Science.gov

Sample records for activity guided fractionation

  1. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  2. Identification of antihyperuricemic peptides in the proteolytic digest of shark cartilage water extract using in vivo activity-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Murota, Itsuki; Taguchi, Satoko; Sato, Nobuyuki; Park, Eun Young; Nakamura, Yasushi; Sato, Kenji

    2014-03-19

    A peptide that exerts antihyperuricemic activity after oral administration was identified from a microbial protease (alcalase) digest of the water extract of shark cartilage by in vivo activity-guided fractionation, using oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. Water extract of shark cartilage was first fractionated by preparative ampholine-free isoelectric focusing, followed by preparative reversed-phase liquid chromatography. The antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalse digests of the obtained fractions was evaluated using an animal model. Alcalase digests of the basic and hydrophobic fractions exerted antihyperuricemic activity. A total of 18 peptides were identified in the alcalase digest of the final active fraction. These peptides were chemically synthesized and evaluated for antihyperuricemic activity. Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr and Ser-Pro-Pro-Tyr-Trp-Pro-Tyr lowered the serum uric acid level via intravenous injection at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Furthermore, orally administered Tyr-Leu-Asp-Asn-Tyr showed antihyperuricemic activity. Therefore, these peptides are at least partially responsible for the antihyperuricemic activity of the alcalase digest of shark cartilage.

  3. Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hua; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:25379465

  4. Evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of the leaves from Arctium lappa by a bioassay-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabio Bahls; Yamamoto, Rafael Eidi; Zanoli, Karine; Nocchi, Samara Requena; Novello, Cláudio Roberto; Schuquel, Ivânia Teresinha Albrecht; Sakuragui, Cássia Mônica; Luftmann, Heinrich; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2012-02-14

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine around the World, and shows several kinds of biological activity, particularly in vitro antitumor activity in different cell lines. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the crude extract, semipurified fractions, and isolated compounds from the leaves of A. lappa, through bioassay-guided testing in Caco-2 cells. The crude extract was obtained with a 50% hydroethanolic extract and then partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) showed antiproliferative activity. This fraction was subjected to sequential column chromatography over silica gel to afford onopordopicrin (1), mixtures of 1 with dehydromelitensin-8-(4'-hydroxymethacrylate) (2), a mixture of 2 with dehydromelitensin (3), mixture of 1 with melitensin (4), dehydrovomifoliol (5), and loliolide (6). The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) and comparison with literature data. This is the first description of compounds 2-5 from this species. The compounds tested in Caco-2 cells showed the following CC(50) (µg/mL) values: 1: 19.7 ± 3.4, 1 with 2: 24.6 ± 1.5, 2 with 3: 27 ± 11.7, 1 with 4: 42 ± 13.1, 6 30 ± 6.2; compound 5 showed no activity.

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and analysis of compounds with anti-influenza virus activity from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanjun; Wu, Bin; Shi, Yujing; Du, Xiaowei; Fan, Mingsong; Sun, Zhaolin; Cui, Xiaolan; Huang, Chenggang

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Fructus Gardeniae led to analysis of its bioactive natural products. After infection by influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47-MA in vivo, antiviral activity of the extracts were investigated. The target fraction was orally administered to rats and blood was collected. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detector and electrospray ion trap multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was applied to screen the compounds absorbed into the blood. A structural characterization based on the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, parent ions and fragmentation ions was performed. Thirteen compounds were confirmed or tentatively identified. This provides an accurate profile of the composition of bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-influenza properties. PMID:22297738

  6. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of furanocoumarins from Angelica archangelica L. roots and fruits.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Jamróz, Marta K; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2011-09-14

    Isolation and identification of the inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), obtained from the extracts of roots and fruits of Angelica archangelica L., are reported. Our results confirmed the weak inhibitory effect of Angelica roots on acetylcholinesterase activity. BChE inhibition was much more pronounced at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for hexane extracts and attained a higher rate than 50%. The TLC bioautography guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis led to the isolation and identification of imperatorin from the fruit's hexane extract and of heraclenol-2'-O-angelate from the root's hexane extract. Both compounds showed significant BChE inhibition activity with IC(50) = 14.4 ± 3.2 μM and IC(50) = 7.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively. Only C8-substituted and C5-unsubstituted furanocoumarins were active, which could supply information about the initial structures of specific BChE inhibitors. PMID:21786787

  7. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

  8. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role.

  9. Bioassays guided fractionation of Coronopus didymus for its antifungal activity against Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Drakshan; Javaid, Arshad

    2012-01-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc. is a pathogen of about 500 plant species. In a laboratory screening bioassay, methanolic extracts of 15 mg mL⁻¹ concentrations of different parts of Coronopus didymus (L.) Sm. (Brassicaceae) namely leaf, stem, inflorescence and root reduced the biomass of S. rolfsii by 67%, 26%, 40% and 58%, respectively. Methanolic root extract was successively fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All the concentrations (3.125-200 mg mL⁻¹) of ethyl acetate fraction completely inhibited the target fungal growth. Two compounds A and B were separated from this fraction by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). TLC fraction A was found highly effective against S. rolfsii with MIC value 15.62 µg mL⁻¹ as compared to MIC value 7.81 µg mL⁻¹ of the commercial fungicide mencozeb. This compound may be used for the synthesis of natural product based fungicide for the control of S. rolfsii. PMID:22007784

  10. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  11. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect.

  12. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  13. Identification of Lilial as a fragrance sensitizer in a perfume by bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Arnau, E G; Andersen, K E; Bruze, M; Frosch, P J; Johansen, J D; Menné, T; Rastogi, S C; White, I R; Lepoittevin, J P

    2000-12-01

    Fragrance materials are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis. The aim of this study was to identify in a perfume fragrance allergens not included in the fragrance mix, by use of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships (SARs). The basis for the investigation was a 45-year-old woman allergic to her own perfume. She had a negative patch test to the fragrance mix and agreed to participate in the study. Chemical fractionation of the perfume concentrate was used for repeated patch testing and/or repeated open application test on the pre-sensitized patient. The chemical composition of the fractions giving a positive patch-test response and repeated open application test reactions was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. From the compounds identified, those that contained a "structural alert" in their chemical structure, indicating an ability to modify skin proteins and thus behave as a skin sensitizer, were tested on the patient. The patient reacted positively to the synthetic fragrance p-t-butyl-alpha-methylhydrocinnamic aldehyde (Lilial), a widely used fragrance compound not present in the fragrance mix. The combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation and chemical analysis/structure-activity relationships seems to be a valuable tool for the investigation of contact allergy to fragrance materials.

  14. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Benovit, Simone C; Silva, Lenise L; Salbego, Joseânia; Loro, Vania L; Mallmann, Carlos A; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L(-1)) was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L(-1). Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnished E-(-)-pinocamphone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol. E-(-)-pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+)-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L(-1)) promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+)-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(-)-pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+)-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic.

  15. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Benovit, Simone C; Silva, Lenise L; Salbego, Joseânia; Loro, Vania L; Mallmann, Carlos A; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L(-1)) was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L(-1). Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnished E-(-)-pinocamphone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol. E-(-)-pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+)-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L(-1)) promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+)-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(-)-pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+)-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic. PMID:26221984

  16. In vivo bioassay-guided fractionation of marine sediment extracts from the Southern California Bight, USA, for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, Daniel; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Irwin, Mary Ann; Xie, Lingtian; Hwang, Wendy; Reddy, Sharanya; Brownawell, Bruce J; Armstrong, Jeff; Kelly, Mike; Montagne, David E; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David; Snyder, Shane

    2005-11-01

    The exposure and uptake of environmental estrogenic compounds have been reported in previous studies of demersal flatfish species in the central Southern California Bight (SCB), USA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic or feminizing activity of marine sediments from the SCB by using in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays in male or juvenile fish. In 2003, sediments were collected near wastewater outfalls serving the counties of Los Angeles (LACSD) and Orange (OCSD), and the city of San Diego (SD), California, USA. Cultured male California halibut (CH; Paralichthys californicus) were either directly exposed to sediments for 7 d or treated with two intraperitoneal injections of sediment extract over 7 d. The 17beta-estradiol (E2) equivalent values ranged from 1 to 90 microg/kg with LACSD > SD > OCSD. Measurable concentrations of E2 were observed in all sediment extracts and ranged from 0.16 to 0.45 ng/g. Estrone (El) was only observed in sediments near the LACSD outfall (0.6 ng/g). Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates were observed in all sediment samples, but were highest near the OCSD outfall, where concentrations of nonylphenol were 3,200 ng/g. Fractionation studies of the LACSD sediment extract collected in 2004 failed to demonstrate relationships between VTG expression and 62 analytes, including E2, which was observed in the whole extract (2.9 ng/g). Oxybenzone (1.6 ng/g) was identified in bioactive fractions as well as unknown compounds of relatively high polarity. These results indicate that estrogen receptor-based assays may underestimate environmental estrogenic activity and estrogenic compounds other than classic natural and xenoestrogens may contribute to estrogenic activity of sediments from the SCB. PMID:16398118

  17. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  18. Contact allergy to oak moss: search for sensitizing molecules using combined bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, GC-MS, and structure-activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2003-11-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied a method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first results showed that atranol and chloroatranol, formed by transesterification and decarboxylation of the lichen depsides, atranorin and chloroatranorin, during the preparation of oak moss absolute, are strong elicitants in most patients sensitized to oak moss. Methyl-beta-orcinol carboxylate, a depside degradation product and the most important monoaryl derivative of oak moss from an olfactory standpoint, was also found to elicit a reaction in most patients.

  19. Contact allergy to oak moss: search for sensitizing molecules using combined bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, GC-MS, and structure-activity relationship analysis.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Guillaume; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Heydorn, Siri; Johansen, Jeanne Duus; Menné, Torkil; Goossens, An; Andersen, Klaus; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre

    2003-11-01

    In addition to pure synthetic fragrance materials several natural extracts are still in use in the perfume industry. Among them oak moss absolute, prepared from the lichen Evernia prunastri (L.) Arch., is considered a major contact sensitizer and is therefore included in the fragrance mix used for diagnosing perfume allergy. The process of preparing oak moss absolute has changed during recent years and, even though several potential sensitizers have been identified from former benzene extracts, its present constituents and their allergenic status are not clear. In the study reported here, we applied a method developed for the identification of contact allergens present in natural complex mixtures to oak moss absolute. The method is based on the combination of bioassay-guided chemical fractionation, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis and structure-activity relationship studies. Our first results showed that atranol and chloroatranol, formed by transesterification and decarboxylation of the lichen depsides, atranorin and chloroatranorin, during the preparation of oak moss absolute, are strong elicitants in most patients sensitized to oak moss. Methyl-beta-orcinol carboxylate, a depside degradation product and the most important monoaryl derivative of oak moss from an olfactory standpoint, was also found to elicit a reaction in most patients. PMID:13680271

  20. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  1. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  2. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands, "Baking Soda and Vinegar" which…

  3. Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    To effectively suppress the external disturbances and parameter perturbation problem of the maglev guiding system, and improve speed and robustness, the electromagnetic guiding system is exactly linearized using state feedback method, Fractional calculus theory is introduced, the order of integer order PID control was extended to the field of fractional, then fractional order PIλDμ Controller was presented, Due to the extra two adjustable parameters compared with traditional PID controller, fractional order PIλDμ controllers were expected to show better control performance. The results of the computer simulation show that the proposed controller suppresses the external disturbances and parameter perturbation of the system effectively; the system response speed was increased; at the same time, it had flexible structure and stronger robustness.

  4. Activity-guided fractionation to characterize a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of gastric acid secretion as compared to regular coffee.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Skupin, Carola; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2010-04-14

    In some individuals, the consumption of coffee beverages is related to symptoms of gastric irritation. Hot water steam-treatment of raw coffee beans is hypothesized to reduce the contents of stomach irritating compounds, and products to which this technology is applied are launched as stomach-friendly coffee. However, data on the effect of steam-treated coffee on gastric acid secretion are conflicting and it has not been proven yet as to which coffee components act as pro- or antisecretory stimulants. The work presented here aimed at the characterization of a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of proton secretion in human gastric cells (HGT-1). At first, a regular coffee beverage was fractionated by using solvents of different polarity: water, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and pentane. Functional assays on the proton secretory activity (PSA) of these solvent fractions revealed the least pronounced effect for the water fraction, for which quantitative analyses demonstrated the highest distribution of chlorogenic acid (95%), (beta)N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (55%), and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP, >99%) among all fractions. Following experiments demonstrated that HGT-1 cells treated with regular coffee fortified with N-MP at a concentration of about 20 mg/mL N-MP showed a significantly decreased PSA as compared to cells which were exposed to coffee beverages containing higher (32-34 mg/L) or lower (5 mg/L) N-MP concentrations. Results from cellular pathway analyses of transcription (ATF-1 and Akt1) and signaling (cAMP and EGFr) factors and kinases (ERK1/2), and experiments on the gene expression of pro (histamine-HRH2 and acetylcholine-CHRM3)- and anti (somatostatin-SSTR1)-secretory receptors and H(+),K(+)-ATPase verified this antisecretory activity of N-MP in coffee beverages.

  5. Activity-guided fractionation to characterize a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of gastric acid secretion as compared to regular coffee.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Skupin, Carola; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2010-04-14

    In some individuals, the consumption of coffee beverages is related to symptoms of gastric irritation. Hot water steam-treatment of raw coffee beans is hypothesized to reduce the contents of stomach irritating compounds, and products to which this technology is applied are launched as stomach-friendly coffee. However, data on the effect of steam-treated coffee on gastric acid secretion are conflicting and it has not been proven yet as to which coffee components act as pro- or antisecretory stimulants. The work presented here aimed at the characterization of a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of proton secretion in human gastric cells (HGT-1). At first, a regular coffee beverage was fractionated by using solvents of different polarity: water, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and pentane. Functional assays on the proton secretory activity (PSA) of these solvent fractions revealed the least pronounced effect for the water fraction, for which quantitative analyses demonstrated the highest distribution of chlorogenic acid (95%), (beta)N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (55%), and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP, >99%) among all fractions. Following experiments demonstrated that HGT-1 cells treated with regular coffee fortified with N-MP at a concentration of about 20 mg/mL N-MP showed a significantly decreased PSA as compared to cells which were exposed to coffee beverages containing higher (32-34 mg/L) or lower (5 mg/L) N-MP concentrations. Results from cellular pathway analyses of transcription (ATF-1 and Akt1) and signaling (cAMP and EGFr) factors and kinases (ERK1/2), and experiments on the gene expression of pro (histamine-HRH2 and acetylcholine-CHRM3)- and anti (somatostatin-SSTR1)-secretory receptors and H(+),K(+)-ATPase verified this antisecretory activity of N-MP in coffee beverages. PMID:20235536

  6. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and GC/MS fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica root components for antifungal and mosquito deterrent activity.

    PubMed

    Wedge, David E; Klun, Jerome A; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ozek, Temel; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Sui; Cantrell, Charles L; Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-28

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract from the roots of Angelica sinensis led to isolation and characterization of (Z)-ligustilide using direct-bioautography with Colletotrichum species. The structure of (Z)-ligustilide was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS. (Z)-Ligustilide deterred the biting of two mosquito species more effectively than DEET. Three different A. sinensis accessions and one Angelica archangelica root oil were evauated by GC and GC/MS, and the dominant component in A. sinensis was 61-69% (Z)-ligustilide. Two other prominent compounds in A. sinensis oils were 5.7-9.8% (E)-3-butylidene phthalide and 1.5-2.3% (Z)-3-butylidene phthalide. The main constituents that comprised A. archangelica oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as 24.5% alpha-pinene, 13.8% delta-3-carene, 10.1% beta-phellandrene, 8.8% p-cymene, 8.4% limonene, and 6.3% sabinene. Phthalides and monoterpene hydrocarbons were determined to be good systematic markers or chemical fingerprints for A. sinensis and A. archangelica root oils. Chemical fingerprinting by GC/MS of A. sinensis also confirmed the misidentification of one A. archangelica sample sold in the Chinese market. PMID:19113871

  7. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 μg/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment.

  8. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 μg/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment. PMID:25764620

  9. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  10. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6′-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4′,6′ diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1–9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  11. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-07-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6'-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4',6' diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1-9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  12. Assay-guided fractionation study of alpha-amylase inhibitors from Garcinia mangostana pericarp.

    PubMed

    Loo, Alvin Eng Kiat; Huang, Dejian

    2007-11-28

    Alpha-amylase inhibitor (alpha-AI) activity of Garcinia mangostana, commonly known as mangosteen, pericarp extracts was studied by assay guided fractionations from lipophilic to hydrophilic using combined solvent extraction and Amberlite XAD2 adsorption chromatography. Neither the lipophilic, xanthone containing fraction, nor the highly polar fraction, which has no affinity on Amberlite XAD2, showed any alpha-AI. The fraction that shows very high inhibitory activity contains primarily polyphenols and can be adsorbed on Amberlite XAD2. The IC50 of 5.4 microg/mL of this fraction is comparable to that of acarbose, a prescribed alpha-AI used in the control of type II diabetes, at 5.2 microg/mL. Total phenolic content (TPC) of each fraction was measured and the TPC has no correlation with the alpha-AI activity. The lipophilic fraction contains mainly xanthones as revealed by HPLC-MS analysis. Colorimetric analysis coupled with UV-vis and IR spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that the fractions with high alpha-AI activity are primarily oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) with little gallate moiety. There is also evidence to show that the alpha-AI by these OPCs is not purely by nonspecific protein complexation. Both tannic acid and G. mangostana OPCs precipitate BSA equally well but G. mangostana OPCs are 56 times more effective in inhibiting alpha-amylase.

  13. A study of the potential anticancer activity of Mangifera zeylanica bark: Evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the hexane extract and bioassay-guided fractionation to identify phytochemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    EDIRIWEERA, MERAN KESHAWA; TENNEKOON, KAMANI HEMAMALA; SAMARAKOON, SAMEERA RANGANATH; THABREW, IRA; DILIP DE SILVA, EGODAGE

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential anticancer activity of the bark of Mangifera zeylanica, an endemic plant in Sri Lanka that has been traditionally used for cancer therapy. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were investigated in vitro using sulphorodamine assay, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, caspase-3 and −7 activity, DNA fragmentation and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line and MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells. Hexane extract demonstrated increased levels of cytotoxicity in cancer cells (IC50, 86.6–116.5 µg/ml) compared with normal cells (IC50, 217.2 µg/ml). Chloroform extract demonstrated increased cytotoxicity to normal cells (IC50, 92.9 µg/ml) compared with cancer cells (IC50, 280.1–506.5 µg/ml). Exposure to the hexane extract led to morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the three cancer cell lines. Caspase-3 and −7 were significantly activated in MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cells, indicating the occurrence of caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells, and caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein occurred in the three cancer cell lines, and antiapoptotic survivin was downregulated in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells; by contrast, tumor protein p53 was upregulated only in MCF-7 cells, suggesting p53-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and p53-independent apoptosis in the remaining cancerous cell lines. In addition, fraction M1 obtained from bioactivity-guided fractionation of the hexane extract demonstrated increased cytotoxicity in cancer cells (IC50, 15.4–38.7 µg/ml) compared with normal cells (IC50, 114.6 µg/ml), with the highest cytotoxicity observed in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. The hexane extract of M. zeylanica bark contained polyphenols and

  14. BIOASSAY-GUIDED FRACTIONATION AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE PROPERTIES OF FRACTIONS AND CRUDE EXTRACTS OF PERISTROPHE BICALYCULATA (RETZ) NEES.

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Mansurah A; Ibrahim, Sani; Ameh, Danladi A; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Ayo, Joseph O; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Manosroi, Jiradej; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in both developed and developing countries due to its high incidence and morbidity. This has motivated researchers especially in developing countries to search for strategies for the treatment using different plant parts. The use of the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Peristiophe bicalyculata in the treatment of hypertension has been documented. This study was designed to carry out a bioassay-guided isolation of the antihypertensive components of the leaves of Peristrophe bicalyculata in L-NAME hypertensive rats, determine the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the extracts and fractions obtained and identify the constituent(s) present. From our results, L-NAME hypertensive rats given the cold water extract had significantly (p < 0.05) lower mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with longer duration of action than other extracts. Also, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the cold water extract was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of other extracts. From the GC-MS analysis of the most effective fraction (fraction 4), P,P,P-triphenyl-imino(triphenyl)phosphorane and andrographolide 2(3H)-furanone were identified among others. The present work demonstrates the hypotensive effect of the cold water extract of Peiistiophe bicalyculata on L-NAME hypertensive rats, which further justifies the folkloric application of extracts of the plant in the management as well as treatment of hypertension. PMID:26642682

  15. Bioassay Guided Fractionation Identified Hederagenin as a Major Cytotoxic Agent from Cyclocarya paliurus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; He, Chunnian; Bi, Wu; Wu, Guofan; Altman, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    An ethanol extract prepared from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus, also known as sweet tea, which is one of the most popular teas utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, exhibited significant cytotoxicity against human lung and breast cancer cells. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation, we purified a pentacyclic triterpenoid, hederagenin, which exhibited superior and selective cytotoxicity against human breast and lung cancer cells. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationship between hederagenin and seven other pentacyclic triterpenoids revealed that the C3 hydroxyl group, the C17 carboxyl group and the Δ (12,13) double bond could be important active groups for the bioactivity of pentacyclic triterpenoids, whereas introduction of a hydroxyl group at C2 or C23 might reduce their bioactivity. We also investigated the cytotoxic activity of hedeargenin and demonstrated that it induces apoptosis, increases the cell membrane permeability, reduces the mitochondria potential, and suppresses NF-κB activation. PMID:26393939

  16. Single fraction multimodal image guided focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Philipp Tobias; Knobe, Sven; Volgeova-Neher, Natalja; Kollefrath, Michael; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Grosu, Anca Ligia; Baltas, Dimos; Kroenig, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We present a novel method for treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) following radiation therapy: focal, multimodal image guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Material and methods We treated two patients with recurrent PCa after primary (#1) or adjuvant (#2) external beam radiation therapy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), choline, positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-PET combined with CT identified a single intraprostatic lesion. Positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging – transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion guided transperineal biopsy confirmed PCa within each target lesion. We defined a PET and mpMRI based gross tumor volume (GTV). A 5 mm isotropic margin was applied additionally to each lesion to generate a planning target volume (PTV), which accounts for technical fusion inaccuracies. A D90 of 18 Gy was intended in one fraction to each PTV using ultrasound guided HDR brachytherapy. Results Six month follow-up showed adequate prostate specific antygen (PSA) decline in both patients (ΔPSA 83% in patient 1 and ΔPSA 59.3% in patient 2). Follow-up 3-tesla MRI revealed regressive disease in both patients and PSMA-PET/CT showed no evidence of active disease in patient #1. No acute or late toxicities occurred. Conclusions Single fraction, focal, multimodal image guided salvage HDR brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer is a feasible therapy for selected patients with single lesions. This approach has to be evaluated in larger clinical trials. PMID:27504134

  17. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

  18. Building Big with David Macaulay. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, James; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Curtis, Paul

    This activity guide is designed for educators and features suggestions for possible activity paths for different amounts of available time and survival tips for activity leaders. Each activity is divided into two sections--educator ideas and activity handouts. Activity sections include: (1) Foundations; (2) Bridges; (3) Domes; (4) Skyscrapers; (5)…

  19. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  20. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  1. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen.

