results of boundary layer computations. Section 3 is devoted to wing designs with numerical optimisation techniques. Several examples are presented and discussed. Results concerning riblets and laminar flow control are given in Section 4 part which also will present experiments carried out for attachment line contamination investigation. Results from basic research on supersonic laminar flows are also be presented. Section 5 deals with activities on air intake aerodynamics. After a brief recall of supersonic air intakes operational modes and a description of the Concorde air intake, comparisons between CFD and wind tunnel data on a generic 2D intake are presented. Basic experiments on intake internal flow are described and the problem of the internal shock control is addressed.

  8. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  9. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-04-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  10. Nursing Informatics Research Priorities for the Future: Recommendations from an International Survey.

    PubMed

    Peltonen, Laura-Maria; Topaz, Maxim; Ronquillo, Charlene; Pruinelli, Lisiane; Sarmiento, Raymond Francis; Badger, Martha K; Ali, Samira; Lewis, Adrienne; Georgsson, Mattias; Jeon, Eunjoo; Tayaben, Jude L; Kuo, Chiu-Hsiang; Islam, Tasneem; Sommer, Janine; Jung, Hyunggu; Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Alhuwail, Dari

    2016-01-01

    We present one part of the results of an international survey exploring current and future nursing informatics (NI) research trends. The study was conducted by the International Medical Informatics Association Nursing Informatics Special Interest Group (IMIA-NISIG) Student Working Group. Based on findings from this cross-sectional study, we identified future NI research priorities. We used snowball sampling technique to reach respondents from academia and practice. Data were collected between August and September 2015. Altogether, 373 responses from 44 countries were analyzed. The identified top ten NI trends were big data science, standardized terminologies (clinical evaluation/implementation), education and competencies, clinical decision support, mobile health, usability, patient safety, data exchange and interoperability, patient engagement, and clinical quality measures. Acknowledging these research priorities can enhance successful future development of NI to better support clinicians and promote health internationally.

  11. Re-Mediating Current Activity for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierrez, Kris D.

    2012-01-01

    The growing poverty and inequity in America should create a sense of urgency in researchers to leverage what they know for the public good--to intervene more productively and vigorously in an ever more fragile public educational system and to address the increasing vulnerability of far too many youth in the United States. The current worldwide…

  12. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research.

    PubMed

    McLain, David L; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity.

  13. Ambiguity tolerance in organizations: definitional clarification and perspectives on future research

    PubMed Central

    McLain, David L.; Kefallonitis, Efstathios; Armani, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    Ambiguity tolerance is an increasingly popular subject for study in a wide variety of fields. The definition of ambiguity tolerance has changed since its inception, and accompanying that change are changes in measurement and the research questions that interest researchers. There is a wealth of opportunity for research related to ambiguity tolerance and recent advances in neuroscience, measurement, trait research, perception, problem solving, and other fields highlight areas of interest and point to issues that need further attention. The future of ambiguity tolerance research is promising and it is expected that future studies will yield new insights into individual differences in reactions to the complex, unfamiliar, confusing, indeterminate, and incomplete stimuli that fall within the conceptual domain of ambiguity. PMID:25972818

  14. The future of qualitative research in psychology--a students' perspective.

    PubMed

    Terkildsen, Thomas; Petersen, Sofie

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this article is to explore the future of qualitative research as seen from a students' perspective. This exploration will initially be incited through a discussion of the use of the term 'qualitative research', and the risks associated with the use of such an umbrella term. It is discussed that the use of an overarching umbrella term can lead to an overhomogenized understanding of qualitative research, that fails to represent the diversity and variety of methodological and epistemological approaches that exist within this research paradigm. It is also discussed that this overhomogenization reinforces the idea of qualitative research as an anti-doctrine to quantitative research, which is argued to discourage interparadigmatic integration. Lastly, it is considered how these (mis)conceptions of qualitative research influence how psychology students are taught about research methodology and how this education could affect these (mis)conceptions. We advocate that the future for qualitative research in psychology should be ensured through a restructure and a refocus on an educational level. This change should overall be centered around teaching students how to be reflective research practitioners based on an in-depth understanding of the variety of epistemologies within both meta-research-paradigms.