  2. Study on Fuzzy Adaptive Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    The mathematical model of the linear elevator maglev guiding system is analyzed in this paper. For the linear elevator needs strong stability and robustness to run, the integer order PID was expanded to the fractional order, in order to improve the steady state precision, rapidity and robustness of the system, enhance the accuracy of the parameter in fractional order PIλDμ controller, the fuzzy control is combined with the fractional order PIλDμ control, using the fuzzy logic achieves the parameters online adjustment. The simulations reveal that the system has faster response speed, higher tracking precision, and has stronger robustness to the disturbance.

  3. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  4. The Clifford Books: An Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Mary Jo

    This guide provides specific activities designed for use with the Clifford-the-Dog books to enhance students' personal development and enjoyment of literature. The general format for each activity includes the title of the Clifford book to be used, synopsis of the story, introduction to the book, and follow-up project. Activities are provided for…

  5. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects of Fractions of Artemisia nilagirica on THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Gul, Mir Zahoor; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; K, Manjulatha; Bhat, Mohd Yasin; Maurya, Radheshyam; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    ABSTACT Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) is a widely used medicinal herb in Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. nilagirica extracts/fractions on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell line. The crude extracts (A. nilagirica ethyl acetate extract [ANE] and A. nilagirica methanolic extract [ANA]) showed cytotoxic activity toward THP-1 cells with the IC50 values of 38.21 ± 7.37 and 132.41 ± 7.19 µg/ml, respectively. However, the cytotoxic activity of active fractions (ANE-B and ANM-9) obtained after column chromatography was found to be much more pronounced than their parent extracts. The IC50 values of ANE-B and ANM-9 were found to be 27.04 ± 2.54 µg/ml and 12.70 ± 4.79 µg/ml, respectively, suggesting greater susceptibility of the malignant cells. Cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed that inhibition of cell growth by A. nilagirica fractions on THP-1 cells was mediated by apoptosis. Active fractions of A. nilagirica increased the expression levels of caspase-3, -7, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. These results suggested that active fractions of A. nilagirica may play a promising role in growth suppression by inducing apoptosis in human monocytic leukemic cells via mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:27618154

  6. Developing Effective Fractions Instruction for Kindergarten through 8th Grade. IES Practice Guide. NCEE 2010-4039

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegler, Robert; Carpenter, Thomas; Fennell, Francis; Geary, David; Lewis, James; Okamoto, Yukari; Thompson, Laurie; Wray, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This practice guide presents five recommendations intended to help educators improve students' understanding of, and problem-solving success with, fractions. Recommendations progress from proposals for how to build rudimentary understanding of fractions in young children; to ideas for helping older children understand the meaning of fractions and…

  7. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    PubMed

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  8. Microbial Enzyme Activity and Carbon Cycling in Grassland Soil Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, S. D.; Jastrow, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Extracellular enzymes are necessary to degrade complex organic compounds present in soils. Using physical fractionation procedures, we tested whether old soil carbon is spatially isolated from degradative enzymes across a prairie restoration chronosequence in Illinois, USA. We found that carbon-degrading enzymes were abundant in all soil fractions, including macroaggregates, microaggregates, and the clay fraction, which contains carbon with a mean residence time of ~200 years. The activities of two cellulose-degrading enzymes and a chitin-degrading enzyme were 2-10 times greater in organic matter fractions than in bulk soil, consistent with the rapid turnover of these fractions. Polyphenol oxidase activity was 3 times greater in the clay fraction than in the bulk soil, despite very slow carbon turnover in this fraction. Changes in enzyme activity across the restoration chronosequence were small once adjusted for increases in soil carbon concentration, although polyphenol oxidase activity per unit carbon declined by 50% in native prairie versus cultivated soil. These results are consistent with a `two-pool' model of enzyme and carbon turnover in grassland soils. In light organic matter fractions, enzyme production and carbon turnover both occur rapidly. However, in mineral-dominated fractions, both enzymes and their carbon substrates are immobilized on mineral surfaces, leading to slow turnover. Soil carbon accumulation in the clay fraction and across the prairie restoration chronosequence probably reflects increasing physical isolation of enzymes and substrates on the molecular scale, rather than the micron to millimeter scale.

  9. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  10. Suited for Spacewalking: Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Manning, Cheryl A., Ed.

    Spacewalking has captured the imagination of generations of children and adults since science-fiction authors first placed their characters on the moon. This publication is an activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning…

  11. Selected Technology Lab Activities Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    These materials supplement state guides for junior high or middle school technology education programs. The materials show instructors how to implement 81 hours of new technology-related activities into existing programs. Introductory materials include a rationale, philosophy, and goals for technology education. Areas of instruction are as…

  12. Early Childhood: Activity Books and Resource Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 59 activity books and resource guides for developing skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  13. Possible fractionated regimens for image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy of large arteriovenous malformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, X. Sharon; Schultz, Christopher J.; Li, X. Allen

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate a plausible α/β ratio for arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) based on reported clinical data, and to design possible fractionation regimens suitable for image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) for large AVMs based on the newly obtained α/β ratio. The commonly used obliteration rate (OR) for AVMs with a three year angiographic follow-up from many institutes was fitted to linear-quadratic (LQ) formalism and the Poisson OR model. The determined parameters were then used to calculate possible fractionation regimens for IG-IMRT based on the concept of a biologically effective dose (BED) and an equivalent uniform dose (EUD). The radiobiological analysis yields a α/β ratio of 2.2 ± 1.6 Gy for AVMs. Three sets of possible fractionated schemes were designed to achieve equal or better biological effectiveness than the single-fraction treatments while maintaining the same probability of normal brain complications. A plausible α/β ratio was derived for AVMs and possible fractionation regimens that may be suitable for IG-IMRT for large AVM treatment are proposed. The sensitivity of parameters on the calculation was also studied. The information may be useful to design new clinical trials that use IG-IMRT for the treatment of large AVMs.

  14. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Hussain, Fozia; Wisløff, Helene

    2014-12-15

    Several Lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (Felis silvestris catus), among them Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum). Although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. We thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of Easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. The bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tentatively identified as steroidal glycoalkaloids of the solasodine-type, based on multiple-fragmentation ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The glycoalkaloids in the active fraction possessed trisaccharide chains, and at least 16 different congeners could be separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two principal compounds were solasodine trisaccharides containing two hexose and one deoxy-hexose unit. In the remaining 14 analogues, one or two of the hydroxyl groups of the second hexose from the aglycone were acetylated. In addition, some of the analogues appeared to be carbonate esters. Esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in plants has only been reported once and was in accordance with higher antifungal activity of the acetylated versus the parent congener. Our pilot study shows that esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in Lilium species might be common resulting in an array of different analogues with largely unexplored structural variability and bioactivity.

  15. HPTLC Analysis of Bioactivity Guided Anticancer Enriched Fraction of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Picrorhiza kurroa

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Md. Nasar; Singh, Mhaveer; Parveen, Rabea; Khan, Washim; Ahmad, Sayeed; Zeeshan Najm, Mohammad; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa and its fractions were subjected to in vitro screening for cytotoxicity; further best active fraction (BAF) obtained was tested against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb/c mice after its quality control analysis. Methods. Cytotoxicities of all the fractions and mother extract of P. kurroa were determined, using MTT assay on breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) and cervical cancer (HeLa, SiHa) cell lines. Metabolic fingerprinting was developed using HPTLC with quantification of biomarkers (cucurbitacins B and E; betulinic acid; picrosides 1 and 2; and apocynin) in BAF. The EAC tumor-bearing mice were used for in vivo anticancer activity after oral administration (50 mg Kg−1) for 10 days. Results. Cytotoxicity assay of mother extract and its fractions over breast cancer and cervix cancer cell lines showed that dichloromethane (DCM) fraction was most cytotoxic (IC50 36.0–51.0 µg mL−1 at 72 h). Oral administration of DCM fraction showed significant reduction in tumor regression parameters, viable tumor cell count and restoration of hematological parameters may be due to presence of cucurbitacins B and E; betulinic acid; picrosides 1 and 2; and apocynin, as compared to the untreated mice of the control group. Conclusion. The DCM fraction of P. kurroa displayed potent anticancer activity and can be further explored for the development of a potential candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:26557675

  16. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  17. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines. PMID:26038588

  18. Anti-diabetic activity of active fractions of Stereospermum tetragonum DC and isolation of active principles

    PubMed Central

    Bino Kingsley, Renjit; Mishra, Manisha; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To identify the active principles, determine the anti-diabetes activity of fraction of Stereospermum tetragonum root. Materials and Methods The efficacy was evaluated in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and the anti-hyperglycemic activity was studied by glucose tolerance test. The major active compounds were isolated by solvent fractionation and chromatographic techniques and characterized with spectral data. Results The active fraction of S. tetragonum showed presence of anti-diabetes mellitus activity in type-2 diabetic rats. It did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. Two active principles (active at 2 mg/kg dose) were isolated and characterized with spectral data. One of them was identified as an iridoid type glycoside and the other one was a lapachol like compound (derivative of naphthoquinone). Conclusions Two active principles from the anti-diabetes fraction of S. tetragonum root were isolated and identified as an iridoid glycoside and a naphthoquinone derivative. PMID:24023445

  19. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, E B; Li, D W; Hyun, J E; Kim, I H; Whang, W K

    2001-10-01

    The methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark was evaluated on anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities in animal models. The extract produced a significant inhibition of vascular permeability at doses of 1 and 3 g/kg, p.o. in mice and of leucocyte emigration at doses of 0.15 and 0.3 g/rat, s.c., in CMC-pouch of rats. However, the extract (0.25 and 3 g/kg, p.o.) did not show anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced edema of rats. The extract at a dose of 2.5 g/kg, p.o. inhibited writhing syndromes, whereas it did not exhibit anti-nociceptive in Randall-Selitto assay. The methanol extract was then partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol to give each soluble fraction and finally water soluble fraction. Among those fractions, the inhibitory effect on vascular permeability in mice was produced by ethyl acetate soluble fraction in this activity-guided fractionation. The methanol extract showed low acute toxicity in mice. These results suggest that the methanol extract of Kalopanax pictus bark has an anti-inflammatory activity which is distributed in the ethyl acetate fraction. PMID:11535364

  1. Antimicrobial activity of the solvent fractions from Bulbine natalensis Tuber.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Mostafa, M; Ashafa, A O T; Afolayan, A J

    2012-01-01

    Bulbine natalensis Baker has been acclaimed to be used as an antimicrobial agent in the folklore medicine of South Africa without scientific evidence to substantiate or refute this claim. In view of this, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of solvent fractions (ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) from Bulbine natalensis Tuber against 4 Gram positive and 12 Gram negative bacteria as well as 3 fungal species were investigated using agar dilution. The ethanolic extract, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions inhibited 75, 87.5 and 100% respectively of the bacterial species in this study. The ethanolic, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions produced growth inhibition at MIC range of 1-10, 3-10 as well as 1 and 5 mg/ml respectively whereas the water fraction did not inhibit the growth of any of the bacterial species. Again, it was only the ethyl acetate fraction that inhibited the growth of Shigelli flexneri, Staphyloccus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions dose dependently inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger and A. flavus whereas the water fraction produced 100% growth inhibition of the Aspergillus species at all the doses investigated. In contrast, no growth inhibition was produced on Candida albicans. The growth inhibition produced by the solvent fractions of B. natalensis Tuber in this study thus justifies the acclaimed use of the plant as an antimicrobial agent. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent. PMID:23983381

  2. Effects of fractionation and combinatorial evaluation of Tamarindus indica fractions for antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Nwodo, Uchechukwu U; Iroegbu, Christian U; Ngene, Augustine A; Chigor, Vincent N; Okoh, Anthony I

    2011-06-09

    Six fractions, named TiA - TiF, were obtained by fractionating the crude ethanol extract of the stem bark of Tamarindus indica using column chromatographic techniques. On TLC, fraction TiB showed five bands, TiC three bands, while TiD and TiE showed two bands each. TiC, TiD and TiE were re-eluted with different solvent systems to yield two fractions each, while TiB yielded four. These subfractions were designated B1-B4; C1-C2; D1-D2 and E1-E2, respectively. Tannins, flavonoids and alkaloids, among other components, were detected, albeit in different proportions with respect to fractions and subfractions and were compartmentalized with respect to the solvent systems used. The in vitro antibacterial activity of fractions and subfractions was tested separately and in combinations using the agar well diffusion technique. The susceptibly of test strains (expressed as %) were: 83.3% (TiA and TiB), 75.0% (crude extract and TiC), 66.7% (TiD), 50.0% (TiE) and 16.7% (TiF) when used singly, whereas in combination, the corresponding susceptibilities were 100% (CE), 83.3% (DE), 66.7% (AB, AF, BC, BD, DE and EF), 50% (AC and CD), 33.3% (BE and BF) and 16.7% (AD) against Gram negative bacteria strains and 100% (EF), 80% (DE), 60% (AB, BC and CE), 40% (AC, BD, BF, CF and DF) and 20% (AE, AF, BE and CD) against Gram positive strains. Percentage susceptibility with combinatorial use of re-fractions ranged from 85.7-57.1% and 60-40% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiB subfractions), respectively, 100-85.7% and 40-0% against Gram negative and positive strains (TiC, TiD and TiE sub-fractions).

  3. Antioxidant Activity of a Red Lentil Extract and Its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Amarowicz, Ryszard; Estrella, Isabell; Hernández, Teresa; Dueñas, Montserrat; Troszyńska, Agnieszka; Agnieszka, Kosińska; Pegg, Ronald B.

    2009-01-01

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from red lentil seeds using 80% (v/v) aqueous acetone. The crude extract was applied to a Sephadex LH-20 column. Fraction 1, consisting of sugars and low-molecular-weight phenolics, was eluted from the column by ethanol. Fraction 2, consisting of tannins, was obtained using acetone-water (1:1; v/v) as the mobile phase. Phenolic compounds present in the crude extract and its fractions demonstrated antioxidant and antiradical activities as revealed from studies using a β-carotene-linoleate model system, the total antioxidant activity (TAA) method, the DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, and a reducing power evaluation. Results of these assays showed the highest values when tannins (fraction 2) were tested. For instance, the TAA of the tannin fraction was 5.85 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, whereas the crude extract and fraction 1 showed 0.68 and 0.33 μmol Trolox® eq./mg, respectively. The content of total phenolics in fraction 2 was the highest (290 mg/g); the tannin content, determined using the vanillin method and expressed as absorbance units at 500 nm per 1 g, was 129. There were 24 compounds identified in the crude extract using an HPLC-ESI-MS method: quercetin diglycoside, catechin, digallate procyanidin, and p-hydroxybenzoic were the dominant phenolics in the extract. PMID:20054484

  4. Separation and identification of multiple constituents in Xiao Chai Hu Decoction (Sho-saiko-to) by bioactivity-guided fractionation combined with LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Peng, Ying; Song, Cui; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Hui; Li, Danqi; Wang, Fang; Yang, Jingyu; Song, Shaojiang; Wu, Chunfu

    2015-08-01

    Xiao Chai Hu Decoction (XCHD), named Sho-saiko-to in Japanese, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula used in Asia. However, the characterization methods used in the past have lacked sensitivity and the nature of the active constituents of XCHD remains unclear. This study was carried out to establish the hyphenated method of bioactivity-guided fractionation and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS) in order to identify the major bioactive constituents of XCHD. D101 macroporous resin was used to separate and enrich the material base into four fractions, XCHD-1, XCHD-2, XCHD-3 and XCHD-4. Each fraction was then evaluated for its antidepressant effect using depression-related parameters. An LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS method in both positive and negative ion mode was also applied for separation and identification of the biological active fractions of XCHD. As a result, 79 compounds including polysaccharides, flavonoids, saikosaponins, ginsenosides, licoricesaponins and gingerols were detected, 69 of them were identified or tentatively characterized. Based on our preliminary characterization investigations, polysaccharides, gingerols and flavonoids in XCHD may contribute to the antidepressant effect of XCHD. In conclusion, the hyphenated method of bioactivity-guided fractionation and LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS was meaningful for the isolation and preliminary identification of the biological active components in complex matrices of traditional Chinese medicine.

  5. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  6. Bioassay-guided fractionation of a hepatoprotective and antioxidant extract of pea by-product.

    PubMed

    Seida, Ahmed A; El Tanbouly, Nebal D; Islam, Wafaa T; Eid, Hanaa H; El Maraghy, Shohda A; El Senousy, Amira S

    2015-01-01

    The hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of the hydroalcoholic extract (PE) of pea (Pisum sativum L.) by-product were evaluated, using CCl4-induced oxidative stress and hepatic damage in rats. These activities were assessed via measuring alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein and albumin, malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), protein thiols (PSH), nitrite/nitrate levels, glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities, as well as, histopathological evaluation. PE revealed significant hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities mostly found in n-butanol fraction. Chromatographic fractionation of this active fraction led to the isolation of five flavonoid glycosides namely, quercetin-3-O-sophorotrioside (1), quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (2), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E sinapoyl)-sophorotrioside (3), quercetin-3-O-(6″″-O-E feruloyl)-sophorotrioside (4) and quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). The isolated compounds were quantified in PE, using a validated HPLC method and the nutritional composition of pea by-product was also investigated. Our results suggest that pea by-product contained biologically active constituents which can be utilised to obtain high value added products for nutraceutical use.

  7. Education & Recycling: Educator's Waste Management Resource and Activity Guide 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Conservation. Sacramento. Div. of Recycling.

    This activity guide for grades K-12 reinforces the concepts of recycling, reducing, and reusing through a series of youth-oriented activities. The guide incorporates a video-based activity, multiple session classroom activities, and activities requiring group participation and student conducted research. Constructivist learning theory was…

  8. Antioxidant activity of different fractions of Spirulina platensis protean extract.

    PubMed

    Piñero Estrada, J E; Bermejo Bescós, P; Villar del Fresno, A M

    2001-01-01

    Spirulina platensis, planktonic blue-green algae, is gaining increasing attention because of its nutritional and medicinal properties. This microalgae contains phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin and allophycocyanin). Previous reports from our laboratory have shown that a protean extract of S. platensis is a potent free-radical scavenger (hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals) and inhibits microsomal lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to purify and characterize phycocyanin of S. platensis. Besides, we tried to demonstrate that one of the main components responsible for this antioxidant activity is a biliprotein phycocyanin. For this purpose, we studied the antioxidant activity of different fractions obtained during the phycocyanin purification process, through the scavenger activity of hydroxyl radical. We also observed that an increase in phycocyanin content was related to an increase in the antioxidant activity in different fractions, and therefore phycobiliprotein phycocyanin is the component mainly responsible for the antioxidant activity.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of Carpolobia lutea extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Nwidu, Lucky L; Nwafor, Paul A; Vilegas, Wagner

    2012-01-01

    Carpolobia lutea (G. Don) (Polygalaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant putative in traditional medicines against gonorrhea, gingivitis, infertility, antiulcer and malaria. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelicobacter effects of extracts C. lutea leaf, stem and root. The extracts were examined using the disc-diffusion and Microplates of 96 wells containing Muller-Hinton methods against some bacterial strains: Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922), E. coli (ATCC10418), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphyllococus aureus (ATCC 6571), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8853) and four clinical isolates: one fungi (Candida albican) and three bacteria (Salmonella, Sheigella and staphylococcus aureus). The Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659) and the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Cândida albicans (ATCC 18804) and Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 43504). Some of these extracts were found to be active against some tested strains but activity against H. pylori was >1000mg/ml and good fungistatic activity against C. albican. The MIC against C. albican is in the order n-HF > CHF > ETF= EAF.The order of potency of fraction was the ethanol root > n-HF leaf > ethanol fraction stem > chloroform fraction leaf = ethyl acetate fraction leaf. Polyphenols were demonstrated in ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, crude ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract, respectively. These polyphenols isolated may partly explain and support the use of C. lutea for the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Ibibio medicine of Nigeria. PMID:23983362

  10. Office Reprographics. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with office reprographics. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives, suggestions…

  11. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of physical fatigue-attenuating components from Rubus parvifolius L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianhong; Wang, Xianfeng; Cai, Yongqing; Tang, Ming; Dai, Qing; Hu, Xiaogang; Huang, Mingchun; Sun, Fengjun; Liu, Yao; Xia, Peiyuan

    2013-01-01

    Alleviation of fatigue has been emerging as a serious issue that requires urgent attention. Health professionals and sports physiologists have been looking for active natural products and synthetic compounds to overcome fatigue in humans. This study was designed to define the anti-fatigue property of Rubus parvifolius L. (RPL) by characterization of active constituents using a mouse forced swimming test model. Four RPL fractions with different polarities containing anti-fatigue activity were sequentially isolated from the n-butanol RPL extract, followed by elution of 50% ethanol-water fraction from D101 macroporous resin chromatography to obtain nigaichigoside F1, suavissimoside R1 and coreanoside F1. Active constituents of the 50% ethanol-water eluate of RPL were total saponins. The fractions were examined based on the effect on weight-loaded swimming capacity of mice. Serum levels of urea nitrogen (SUN), triglyceride fatty acids (TG), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), lactic acid (LA), ammonia and hepatic glycogen (HG) were also examined for potential mechanisms underlying the anti-fatigue effect of RPL extracts. During the experiment, two inflammatory markers, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in serum, were measured. We found that total saponins from RPL possess potent capabilities to alleviate mouse fatigue induced by forced swimming and that nigaichigoside F1 was responsible for the pharmacological effect. The underlying mechanisms include delays of SUN and LA accumulation, a decrease in TG level by increasing fat consumption, increases in HG and LDH so that lactic acid accumulation and ammonia in the muscle were reduced, and suppression of increased immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production. Our findings will be helpful for functional identification of novel anti-fatigue components from natural medicinal herbs. PMID:24064456

  12. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  13. Have a Bearable Summer-Read: An Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary, Ed.