  15. Future Deltas Utrecht University research focus area: towards sustainable management of sinking deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stouthamer, E.; van Asselen, S.

    2015-11-01

    Deltas are increasingly under pressure from human impact and climate change. To deal with these pressures that threat future delta functioning, we need to understand interactions between physical, biological, chemical and social processes in deltas. This requires an integrated approach, in which knowledge on natural system functioning is combined with knowledge on spatial planning, land and water governance and legislative frameworks. In the research focus area Future Deltas of Utrecht University an interdisciplinary team from different research groups therefore works together. This allows developing integrated sustainable and resilient delta management strategies, which is urgently needed to prevent loss of vital delta services.

  16. Future emissions from shipping and petroleum activities in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. P.; Nilssen, T. B.; Lindholt, L.; Eide, M. S.; Glomsrød, S.; Eide, L. I.; Fuglestvedt, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The Arctic sea-ice is retreating faster than predicted by climate models and could become ice free during summer this century. The reduced sea-ice extent may effectively "unlock" the Arctic Ocean to increased human activities such as transit shipping and expanded oil and gas production. Travel time between Europe and the north Pacific Region can be reduced by up to 50 % with low sea-ice levels and the use of this route could increase substantially as the sea-ice retreats. Oil and gas activities already occur in the Arctic region and given the large undiscovered petroleum resources increased activity could be expected with reduced sea-ice. We use a bottom-up shipping model and a detailed global energy market model to construct emission inventories of Arctic shipping and petroleum activities in 2030 and 2050 given estimated sea-ice extents. The emission inventories are on a 1×1 degree grid and cover both short-lived components (SO2, NOx, CO, NMVOC, BC, OC) and the long-lived greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O). We find rapid growth in transit shipping due to increased profitability with the shorter transit times compensating for increased costs in traversing areas of sea-ice. Oil and gas production remains relatively stable leading to reduced emissions from emission factor improvements. The location of oil and gas production moves into locations requiring more ship transport relative to pipeline transport, leading to rapid emissions growth from oil and gas transport via ship. Our emission inventories for the Arctic region will be used as input into chemical transport, radiative transfer, and climate models to quantify the role of Arctic activities in climate change compared to similar emissions occurring outside of the Arctic region.

  17. A 60-year journey of mycorrhizal research in China: Past, present and future directions.

    PubMed

    He, Xinhua; Duan, Yinghua; Chen, Yinglong; Xu, Minggang

    2010-12-01

    The significance of mycorrhizas (fungal roots in 90% of land plants) in plant nutrient acquisition and growth, element biogeochemical cycling and maintaining of terrestrial ecosystem structures has been globally established for more than 120 years. Great progress in mycorrhizal research in the past 60 years (1950-2009, 1981-2009 in particular) has also been made across China, particularly in the mainland, Hong Kong and Taiwan. For instance, a total of 20 new and approximately 120 records of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungal species, 30 new and approximately 800 records of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species, a dozen of new and approximately 100 records of orchid mycorrhizal (OM) fungal species have been isolated by morphological observation and/or molecular identification in China since the 1950s. Great accomplishment has also been made in the following area, including fungal species richness and genetic structure, relationships between species composition and plant taxa, effects of mycorrhizal fungi on plant nutrient uptake and growth, resistances to pathogens and interactions with other soil microorganisms, potential of mycorrhizal fungi in phytoremediation and/or land reclamation, alterations of enzymatic activities in mycorrhizal plants, and elevated CO(2) and O(3) on root colonization and species diversity. Unfortunately, the international community cannot easily appreciate almost all Chinese mycorrhizal studies since the vast majority of them have been published in Chinese and/or in China-based journals. The aim of this review is to make a comprehensive exposure of the past and present China's major mycorrhizal research to the whole world, and then to suggest potential directions for the enhancement of future mycorrhizal research within and/or between the Chinese and international mycorrhizal community.