    Designed to help librarians plan a summer reading program around the theme of bears called "have a bearable summer," this activity guide presents many activities and organizational suggestions. The first section of the guide deals with publicity and public relations, while the second section covers story time activities. The third section presents…

  14. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Extracts from Codiaeum variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica Discovers Compounds That Modify Expression of Ceramide Biosynthesis Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mfotie Njoya, Emmanuel; Weber, Christian; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Hon, Chung-Chau; Janin, Yves; Kamini, Melanie F. G.; Moundipa, Paul F.; Guillén, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Codiaeum variegatum (“garden croton”) are used against bloody diarrhoea by local populations in Cameroon. This study aims to search for the active components from C. variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica, and thereby initiate the study of their mechanism of action. A bioassay-guided screening of the aqueous extracts from C. variegatum leaves and various fractions was carried out against trophozoites of E. histolytica axenic culture. We found that the anti-amoebic activity of extracts changed with respect to the collection criteria of leaves. Thereby, optimal conditions were defined for leaves' collection to maximise the anti-amoebic activity of the extracts. A fractionation process was performed, and we identified several sub-fractions (or isolated compounds) with significantly higher anti-amoebic activity compared to the unfractionated aqueous extract. Anti-amoebic activity of the most potent fraction was confirmed with the morphological characteristics of induced death in trophozoites, including cell rounding and lysis. Differential gene expression analysis using high-throughput RNA sequencing implies the potential mechanism of its anti-amoebic activity by targeting ceramide, a bioactive lipid involved in disturbance of biochemical processes within the cell membrane including differentiation, proliferation, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Regulation of ceramide biosynthesis pathway as a target for anti-amoebic compounds is a novel finding which could be an alternative for drug development against E. histolytica. PMID:24416462

  15. Electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death beyond the left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Arsenos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-26

    Sudden cardiac death threats ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anti- arrhythmic protection may be provided to these patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD), after an efficient risk stratification approach. The proposed risk stratifier of an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction has limited sensitivity meaning that a significant number of victims will remain undetectable by this risk stratification approach because they have a preserved left ventricular systolic function. Current risk stratification strategies focus on combinations of non invasive methods like T wave alternans, late potentials, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity and others, with invasive methods like the electrophysiologic study. In the presence of an electrically impaired substrate with formed post myocardial infarction fibrotic zones, programmed ventricular stimulation provides important prognostic information for the selection of the patients expected to benefit from an ICD implantation, while due to its high negative predictive value, patients at low risk level may also be detected. Clustering evidence from different research groups and electrophysiologic labs support an electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death. PMID:26839662

  16. Electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death beyond the left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Arsenos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-26

    Sudden cardiac death threats ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anti- arrhythmic protection may be provided to these patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD), after an efficient risk stratification approach. The proposed risk stratifier of an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction has limited sensitivity meaning that a significant number of victims will remain undetectable by this risk stratification approach because they have a preserved left ventricular systolic function. Current risk stratification strategies focus on combinations of non invasive methods like T wave alternans, late potentials, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity and others, with invasive methods like the electrophysiologic study. In the presence of an electrically impaired substrate with formed post myocardial infarction fibrotic zones, programmed ventricular stimulation provides important prognostic information for the selection of the patients expected to benefit from an ICD implantation, while due to its high negative predictive value, patients at low risk level may also be detected. Clustering evidence from different research groups and electrophysiologic labs support an electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death.

  17. Real-time 3D-surface-guided head refixation useful for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shidong; Liu Dezhi; Yin Gongjie; Zhuang Ping; Geng, Jason

    2006-02-15

    Accurate and precise head refixation in fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy has been achieved through alignment of real-time 3D-surface images with a reference surface image. The reference surface image is either a 3D optical surface image taken at simulation with the desired treatment position, or a CT/MRI-surface rendering in the treatment plan with corrections for patient motion during CT/MRI scans and partial volume effects. The real-time 3D surface images are rapidly captured by using a 3D video camera mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. Any facial expression such as mouth opening that affects surface shape and location can be avoided using a new facial monitoring technique. The image artifacts on the real-time surface can generally be removed by setting a threshold of jumps at the neighboring points while preserving detailed features of the surface of interest. Such a real-time surface image, registered in the treatment machine coordinate system, provides a reliable representation of the patient head position during the treatment. A fast automatic alignment between the real-time surface and the reference surface using a modified iterative-closest-point method leads to an efficient and robust surface-guided target refixation. Experimental and clinical results demonstrate the excellent efficacy of <2 min set-up time, the desired accuracy and precision of <1 mm in isocenter shifts, and <1 deg. in rotation.

  18. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, B. I.; Langlands, T. A. M.; Wearne, S. L.

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  19. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, B I; Langlands, T A M; Wearne, S L

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  20. Anti-inflammatory activity of extract and fractions from Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham.

    PubMed

    Miceli, N; Taviano, M F; Giuffrida, D; Trovato, A; Tzakou, O; Galati, E M

    2005-02-28

    Several species of Nepeta genus are utilized in folk medicine for treatment of contusions, rheumatic pains, fever, cutaneous eruptions. Some species are employed for their anti-inflammatory properties. In this paper, we report the results of phytochemical studies on aerial parts of Nepeta sibthorpii Bentham (Lamiaceae), an endemic plant of Greece. The bioassay-guided fractionation of methanol extract led to the isolation of ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction. By HPLC, we determined some phenolics: chlorogenic acid (0.315 mg/g) and the flavonoids rutin (0.091 mg/g), luteolin-7-O-glucoside (0.387 mg/g) and a luteolin derivative. We assayed the radical scavenging activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method. Moreover, we studied the anti-inflammatory activity of Nepeta sibthorpii methanol extract (50 mg/kg, os), ursolic acid and polyphenol fraction (dose corresponding to 50 mg/kg of methanol extract, os) in the carrageenan-induced paw oedema in rat. In this experimental model, we observed a significant inhibition of paw oedema. We suppose that the anti-inflammatory effect of methanol extract could be related to the free radical scavenging activity and that it depends on a synergic action of all the components of the methanol extract, even if ursolic acid can be considered the main responsible for this activity.

  1. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. Methods CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated on mouse model of hyperlipidemia. The optimized extract was subjected to the bioactivity-guided fractionation in which the liquid-liquid extraction, collumn chromatography, the in vivo and in vitro models of hyperlipidemia were utilized. The structure of active component was determined by 13 C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Results The 75% ethanol extract of CSFP decreased the serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Followed a separation process for the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP, the fraction B was proved to be an active fraction for lowering lipid in vivo and in vitro experiments, which could significantly decrease the serum TC and TG levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and remarkably decrease the increase of TG in primary mouse hepatocytes induced by high glucose and the increase of TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid. The fraction B2, isolated from B on bioactivity-guided fractionation, could significantly decrease TG level in HepG2 cells. One compound with the highest content in B2 was isolated and determined as luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by NMR spectra. It could significantly reduce the TG level in HepG2 cells, and inhibited the accumulation of lipids by oil red O stain. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP could improve in vitro and in vivo lipid accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside might be a leading pharmacodynamical material of CSFP for lowering lipids. PMID:22413998

  2. Aircraft: United States Air Force Child Care Program Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Juanita; Brant, Linda

    General information about United States' aircraft is provided in this program activity guide for teachers and caregivers in Air Force preschools and day care centers. The guide includes basic information for teachers and caregivers, basic understandings, suggested teaching methods and group activities, vocabulary, ideas for interest centers, and…

  3. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  4. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  5. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  6. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    PubMed

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  7. Space-Based Astronomy: A Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help grade 5-8 students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outside the Earth's atmosphere. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy-related spacecraft that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sent into…

  8. Economics and Entrepreneurship: Student Activities. Master Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    Correlated to the Economics and Entrepreneurship Teaching Strategies Master Curriculum Guide, this book features 66 student activities, case studies, comprehension quizzes, and lessons related to economic concepts. Designed for high school students of economics, social studies, and business education, this curriculum guide combines study of basic…

  9. Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

  10. Antibacterial activity of Momordica charantia (Curcubitaceae) extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    Costa, José Galberto M.; Nascimento, Eidla M. M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. belongs to the family Curcubitaceae and it is very common in many Brazilian regions. The plant is a liana with flowers and yellow fruits that present red seeds when are ripe. Popularly known as “melão-de-sãocaetano”, “melão amargo” or “cabaço-amargo”, it possesses many uses: antidiabetic, antihelmintic, antmicrobial, anticancerigenous and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried leaves extracts showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites, as flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins, that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. Fresh and dried leaves presented significantly antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested, specially Escherichia coli. Ethyl acetate fractions were effective against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The modulatory activity was significative too PMID:24826002

  11. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  12. Rockets: Physical Science Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R., Ed.

    Rockets have evolved from simple tubes filled with black powder into mighty vehicles capable of launching a spacecraft out into the galaxy. The guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac…

  13. Career Pathways Skill-Building Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    In an effort to relate academic skills with workplace skills and facilitate the transition from school to work, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a skill-based instructional model targeted at 9th through 12th graders and consisting of 6 instructional areas, or strands, and 31 related skills. This guide provides suggested activities…

  14. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  15. Guide to good practices for line and training manager activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction for line and training managers in carrying out their responsibilities for training and qualifying personnel and to verify that existing training activities are effective.

  16. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  17. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  18. Agricultural Science Lab Activities. Instructor Guide. Volume 27, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory W.; And Others

    This instructor guide contains 20 laboratory activities for grades 9-10 Agricultural Science I-II classes. The activities are cross-referenced to Missouri Core Competencies and Key Skills. The activities are organized into the following areas: introductory (microscope use); animal nutrition (absorption of nutrients, bacteria and disease, enzyme…

  19. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  20. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  1. Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

  2. Teacher's Activity Guide to Coastal Awareness. Marine Bulletin No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This teacher's guide was prepared for use with "Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book," as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. Contained are instructions on the use of the Activity Book, page-by-page, with glossaries, activity ideas, resources, places to visit, and notes…

  3. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  4. Guide to good practices for control area activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control Area Activities, Chapter III of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered for controlling the activities in control areas. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Control Area Activities is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for maintaining a formal environment in operational control areas to promote safe and efficient operations.

  5. Developing specialized guided worksheets for active learning in physics lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujarittham, T.; Emarat, N.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Tanamatayarat, J.

    2016-03-01

    As universities attempt to integrate active learning into their lectures, a range of strategies is emerging. Amongst the strategies is pre-prepared worksheets which students work through, facilitated by the lecturer. Despite the fact that worksheets have not yet been the subject of much research activity, there are instances of their use. Once such instance is by a pair of physics lecturers at Mahidol University, Thailand. The worksheets, called guided worksheets as they provide structure for students to take notes as the content in the lectures progresses, are prepared by the lecturers and have been in use since 2004. Evaluations showed that the guided worksheets met their intent but there were issues around certain topics which students found challenging. Concerted effort lead to the development of research based specialized guided worksheets for those topics that had issues. These specialized guided worksheets requiring substantially more interactions and student problem solving in line with active learning strategies, have been in use since 2012. This paper aims to describe the design of the specialized guided worksheets for the topic of electric field, and its evaluation. Pre- and post-tests were implemented over 2 years. The first was with guided worksheets with 260 students in 2011, and the second included specialized guided worksheets with 163 students in 2012. Gains on student understanding were higher in 2012 and students who were interviewed indicated that they found the specialized guided worksheets helpful for learning. The results indicate that the specialized guided worksheets made a difference in topics that students find challenging.

  6. Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-12-21

    Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80μg/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

  7. Continuous-time random walk as a guide to fractional Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, E. K.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Mukai, H.; Mendes, R. S.

    2010-09-15

    We argue that the continuous-time random walk approach may be a useful guide to extend the Schroedinger equation in order to incorporate nonlocal effects, avoiding the inconsistencies raised by Jeng et al. [J. Math. Phys. 51, 062102 (2010)]. As an application, we work out a free particle in a half space, obtaining the time dependent solution by considering an arbitrary initial condition.

  8. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  9. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  10. Off to Adventure: 24 Guided Activities for K-3 Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knothe, Carol; Lang, Karen; Lange, Pauline; Most, JoAnn; Palmer, Terry; Sorte, Joanne

    This book contains 24 guided environmental education activities for K-3 children that offer young children opportunities to explore and learn about their world in a positive environment. The activities encourage the children to gain confidence and develop a positive self-image; develop important life skills; learn about science, literature, and…

  11. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  12. Kanienkehaka Tiontenientenstakwa [Mohawk Guide Book]. Activities and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine; And Others

    This collection of activities and games is a supplement to "The Language Guide for Elementary Mohawk." These activities and games provide additional classroom practice for the topical language components in the companion book. The vocabulary encompasses names, singular commands, colors, numbers, foods, animals, clothing, household, money, seasons,…

  13. Illinois State Bar Association Law Day Activities Guide. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Bar Association, Springfield.

    These law-related lessons and activities can facilitate participation in a Law Day program. Following an introduction, this activities guide is divided into these sections: "Tips for Teachers" ("What Can a Lawyer Add to the Classroom?"; "So You Have Been Asked to Speak to Kids about the Law"; "A Checklist for Lawyers and Judges in the Classroom");…

  14. Growing Together with the Treetures. Activity Guide. Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Bobbi; Blau, Judith H.; Hinrichs, Jennifer Judd

    This activity guide is designed to be used with the Growing Together program. Tree-related activities are correlated to the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, the recommended standards for mathematics, science, and technology suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The Treature Educational Program is dedicated…

  15. Trachyspermum ammi (L.) sprague: chemical composition of essential oil and antimicrobial activities of respective fractions.

    PubMed

    Moein, Mahmoodreza R; Zomorodian, Kamiar; Pakshir, Keyvan; Yavari, Farnoosh; Motamedi, Marjan; Zarshenas, Mohammad M

    2015-01-01

    Resistance to antibacterial agents has become a serious problem for global health. The current study evaluated the antimicrobial activities of essential oil and respective fractions of Trachyspermum ammi (L.) Sprague. Seeds of the essential oil were extracted and fractionated using column chromatography. All fractions were then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Antifungal and antibacterial activities of the oil and its fractions were assessed using microdilution method. Compounds γ-terpinene (48.07%), ρ-cymene (33.73%), and thymol (17.41%) were determined as major constituents. The effect of fraction II was better than total essential oil, fraction I, and standard thymol. The greater effect of fraction II compared to standard thymol showed the synergistic effects of the ingredients in this fraction. As this fraction and also total oil were effective on the studied microorganism, the combination of these products with current antimicrobial agents could be considered as new antimicrobial compounds in further investigations. PMID:25305209

  16. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  17. Wise Water Ways. Teaching Guide. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Alice; And Others

    To increase student's awareness of the need to conserve water and ways they can become personally involved in developing water-saving habits, a water conservation education program was established. The program described contains a series of activities to be presented in the form of discussions, games, and puzzles. Each activity involves the…

  18. Activity Guide for Career Education. Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festus School District R-6, MO.

    The suggestions for learning activities in career education at the intermediate level (Grades 4-5) are presented with the aim of establishing career awareness related to four occupational clusters: marketing and distribution, construction, communication and media, and hospitality-recreation. The activities are presented under the headings of four…

  19. Suited for spacewalking: A teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Manning, Cheryl A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is an activity guide for teachers on spacesuits and spacewalking. It uses the intensive interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for hands-on-opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The guide concludes with a brief glossary as well as references and resources.

  20. Chemical inhibitors of CYP450 enzymes in liver microsomes: combining selectivity and unbound fractions to guide selection of appropriate concentration in phenotyping assays.

    PubMed

    Nirogi, Ramakrishna; Palacharla, Raghava Choudary; Uthukam, Venkatesham; Manoharan, Arunkumar; Srikakolapu, Surya Rao; Kalaikadhiban, Ilayaraja; Boggavarapu, Rajesh Kumar; Ponnamaneni, Ranjith Kumar; Ajjala, Devender Reddy; Bhyrapuneni, Gopinadh

    2015-02-01

    1. Chemical inhibition is the widely used method in reaction phenotyping assays for estimation of specific enzyme contribution to a given metabolic pathway. The results from phenotyping assays depend on the selectivity of chemical inhibitor and the concentration of inhibitor used in the incubation. 2. The higher protein concentrations used in the in vitro phenotyping assays will impact the inhibitory potency of chemical inhibitors. The objective of the study is to evaluate comprehensively the selectivity of chemical inhibitors and to guide in selecting appropriate concentration of the chemical inhibitors to be used in the phenotyping assays based on unbound fractions. 3. Selectivity of chemical inhibitors against nine major CYP450 isoforms was determined in liver microsomes using standard probe substrates. The unbound fractions of the selective inhibitors were determined in human liver microsomes using high-throughput equilibrium dialysis. Combining unbound inhibitor concentrations that are required to inhibit the CYP450 activities by 90% and unbound fractions of the chemical inhibitors in liver microsomes appropriate total concentrations of the inhibitors to be used in the phenotyping assays were reported. 4. The findings suggest that non-specific binding of the chemical inhibitors need to be taken into account while selecting concentrations for phenotyping assays.

  1. Fragrant volatile sesquiterpenoids isolated from the essential oil of Laggera pterodonta by using olfactory-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Long; Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oil from Laggera pterodonta (Compositae) was inverstigated. GC/MS Analyses led to the identification of 68 components, representing more than 96% of the total oil. By focusing on the woody note fraction of the essential oil, one new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid, bisabola-2,7(14),11-trien-10-ol (1), together with ten known compounds, bisabolol oxide B (2), ylangenol (3), copaborneol (4), guai-11-en-10-ol (5), spathulenol (6), aromadendran-10-ol (7), caryophyllenol (8), 5α,7α-eudesm-11(13)-en-4α-ol (9), γ-costic acid (10), and eudesma-4(15),11(13)-diene-12,5β-olide (11), were isolated by using olfactory-guided fractionation. The structures of the eleven compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses. All the volatile compounds reported here were isolated for the first time from this plant. On the basis of preliminary odor assessment, the odor of the woody-note fractions of the essential oil was assumed to be due to these isolated sesquiterpenoids. PMID:25238080

  2. On Campus Activity Guide. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinellas County School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    Descriptions of about 100 secondary-level activities that can be done on the school grounds are presented. Among the lessons included are a study of life in sidewalk cracks, methods of estimating animal populations, soil testing, constructing and using triangulation instruments to map the school area, and creative writing exercises. Although most…

  3. Ripples: A Big Sweep Elementary Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Carla B., Ed.

    Littering is a careless act indicating lack of respect for the environment, other people, and wildlife. Through education people can learn the consequences of littering and how to stop doing it. This book, designed for elementary children, presents a collection of 16 activities, ideas and resources concerning litter in the aquatic and marine…

  4. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    An attempt to add substance to history, the curriculum guide for grades 7-8 presents in 12 culture guides information on American Indians for teachers to use as supplement materials to social studies texts. Each culture guide is accompanied with a teacher guide offering activities or discussion/quiz questions. Topics of culture guides encompass…

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  6. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s). PMID:3821135

  7. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s).

  8. Atmospheric Detectives. Atlas 2 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Affairs Div.

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS 2 will help develop a thorough picture of the Sun's output, its interaction with the atmosphere, and the well-being of Earth's middle atmosphere. This middle school level guide probes the connection between the activities of scientists and the observable…

  9. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  10. Nutrition Activities Guide for Students in Special Education: Citywide Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide is designed to provide special education students with nutrition education in terms of daily living skills. Activities are organized according to five themes: what we eat (awareness of the physical and sensory characteristics of food, identification of food eaten at various meals); how we eat (identification of cutlery, manners, use of…

  11. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  12. Sports Medicine. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course designed for students investigating the activities within the sports medicine department or considering any of the areas of kinesiology as a career. The material is designed for individualized study and is competency based with educational outcomes stated for…

  13. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  14. Ecosystem Matters: Activity and Resource Guide for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mary; And Others

    An ecological approach involved making conscious decisions which result in actions that responsibly contribute to the long-term stewardship of natural resources. This activity and resource guide was designed for use by both educators and resource managers to supplement existing courses and programs concerning ecological matters. These…

  15. [Ute Unit with History, Suggested Activities, and Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, CO.