  18. Activities at the Smart Structures Research Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Peter T.

    1991-12-01

    Smart Structures and Materials technology will undoubtedly yield a wide range of new materials plus new sensing and actuation technologies and this will have a radical effect on current approaches to structural design. To meet the multi-disciplinary research challenge posed by this technology, the Smart Structures Research Institute (SSRI) has been established at the University of Strathclyde, Glasgow. This paper describes the background, current and planned activities and progress made in developing this new and very promising technology.

  19. Promoting family meals: a review of existing interventions and opportunities for future research

    PubMed Central

    Dwyer, Laura; Oh, April; Patrick, Heather; Hennessy, Erin

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that regular family meals protect against unhealthy eating and obesity during childhood and adolescence. However, there is limited information on ways to promote family meals as part of health promotion and obesity prevention efforts. The primary aim of this review was to synthesize the literature on strategies to promote family meals among families with school-aged children and adolescents. First, we reviewed interventions that assess family meals as an outcome and summarized strategies that have been used in these interventions. Second, we reviewed correlates and barriers to family meals to identify focal populations and target constructs for consideration in new interventions. During May 26–27, 2014, PubMed and PsycInfo databases were searched to identify literature on family meals published between January 1, 2000 and May 27, 2014. Two reviewers coded 2,115 titles/abstracts, yielding a sample of 139 articles for full-text review. Six interventions and 43 other studies presenting data on correlates of or barriers to family meals were included in the review. Four interventions resulted in greater family meal frequency. Although there were a small number of interventions, intervention settings were diverse and included the home, community, medical settings, the workplace, and the Internet. Common strategies were goal setting and interactive group activities, and intervention targets included cooking and food preparation, cost, shopping, and adolescent influence. Although methodological nuances may contribute to mixed findings, key correlates of family meals were employment, socioeconomic and demographic factors, family structure, and psychosocial constructs. Barriers to consider in future interventions include time and scheduling challenges, cost, and food preferences. Increasing youth involvement in mealtime, tailoring interventions to family characteristics, and providing support for families experiencing time-related barriers are suggested

  20. Worker productivity outcome measures: OMERACT filter evidence and agenda for future research.

    PubMed

    Tang, Kenneth; Boonen, Annelies; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Escorpizo, Reuben; Luime, Jolanda J; Lacaille, Diane; Fautrel, Bruno; Bosworth, Ailsa; Cifaldi, Mary; Gignac, Monique A M; Hofstetter, Cathy; Leong, Amye; Montie, Pam; Petersson, Ingemar F; Purcaru, Oana; Bombardier, Claire; Tugwell, Peter S; Beaton, Dorcas E

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) Worker Productivity working group is to identify worker productivity outcome measures that meet the requirements of the OMERACT filter. At the OMERACT 11 Workshop, we focused on the at-work limitations/productivity component of worker productivity (i.e., presenteeism) - an area with diverse conceptualization and instrumentation approaches. Various approaches to quantify at-work limitations/productivity (e.g., single-item global and multi-item measures) were examined, and available evidence pertaining to OMERACT truth, discrimination, and feasibility were presented to conference participants. Four candidate global measures of presenteeism were put forth for a plenary vote to determine whether current evidence meets the OMERACT filter requirements. Presenteeism globals from the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire (72% support) and Rheumatoid Arthritis-specific Work Productivity Survey (71% support) were endorsed by conference participants; however, neither the presenteeism global item from the Health and Work Performance Questionnaire nor the Quantity and Quality method achieved the level of support required for endorsement at the present time. The plenary was also asked whether the central item from the Work Ability Index should also be considered as a candidate measure for potential endorsement in the future. Of participants at the plenary, 70% supported this presenteeism global measure. Progress was also made in other areas through discussions at individual breakout sessions. Topics examined include the merits of various multi-item measures of at-work limitations/productivity, methodological issues related to interpretability of outcome scores, and approaches to appraise and classify contextual factors of worker productivity. Feedback gathered from conference participants will inform the future research agenda of the working group.

  1. Activities and future plan of earth observation by satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakura, Yukio

    1980-09-01

    The Earth Observation Center of NASDA has been receiving MSS (multispectral scanner) and RBV (return beam vidicon) data from NASAs Landsat satellites since January 1979. The data are widely used for research and applications by government institutions, universities, industries, etc. The first of Japanese Earth observation satellite series, MOS-1 (Marine Observation Satellite-1) which carries MESSR (visible and near-IR radiometer of push-broom scanning type), VTIR (visible and thermal IR radiometer), and MSR (microwave scanning radiometer), is under development with target date of its launch in 1984 FY.

  2. A Systematic Review on the Designs of Clinical Technology: Findings and Recommendations for Future Research

    PubMed Central

    PhD, Greg Alexander; Staggers, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Human factors (HF) studies are increasingly important as technology infuses into clinical settings. No nursing research reviews exist in this area. The authors conducted a systematic review on designs of clinical technology, 34 articles with 50 studies met inclusion criteria. Findings were classified into three categories based on HF research goals. The majority of studies evaluated effectiveness of clinical design; efficiency was fewest. Current research ranges across many interface types examined with no apparent pattern or obvious rationale. Future research should expand types, settings, participants; integrate displays; and expand outcome variables. PMID:19707093

  3. Retail food environments research: Promising future with more work to be done.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Daniel; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2016-06-09

    As members of the scientific committee for the Food Environments in Canada conference, we reflect on the current state of food environments research in Canada. We are very encouraged that the field is growing and there have been many collaborative efforts to link researchers in Canada, including the 2015 Food Environments in Canada Symposium and Workshop. We believe there are 5 key challenges the field will need to collectively address: theory and causality; replication and extension; consideration of rural, northern and vulnerable populations; policy analysis; and intervention research. In addressing the challenges, we look forward to working together to conduct more sophisticated, complex and community-driven food environments research in the future.

  4. The changing shapes of active volcanoes: History, evolution, and future challenges for volcano geodesy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poland, Michael P.; Hamburger, Michael W.; Newman, Andrew V.

    2006-01-01

    At the very heart of volcanology lies the search for the 'plumbing systems' that form the inner workings of Earth’s active volcanoes. By their very nature, however, the magmatic reservoirs and conduits that underlie these active volcanic systems are elusive; mostly they are observable only through circumstantial evidence, using indirect, and often ambiguous, surficial measurements. Of course, we can infer much about these systems from geologic investigation of materials brought to the surface by eruptions and of the exposed roots of ancient volcanoes. But how can we study the magmatic processes that are occurring beneath Earth’s active volcanoes? What are the geometry, scale, physical, and chemical characteristics of magma reservoirs? Can we infer the dynamics of magma transport? Can we use this information to better forecast the future behavior of volcanoes? These questions comprise some of the most fundamental, recurring themes of modern research in volcanology. The field of volcano geodesy is uniquely situated to provide critical observational constraints on these problems. For the past decade, armed with a new array of technological innovations, equipped with powerful computers, and prepared with new analytical tools, volcano geodesists have been poised to make significant advances in our fundamental understanding of the behavior of active volcanic systems. The purpose of this volume is to highlight some of these recent advances, particularly in the collection and interpretation of geodetic data from actively deforming volcanoes. The 18 papers that follow report on new geodetic data that offer valuable insights into eruptive activity and magma transport; they present new models and modeling strategies that have the potential to greatly increase understanding of magmatic, hydrothermal, and volcano-tectonic processes; and they describe innovative techniques for collecting geodetic measurements from remote, poorly accessible, or hazardous volcanoes. To provide

  5. Recent and Future Stratospheric Balloon Activities at Esrange Space Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemi, Stig