    This curriculum unit for fourth grade students, developed by the Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, Colorado, which is funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, presents a history of the Ute Indians, suggested activities for students, and a teachers' guide. The history section outlines the historical development of the Ute…

  16. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  17. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  18. Curriculum Activities Guide for Natural History Exhibits, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Wildlife Museum, Tucson, AZ.

    A natural history museum is a building where animals, plants, minerals, and other things in nature are kept and exhibited for study. This document is a curriculum guide to provide a variety of activities for educators and their students to use not only when visiting the International Wildlife Museum (Tuscon, Arizona), but also with natural history…

  19. Teacher's Resource Guide on Acidic Precipitation with Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The purpose of this teacher's resource guide is to help science teachers incorporate the topic of acidic precipitation into their curricula. A survey of recent junior high school science textbooks found a maximum of one paragraph devoted to the subject; in addition, none of these books had any related laboratory activities. It was on the basis of…

  20. Activity Guide for Nutrition Education, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chula Vista City School District, CA.

    This activity guide for foods and nutrition education at the primary level is divided into two sections: lesson plans and resource materials. Five concepts are outlined in the lesson plan: food choices, factors influencing choices, consumer competencies, food related careers, and food protection. Each lesson plan provides information on…

  1. Made in USA: Project Ethnic Heritage: Activity and Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    The teaching guide suggests a variety of discussion and activity strategies relating to ethnicity for secondary and continuing education students. Objectives include helping people understand the nature and significance of their own heritage as well as that of each ethnic group, and encouraging participants to realize and deal with the impact…

  2. Bioactivity of mango flesh and peel extracts on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ [PPARγ] activation and MCF-7 cell proliferation: fraction and fruit variability.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Ashley S; Flanagan, Bernadine M; Pierson, Jean-Thomas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K; Dietzgen, Ralf G; Shaw, P Nicholas; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J; Monteith, Gregory R; Gidley, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    Mangos are a source of bioactive compounds with potential health promoting activity. Biological activities associated with mango fractions were assessed in cell-based assays to develop effective extraction and fractionation methodologies and to define sources of variability. Two techniques were developed for extraction and fractionation of mango fruit peel and flesh. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to assess compositional differences between mango fractions in flesh extracts. Many of the extracts were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of human breast cancer cells in vitro. All fractions showed bioactivity in PPAR activation assays, but quantitative responses showed marked fruit-to-fruit variability, highlighting the need to bulk fruit prior to extraction for activity-guided fractionation of bioactive components. This study also suggests that combinations of diverse molecular components may be responsible for cell-level bioactivities from mango fractions, and that purification and activity profiling of individual components may be difficult to relate to whole fruit effects. Practical Application: Although the health benefits of fruits are strongly indicated from studies of diet and disease, it is not known what role individual fruit types can play, particularly for tropical fruits. This study shows that there is a diversity of potentially beneficial bioactivities within the flesh and peel of mango fruit, although fruit-to-fruit variation can be large. The results add to the evidence that the food approach of eating all components of fruits is likely to be more beneficial to health than consuming refined extracts, as the purification process would inevitably remove components with beneficial bioactivities.

  3. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  4. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  5. Robust plan optimization for electromagnetic transponder guided hypo-fractionated prostate treatment using volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Happersett, Laura; Yang, Jie; Zelefsky, Michael; Mageras, Gig

    2013-11-01

    To develop an optimization algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy which incorporates an electromagnetic tracking (EMT) guided gating strategy and is robust to residual intra-fractional motion uncertainties. In a computer simulation, intra-fractional motion traces from prior treatments with EMT were converted to a probability distribution function (PDF), truncated using a patient specific action volume that encloses allowed deviations from the planned position, and renormalized to yield a new PDF with EMT-gated interventions. In lieu of a conventional planning target volume (PTV), multiple instances of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were replicated and displaced to extreme positions inside the action volume representing possible delivery scenarios. When optimizing the volumetric modulated arc therapy plan, doses to the CTV and OARs were calculated as a sum of doses to the replicas weighted by the PDF to account for motion. A treatment plan meeting the clinical constraints was produced and compared to the counterpart conventional margin (PTV) plan. EMT traces from a separate testing database served to simulate motion during gated delivery. Dosimetric end points extracted from dose accumulations for each motion trace were utilized to evaluate potential clinical benefit. Five prostate cases from a hypofractionated protocol (42.5 Gy in 5 fractions) were retrospectively investigated. The patient specific gating window resulted in tight anterior and inferior action levels (~1 mm) to protect rectal wall and bladder wall, and resulted in an average of four beam interruptions per fraction in the simulation. The robust-optimized plans achieved the same average CTV D95 coverage of 40.5 Gy as the PTV-optimized plans, but with reduced patient-averaged rectum wall D1cc by 2.2 Gy (range 0.7 to 4.7 Gy) and bladder wall mean dose by 2.9 Gy (range 2.0 to 3.4 Gy). Integration of an intra-fractional motion management strategy into the robust optimization

  6. Robust plan optimization for electromagnetic transponder guided hypo-fractionated prostate treatment using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Happersett, Laura; Yang, Jie; Zelefsky, Michael; Mageras, Gig

    2013-11-01

    To develop an optimization algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy which incorporates an electromagnetic tracking (EMT) guided gating strategy and is robust to residual intra-fractional motion uncertainties. In a computer simulation, intra-fractional motion traces from prior treatments with EMT were converted to a probability distribution function (PDF), truncated using a patient specific action volume that encloses allowed deviations from the planned position, and renormalized to yield a new PDF with EMT-gated interventions. In lieu of a conventional planning target volume (PTV), multiple instances of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were replicated and displaced to extreme positions inside the action volume representing possible delivery scenarios. When optimizing the volumetric modulated arc therapy plan, doses to the CTV and OARs were calculated as a sum of doses to the replicas weighted by the PDF to account for motion. A treatment plan meeting the clinical constraints was produced and compared to the counterpart conventional margin (PTV) plan. EMT traces from a separate testing database served to simulate motion during gated delivery. Dosimetric end points extracted from dose accumulations for each motion trace were utilized to evaluate potential clinical benefit. Five prostate cases from a hypofractionated protocol (42.5 Gy in 5 fractions) were retrospectively investigated. The patient specific gating window resulted in tight anterior and inferior action levels (∼1 mm) to protect rectal wall and bladder wall, and resulted in an average of four beam interruptions per fraction in the simulation. The robust-optimized plans achieved the same average CTV D95 coverage of 40.5 Gy as the PTV-optimized plans, but with reduced patient-averaged rectum wall D1cc by 2.2 Gy (range 0.7 to 4.7 Gy) and bladder wall mean dose by 2.9 Gy (range 2.0 to 3.4 Gy). Integration of an intra-fractional motion management strategy into the robust

  7. Outcomes and Toxicity for Hypofractionated and Single-Fraction Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Sarcomas Metastasizing to the Spine

    SciTech Connect

    Folkert, Michael R.; Bilsky, Mark H.; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Oh, Jung Hun; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Laufer, Ilya; Tap, William D.; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation treatment (20-40 Gy in 5-20 fractions, 2-5 Gy per fraction) for sarcoma metastatic to the spine provides subtherapeutic doses, resulting in poor durable local control (LC) (50%-77% at 1 year). Hypofractionated (HF) and/or single-fraction (SF) image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (IG-SRS) may provide a more effective means of managing these lesions. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven high-grade sarcoma metastatic to the spine treated with HF and SF IG-SRS were included. LC and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the use of Kaplan-Meier statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the use of Cox regression with competing-risks analysis; all confidence intervals are 95%. Toxicities were assessed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: From May 2005 to November 11, 2012, 88 patients with 120 discrete metastases received HF (3-6 fractions; median dose, 28.5 Gy; n=52, 43.3%) or SF IG-SRS (median dose, 24 Gy; n=68, 56.7%). The median follow-up time was 12.3 months. At 12 months, LC was 87.9% (confidence interval [CI], 81.3%-94.5%), OS was 60.6% (CI, 49.6%-71.6%), and median survival was 16.9 months. SF IG-SRS demonstrated superior LC to HF IG-SRS (12-month LC of 90.8% [CI, 83%-98.6%] vs 84.1% [CI, 72.9%-95.3%] P=.007) and retained significance on multivariate analysis (P=.030, hazard ratio 0.345; CI, 0.132-0.901]. Treatment was well tolerated, with 1% acute grade 3 toxicity, 4.5% chronic grade 3 toxicity, and no grade >3 toxicities. Conclusions: In the largest series of metastatic sarcoma to the spine to date, IG-SRS provides excellent LC in the setting of an aggressive disease with low radiation sensitivity and poor prognosis. Single-fraction IG-SRS is associated with the highest rates of LC with minimal toxicity.

  8. Robust plan optimization for electromagnetic transponder guided hypo-fractionated prostate treatment using volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Happersett, Laura; Yang, Jie; Zelefsky, Michael; Mageras, Gig

    2013-11-01

    To develop an optimization algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy which incorporates an electromagnetic tracking (EMT) guided gating strategy and is robust to residual intra-fractional motion uncertainties. In a computer simulation, intra-fractional motion traces from prior treatments with EMT were converted to a probability distribution function (PDF), truncated using a patient specific action volume that encloses allowed deviations from the planned position, and renormalized to yield a new PDF with EMT-gated interventions. In lieu of a conventional planning target volume (PTV), multiple instances of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were replicated and displaced to extreme positions inside the action volume representing possible delivery scenarios. When optimizing the volumetric modulated arc therapy plan, doses to the CTV and OARs were calculated as a sum of doses to the replicas weighted by the PDF to account for motion. A treatment plan meeting the clinical constraints was produced and compared to the counterpart conventional margin (PTV) plan. EMT traces from a separate testing database served to simulate motion during gated delivery. Dosimetric end points extracted from dose accumulations for each motion trace were utilized to evaluate potential clinical benefit. Five prostate cases from a hypofractionated protocol (42.5 Gy in 5 fractions) were retrospectively investigated. The patient specific gating window resulted in tight anterior and inferior action levels (~1 mm) to protect rectal wall and bladder wall, and resulted in an average of four beam interruptions per fraction in the simulation. The robust-optimized plans achieved the same average CTV D95 coverage of 40.5 Gy as the PTV-optimized plans, but with reduced patient-averaged rectum wall D1cc by 2.2 Gy (range 0.7 to 4.7 Gy) and bladder wall mean dose by 2.9 Gy (range 2.0 to 3.4 Gy). Integration of an intra-fractional motion management strategy into the robust optimization

  9. Evaluation of the biological activity of the molluscicidal fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium against non target organisms.

    PubMed

    Bagalwa, Jean-Jacques M; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Sayagh, Charlotte; Bashwira, Augustin S

    2010-10-01

    The evaluation of the biocidal activity of the fruit of Solanum sisymbriifolium involving non target organisms such as aquatic insects, fish and snails lead to the isolation of the steroidal alkaloids, solamargine and β-solamarine, from the active fractions. The fractions A3 and C, with biological activity against fish, snail and aquatic insect and larvae, are able to affect the good functioning of ecosystem found on alimentary chain. The fraction B seems to be less toxic to fish and aquatic insect and larvae. The fraction B could thus be used as molluscicide in the future. PMID:20388535

  10. Risk of Fracture After Single Fraction Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy to Spinal Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Peter S.; Laufer, Ilya; Boland, Patrick J.; Hanover, Andrew; Bilsky, Mark H.; Yamada, Josh; Lis, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Single-fraction image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IG-IMRT) allows for tumoricidal treatment of traditionally radioresistant cancers while sparing critical adjacent structures. Risk of vertebral fracture after IG-IMRT for spinal metastases has not been defined. Patients and Methods We evaluated 62 consecutive patients undergoing single fraction IG-IMRT at 71 sites for solid organ metastases. A neuroradiologist and three spine surgeons evaluated prospectively obtained magnetic resonance/computed tomography (CT) imaging studies for post-treatment fracture development and tumor recurrence. Results Fracture progression was noted in 27 vertebrae (39%). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that CT appearance, lesion location, and percent vertebral body involvement independently predicted fracture progression. Lesions located between T10 and the sacrum were 4.6 times more likely to fracture than were lesions above T10 (95% CI, 1.1 to 19.7). Lytic lesions were 6.8 times more likely to fracture than were sclerotic and mixed lesions (95% CI, 1.4 to 33.3). As percent vertebral body involvement increased, odds of fracture also increased. Patients with fracture progression had significantly higher narcotic use, change in Karnofsky performance score, and a strong trend toward higher pain scores. Local tumor progression occurred in seven patients and contributed to one fracture. Obesity, posterior element involvement, bisphosphonate use, and local kyphosis did not confer increased risk. Conclusion Vertebral fracture is common after single fraction IG-IMRT for metastatic spine lesions. Lytic disease involving more than 40% of the vertebral body and location at or below T10 confer a high risk of fracture, the presence of which yields significantly poorer clinical outcomes. These results may help clinicians identify high-risk patients who would benefit from prophylactic vertebro- or kyphoplasty. PMID:19738130

  11. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: where to after FAME 2?

    PubMed

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated clinical coronary physiological parameter derived from the measurement of coronary pressures and has drastically changed revascularization decision-making in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that FFR is a coronary pressure-derived estimate of coronary blood flow impairment. It is thereby not the same as direct measures of coronary flow impairment that determine the occurrence of signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia. This consideration is important, since the FAME 2 study documented a limited discriminatory power of FFR to identify stenoses that require revascularization to prevent adverse events. The physiological difference between FFR and direct measures of coronary flow impairment may well explain the findings in FAME 2. This review aims to address the physiological background of FFR, its ambiguities, and its consequences for the application of FFR in clinical practice, as well as to reinterpret the diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of FFR in the light of the recent FAME 2 trial outcomes. PMID:26673639

  12. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity.

  13. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity. PMID:24521209

  14. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract.

  15. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract. PMID:25133268

  16. Determination of antioxidant activity of bioactive peptide fractions obtained from yogurt.

    PubMed

    Aloğlu, H Sanlıdere; Oner, Z

    2011-11-01

    In this study, physicochemical and microbiological properties of traditional and commercial yogurt samples were determined during 4 wk of storage. Proteolytic activity, which occurs during the storage period of yogurt samples, was also determined. Peptide fractions obtained from yogurts were investigated and the effect of proteolysis on peptide release during storage was determined. The antioxidant activities of peptides released from yogurt water-soluble extracts (WSE) and from HPLC fractions were determined by 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) methods. The antioxidant activity of WSE from traditional yogurt was greater than that of WSE from commercial yogurts. In analysis by the ABTS method, mean values increased from 7.697 to 8.739 mM Trolox/g in commercial yogurts, and from 10.115 to 13.182 mM Trolox/g in traditional yogurts during storage. Antioxidant activities of peptides released from HPLC fractions of selected yogurt samples increased 10 to 200 times. In all yogurt samples, the greatest antioxidant activity was shown in the F2 fraction. After further fractionation of yogurt samples, the fractions coded as F2.2, F2.3, F4.3, and F4.4 had the highest antioxidant activity values. Total antioxidant activity of yogurts was low but after purification of peptides by fractionation in HPLC, peptide fractions with high antioxidant activity were obtained.

  17. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties. PMID:25054490

  18. Antibacterial activity of Brazilian propolis and fractions against oral anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Santos, F A; Bastos, E M A; Uzeda, M; Carvalho, M A R; Farias, L M; Moreira, E S A; Braga, F C

    2002-04-01

    Propolis collected from a cerrado area in Minas Gerais State, Brazil, was subjected to chromatography on silica gel column and to partition between immiscible solvents. Propolis aqueous-ethanolic extract and fractions obtained were tested for inhibitory activity against periodontitis-causing bacteria. All of the assayed bacterium species were susceptible to propolis extract. The two fractionation methodologies yielded fractions which were active against bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 64 to 1024 microg/ml. TLC and HPLC analyses of the extract and of active fractions showed the presence of phenolic compounds of varied polarity. None of the assayed fractions was more active than the extract, suggesting that the antibacterial activity is probably due to the synergistic effect of several compounds.

  19. Lipase inhibitory activity of chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii.

    PubMed

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Three compounds (chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol) were isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii extract. The three compounds had two- to fourfold lower lipase inhibitory activity than that of the CHCl3:MeOH (C:M) (100:1) fraction (fraction I, 83.78% at 1 mg/mL). These results suggested that the high lipase inhibitory activity of fraction I was attributable to the actions of the three compounds. Therefore, S. thunbergii has potential for application as an anti-obesity agent.

  20. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  1. In vitro anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Zhen; Xie, Hao-Gui; Yang, La-Wei; Liao, Zao-Hui; Yu, Jie

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, in vitro anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis were investigated. Cytotoxicities and antiviral activities of Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharides (PGL), Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-1 (GL-1), Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-2 (GL-2) and Gracilaria lemaneiformis polysaccharide fraction-3 (GL-3) were studied by the Methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) method, and the inhibitory effect against Human influenza virus H1-364 induced cytopathic effect (CPE) on MDCK cells were observed by the CPE method. In addition, the antiviral mechanism of PGL was explored by Plaque forming unit (PFU), MTT and CPE methods. The results showed: i) Cytotoxicities were not significantly revealed, and H1-364 induced CPE was also reduced treated with sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis; ii) Antiviral activities were associated with the mass percentage content of sulfate groups in polysaccharide fractions, which was about 13%, in polysaccharides (PGL and GL-2) both of which exhibited higher antiviral activity; iii) A potential antiviral mechanism to explain these observations is that viral adsorption and replication on host cells were inhibited by sulfated polysaccharides from Gracilaria lemaneiformis. In conclusion, Anti-influenza virus activities of sulfated polysaccharide fractions from Gracilaria lemaneiformis were revealed, and the antiviral activities were associated with content of sulfate groups in polysaccharide fractions.

  2. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  3. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27156453

  4. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Compounds from Datura stramonium with TRAIL-Resistance Overcoming Activity.

      PubMed

      Karmakar, Utpal K; Toume, Kazufumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

      2016-02-01

      TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most cancer cells, but not in normal cells, and therefore has deserved intense interest as a promising agent for cancer therapy. In the search for bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Datura stramonium leaves led to the isolation of three alkaloids--scopolamine (1), trigonelline (2), and tyramine (3). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 50, 150, and 100 µM, respectively in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. PMID:27032197

    • Understanding Math - Teachers Guide.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Wyks, Hollis W.; Austin, Robert J.

      The teacher's guide for the remedial text-workbook "Understanding Math" discusses instruction of the deaf student. An answer key for workbooks 1 and 2, a section with masters for transparencies to be used for games and activities and for teaching fractions, and two patterns for making geometric solids are included in the guide. For workbooks 1 and…

    • Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

      PubMed

      Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

      2014-01-01

      In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products.

    • Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

      1992-01-01

      This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

    • Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber

      PubMed Central

      Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

      2016-01-01

      Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

    • Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber.

      PubMed

      Aslam, Muhammad Shahzad; Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

      2016-01-01

      Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

    • Antithrombotic activity of fractions and components obtained from raspberry leaves (Rubus chingii).

      PubMed

      Han, Na; Gu, Yuhong; Ye, Chun; Cao, Yan; Liu, Zhihui; Yin, Jun

      2012-05-01

      The 70% ethanol fraction from an aqueous extract of raspberry leaves was shown to be the most antithrombotic fraction in in vitro and in vivo tests. The total flavonoids and phenolics in this fraction were 0.286g/g and 0.518g/g by colorimetry. Six compounds, including salicylic acid, kaempferol, quercetin, tiliroside, quercetin 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside and kaempferol 3-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, were isolated from the active fraction. Among them, kaempferol, quercetin and tiliroside obviously delayed plasma recalcification time (PRT) in blood.

    • Antioxidant activity of commercial wild rice and identification of flavonoid compounds in active fractions.

      PubMed

      Qiu, Yang; Liu, Qin; Beta, Trust

      2009-08-26

      The health benefits of whole grain consumption have been attributed to their content of complex carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and other phytochemical constituents. Wild rice is a whole grain finding applications in gourmet foods due to its nutritional value and unique taste. However, little is known about its antioxidant properties and phytochemical components. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the antioxidant properties of wild rice. Eleven commercial wild rice samples (raw, mixed, and processed) were extracted with acetone and fractionated using a Sephadex LH-20 column. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH(*)) scavenging activity, oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), and total phenolic content were evaluated to determine the antioxidant properties of wild rice. The antioxidant activity of wild rice was found to be 30 times greater than that of the control white rice. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in antioxidant activities were found among raw, mixed, and processed samples. For raw samples, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities and ORAC values ranged from 611 to 917 micromol of Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 g and from 4069 to 6064 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. For mixed and processed wild rice, DPPH(*) radical scavenging activities were 373 and 441 micromol of TE/100 g, respectively. The corresponding ORAC values were 2284 and 2557 micromol of TE/100 g. Total phenolic content (TPC) of raw wild rice varied from 2472 to 4072 mg of ferulic acid equivalent (FAE)/kg, higher than that of the mixed sample (1460 mg of FAE/kg) and processed sample (2076 mg of FAE/kg). TPC was highly correlated with total antioxidant activity of wild rice (r = 0.92). Tandem mass spectrometric techniques revealed the antioxidants identified in wild rice to be flavonoid glycosides (diglucosyl apigenin, glucosyl-arabinosyl apigenin, and diarabinosyl apigenin) in factions 2 and 3 and flavan-3-ols (catechin, epicatechin, and oligomeric procyanidin) in

    • Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

      PubMed

      Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

      2012-01-01

      The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

    • Insights on the Phytochemical Profile (Cyclopeptides) and Biological Activities of Calotropis procera Latex Organic Fractions

      PubMed Central

      Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina de Oliveira

      2013-01-01

      Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9 μg/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7 μg/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

    • Insights on the phytochemical profile (cyclopeptides) and biological activities of Calotropis procera latex organic fractions.