    Esrange Space Center located in northern Sweden has during 45 years been a leading launch site for both sounding rockets and stratospheric balloons. We have a unique combination of maintaining both stratospheric balloons and sounding rockets launch operations. Most balloon flights are normally handled inside Scandinavia but since 2005 PersonNamesemi-circular flights are performed with recovery in northern Canada. The Swedish Government and Swedish National Space Board are now finaliz-ing an agreement with Russia for peaceful uPersonNamese of space, which will permit circumpolar balloon flights. Within this agreement we will soon be able to of-fer the science community long duration balloon flights with durations for PersonNameseveral weeks. The balloon operations at Esrange Space Center are yearly expanding. Both NASA and CNES have long term plans for balloon flights from northern Sweden. We have also received a request from JAXA for future balloon missions. To handle balloon campaigns with large numbers of payloads or build up for two different campaigns a new big assembly hall will be ready for use at the beginning of 2011. January 24 we made an historical balloon flight in a very cold stratosphere with a Zodiac metricconverterProductID402?000 m3402ü ınbsp;000 m3402 000 m3 balloon carrying a 750kg gondola with the German Mipas-B/Telis instrument. The balloon reached 34kms alti-tude after a carefully piloted ascent in temperature levels down to -89 degrees Centigrade. The scientists received unique data during the 13 hours and 30 minutes long sailing at different altitudes during slow descent. The payload was recovered in very good condition 80 kms from the border between country-regionFinland and Russia.

  6. Physical activity and pediatric multiple sclerosis: Developing a research agenda.

    PubMed

    Yeh, E Ann; Kinnett-Hopkins, Dominique; Grover, Stephanie A; Motl, Robert W

    2015-11-01

    Three-quarters of children with multiple sclerosis (MS) experience fatigue or depression, and progressive neurocognitive decline may be seen as early as two years after MS diagnosis. Furthermore, a higher magnetic resonance imaging disease burden is seen in pediatric-onset MS compared with adult-onset MS. To date, limited knowledge exists regarding behavioral methods for managing symptoms and disease progression in pediatric MS. To that end, this paper builds an evidence-based argument for the possible symptomatic and disease-modifying effects of exercise and physical activity in pediatric MS. This will be accomplished through: (a) a review of pediatric MS and its consequences; (b) a brief overview of physical activity and its consequences in children and adults with MS; and (c) a selective review of research on the neurological benefits of physical activity in pediatric populations. This topical review concludes with a list of 10 questions to guide future research on physical activity and pediatric MS. The objective of this paper is the provision of a research interest, focus and agenda involving pediatric MS and its lifelong management though exercise and physical activity behavior. Such an agenda is critical as the effects and maintenance of physical activity and exercise track across the lifespan, particularly when developed in the early stages of life.

  7. The Future of the Oceans Past: Towards a Global Marine Historical Research Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the “History of Marine Animal Populations” project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists. PMID:24988080

  8. The future of the oceans past: towards a global marine historical research initiative.

    PubMed

    Schwerdtner Máñez, Kathleen; Holm, Poul; Blight, Louise; Coll, Marta; MacDiarmid, Alison; Ojaveer, Henn; Poulsen, Bo; Tull, Malcolm

    2014-01-01

    Historical research is playing an increasingly important role in marine sciences. Historical data are also used in policy making and marine resource management, and have helped to address the issue of shifting baselines for numerous species and ecosystems. Although many important research questions still remain unanswered, tremendous developments in conceptual and methodological approaches are expected to contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the global history of human interactions with life in the seas. Based on our experiences and knowledge from the "History of Marine Animal Populations" project, this paper identifies the emerging research topics for future historical marine research. It elaborates on concepts and tools which are expected to play a major role in answering these questions, and identifies geographical regions which deserve future attention from marine environmental historians and historical ecologists.