      PubMed

      Jucá, Thiago Lustosa; Ramos, Márcio Viana; Moreno, Frederico Bruno Mendes Batista; Viana de Matos, Mayara Patrícia; Marinho-Filho, José Delano Barreto; Moreira, Renato Azevedo; de Oliveira Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina

      2013-01-01

      Calotropis procera is a medicinal plant whose pharmacological properties are associated with its latex. Here, the Calotropis procera latex fractions were investigated in an attempt to trace its phytochemical profile and measure its anti-inflammatory and toxicity activity. The crude latex was partitioned, yielding five fractions (49.4% hexane, 5.2% dichloromethane, 2.0% ethyl acetate, 2.1% n-butanol, and 41.1% aqueous). Phytochemical screening and spectroscopy analysis revealed that dichloromethane is the most chemically diverse fraction. Triterpenes were detected in both the hexane and dichloromethane fractions, while flavonoids were detected in the dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. These fractions were cytotoxic to cancer cell lines (LD50 0.05 to 3.9  μ g/mL) and lethal to brine shrimp (LD50 10.9 to 65.7  μ g/mL). Reduced neutrophil migration in rats was observed in carrageenan-induced peritonitis for the dichloromethane (67%), ethyl acetate (56%), and aqueous (72%) fractions. A positive reaction with tolidine and ninhydrin suggested that cyclopeptides are in the ethyl acetate fraction. It is therefore concluded that Calotropis procera latex dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions exhibit both in vitro and in vivo activities as well as anti-inflammatory properties. Cyclopeptide detection is especially interesting because previous attempts to investigate these low-molecular cyclic amino acid sequences in C. procera have failed. PMID:24348174

    • Being Active at Child Care. Facilitator's Guide [and Videotape]. Active Me, Healthy Me.

      ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

      Levenhagen, Kathryn A.

      Noting that childhood obesity is a growing concern for parents, educators, and health care providers, this guide and videotape, "Being Active at Child Care," is from a three-part series, "Active Me, Healthy Me," exploring ways to keep children active while in child care settings. The 13-minute videotape demonstrates in both a child care center and…

    • Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

      PubMed

      Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

      2010-04-29

      The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state.

    • Antimalarial activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

      PubMed Central

      Alli, Lukman Adewale; Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Adeola Oluwakanyinsola

      2016-01-01

      Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. PMID:27104040

    • Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

      PubMed

      Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

      2015-11-01

      Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

    • A novel, variable angle guide grid for neuronal activity studies

      PubMed Central

      Talbot, Thomas; Ide, David; Liu, Ning; Turchi, Janita

      2011-01-01

      Introduction: Surgically implanted chambers with removable grids are routinely used for studying patterns of neuronal activity in primate brains; however, accessing target tissues is significantly constrained by standard grid designs. Typically, grids are configured with a series of guide holes drilled vertically, parallel to the walls of the chamber, thus targeted sites are limited to those in line vertically with one of the guide holes. Methods: By using the three-dimensional modeling software, a novel grid was designed to reach the targeted sites far beyond the standard reach of the chamber. The grid was fabricated using conventional machining techniques and three-dimensional printing. Results: A pilot study involving microinjection of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadolinium into the discrete regions of interest (ROIs) in the temporal cortex of an awake, behaving monkey demonstrated the effectiveness of this new design of the guide grid. Using multiple different angles of approach, we were readily able to access 10 injection sites, which were up to 5 mm outside the traditional, orthogonal reach of the chamber. PMID:22319479

  1. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (-4.3 to -16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from -27.5 to -25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic carbonate

  2. C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

    2016-04-01

    Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (‑4.3 to ‑16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from ‑27.5 to ‑25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic

  3. Comparison of hemolytic activities of coal fly ash and its soluble and insoluble fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.K.; Wong, M.H.; Tam, N.F.Y.

    1986-08-01

    Coal fly ash of a particle diameter smaller than 10 ..mu..m was collected from the precipitator of a power plant in Hong Kong. Comparison of hemolytic activities between fly ash and free silica showed that fly ash had a lower biological effect than free silica. The hemolytic activities of the soluble and insoluble fractions of fly ash were further compared by two methods: total hemoglobin method and cyanmethemoglobin method. An analysis of results showed significant differences for fly ash and its soluble fraction between methods. Fly ash, which contained a silicate level similar to its insoluble fraction, had a hemolytic activity higher than the summation of both its soluble and insoluble fractions. This indicates that the hemolytic activity was independent of the silicate content in the fly ash samples.

  4. Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

    PubMed

    Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  5. Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical. Methods Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively. Results The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was

  6. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (%) ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 (IC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 (IC50 = 4.78 μg/mL) from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  7. Effect of aqueous extract and fractions of Fagonia arabica on in vitro anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Sweta R; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2014-11-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) is a deobstruent and blood purifier, which possesses thrombolytic and antioxidant activities. In this study, the anticoagulant effects of FA and its derived fractions were evaluated. Plasma recalcification was performed with multisolvent extracts of FA and then with extracts prepared successively with increasing polarity of the solvents. Aqueous extract was the most potent anticoagulant extract, which was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Five fractions collected were checked for their anticoagulation effect. The most potent fraction was screened for phytoconstituents. Aqueous extract of FA is the most active anticoagulant (31 minutes). Results were statistically significant when compared to heparin (38 minutes) and saline (4.04 minutes; P > .001). The Fifth fraction (FA5), the most potent fraction (27 minutes), was found positive for flavonoids, saponin, tannin, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, and monosaccharides. Aqueous FA and fraction FA5 were most active in in vitro anticoagulation, and any of the phytochemicals identified could be considered the active component. PMID:23814169

  8. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Li, Gao-Feng; Hou, Xiu-Yu; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer, which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction. IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field, step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n = 12) or VMAT (n = 12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015. Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator. Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study. Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner. Results: Compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT, VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs. 7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy, P < 0.001). VMAT reduced the rectal D25 (P < 0.001), D35 (P < 0.001), and D50 (P < 0.001), bladder V50 (P < 0.001), D25 (P = 0.002), D35 (P = 0.028), and D50 (P = 0.029). However, VMAT did not statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50, compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs. 27.43 ± 8.79%, P = 0.087). Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation

  9. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This educator's guide features activities for science, mathematics, and technology education. The activities in this curriculum guide were developed based on the hands-on approach. The guide starts with introductory information and is followed by five units: (1) "The Atmospheric Filter"; (2) "The Electromagnetic Spectrum"; (3) "Collecting…

  10. Microvascular protective activity of flavonoid glucuronides fraction from Tulipa gesneriana.

    PubMed

    Budzianowski, J; Korzeniowska, K; Chmara, E; Mrozikiewicz, A

    1999-03-01

    A mixture of flavonoid glucuronides, consisting of 7-O-glucuronides of kaempferol and quercetin 3-O-rutinosides, 3-O-gentiobiosides and 3-O-glucosides, was isolated from the perianths of Tulipa gesneriana L. var. 'Paradae'. It showed protective activity against the increased (both chloroform and histamine) skin vascular permeability in rabbits. The protective effect, measured as the reduction in leakage of Evans blue, was 59.8% after peritoneal treatment at a dose of 25 mg/kg, while that of troxerutin was 45.5%.

  11. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation.

  12. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation. PMID:27656145

  13. Protective Effect of Bioactivity Guided Fractions of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. Root Bark against Hepatic Injury and Chronic Inflammation via Inhibiting Inflammatory Markers and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kalita, Bhupalee; Devi, Rajlakshmi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    The tribal communities of North Eastern India rely on herbal medicine to cure various disease conditions. Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae) is one of such medicinal plants used for curing liver ailments, insomnia, anemia, diarrhea, diabetic complications, cancer, and loss of appetite. The present study was aimed to describe the protective ability of Z. jujuba root bark (ZJRB) against hepatic injury and chronic inflammation. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Z. jujuba methanol extract (ZJME) was performed using different solvents of increasing polarity viz. hexane (ZJHF), chloroform (ZJCF), ethyl acetate (ZJEAF), water (ZJWF), and residue (ZJMR). In vitro antioxidant results revealed that both ZJME and ZJWF possess strong antioxidant activity among all the fractions and mother extract tested. Further, ZJME and ZJWF showed significant protection against CCl4 intoxicated HepG2 cell lines by means of increased cell viability and decreased LDH levels compared to control group. ZJME at 200, 400 mg/kg and ZJWF at 50, 100 mg/kg inhibited the lipid peroxidation and significantly restored the liver function markers (AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, SOD, and CAT) and cytokine levels (TNF-α, Il-1β, and Il-10) in CCl4 induced acute liver damage in rats. All the results were comparable with standard drug silymarin which was further confirmed by histopathology analysis of liver. Similarly, inflammation and increase inflammatory cytokines levels of carrageenan induced paw edema in rats have been refurbished to normal levels on par with the standard drug indomethacin. ZJWF demonstrated potent response than ZJME in all the biological tests conducted. The results of the study signify the ability of ZJRB as good therapeutic agent for liver toxicity and chronic inflammation. PMID:27656145

  14. Bioactive fraction of Saraca indica prevents diabetes induced cataractogenesis: An aldose reductase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Gauresh; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Saraca indica (SI) flowers extract and different bioactive fraction on in vitro aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity, high glucose-induced cataract in goat lens and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg, i.p) induced cataract in rats. Methods: Extract of flowers of SI tested for inhibition against rat lens AR. Furthermore, bioactive fraction was investigated against high glucose-induced opacification of the lens in vitro lens culture and STZ induced diabetic cataract in rats. Identification of the bioactive component was attempted through high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica (EASI) produced maximum inhibition that may be due to high phenolic content. Goat lenses in media containing glucose developed a distinctly opaque ring in 72 h and treatment with EASI fraction lowered lens opacity in 72 h. Prolonged treatment with EASI to STZ-induced diabetic rats inhibited the AR activity and delayed cataract progression in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica fraction has potential to inhibit rat lens AR enzyme and prevent cataractogenesis not only in goat lens model (in vitro), but also in STZ induced diabetic rats (in vivo). This study is suggestive of the anticataract activity of EASI fraction that could be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in the same. PMID:25709218

  15. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different fractions of Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots extract

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219

  16. Active optics, adaptive optics, and laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Hubin, N; Noethe, L

    1993-11-26

    Optical astronomy is crucial to our understanding of the universe, but the capabilities of ground-based telescopes are severely limited by the effects of telescope errors and of the atmosphere on the passage of light. Recently, it has become possible to construct inbuilt corrective devices that can compensate for both types of degradations as observations are conducted. For full use of the newly emerged class of 8-meter telescopes, such active corrective capabilities, known as active and adaptive optics, are essential. Some physical limitations in the adaptive optics field can be overcome by artificially created reference stars, called laser guide stars. These new technologies have lately been applied with success to some medium and very large telescopes. PMID:17736819

  17. Active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yen, P-L; Davies, B L

    2010-01-01

    The concept of active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery is introduced, together with its benefits and a short outline of its history. The clinical use of active constraint control in orthopaedic surgery is discussed, together with the outcomes of a clinical trial for unicondylar knee replacement surgery. The evolution of the robotic design from large costly structures towards simpler, more cost-effective systems is also presented, leading to the design of the Acrobot 'Sculptor' system. A new approach to the achievement of robotic total knee replacement is also presented, in which a high-speed rotary cutter is used to slice through the bone to achieve a speedy resection. The control concept is presented, together with the results of trials on animal bones and a cadaver, showing that it is possible to remove large quantities of bone both quickly and accurately.

  18. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  19. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity.

  20. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24629960

  1. [Interaction of surface-active base with fraction of membrane-bound Williams's protons].

    PubMed

    Iaguzhinskiĭ, L S; Motovilov, K A; Volkov, E M; Eremeev, S A

    2013-01-01

    In the process of mitochondrial respiratory H(+)-pumps functioning, the fraction membrane-bound protons (R-protons), which have an excess of free energy is formed. According to R.J. Williams this fraction is included as energy source in the reaction of ATP synthesis. Previously, in our laboratory was found the formation of this fraction was found in the mitochondria and on the outer surface of mitoplast. On the mitoslast model we strictly shown that non-equilibrium R-proton fraction is localized on the surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. In this paper a surface-active compound--anion of 2,4,6-trichloro-3-pentadecylphenol (TCP-C15) is described, which selectively interacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria. A detailed description of the specific interaction of the TCP-C15 with R-protons fraction in mitochondria is presented. Moreover, in this work it was found that phosphate transport system reacts with the R-protons fraction in mitochondria and plays the role of the endogenous volume regulation system of this fraction. The results of experiments are discussed in the terms of a local coupling model of the phosphorylation mechanism.

  2. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis supports Dehalococcoides mccartyi reductive dechlorination activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Im, Jeongdae; Yang, Yi; Löffler, Frank E.

    2013-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are corrinoid-auxotrophic Bacteria and axenic cultures that require vitamin B12 (CN-Cbl) to conserve energy via organohalide respiration. Cultures of D. mccartyi strains BAV1, GT and FL2 grown with limiting amounts of 1 µg l−1 CN-Cbl quickly depleted CN-Cbl, and reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes was incomplete leading to vinyl chloride (VC) accumulation. In contrast, the same cultures amended with 25 µg l−1 CN-Cbl exhibited up to 2.3-fold higher dechlorination rates, 2.8–9.1-fold increased growth yields, and completely consumed growth-supporting chlorinated ethenes. To explore whether known cobamide-producing microbes supply Dehalococcoides with the required corrinoid cofactor, co-culture experiments were performed with the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro and two acetogens, Sporomusa ovata and Sporomusa sp. strain KB-1, as Dehalococcoides partner populations. During growth with H2/CO2, M. barkeri axenic cultures produced 4.2 ± 0.1 µg l−1 extracellular cobamide (factor III), whereas the Sporomusa cultures produced phenolyl- and p-cresolyl-cobamides. Neither factor III nor the phenolic cobamides supported Dehalococcoides reductive dechlorination activity suggesting that M. barkeri and the Sporomusa sp. cannot fulfil Dehalococcoides' nutritional requirements. Dehalococcoides dechlorination activity and growth occurred in M. barkeri and Sporomusa sp. co-cultures amended with 10 µM 5′,6′-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), indicating that a cobalamin is a preferred corrinoid cofactor of strains BAV1, GT and FL2 when grown with chlorinated ethenes as electron acceptors. Even though the methanogen and acetogen populations tested did not produce cobalamin, the addition of DMB enabled guided biosynthesis and generated a cobalamin that supported Dehalococcoides' activity and growth. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis may offer opportunities to sustain and enhance Dehalococcoides activity in contaminated

  3. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations. PMID:24250446

  4. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  5. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, antioxidant and hemagglutination activities of organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum.

    PubMed

    Azam, Sadiq; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Zar, Faisal; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Ibrar; Zeb, Zermina; Khan, Imran

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the antimicrobial, phytotoxic, haemagglutination and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract (Crd. MeOH Ext.) and four organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum was investigated. All fractions have been screened for antimicrobial properties against eight bacterial pathogens and six fungal pathogens using agar well diffusion and tube dilution method, respectively. Furthermore, the organic fractions were also screened for its phytotoxicity against Lemna minor. Haemagglutination was performed against all human blood groups while free radical scavenging activity was performed to investigate the antioxidant potential of A. tortuosum. Results obtained for antibacterial activity exhibited various degree of zone of inhibition and significant activity was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.16±0.60) followed by Bacillus cereus (18.55±0.69) for Crd. MeOH Ext. and chloroform (CHCl3) fraction, respectively while some strains showed resistant at same concentration. Similarly, non-significant antifungal activity was observed for the plant extracts. However, the highest activity among the strains was observed for Alternaria alternata (22±1.24%) and Aspergillus niger (20±1.00%) for ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction and Crd. MeOH Ext., respectively. The plant extracts showed good phytotoxic activity with 77.06% inhibition for n-hexane fraction at 1000µg/mL. The result of Nitric Oxide (NO) reducing assay revealed that the plant has less antioxidant activity with 46.06% inhibition for CHCl(3) fraction at 900μg/mL. For haemagglutination assay, the result displayed no agglutination in all the testing concentration. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that A. tortuosum has significant antimicrobial and moderate phytotoxic potential and therefore can leads to antibiotics and herbicide production. PMID:27166544

  6. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Polygonum minus were fractionated using an eluting solvent to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcerogenic activity of P. minus. Different P. minus fractions were obtained and evaluated for their ulcer preventing capabilities using the ethanol induction method. In this study, Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were used. Different parameters were estimated to identify the active fraction underlying the mechanism of the gastroprotective action of P. minus: the gastric mucus barrier, as well as superoxide dismutase, total hexosamine, and prostaglandin synthesis. Amongst the five fractions from the ethanolic extract of P. minus, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction (F2) significantly (p < 0.005) exhibited better inhibition of ulcer lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rats pre-treated with F2 showed a significant elevation in superoxide dismutase (SOD), hexosamine and PGE2 levels in the stomach wall mucosa in a dose-dependent matter. Based on these results, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction was considered to be the best fraction for mucous protection in the ethanol induction model. The mechanisms underlying this protection were attributed to the synthesis of antioxidants and PGE2. PMID:22408403

  7. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. PMID:26836619

  8. Inhibition of lactogenic activities of bovine mammary gland explants by the whey fraction of bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Shamay, A; Shinder, D A; Bruckental, I; Silanikove, N

    1997-09-01

    The regulation of milk constituents, synthesis and secretion in tissue cultures of the bovine mammary gland was altered by a whey fraction of bovine milk. alpha-Casein gene expression, casein secretion and fatty acid synthesis were inhibited by the whey fraction in a dose-dependent manner. The whey fraction inhibited the enhancement activity of prolactin on alpha-casein gene expression and fatty acid synthesis, and also inhibited casein secretion to the medium, in explants cultured in a medium with or without prolactin. No effect on the expression of the beta-lactoglobulin gene was found. PMID:9570895

  9. Studies on the immunomodulatory activity of flavonoidal fraction of Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Damre, A S; Gokhale, A B; Phadke, A S; Kulkarni, K R; Saraf, M N

    2003-04-01

    The flavonoid fraction of Tephrosia purpurea (FFTP) was studied for its effect on cellular and humoral functions and on macrophage phagocytosis in mice. Oral administration of FFTP (10-40 mg/kg) significantly inhibited sheep red blood cells (SRBC)-induced delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. It also produced a significant, dose-related decrease in sheep erythrocyte-specific haemagglutination antibody titre. However, the fraction failed to show a significant change in the macrophage phagocytic activity. The results obtained indicate the ability of the flavonoidal fraction of T. purpurea to modulate both the cell-mediated and the humoral components of the immune system.

  10. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  11. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment. PMID:26754253

  12. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment.

  13. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Geert J M; Denissen, Ad J M; Jäger, Mark; Vernon, David; Dekker, Marian K J; Mihajlović, Vojkan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-03-01

    Fifty healthy participants took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which they were either given auditory alpha activity (8-12Hz) training (N=18), random beta training (N=12), or no training at all (N=20). A novel wireless electrode system was used for training without instructions, involving water-based electrodes mounted in an audio headset. Training was applied approximately at central electrodes. Post-training measurement using a conventional full-cap EEG system revealed a 10% increase in alpha activity at posterior sites compared to pre-training levels, when using the conventional index of alpha activity and a non-linear regression fit intended to model individual alpha frequency. This statistically significant increase was present only in the group that received the alpha training, and remained evident at a 3 month follow-up session, especially under eyes open conditions where an additional 10% increase was found. In an exit interview, approximately twice as many participants in the alpha training group (53%) mentioned that the training was relaxing, compared to those in either the beta (20%) or no training (21%) control groups. Behavioural measures of stress and relaxation were indicative of effects of alpha activity training but failed to reach statistical significance. These results are discussed in terms of a lack of statistical power. Overall, results suggest that self-guided alpha activity training using this novel system is feasible and represents a step forward in the ease of instrumental conditioning of brain rhythms.

  14. Antispasmodic activity of fractions and cynaropicrin from Cynara scolymus on guinea-pig ileum.

    PubMed

    Emendörfer, Fernanda; Emendörfer, Fabiane; Bellato, Fernanda; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Cechinel-Filho, Valdir; Yunes, Rosendo Augusto; Delle Monache, Franco; Cardozo, Alcíbia Maia

    2005-05-01

    This study describes the antispasmodic activity of some fractions and cynaropicrin, a sesquiterpene lactone from Cynara scolymus, cultivated in Brazil, against guinea-pig ileum contracted by acetylcholine. The dichloromethane fraction showed the most promising biological effects, with an IC(50) of 0.93 (0.49-1.77) mg/ml. Its main active component, the sesquiterpene lactone cynaropicrin, exhibited potent activity, with IC(50) of 0.065 (0.049-0.086) mg/ml, being about 14-fold more active than dichloromethane fraction and having similar potency to that of papaverine, a well-known antispasmodic agent. The results confirm the popular use of artichoke for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances, and encourage new studies on this compound, in order to obtain new antispasmodic agents.

  15. Fractionation of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract and in vitro antioxidative activity testing.

    PubMed

    Juadjur, A; Mohn, C; Schantz, M; Baum, M; Winterhalter, P; Richling, E

    2015-01-15

    The incidence of chronic diseases increases with advancing age of the population. A commonly discussed cause of chronic diseases is oxidative stress, which occurs in the body when there is an imbalance between the formation and inactivation of so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Epidemiological data suggest that a 'healthy diet', with a high content of flavonoids indicates preventive properties and correlates with an inverse effect with respect to the risk of chronic diseases. Berries (especially bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are an important source of these flavonoids. In this study, we investigated, in vitro, the antioxidative properties of fractions obtained from a commercially available anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (BE). As markers for antioxidative activity, the intracellularly generated ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and total glutathione (tGSH) levels were determined in the human colon cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29. In Caco-2 cells, the ROS levels and, in both cell lines, the oxidative DNA damage, were significantly reduced in the presence of the original BE and phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction. Total GSH levels were slightly increased after pretreatment with BE, phenolcarbonic acid and the polymeric fractions, but not with the anthocyanin fraction. In summary, the BE and the therefrom-isolated phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent antioxidative activity whereas the polymeric and anthocyanin-rich fraction, in total, were less active.

  16. Math Skills for Business. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with math skills for business. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives,…

  17. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  18. SU-E-J-258: Inter- and Intra-Fraction Setup Stability and Couch Change Tolerance for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Teboh, Forbang R; Agee, M; Rowe, L; Creasy, T; Schultz, J; Bell, R; Wong, J; Armour, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Immobilization devices combine rigid patient fixation as well as comfort and play a key role providing the stability required for accurate radiation delivery. In the setup step, couch re-positioning needed to align the patient is derived via registration of acquired versus reference image. For subsequent fractions, replicating the initial setup should yield identical alignment errors when compared to the reference. This is not always the case and further couch re-positioning can be needed. An important quality assurance measure is to set couch tolerances beyond which additional investigations are needed. The purpose of this work was to study the inter-fraction couch changes needed to re-align the patient and the intra-fraction stability of the alignment as a guide to establish the couch tolerances. Methods: Data from twelve patients treated on the Accuray CyberKnife (CK) system for fractionated intracranial radiotherapy and immobilized with Aquaplast RT, U-frame, F-Head-Support (Qfix, PA, USA) was used. Each fraction involved image acquisitions and registration with the reference to re-align the patient. The absolute couch position corresponding to the approved setup alignment was recorded per fraction. Intra-fraction set-up corrections were recorded throughout the treatment. Results: The average approved setup alignment was 0.03±0.28mm, 0.15±0.22mm, 0.06±0.31mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.00±0.35degrees, 0.03±0.32degrees, 0.08±0.45degrees for roll, pitch and yaw respectively. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the couch position was 6.65mm, 10.55mm, and 4.77mm in the L/R, A/P and S/I directions respectively and 0.82degrees, 0.71degrees for roll and pitch respectively. Intra-fraction monitoring showed small average errors of 0.21±0.21mm, 0.00±0.08mm, 0.23±0.22mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.03±0.12degrees, 0.04±0.25degrees, and 0.13±0.15degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw respectively. Conclusion

  19. Active Laser Guide Star refocusing system for EAGLE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Chardin, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Gimenez, Jean Luc; Mazzanti, Silvio; Vola, Pascal; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    We detail the study of a laser guide star (LGS) refocusing system based on an variable curvature mirror (VCM) of high dynamic, in the frame of the EAGLE instrument for the E-ELT. From the top level requirements, an on axis optical design based on an active component is optimised to ensure maximal performance in terms of encircled energy. The refocusing is operated by the VCM, which shape varies with the distance of the sodium layer to the telescope. The VCM system concept is based on an embedded metrology. We detail the finite element analysis (FEA) of the VCM, allowing an optimization of the thickness profile to get an optical quality better than λ/5 RMS at each curvature. Mechanical design and manufacturing of prototypes are also presented.

  20. Biological activity of barbados cherry (acerola fruits, fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC) extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Motohashi, Noboru; Wakabayashi, Hidetsugu; Kurihara, Teruo; Fukushima, Hidetaka; Yamada, Tomoko; Kawase, Masami; Sohara, Yoshitaka; Tani, Satoru; Shirataki, Yoshiaki; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Satoh, Kazue; Nakashima, Hideki; Molnár, Annamária; Spengler, Gabriella; Gyémánt, Nóra; Ugocsai, Katalin; Molnár, Joseph

    2004-03-01

    Fractionation of barbados cherry (acerola fruit, a fruit of Malpighia emarginata DC.) extracts were performed by organic solvent extractions and column chromatographies, using two extraction methods. Higher cytotoxic activity was concentrated in fractions A4 and A6 (acetone extract), and H3 and HE3 (hexane extract). These four fractions showed higher cytotoxic activity against tumor cell lines such as human oral squamous cell carcinoma (HSC-2) and human submandibular gland carcinoma (HSG), when compared with that against normal cells such as human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF). HE2 (hexane extract), AE2 (ethyl acetate extract), AE3, AE4, AE5, A8, A9 and A10 showed some relatively higher anti-bacterial activity on the Gram-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228 but were ineffective on the representative Gram-negative species E. coli and Ps. aeruginosa. The fractions were inactive against Helicobacter pylori, two representative Candida species, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). H3, H4 and HE3, which displayed higher tumor-specific cytotoxicity also showed higher multidrug resistance (MDR) reversal activity, than (+/-)-verapamil as positive control. ESR spectroscopy shows that the radical-mediated oxidation is not involved in the induction of tumor-specific cytotoxic activity. The tumor specific cytotoxic activity and MDR reversal activity of barbados cherry may suggest its possible application for cancer therapy.

  1. [Enzyme activity in the subcellular fractions of the liver of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Vetrova, E G; Abraham, S; Lin, C; Klein, H

    1983-01-01

    The activities of malate, isocitrate, and lactate dehydrogenases were measured in the liver mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic fractions of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. The activities of the oxidative enzymes, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial fraction and those of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in the cytoplasmatic fraction were found to decrease.

  2. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results: The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (P<0.01) in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion: Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain. PMID:22144770

  3. Arsenic fractions and enzyme activities in arsenic-contaminated soils by groundwater irrigation in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Pradip; Tripathy, Subhasish; Kim, Kangjoo; Kim, Seok-Hwi

    2008-09-01

    A study for the effect of arsenic (As) contamination on beta-glucosidase, urease, acid-/alkaline-phosphatase, and arylsulphatase activities was conducted in As contaminated soils of West Bengal, India. The studied soils show low total As contents relative to those in other As-contaminated sites. A sequential extraction technique was used to quantify water soluble, exchangeable, carbonate bound, Fe/Mn oxide bound, organic bound, and residual As fractions. Arsenic concentrations in the two most labile fractions (i.e., water soluble and exchangeable fractions) were generally low. The studied enzymes were significantly and negatively correlated with water soluble and exchangeable As forms but did not show any significant correlations with other forms, indicating that water soluble and exchangeable forms exert a strong inhibitory effect on the soil enzyme activities. It is thus suggested that the enzyme activity can be helpful in assessing the effects of As on biochemical quality of soils.

  4. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release.

  5. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  6. Bacterivory Rate Estimates and Fraction of Active Bacterivores in Natural Protist Assemblages from Aquatic Systems†

    PubMed Central

    González, Juan M.

    1999-01-01

    Unlike the fraction of active bacterioplankton, the fraction of active bacterivores (i.e., those involved in grazing) during a specified time period has not been studied yet. Fractions of protists actively involved in bacterivory were estimated assuming that the distributions of bacteria and fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) ingested by protists follow Poisson distributions. Estimates were compared with experimental data obtained from FLB uptake experiments. The percentages of protists with ingested FLB (experimental) and the estimates obtained from Poisson distributions were similar for both flagellates and ciliates. Thus, the fraction of protists actively grazing on natural bacteria during a given time period could be estimated. The fraction of protists with ingested bacteria depends on the incubation time and reaches a saturating value. Aquatic systems with very different characteristics were analyzed; estimates of the fraction of protists actively grazing on bacteria ranged from 7 to 100% in the studied samples. Some nanoflagellates appeared to be grazing on specific bacterial sizes. Evidence indicated that there was no discrimination for or against bacterial surrogates (i.e., FLB); also, bacteria were randomly encountered by bacterivorous protists during these short-term uptake experiments. These analyses made it possible to estimate the ingestion rates from FLB uptake experiments by counting the number of flagellates containing ingested FLB. These results represent the first reported estimates of active bacterivores in natural aquatic systems; also, a proposed protocol for estimating in situ ingestion rates by protists represents a significant improvement and simplification to the current protocol and avoids the tedious work of counting the number of ingested FLB per protist. PMID:10103238

  7. Bacterivory rate estimates and fraction of active bacterivores in natural protist assemblages from aquatic systems

    PubMed

    Gonzalez

    1999-04-01

    Unlike the fraction of active bacterioplankton, the fraction of active bacterivores (i.e., those involved in grazing) during a specified time period has not been studied yet. Fractions of protists actively involved in bacterivory were estimated assuming that the distributions of bacteria and fluorescently labeled bacteria (FLB) ingested by protists follow Poisson distributions. Estimates were compared with experimental data obtained from FLB uptake experiments. The percentages of protists with ingested FLB (experimental) and the estimates obtained from Poisson distributions were similar for both flagellates and ciliates. Thus, the fraction of protists actively grazing on natural bacteria during a given time period could be estimated. The fraction of protists with ingested bacteria depends on the incubation time and reaches a saturating value. Aquatic systems with very different characteristics were analyzed; estimates of the fraction of protists actively grazing on bacteria ranged from 7 to 100% in the studied samples. Some nanoflagellates appeared to be grazing on specific bacterial sizes. Evidence indicated that there was no discrimination for or against bacterial surrogates (i.e., FLB); also, bacteria were randomly encountered by bacterivorous protists during these short-term uptake experiments. These analyses made it possible to estimate the ingestion rates from FLB uptake experiments by counting the number of flagellates containing ingested FLB. These results represent the first reported estimates of active bacterivores in natural aquatic systems; also, a proposed protocol for estimating in situ ingestion rates by protists represents a significant improvement and simplification to the current protocol and avoids the tedious work of counting the number of ingested FLB per protist.

  8. Influence of trichlorfon and fractionated irradiation on hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Koćmierska-Grodzka, D

    1976-03-01

    Investigations into the hydroproteolytic activity of pancreas and intestinal tissues (small intestine and colon) of rats after fractionated irradiation (5 X 150 R) were carried out. There was found marked postirradiation enhancement of lipase activity in pancreas and duodenal part of intestine and increase of B-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase activity in nearly all parts of the examined intestinal tissues. Fractionated irradiation resulted in an increase of pancreatic catheptic (proteolytic) activity causing simultaneous decrease of proteolytic activity in intestine and colon. Preventive administration of Trichlorfon (ten days before irradiation) in the dose of 10 mg or 30 mg/kg evoked modification of hydroproteolytic activity in intestinal tissues of healthy and irradiated rats. Trichlorfon applied in the dose of 30 mg/kg exerted antilipolytic and anticatheptic effects in pancreas and intestinal tissues of irradiated rats. PMID:1258099

  9. Microgravity: Teacher's guide with activities for physical science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This guide is an educational tool for teachers of grades 5 through 12. It is an introduction to microgravity and its application to spaceborne laboratory experiments. Specific payloads and missions are mentioned with limited detail, including Spacelab, the International Microgravity Laboratory, and the United States Microgravity Laboratory. Activities for students demonstrate chemistry, mathematics, and physics applications of microgravity. Activity objectives include: modeling how satellites orbit Earth; demonstrating that free fall eliminates the local effects of gravity; measuring the acceleration environments created by different motions; using a plasma sheet to observe acceleration forces that are experienced on board a space vehicle; demonstrating how mass can be measured in microgravity; feeling how inertia affects acceleration; observing the gravity-driven fluid flow that is caused by differences in solution density; studying surface tension and the fluid flows caused by differences in surface tension; illustrating the effects of gravity on the burning rate of candles; observing candle flame properties in free fall; measuring the contact angle of a fluid; illustrating the effects of gravity and surface tension on fiber pulling; observing crystal growth phenomena in a 1-g environment; investigating temperature effects on crystal growth; and observing crystal nucleation and growth rate during directional solidification. Each activity includes a background section, procedure, and follow-up questions.

  10. Popullution or Conservival: A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Phyllis; And Others

    This teaching guide contains a variety of environmental education activities divided by grade level. A general objective is stated, followed by as many as 25 related activities. Each activity is short, and many are followed by discussion questions. This guide should prepare students for critical appraisal and responsible decision-making in…

  11. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  12. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit.

    PubMed

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  13. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Six - Future Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the sixth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication relate principally to the more advanced technologies and the implications of their development. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities, organized by…

  14. Induction of active immunity with membrane fractions from Haemophilus influenzae type b.

    PubMed Central

    Burans, J P; Lynn, M; Solotorovsky, M

    1983-01-01

    Using Escherichia coli strain E-1 as a model, we developed procedures for the preparation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as structural units. These procedures could be used to prepare relatively pure inner and outer membrane fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase activity, ketodeoxyoctonate levels, and polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. The use of these procedures to fractionate membrane components from Haemophilus influenzae type b strains H-2 and H-E led to good separation of outer- and inner-membrane-enriched fractions as determined by succinate dehydrogenase and ketodeoxyoctonate levels but incomplete separation as determined by polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis. Although there were differences between the electrophoresis profiles of outer membrane fractions of strains H-2 and H-E, immunization with outer membrane of either strain led to the induction of a high degree of immunoprotection against challenge with the H-2 strain. Protection could also be elicited with inner membrane preparations, but such protection may be due to contamination with outer membrane. Extracted membrane protein induced levels of protection that were comparable to those induced by whole membrane fractions. Images PMID:6602769

  15. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, R S; Sambathkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as "Arogyappacha" meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  16. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, R. S.; Sambathkumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as “Arogyappacha” meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  17. RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity in cell fractions and mutants of Neurospora crassa

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, S.K.; Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Bhattachryya, J.

    1980-01-01

    RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity was tested in different cell fractions of Neurospora crassa cell types and its morphological mutants. This RSDP was found localized in the microsomal pellet fraction and absent in the purified nuclear pellets isolated from different N. crassa cell types: conidia, germinated conidia, and mycelia. This enzyme is capable of synthesizing a DNA product only in the presence of all four deoxyribonucleoside-5'-triphosphates and Mg/sup 2 +/. Removal of RNA from the pellet fraction by RNase strongly inhibited the DNA synthesis. The endogenous synthesis of DNA in the microsomal pellet fraction was associated with the formation of an RNA:DNA hybrid as analyzed by Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradient centrifugation. The DNA product after alkali hydrolysis hybridizes with the RNA isolated from the same pellet fraction, as analyzed by elution from hydroxylapatite column at 60 C. This DNA product did not hybridize with poly(A). A few mutants tested showed this RNase-sensitive DNA polymerase activity.

  18. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  19. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  20. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Seo, Sang-Wan; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:22783046

  1. In vitro Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Activity of Root Extract/Fractions of Eurycoma longifolia Jack

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Toxoplasma gondii infection causes toxoplasmosis, an infectious disease with worldwide prevalence. The limited efficiency of drugs against this infection, their side effects and the potential appearance of resistant strains make the search of novel drugs an essential need. We examined Eurycoma longifolia root extract and fractions as potential sources of new compounds with high activity and low toxicity. The main goal of this study was to investigate the anti-T. gondii activity of crude extract (TACME) and four fractions (TAF 273, TAF 355, TAF 191 and TAF 401) from E. longifolia, with clindamycin as the positive control. Methods In vitro toxoplasmacidal evaluation was performed using Vero cells as host for T. gondii. Light microscopy technique was used to study in situ antiparasitic activity. Results Significant anti-T. gondii activity was observed with clindamycin (EC50 = 0.016 μg/ml), follow by TAF 355 (EC50 = 0.369 μg/ml) and TAF 401 (EC50 = 0.882 μg/ml). Light microscopy revealed that most Vero cells were infected after 3 h of exposure to T. gondii. After 36 h of exposure to the E. longifolia fraction, the host Vero cells showed no visible intracellular parasite and no remarkable morphological changes. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that TAF 355 and TAF401 fractions may be the sources of new anti-T. gondii compounds. PMID:22781137

  2. Bioassay-guided fractionation of antifouling compounds using computer-assisted motion analysis of brown algal spore swimming.

    PubMed

    Greer, Stephen P; Iken, Katrin; McClintock, James B; Amsler, Charles D

    2006-01-01

    Antifouling extracts from the sea stars Astropecten articulatus and Luidia clathrata and from the brittle star Astrocyclus caecilia were fractionated by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography. Bioactive fractions were identified with the use of computer-assisted motion analysis-based bioassays utilising previously described Hincksia irregularis spore swimming behaviour parameters. Quantified parameters of spore movement were rate of change of direction (RCD) and speed (SPEE). The methods used initially required only 10 microg equivalent amounts of total crude extract and each resultant resolving step (normalised to 1 mg ml(-1) of crude, unfractionated extract) required far less material. Statistical analyses of RCD and ratios of RCD:SPEE values in experiments comparing swimming in the presence of extract fractions to controls revealed that both parameters were useful individually and in combination for efficiently following compound bioactivity throughout the fractionation procedure. This technique was also able to detect synergistic or additive interactions between compounds.

  3. Screening of Alkaloidal Fraction of Conium maculatum L. Aerial Parts for Analgesic and Antiinflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Madaan, Reecha; Kumar, S.

    2012-01-01

    Conium maculatum Linn. (Umbelliferae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of spasmodic disorders, and to relieve nervous excitation, rheumatic pains in the old and feeble, pain in stomach, pain of gastric ulcer, nervousness and restlessness. Alkaloids have long been considered as bioactive group of constituents present in C. maculatum. Despite a long tradition of use, C. maculatum has not been evaluated pharmacologically to validate its traditional claims for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Thus, the present investigations were undertaken with an objective to evaluate alkaloidal fraction of C. maculatum aerial parts for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities. Test doses (100 or 200 mg/kg, p.o.) of alkaloidal fraction were evaluated for analgesic activity using tail flick test and antiinflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced paw oedema test in rats. Morphine (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg, p.o.) were used as standard analgesic and antiinflammatory drugs, respectively. Alkaloidal fraction of the plant exhibited significant analgesic activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it showed significant increase in tail flicking reaction time with respect to the control during 2 h intervals of observation. It also exhibited significant antiinflammatory activity at a dose of 200 mg/kg as it inhibited paw oedema in rats to 71% and reduced the paw volume one-fourth to the control during 1st h of the study. The present investigations suggest that alkaloids are responsible for analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of C. maculatum. PMID:23716876

  4. Columbus and the Age of Discovery. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This seven part teacher's guide is designed to accompany the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) television series, "Columbus and the Age of Discovery," and also may be used without viewing the programs. The guide features seven units that reflect the themes of the television series. The units are: (1) "Columbus's World"; (2) "An Idea Takes Shape";…

  5. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  6. On-Board Imaging Validation of Optically Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery Positioning System for Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Paranasal Sinus and Skull Base Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Murphy, James D.; Chu, Karen P.M.; Hsu, Annie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the positioning accuracy of an optical positioning system for stereotactic radiosurgery in a pilot experience of optically guided, conventionally fractionated, radiotherapy for paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Before each daily radiotherapy session, the positioning of 28 patients was set up using an optical positioning system. After this initial setup, the patients underwent standard on-board imaging that included daily orthogonal kilovoltage images and weekly cone beam computed tomography scans. Daily translational shifts were made after comparing the on-board images with the treatment planning computed tomography scans. These daily translational shifts represented the daily positional error in the optical tracking system and were recorded during the treatment course. For 13 patients treated with smaller fields, a three-degree of freedom (3DOF) head positioner was used for more accurate setup. Results: The mean positional error for the optically guided system in patients with and without the 3DOF head positioner was 1.4 {+-} 1.1 mm and 3.9 {+-} 1.6 mm, respectively (p <.0001). The mean positional error drifted 0.11 mm/wk upward during the treatment course for patients using the 3DOF head positioner (p = .057). No positional drift was observed in the patients without the 3DOF head positioner. Conclusion: Our initial clinical experience with optically guided head-and-neck fractionated radiotherapy was promising and demonstrated clinical feasibility. The optically guided setup was especially useful when used in conjunction with the 3DOF head positioner and when it was recalibrated to the shifts using the weekly portal images.

  7. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  8. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  9. Homesteading: The Free Land Idea. An Activity Guide for Teachers Grades 4 through 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberson, Wesley; Lange, L. S.; Sutter, Jason; Sutter, Gail

    This curriculum/activity guide is designed for use by teachers and other educators who live within trip distance of Homestead National Monument of America in Nebraska. However, some activities in the guide are designed for the classroom, and some are more effective if they are conducted outdoors; but many can be completed at school. The activity…

  10. Printing & Publishing from the Classroom to Careers. An Activity Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulen, Robert

    This activity guide was developed in Oregon using the theme of the 150th anniversary of the Oregon Trail to help teachers conduct classroom activities that make use of the skills involved in printing and publishing. It was written by a classroom teacher and designed and published by the printing industry. The guide has the following six purposes:…

  11. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity.