  9. Foundational Research in Behavioral and Social Sciences: Marching Towards the Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    future will receive less of its training in classroom style , and most of it in the field or on the go. The idea of drawing development from...The Basic Research program is managed within the Foundational Science Research Unit of ARI, and focuses on creating new knowledge and concepts in...how to manage it. Using the military as a test-bed to study how those occupations changing both internally and in relation to society contributes

  10. Practitioners' Perceptions of the Soccer Extra-Time Period: Implications for Future Research.

    PubMed

    Harper, Liam D; Fothergill, Melissa; West, Daniel J; Stevenson, Emma; Russell, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Qualitative research investigating soccer practitioners' perceptions can allow researchers to create practical research investigations. The extra-time period of soccer is understudied compared to other areas of soccer research. Using an open-ended online survey containing eleven main and nine sub questions, we gathered the perceptions of extra-time from 46 soccer practitioners, all working for different professional soccer clubs. Questions related to current practices, views on extra-time regulations, and ideas for future research. Using inductive content analysis, the following general dimensions were identified: 'importance of extra-time', 'rule changes', 'efficacy of extra-time hydro-nutritional provision', 'nutritional timing', 'future research directions', 'preparatory modulations' and 'recovery'. The majority of practitioners (63%) either agreed or strongly agreed that extra-time is an important period for determining success in knockout football match-play. When asked if a fourth substitution should be permitted in extra-time, 67% agreed. The use of hydro-nutritional strategies prior to extra-time was predominately considered important or very important. However; only 41% of practitioners felt that it was the most important time point for the use of nutritional products. A similar number of practitioners account (50%) and do not (50%) account for the potential of extra-time when training and preparing players and 89% of practitioners stated that extra-time influences recovery practices following matches. In the five minute break prior to extra-time, the following practices (in order of priority) were advocated to players: hydration, energy provision, massage, and tactical preparations. Additionally, 87% of practitioners advocate a particular nutritional supplementation strategy prior to extra-time. In order of importance, practitioners see the following as future research areas: nutritional interventions, fatigue responses, acute injury risk, recovery

  11. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  12. Geothermal activity in Italy: present status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Carella, R.; Palmerini, C.G.; Stefani, G.C.; Verdiani, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the Italian Peninsula the Apennines separate a relatively cold Po-Adriatic-Ionian ''foredeep'' external belt from a warmer Tyrrhenian ''back-arc'' internal tensional belt. The latter i characterized by high geothermal heat flow together with conspicuous recent or present-day volcani phenomena. In this area, extending from Tuscany to Campania, lie the known steam- and waterdominated fields. Other ''warm'' areas are located on some Tyrrhenian islands. Within the ''cold'' external belt, interesting locations for low enthalpy utilizations can be found in the Po river valley, particularly in the eastern part near Ferrara and Abano. Since 1977 ENEL (National Electri Energy Agency) and AGIP (State Oil Company) have been jointly conducting geothermal activities in Italy, with the exception of the Tuscan geothermal area where ENEL operates on an exclusive basis. At present the areas surveyed cover about 8250 kmS. As of December 1983 the geothermal installed capacity was 456.2 MW (net capacity 340 MW) and low-temperature geothermal resources equivalent to 100,000 OET /yr were being used. The National Energy Plant (PEN), issued on 4 December 1981, forecast for the year 1990 a geothermal power increment of 200 MW /SUB e/ above the 449.1 MW /SUB e/ already installed. The target in the low enthalpy non-electric sector is to save 300,000 OET/yr by 1990. This paper describes the activities carried out from March 1975 to December 1983 and the main projects in progress.

  13. Working Memory-Related Neural Activity Predicts Future Smoking Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Loughead, James; Wileyto, E Paul; Ruparel, Kosha; Falcone, Mary; Hopson, Ryan; Gur, Ruben; Lerman, Caryn