  12. Antioxidant, prooxidant, and cytotoxic activities of solvent-fractionated dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extracts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun; Kitts, David D

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the chemical antioxidant and bioactive properties of the water (WF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) derived from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) flower extract (DFE). HPLC analysis showed the presence of both luteolin and luteolin 7-glucoside in the DFE, which contributed to noted in vitro antioxidant and Caco-2 cell cytotoxic activities. Both WF and EAF of DFE exhibited free radical scavenging activities in a stable 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical model and reduced the breakage of supercoiled DNA strand induced by both non-site-specific and site-specific hydroxyl radical. Oxidation of structured phosphatidylcholine liposome induced by peroxyl radical was reduced in the presence of both EAF and WF. EAF had greater (p < 0.05) affinity to scavenge peroxyl radical than WF, as measured by the formation of conjugated diene. At low concentration, prooxidant activity of both fractions was observed in Cu(2+)-induced structured liposome and hLDL oxidation models, thus indicating that the reducing power of the DFE had resulted in generation of reactive cuprous ion. However, at high concentrations the EAF did not promote oxidation in the presence of Cu(2+), suggesting that the free radical scavenging activity of this fraction was sufficient to minimize the potential oxidative mechanism attributed to the metal ion reducing activity associated with prooxidant activity. PMID:12502425

  13. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect.

  14. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  15. Global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi; Wang, Leimin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization for a class of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations (FNNDAs). We give the concept of Filippov solution for FNNDAs in the sense of Caputo's fractional derivation. By using a singular Gronwall inequality and the properties of fractional calculus, the existence of global solution under the framework of Filippov for FNNDAs is proved. Based on the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, some sufficient criteria for the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of FNNDAs are derived by designing a suitable controller. The proposed results enrich and enhance the previous reports. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:26562442

  16. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action. PMID:22185934

  17. Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lan, Gaoshuang; Zhang, Likang

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated using three esteblished methods, specifically the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica-scavenging activity assay, the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate (MDA) assay and the ferric reducing power (FRP) assay. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts and fractions were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the content of icariin was determined by HPLC. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities at different magnitudes of potency. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities among the extracts/fractions assayed through the three methods were found to be n-BuOH fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>ethanol extract>petroleum ether fraction>water fraction. A positive correlation was found between the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and icariin and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.9935, 0.9944 and 0.9997, respectively) and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation (R(2) = 0.9987, 0.9830 and 0.9886, respectively). The results suggested that Icariin was one of the main constituents contribute to the antioxidant activity of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and the n-BuOH fractions of leaf extract might be valuable antioxidant natural sources. PMID:24426024

  18. In vitro activity-guided identification of antioxidants in aged garlic extract.

    PubMed

    Matsutomo, Toshiaki; Stark, Timo D; Hofmann, Thomas

    2013-03-27

    Activity-guided fractionation was applied on an aged garlic extract (AGE), reported to show strong antioxidant activity, in order to locate the key in vitro antioxidant ingredients by means of the hydrogen peroxide scavenging (HPS) assay as well as the ORAC assay. Besides the previously reported four tetrahydro-β-carbolines, (1R,3S)- and (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid and (1R,3S)- and (1S,3S)-1-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-β-carboline-1,3-dicarboxylic acid, LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR experiments led to the identification of coniferyl alcohol and its dilignols (-)-(2R,3S)-dihydrodehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, (+)-(2S,3R)-dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol, erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-O-4'-coniferyl ether, and threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-O-4'-coniferyl ether as the major antioxidants in AGE. The purified individual compounds showed high antioxidant activity, with EC50 values of 9.7-11.8 μM (HPS assay) and 2.60-3.65 μmol TE/μmol (ORAC assay), respectively. PMID:23448127

  19. Fractionation of biogas plant sludge material improves metaproteomic characterization to investigate metabolic activity of microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Kohrs, Fabian; Wolter, Sophie; Benndorf, Dirk; Heyer, Robert; Hoffmann, Marcus; Rapp, Erdmann; Bremges, Andreas; Sczyrba, Alexander; Schlüter, Andreas; Reichl, Udo

    2015-10-01

    With the development of high resolving mass spectrometers, metaproteomics evolved as a powerful tool to elucidate metabolic activity of microbial communities derived from full-scale biogas plants. Due to the vast complexity of these microbiomes, application of suitable fractionation methods are indispensable, but often turn out to be time and cost intense, depending on the method used for protein separation. In this study, centrifugal fractionation has been applied for fractionation of two biogas sludge samples to analyze proteins extracted from (i) crude fibers, (ii) suspended microorganisms, and (iii) secreted proteins in the supernatant using a gel-based approach followed by LC-MS/MS identification. This fast and easy method turned out to be beneficial to both the quality of SDS-PAGE and the identification of peptides and proteins compared to untreated samples. Additionally, a high functional metabolic pathway coverage was achieved by combining protein hits found exclusively in distinct fractions. Sample preparation using centrifugal fractionation influenced significantly the number and the types of proteins identified in the microbial metaproteomes. Thereby, comparing results from different proteomic or genomic studies, the impact of sample preparation should be considered. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001508 (http://proteomecentral.proteomexchange.org/dataset/PXD001508).

  20. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  1. Two New FRET Imaging Measures: Linearly Proportional to and Highly Contrasting the Fraction of Active Molecules

    PubMed Central

    Yamao, Masataka; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Yukinawa, Naoto; Ishii, Shin; Matsuda, Michiyuki; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    We developed two new FRET imaging measures for intramolecular FRET biosensors, called linearly proportional (LP) and highly contrasting (HC) measures, which can be easily calculated by the fluorescence intensities of donor and acceptor as a ratio between their weighted sums. As an alternative to the conventional ratiometric measure, which non-linearly depends on the fraction of active molecule, we first developed the LP measure, which is linearly proportional to the fraction of active molecules. The LP measure inherently unmixes bleed-through signals and is robust against fluorescence noise. By extending the LP measure, we furthermore designed the HC measure, which provides highly contrasting images of the molecular activity, more than the ratiometric measure. In addition to their advantages, these measures are insensitive to the biosensor expression level, which is a fundamental property of the ratiometric measure. Using artificial data and FRET imaging data, we showed that the LP measure effectively represents the fraction of active molecules and that the HC measure improves visual interpretability by providing high contrast images of molecular activity. Therefore, the LP and HC measures allow us to gain more quantitative and qualitative insights from FRET imaging than the ratiometric measure. PMID:27780260

  2. Comparative azo reductase activity of red azo dyes through caecal and hepatic microsomal fraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, S; Das, M; Khanna, S K

    1997-09-01

    In order to study the rate of formation of toxic aromatic amines, anaerobic reduction of four red azo dyes viz. amaranth, carmoisine, fast Red E and ponceau 4R was investigated by incubating caecal content and hepatic microsomal fraction of rats with 37.5 microM concentration of dyes in sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 using NADPH generating system, glucose oxidase system and nitrogen as the gaseous phase. Caecal suspension exhibited higher azo reductase activity than that of hepatic microsomal fraction using any of the 4 azo dyes. Caecal microbes showed maximal azo reductase activity when ponceau 4R was used as a substrate followed by fast Red E and carmoisine, while with amaranth the activity was minimum. Similarly ponceau 4 R exhibited maximum hepatic microsomal azo reductase activity followed by fast Red E and carmoisine whereas, amaranth had minimum activity. Caecal flora possessed almost 17 fold higher degradative capability of ponceau 4 R and fast Red E colourants than the hepatic microsomal fraction. The higher reductive ability through caecal flora for ponceau 4R and fast Red E signifies the formation of more aromatic amines which may be re-absorbed through the intestine to be either eliminated through urine as conjugates or retained in the target tissues to elicit toxic effects.

  3. A Practical Guide for the Treatment of Symptomatic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Brent N; Sueta, Carla A

    2015-01-01

    This review will outline the management of patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure or heart failure with reduced ejec-tion fraction (HFrEF), i.e., those with structural heart disease and previous or current symptoms. Determination of volume status and appropriate diuretic administration is important in heart failure management. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems improves survival and decreases hospitalizations in patients with systolic or reduced ejection fraction HF (HFrEF). Beta blockers and aldosterone antagonists improve ejection fraction. Indications for additional agents including nitrates plus hydralazine, digoxin, statins, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, anticoagulants, and antiarrhythmics will be discussed. Choice of agents, dose-related effects, strategies to minimize adverse effects, and medications to avoid will be presented. PMID:24251455

  4. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension.

  5. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S. M. Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  6. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIg

  7. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F.; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin

  8. Antioxidant activity of four color fractions of bee pollen from Mérida, Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pérez, Elizabeth M; Vit, Patricia; Rivas, Efraín; Sciortino, Rosa; Sosa, Angel; Tejada, Daniel; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2012-12-01

    Bee pollen has been reported to show antioxidant and radical scavenging activities; contributing to anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective properties. Venezuelan honeybee pollen has been little studied, but is consumed because its properties are known from other countries reports. On the basis of these reports, water, ethanol and methanol soluble fractions were prepared from dried bee-pollen commercially available and produced by La Montaña farm (Mérida, Venezuela). These fractions were evaluated for their functional properties, specifically, polyphenol content and total antioxidant activity. Pollen samples were separated by color in four fractions: yellow, brown, orange and ochre. Polyphenol content ranged between 396.7 to 1286.7 gallic acid equivalents GAE/100 g pollen; it was highest in pollen homogenates obtained with ethanol, followed by those obtained with methanol and water. The antioxidant activity ranged from 0.50 to 1.84 micromoles Trolox equivalents TEAC/100 g for water and ethanol homogenates respectively. The results presented in this work suggest that the ethanol extract of bee pollen show a potent antioxidant activity, comparable to human plasma, probably due to total polyphenol content of bee pollen. This is important because the bee pollen would be beneficial not only as a dietary supplement but also as a functional food. PMID:24020258

  9. Microbiological activity of whole and fractionated crude extracts of tea (Camellia sinensis), and of tea components.

    PubMed

    Yam, T S; Shah, S; Hamilton-Miller, J M

    1997-07-01

    Aqueous extracts of teas (Camellia sinensis) of different types and from various sources inhibited a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Tea extracts were bactericidal to staphylococci and Yersinia enterocolitica at well below 'cup of tea' concentrations. Activity was confined to one of four fractions obtained from a green tea extract by partition chromatography. Testing of pure tea compounds and closely related chemicals suggested that the antibacterial activity of extracts of green tea can be explained by its content of epigallocatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate. In black tea extracts, theaflavin and its gallates are additional antibacterially active components. PMID:9228784

  10. [Erythropoietin-forming and esterase activity of rat kidney subcellular fractions during stimulation of erythropoiesis].

    PubMed

    Novikov, N M; Voronkov, S F; Voloshchenko, L G; Mikhaĭlova, S N

    1977-01-01

    Stimulation of erythropoiesis in rats (hemolytic-phenylhydrazine and acute posthemorrhagic anemia, effect of hypoxic hypoxia) was accompanied by an increased erythropoietine-formating activity in kidney microsomes and light mitochondria. The phenomenon correlated with an increased esterase activity in hypotonic supernatant of kidney homogenate mainly due to the enzymatic fraction, corresponding to alpha2-globulin by its mobility. Histochemical examination of kidney showed that the most distinct alterations in the esterase activity were observed in epithelial cells of nephron proximal part and in capillary endothelium.

  11. Poster — Thur Eve — 13: Inter-Fraction Target Movement in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Congwu; Zeng, Grace G.

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the setup variations over the treatment courses of 113 patients with intact prostate treated with 78Gy/39fx. Institutional standard bladder and bowel preparation and image guidance protocols were used in CT simulation and treatment. The RapidArc treatment plans were optimized in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system and delivered on Varian 2100X Clinacs equipped with On-Board Imager to localize the target before beam-on. The setup variations were calculated in terms of mean and standard deviation of couch shifts. No correlation was observed between the mean shift and standard deviation over the treatment course and patient age, initial prostate volume and rectum size. The mean shifts in the first and last 5 fractions are highly correlated (P < 10{sup −10}) while the correlation of the standard deviations cannot be determined. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate trends of the mean daily Ant-Post and Sup-Inf shifts of the group. The target is inferior by ∼1mm to the planned position when the treatment starts and moves superiorly, approaching the planned position at 10th fraction, and then gradually moves back inferiorly by ∼1mm in the remain fractions. In the Ant-Post direction, the prostate gradually moves posteriorly during the treatment course from a mean shift of ∼2.5mm in the first fraction to ∼1mm in the last fraction. It may be related to a systematic rectum size change in the progress of treatment. The biased mean shifts in Ant-Post and Sup-Inf direction of most patients suggest systematically larger rectum and smaller bladder during the treatment than at CT simulation.

  12. Phosphatidic acid phosphatase activity in subcellular fractions of normal and dystrophic human muscle.

    PubMed

    Kunze, D; Rüstow, B; Olthoff, D; Jung, K

    1985-03-15

    Biopsy samples from normal and dystrophic human muscle (Duchenne type) were fractionated by differential centrifugation and microsomes, mitochondria and cytosol were assayed for phosphatidic acid phosphatase (EC 3.1.3.4) and marker enzymes of mitochondria and cytosol. The activity of phosphatidic acid phosphatase was significantly lower in microsomes and higher in cytosol and mitochondria of dystrophic muscle than in the corresponding subcellular fractions of normal muscle. The results support an explanation of earlier findings that there is reduced G3P incorporation into diglycerides and phosphatidylcholine and a qualitative and quantitative change in the amount of phosphatidylcholine in dystrophic microsomes. The possible reasons for the reduction in the activity of only microsomal PA-P-ase were discussed.

  13. Radiological and instrumental neutron activation analysis determined characteristics of size-fractionated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Peppas, T K; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Rouni, P K; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2010-09-15

    The concentration of trace elements and radionuclides in fly ash particles of different size can exhibit significant variation, due to the various processes taking place during combustion inside a coal-fired power plant. An investigation of this effect has been performed by analyzing samples of fly ash originating in two different coal-fired power plants, after separation into size fractions by sieving. The samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry, including low-energy techniques, radon exhalation measurement and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Al, As, Ga, K, La, Na, Mn, Mg, Sr, Sc, and V. Variations are observed in the results of various samples analyzed, while the activity balances calculated from the results of individual size fractions are consistent with those of the raw ash samples. Correlations among the radionuclides examined are also observed, while individual nuclide behavior varies between the two types of fly ash examined. PMID:20605322

  14. Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Satishkumar S; Jaiwal, Bhimrao V; Padul, Manohar V

    2016-11-15

    Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27283694

  15. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  16. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  17. Organic matter bioavailability controls the active bacterial fraction in deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna, G. M.; Giuliano, L.; Danovaro, R.

    2003-04-01

    Deep-sea sediments, covering more than 60% of the earth surface, represent the largest Earth's ecosystem. Bacteria are the most abundant component and the major players of biogeochemical transformations. However, the knowledge of the physiological and metabolic state of bacterial cells in deep-sea sediments is still extremely poor, thus limiting our actual comprehension of bacterial role on C cycling and early diagenesis on global scale. The recent discovery that a large bacterial fraction is dead and/or inactive suggests that the rather constant bacterial number in the deep sea might be due to the inappropriate methodology of estimation. We investigated the abundance of nucleoid-containing cells (NuCC), assumed to be the active bacterial fraction, and their relative contribution to total bacterial counts in Mediterranean deep-sea sediments (from 670 to 2570 m depth), together with measurements of sedimentary organic matter. Our results indicate that living bacterial cells accounted for 14 to 70% of total bacterial number. The active bacterial abundance decreased by 4 times with increasing station depth. Moreover, NuCC abundance strongly decreased with increasing depth in the sediment, together with the decrease of organic matter concentrations (in terms of protein, carbohydrates and pigments). Our findings indicate that the bioavailable fraction of organic matter exert a strong control on activity and turnover rates of microbial assemblages in deep sea.

  18. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components.

  19. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D’Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. PMID:26378547

  20. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D'Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products.

  1. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo-Earl, Galia; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II). The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol) which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester. PMID:24812568

  2. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  3. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Watershed Investigations and Environmental Studies, Volume 6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gail, Peter A.; And Others

    This curriculum activities guide provides the teacher with a model for a comprehensive program in watershed studies. With increased concern over water pollution, a study of the watershed is important to complete an understanding of water drainage problems. This guide includes a rationale for the study of watersheds and develops methods of…

  4. That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran

    Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences…

  5. The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

  6. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    Designed to provide supplementary information on American Indians for the teaching of American history, the activity guide for grades 9-12 offers background knowledge and suggested discussion topics for students. Contents of the guide include: a historical timeline outlining major events from 15,000 B.C. to the present; Hollywood's influence on…

  7. Readings and Activities for Character Education: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diane L.

    This resource guide, for teachers and students in the upper elementary and middle school grades, has been developed in response to the nationwide interest in asking schools to play an active role in preparing students to become informed and responsible citizens. The guide is divided into seven sections, one for each character trait: Caring, Civic…

  8. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  9. A World of Six Billion Wall Chart and Activity Guide: Thought Provoking Activities on Population, Resources, and Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Population issues are interconnected to many of the most pressing concerns of today, nine of which are addressed on the front of the wallchart included in this guide. The activities in this guide allow students to explore these topics in order to better understand the significance of our current demographic milestone for society and the…

  10. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  11. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  12. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  13. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects.

  14. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  15. Speech Activities in the Elementary School, MSA Curriculum Guide 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Deldee M., Ed.; Ratliffe, Sharon A., Ed.

    A revised edition of the 1968 Michigan Speech Association (MSA) curriculum guide (ED 026 392), this volume is intended to provide the elementary school student with instruction in listening and speaking. Units on listening, conversation, nonverbal communication, discussion, informal drama, reading aloud, story telling, giving talks, and speech…

  16. A Guide for Perceptual-Motor Training Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Euclid - Lyndhurst City Schools, Lyndhurst, OH.

    This document has been prepared as part of a kindergarten perceptual-training program of the South Euclid-Lyndhurst City School District near Cleveland, Ohio. The guide contains information on training and procedures related to perceptual-motor learning. This information is structured primarily into 150 lesson plans, devised as 30-minute sessions…

  17. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    This guide is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. This book addresses such concerns of life science teachers as the environmental soundness of methods and…

  18. Earth's Mysterious Atmosphere: Atlas 1 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Corp., Huntsville, AL.

    This atmospheric studies teacher's guide for use with middle school students blends lessons in chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences in an attempt to accomplish the following: to nurture students' natural curiosity and excitement about science, mathematics, and technology; to encourage career exploration in science,…

  19. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L., Ed.; Wargo, Michael J., Ed.

    A microgravity environment is one that will impart to an object a net acceleration that is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. In practice, such acceleration will range from about one percent of Earth's gravitational acceleration to better than one part in a million. this teacher's guide presents an introduction to…

  20. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  1. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  2. Convulsant activity and neurochemical alterations induced by a fraction obtained from fruit Averrhoa carambola (Oxalidaceae: Geraniales).

    PubMed

    Carolino, Ruither O G; Beleboni, Renê O; Pizzo, Andrea B; Vecchio, Flavio Del; Garcia-Cairasco, Norberto; Moyses-Neto, Miguel; Santos, Wagner F Dos; Coutinho-Netto, Joaquim

    2005-06-01

    We obtained a neurotoxic fraction (AcTx) from star fruit (Averrhoa carambola) and studied its effects on GABAergic and glutamatergic transmission systems. AcTx had no effect on GABA/glutamate uptake or release, or on glutamate binding. However, it specifically inhibited GABA binding in a concentration-dependent manner (IC(50)=0.89muM). Video-electroencephalogram recordings demonstrated that following cortical administration of AcTx, animals showed behavioral changes, including tonic-clonic seizures, evolving into status epilepticus, accompanied by cortical epileptiform activity. Chemical characterization of AcTx showed that this compound is a nonproteic molecule with a molecular weight less than 500, differing from oxalic acid. This neurotoxic fraction of star fruit may be considered a new tool for neurochemical and neuroethological research.

  3. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  4. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  5. Parents and Reading: A Guide to Home Activities for Children. Centering On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Pearl

    Reading activities designed for parents to use with preschool through high school age children are provided in this guide. Activities for children below the junior high level predominate. Jean Piaget's child development theories are briefly outlined. Suggested reading activities, language activities, and children's books are listed for use with…

  6. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions. PMID:27279536

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  8. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  9. Organic removal activity in biofilm and suspended biomass fractions of MBBR systems.

    PubMed

    Piculell, Maria; Welander, Thomas; Jönsson, Karin

    2014-01-01

    The moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) wastewater treatment process is usually designed based on the assumption that all activity in the process occurs in the biofilm on the MBBR carriers, although there is always some active biomass in the bulk liquid due to biofilm sloughing and, sometimes, free-growing bacteria. In this study the removal of organic matter is evaluated in laboratory-scale MBBR reactors under varying load, hydraulic retention time (HRT), oxygen concentration and volumetric filling degree of carriers in order to determine the heterotrophic activity in the different fractions of the MBBR biomass. The results showed that the heterotrophic conversions in an MBBR can show the same type of diffusion limited dependency on oxygen as nitrification, even for easily degradable substrates such as acetate. The contribution to the removal from the suspended biomass is shown to vary depending on HRT, as the amount of suspended solids changes. The developed method in this report is a useful tool for determining heterotrophic activity in the separate fractions of biomass in MBBRs.