    2015-01-01

    Brief abstinence from smoking impairs cognition, particularly executive function, and this has a role in relapse to smoking. This study examined whether working memory-related brain activity predicts subsequent smoking relapse above and beyond standard clinical and behavioral measures. Eighty treatment-seeking smokers completed two functional magnetic resonance imaging sessions (smoking satiety vs 24 h abstinence challenge) during performance of a visual N-back task. Brief counseling and a short-term quit attempt followed. Relapse during the first 7 days was biochemically confirmed by the presence of the nicotine metabolite cotinine. Mean percent blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal change was extracted from a priori regions of interest: bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial frontal/cingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. Signal from these brain regions and additional clinical measures were used to model outcome status, which was then validated with resampling techniques. Relapse to smoking was predicted by increased withdrawal symptoms, decreased left DLPFC and increased PCC BOLD percent signal change (abstinence vs smoking satiety). Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 81% area under the curve using these predictors, a significant improvement over the model with clinical variables only. The combination of abstinence-induced decreases in left DLPFC activation and reduced suppression of PCC may be a prognostic marker for poor outcome, specifically early smoking relapse. PMID:25469682

  14. STAR: Preparing future science and math teachers through authentic research experiences at national laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, John; Rebar, Bryan

    2012-11-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides 9-week paid summer research experiences at national research laboratories for future science and math teachers. The program, run by the Cal Poly Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) on behalf of the entire California State University (CSU) System, has arranged 290 research internships for 230 STEM undergraduates and credential candidates from 43 campuses over the past 6 years. The program has partnered with seven Department of Energy labs, four NASA centers, three NOAA facilities, and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Primary components of the summer experience include a) conducting research with a mentor or mentor team, b) participating in weekly 2-3 hour workshops focused on translating lessons learned from summer research into classroom practice, and c) presenting a research poster or oral presentation and providing a lesson plan linked to the summer research experience. The central premise behind the STAR Program is that future science and math teachers can more effectively prepare the next generation of science, math, and engineering students if they themselves have authentic experiences as researchers.

  15. Thoughts on the Future of Research on Mathematics and Science Learning and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Herbert P.; Golbeck, Susan L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper offers reflections on future directions for early mathematics and science education. We argue that researchers and practitioners should examine carefully not only the possibility of unexpected competence in young children, but also its complexity and the limits on it; investigate the socio-emotional context of learning and teaching;…

  16. Using Futures Research in College and University Planning. A Handbook for Planners in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, James L.

    This handbook for institutional researchers focuses on describing methods and techniques for conducting and merging external and internal analyses in order to produce an expanded vision of alternative future environments. Such vision is needed for the formulation of strategic long-range plans. Section 1 begins with a discussion of how an internal…

  17. Tour Brookhaven Lab's Future Hub for Energy Research: The Interdisciplinary Science Building

    ScienceCinema

    Gerry Stokes; Jim Misewich

    2016-07-12

    Construction is under way for the Interdisciplinary Science Building (ISB), a future world-class facility for energy research at Brookhaven Lab. Meet two scientists who will develop solutions at the ISB to tackle some of the nation's energy challenges, and tour the construction site.

  18. Current controversies and future directions in basal ganglia research. Integrating basic neuroscience and clinical investigation.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Cairasco, N; Miguel, E C; Rauch, S L; Leckman, J F

    1997-12-01

    This article discusses current controversies and future directions in basal ganglia research, detailing behavioral aspects, anatomic models, neurochemistry, pharmacology, and diagnostic methods as well as surgical techniques. A neuroethologic perspective is highlighted. Furthermore, the relevant literature pertaining to contemporary molecular approaches such as brain microinjections of embryonic or genetically modified cells, for therapeutic purposes and the use of transgenic and knockout animals.

  19. The Claims of Games: A Comprehensive Review and Directions for Future Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mishra, Punya; Foster, Aroutis N.

    2007-01-01

    Educational games have become the lightning rod for learning and preparing a future skilled workforce. Both the people, who argue against and for games agree that learning is possible, but what is learned is another issue. However, the claims about games for learning lacks substantial research and for the most part remains merely philosophical…

  20. Tour Brookhaven Lab's Future Hub for Energy Research: The Interdisciplinary Science Building

    SciTech Connect

    Gerry Stokes; Jim Misewich

    2012-04-09

    Construction is under way for the Interdisciplinary Science Building (ISB), a future world-class facility for energy research at Brookhaven Lab. Meet two scientists who will develop solutions at the ISB to tackle some of the nation's energy challenges, and tour the construction site.