  10. Activation of peritoneal macrophages to cytoxicity against B16 melanoma cells by Serratia marcescens polyribosome fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    Serratia marcescens polyribosomes (SMPR) have been shown to elicit an anti-tumor response in vivo. The in-vitro effects of SMPR on macrophages as the nonspecific mediators of the anti-tumor response have not previously been examined. The first objective of this research project is to corroborate and analyze the in-vivo results by the development and application of an in-vitro cytotoxicity assay. The second objective is to examine the effect of SMPR upon previously unstimulated peritoneal macrophages as representing the mechanism of cytotoxicity. The third objective is to identify the minimal effective component of SMPR responsible for an effect on macrophages. Results revealed that SMPR preparations exert a number of effects upon macrophages. Morphologic changes included increased spreading and increased perinuclear vacuolization. Macrophages were shown to be metabolically activate by two lines of evidence. SMPR-treated macrophages exhibited increased cellular metabolism by the increased uptake of /sup 3/H-thymidine and by the increased levels of secreted leucine aminopeptidase as compared to control macrophages. Results also showed that SMPR activates macrophages to cytotoxicity against syngeneic tumor target cells. Buoyant-density fractions were isolated and assayed for macrophage activating ability. Results showed 50S ribosomal subunits to be the smallest fraction effective for macrophage activation. Both the RNA and protein were necessary for complete effectiveness.

  11. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  12. [Baroreflex activation therapy. A novel interventional approach to treat heart failure with reduced ejection fraction].

    PubMed

    Halbach, M; Fritz, T; Madershahian, N; Pfister, R; Reuter, H

    2015-11-01

    Sympathovagal imbalance plays an important role in the progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Baroreflex activation therapy (BAT), i. e. electrical stimulation of baroreceptors located at the carotid sinus, can reduce sympathetic and enhance parasympathetic tone. Large animal studies on BAT demonstrated improvements in cardiac function, arrhythmogenic risk and a survival benefit compared to untreated controls. The recently published Neo Randomized Heart Failure Study, the first multicenter, randomized and controlled trial of optimal medical and device therapy alone or plus BAT in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35 %, demonstrated a reasonable safety profile of BAT in this severely ill patient population and no relevant interactions with other devices. The study found significant improvements in the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class of heart failure, quality of life as well as 6 min walking distance and data pointed to a reduction in hospitalization rates. Moreover, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels were significantly reduced. This review gives an overview on BAT for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, from the rationale and animal experiments to the most recent clinical data and future perspectives.

  13. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  14. Liposomal formulation of turmerone-rich hexane fractions from Curcuma longa enhances their antileishmanial activity.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F; Gomes, Luciana A; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A; Ferreira, José Luiz P; Ramos, Aline de S; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S; Vermelho, Alane B; Rodrigues, Igor A

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent.

  15. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part II: bioassay-guided identification of actives salicortin and oregonin.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Muhammad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Hervé, Jessica; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-10-01

    Among modern day metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and novel therapeutic support strategies are urgently needed. Adipocytes are interesting targets in this context. Using ethnobotanical and bioassay screening techniques, we have identified two Boreal Forest plants used by the James Bay Cree that potently inhibit adipogenesis, namely ALNUS INCANA ssp. RUGOSA (Speckled Alder) and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA (Balsam Poplar). The mode of action of this inhibitory activity was reported in a companion paper. The current study report the results of a classical bioassay-guided fractionation approach aimed at identifying the active principles responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis, as measured using triglyceride accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model cell line. The glycosides oregonin and salicortin were isolated and identified as the respective active principles for ALNUS INCANA and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA. These compounds thus offer promise as novel agents to mitigate the incidence or the progression of obesity.

  16. In vitro & in vivo estrogenic activity of glycoside fractions of Solanum nigrum fruit

    PubMed Central

    Jisha, S.; Sreeja, S.; Manjula, S.

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: The mature fruits of Solanum nigrum contains steroidal glycosides. These are often used as vegetable and there are evidences on tribal use of these fruits as an oral contraceptive. The present study was carried out to evaluate the estrogenic potential of S. nigrum fruits by in vitro and in vivo assays. Methods: Defatted methanol extract of dried S. nigrum fruits was column fractionated and the glycoside positive fractions pooled. Definite concentrations of the fraction were used for in vitro and in vivo assays. The effect on cell viability was analyzed in MCF-7 cell lines by MTT assay followed by in vitro evaluation of estrogenicity by hydroxy apatite (HAP) binding assay. The results were further evaluated in vivo by performing uterotrophic assay in ovariectomized mouse models. Results: At low concentration (40 μg/ml), SNGF induced a dose-dependent increase in MCF-7 cell proliferation, while higher extract concentrations (80-320 μg/ml) caused progressive cell growth inhibition. The competitive binding assay using 3H-E2 suggests that this effect is mediated by estrogen receptor. Mouse uterotrophic assay revealed a classical uterotrophic response in ovariectomized mice in response to S. nigrum glycoside fraction (SNGF). SNGF at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body wt induced the maximum height of luminal epithelial cells which indicated an increase of 30.8 per cent over control (P<0.01) with a correlated increase in uterine wet wt (150% increase over control). Higher doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body wt) of SNGF did not induce any uterotrophic effect. Interpretation & conclusions: Our preliminary data demonstrate the hormone like activity of Solanum glycosides both in vitro and in vivo in mouse, which needs to be further explored to evaluate the possible mechanism and clinical implications. PMID:21985821

  17. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  18. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6).

  19. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (Fabaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Vanine Gomes; de Carvalho, Fabíola Lélis; de Morais, Liana Clébia Soares Lima; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Alencar, Jacicarlos Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (CFDv) in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg), as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg). Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg) decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:21776190

  20. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction.

    PubMed

    Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-10-15

    Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder. PMID:23442624

  1. Stimulatory activities of a T cell proteoglycan fraction (T-PGF)

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.; Olmstead, L.

    1986-03-01

    The authors had demonstrated previously that T lymphocytes synthesize and secrete chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (PG). To analyze whether this PG possessed immunoregulatory activity, mouse T cell hybridomas were created and screened for secretion of /sup 35/S-PG. The PG secreted by high producer lines was purified primarily by anion exchange chromatography. Analysis of isolated material indicated the presence of uronic acid, a major sugar in glycosaminoglycans. SDS-PAGE of radio-iodinated T-PGF revealed two bands at 70 kd and 50 kd, which was confirmed by silver staining. The T-PGF stimulated mouse splenic B cell fractions to proliferate and differentiate into plaque-forming cells; no induction or costimulation (with Con A) of T cells fraction or thymocyte proliferation was detected. The T-PGF stimulated activated (Percoll low density, increased forward light scattering) B cells better than resting populations; induction of resting cells could be enhanced by simultaneous addition of low concentrations of a protein mitogen, STM. Biochemically and functionally, T-PGF co-migrates with PG in the void volume of Sephacryl S-200 columns. The precise nature of the relationship between B cell stimulatory activity and PG is unknown; however, the recent production of monoclonal antibodies against T-PGF should help clarify these questions.

  2. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction.

    PubMed

    Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-10-15

    Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder.

  3. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. PMID:27177462

  4. Antioxidant activities of aqueous extract from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Liancai; Tan, Jun; Wang, Bochu; He, Rui; Liu, Yuping; Zheng, Chao

    2009-10-01

    Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb is used as the tonic for asthenia and fatigue in China. Considering that the energizing effect might be correlated with antioxidant properties, we investigated the antioxidant activities of aqueous extract (AE) from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb by assessing radical-scavenging and anti-lipid-peroxidation abilities. We found that AE shows a moderate antioxidant activity to scavenge DPPH*, O2(-)* and *OH and inhibit beta-carotene bleaching with IC(50) values of 13.0, 33.2, 351, and 11.9 microg/ml, respectively, while its AcOEt-soluble fraction (ESF) and BuOH soluble fraction (BSF) exhibit remarkable efficiencies. The ESF's IC(50) values of scavenging DPPH*, O2(-)*, and *OH, and inhibiting beta-carotene bleaching are 5.6, 5.8, 171, and 7.6 mircog/ml, respectively, and those of BSF are 7.5, 8.4, 82.0, and 6.2 microg/ml, respectively. In addition, we found that there is a significant correlation between total phenol content and the antioxidant activity determined by O2(-)* and *OH scavenging, and beta-carotene-bleaching assays. Furthermore, HPLC analysis revealed the presence of quercetin, hyperoside, quercitrin, taxifoliol, luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, and rutin in Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb. Thus, we suggest that the extracts from Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb, could be considered as natural antioxidant sources and dietary nutritional supplements to prevent oxidation-related diseases. PMID:19842137

  5. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2) and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1), B (2), C (3), F (4), G (5) and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6), were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL) was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL) was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential antimicrobial

  6. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  7. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy.

  8. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  9. Nanocarriers for the delivery of active ingredients and fractions extracted from natural products used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Feng, Nianping

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years with a recent increase in popularity. Despite promising biological activities of active ingredients and fractions from TCM, their poor solubility, poor stability, short biological half-life, ease of metabolism and rapid elimination hinder their clinical application. Therefore, overcoming these problems to improve the therapeutic efficacy of TCM preparations is a major focus of pharmaceutical sciences. Recently, nanocarriers have drawn increasing attention for their excellent and efficient delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions. This review discusses problems in the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions; focuses on recent advances in nanocarriers that represent potential solutions to these problems, including lipid-based nanoparticles and polymeric, inorganic, and hybrid nanocarriers; and discusses unanswered questions in the field and criteria for the development of better nanocarriers for the delivery of active TCM ingredients or fractions to be focused on in future studies.

  10. TU-F-BRF-09: Feasibility Study of Spatial and Temporal Fractionation Using a Table-Top Image-Guided MRT System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Inscoe, C; Yuan, H; Burk, L; Ger, R; Chtcheprov, P; Lu, J; Chang, S; Zhou, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy is a promising experimental radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron studies have shown that MRT can preferentially ablate tumors while mostly preserving the surrounding normal tissues. Our purpose is to develop a compact microbeam irradiator that can be accessible for laboratory research on MRT's therapeutic mechanism, with the ultimate goal of translating this technique for clinical applications. Utilizing a carbon nanotube field emission X-ray source array, our lab has developed a first of its kind table-top microbeam irradiator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of increasing the total dose to the tumor region using spatial and temporal fractionation. Methods: MRI and CT scans were acquired and registered to locate both the target region and the landmark in the treatment coordinate space. A crossbeam treatment configuration was planned to achieve the desired dosage and tumor coverage. One array of 300 μm-thick microbeams was delivered to the target on the first day. Another array, perpendicular to the first one, was delivered the next day targeting the same region. The feasibility of this image-guided MRT procedure was evaluated using a phantom. Gafchromic EBT2 film was employed to characterize the targeting accuracy and the delivered tumor dose. Results: The preliminary phantom study showed that a cross-pattern of microbeam arrays was successfully delivered with sub-millimeter targeting accuracy. The delivered dose in the target region was doubled. The fraction of tumor volume that received the peak dose was increased. Conclusion: Temporal fractionation of crosspatterned microbeams can be delivered to the same target region. The feasibility of this procedure was investigated with a phantom study. Once implemented, this procedure has the potential of increasing the tumor control effect of MRT and of achieving better normal tissue recovery.

  11. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  12. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:21269424

  13. Fractions: Activities and Exercises for Teaching Fractions in Secondary Schools. Series of Caribbean Volunteer Publications, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voluntary Services Overseas, Castries (St. Lucia).

    This document contains materials from a half day workshop held at Petit Secondary School for mathematics teachers at Petit Bordel and Troumaca Ontario Secondary School on the island of St. Vincent in the Caribbean. This book advocates the use of activity-based mathematics as a teaching methodology in secondary schools and demonstrates the use of…

  14. Antioxidant Activity of Different Fractions of Methanolic Extract of the Golden Chanterelle Mushroom Cantharellus cibarius (Higher Basidiomycetes) from Iran.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Safdari, Yaghoub; Khalili, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Natural compounds with antioxidant activity can be useful for treatment of reactive oxygen species-related diseases, comprising atherosclerosis, inflammatory injury, cardiovascular disease, cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, cataracts, autism, and aging. The current study was perform to assay the antioxidant activity different fractions of methanolic extract of golden chanterelle mushroom Cantharellus cibarius, a mushroom found in the north of Iran. Different fractions of methanolic extract of this mushroom, including n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and water, were evaluated for antioxidant activity using six in vitro assay systems. Mushroom fruit was obtained from the local market, Sari (northern Iran). The n-hexane fraction had higher amounts of flavonoids contents (40.01 ± 1.30 mg quercetin equivalent g-1 of extract) and the highest exhibition of nitric oxide scavenging activity (77.21 ± 1.48%). The highest content of phenol was observed in the n-butanol fraction, which was 40.97 ± 0.99 mg gallic acid equivalent g-1 of extract. Among all the fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction was found to show higher DPPH scavenging activity (33.43 ± 1.30%) and the aqueous fraction to display the most reducing power. The highest Fe2+ chelating activity was observed in the chloroform fraction and then in the n-hexane fraction (86.13 ± 1.61 and 80.68 ± 2.07, respectively). The results all together signify C. cibarius as a valuable source of natural bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity.

  15. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  16. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  17. Use of narrow-band spectra to estimate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for using high-spectral resolution imagers to estimate the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation adsorbed, f(apar), by vegetated land surfaces. In comparison to approaches using broad-band vegetation indices, the proposed method appears to be relatively insensitive to the reflectance of nonphotosynthetically active material beneath the canopy, such as leaf litter or soil. The method is based on a relationship between the second derivative of the reflectance vs wavelength function for terrestrial vegetation and f(apar). The relationship can be defined by the second derivatives in either of two windows, one in the visible region centered at 0.69 micron, another in the near-infrared region centered at 0.74 micron.

  18. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of anti-platelet-active compounds from the root of Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei Koidz.).

    PubMed

    Son, Dong Ju; Park, Ye Oak; Yu, Chengguang; Lee, Sung Eun; Park, Young Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Platelet aggregation is fundamental to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including the induction of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis. Anti-platelet activity of a crude methanol extract and solvent fractions of Ashitaba roots (Angelica keiskei Koidz.) was evaluated using a turbidimetric method using washed rabbit platelets. We identified the anti-platelet activities of two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Ashitaba roots by using a bioassay-guided isolation method. 4-Hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol effectively inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (IC50 of 41.9 and 35.9 μM, respectively), platelet-activating factor (IC50 of 46.1 and 42.3 μM, respectively) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (IC50 of 16.5 and 45.9 μM, respectively). These compounds did not inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 of>80 μM). The results suggest that the chalcones 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol may be potent anti-thrombotic components of A. keiskei Koidz.

  19. Heavy metal pollution decreases microbial abundance, diversity and activity within particle-size fractions of a paddy soil.

    PubMed

    Chen, Junhui; He, Feng; Zhang, Xuhui; Sun, Xuan; Zheng, Jufeng; Zheng, Jinwei

    2014-01-01

    Chemical and microbial characterisations of particle-size fractions (PSFs) from a rice paddy soil subjected to long-term heavy metal pollution (P) and nonpolluted (NP) soil were performed to investigate whether the distribution of heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) regulates microbial community activity, abundance and diversity at the microenvironment scale. The soils were physically fractionated into coarse sand, fine sand, silt and clay fractions. Long-term heavy metal pollution notably decreased soil basal respiration (a measurement of the total activity of the soil microbial community) and microbial biomass carbon (MBC) across the fractions by 3-45% and 21-53%, respectively. The coarse sand fraction was more affected by pollution than the clay fraction and displayed a significantly lower MBC content and respiration and dehydrogenase activity compared with the nonpolluted soils. The abundances and diversities of bacteria were less affected within the PSFs under pollution. However, significant decreases in the abundances and diversities of fungi were noted, which may have strongly contributed to the decrease in MBC. Sequencing of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands revealed that the groups Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Chytridiomycota were clearly inhibited under pollution. Our findings suggest that long-term heavy metal pollution decreased the microbial biomass, activity and diversity in PSFs, particularly in the large-size fractions.

  20. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  1. Structure Guided Optimization, in Vitro Activity, and in Vivo Activity of Pan-PIM Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Han, Wooseok; Lan, Jiong; Nishiguchi, Gisele; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Lindval, Mika; Atallah, Gordana; Ding, Yu; Mathur, Michelle; McBride, Chris; Beans, Elizabeth L; Muller, Kristine; Tamez, Victoriano; Zhang, Yanchen; Huh, Kay; Feucht, Paul; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Holash, Jocelyn; Castillo, Joseph; Langowski, John; Wang, Yingyun; Chen, Min Y; Garcia, Pablo D

    2013-12-12

    Proviral insertion of Moloney virus (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinases are serine/threonine kinases that normally function in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. As high expression of PIM1, 2, and 3 is frequently observed in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and myeloid leukemias, there is interest in determining whether selective PIM inhibition can improve outcomes of these human cancers. Herein, we describe our efforts toward this goal. The structure guided optimization of a singleton high throughput screening hit in which the potency against all three PIM isoforms was increased >10,000-fold to yield compounds with pan PIM K is < 10 pM, nanomolar cellular potency, and in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia Pim-dependent tumor model is described. PMID:24900629

  2. Creative Environmental Education Activities for Children. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority (Land Between the Lakes), Golden Pond, KY.

    Twenty-seven activities have been compiled to assist teachers in incorporating environmental methods and techniques into their preschool curricula. These activities are designed to complement the classroom curriculum and heighten participant awareness and appreciation of environmental resources and relationships. Each activity includes: (1)…

  3. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  4. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  5. Anticonvulsant and analgesic activities of crude extract and its fractions of the defensive secretion from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s) from the Mediterranean sponge, Spongia officinalis with anticonvulsant and analgesic activities. We investigated the efficacy of crude extract and its semi-purified fractions (F1-F3) of the defensive secretion from Spongia officinalis for their in vivo anticonvulsant activity using the pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) seizure model and analgesic activity using the writhing test in mice. Among the series the crude extract exhibited interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. Similarly the fraction F2 showed a partial protection of mice from PTZ-induced seizure and interesting analgesic activity in a dose dependent manner. The purification and the determination of chemical structure(s) of compound(s) of this active fraction are under investigation. PMID:22494441

  6. Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Furlong, Lisa

    This guide includes hundreds of hands-on, engaging activities designed to meet the unique needs of after-school programs, camps, and recreation centers. The activities teach the skills of creative conflict resolution to school-age children through games, cooperative team challenges, drama, crafts, music, and cooking. It includes easy-to-implement…

  7. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  8. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  9. Project CRAFT: Culturally Responsive and Family Focused Training: A Learning Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Deborah; Chan, Sam; Brekken, Linda; Lynch, Eleanor W.; Valverde, Aracelly

    This learning activities guide was developed as part of Project CRAFT (Culturally Responsive and Family Focused Training), an effort to train service providers in California in ways of working with young children (particularly those with disabilities) and their families from diverse cultural backgrounds. The learning activities are intended to be…

  10. Planetary Geology: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide discusses planetary geology. Exercises are grouped into five units: (1) introduction to geologic processes; (2) impact cratering activities; (3) planetary atmospheres; (4) planetary surfaces; and (5) geologic mapping. Suggested introductory exercises are noted at the beginning of each exercise. Each activity includes an…

  11. A Guide to Staff Development Activities, Using a Florida Conference as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Lester E., Jr., Ed.; Ciccone, Russell A., Ed.

    Staff development activities are the subject of a resource guide directed at educators of migrant children. One county participating in the Florida Migratory Child Compensatory Program was selected to serve as a model. Planning for activities should be individually-based, problem-oriented, goal-directed, time-factored, and participant-controlled.…

  12. Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

    This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

  13. Aeronautics: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide, developed for students in grades 2-4, discusses the field of aeronautics. It begins with education standards and skill matrices for the classroom activities, a description of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aeronautics mission, and a brief history of aeronautics. Activities are written for the…

  14. The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; McLean, Bernice R.

    This educators guide discusses the brain and contains activities on neuroscience. Activities include: (1) "The Space Life Sciences"; (2) "Space Neuroscience: A Special Area within the Space Life Sciences"; (3) "Space Life Sciences Research"; (4) "Neurolab: A Special Space Mission to Study the Nervous System"; (5) "The Nervous System"; (6)…

  15. Green Thumbs: A Kid's Activity Guide to Indoor and Outdoor Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie

    This guide contains indoor and outdoor gardening activities for children. The activities teach children how plants live and grow; how the weather, temperature, and seasons affect all living things; how living things come out of seeds and soil; how the birds, earthworms, bees, and toads help in the garden; and how the whole environment works…

  16. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  17. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  18. Synergic co-activation of muscles in elbow flexion via fractional Brownian motion.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shyang; Hsyu, Ming-Chun; Cheng, Hsiu-Yao; Hsieh, Sheng-Hwu

    2008-12-31

    In reflex and volitional actions, co-activations of agonist and antagonist muscles are believed to be present. Recent studies indicate that such co-activations can be either synergic or dyssynergic. The aim of this paper is to investigate if the co-activations of biceps brachii, brachialis, and triceps brachii during volitional elbow flexion are in the synergic or dyssynergic state. In this study, two groups with each containing six healthy male volunteers participated. Each person of the first group performed 30 trials of volitional elbow flexion while each of the second group performed 30 trials of passive elbow flexion as control experiments. Based on the model of fractional Brownian motion, the intensity and frequency information of the surface electromyograms (EMGs) could be extracted simultaneously. No statistically significant changes were found in the control group. As to the other group, results indicated that the surface EMGs of all five muscle groups were temporally synchronized in frequencies with persistent intensities during each elbow flexion. In addition, the mean values of fractal dimensions for rest and volitional flexion states revealed significant differences with P < 0.01. The obtained positive results suggest that these muscle groups work together synergically to facilitate elbow flexion during the co-activations.

  19. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  20. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: a comparative study with four different fractions.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-11

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14±2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  1. A Guide to Microsoft Active Directory (AD) Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, J

    2002-04-29

    The goal of this paper is to facilitate the design process for those DOE sites that are currently engaged in designing their Active Directory (AD) network. It is a roadmap to enable analysis of the complicated design tradeoffs associated with Active Directory Design. By providing discussion of Active Directory design elements which are permanent and costly to change once deployed, the hope is to minimize the risks of sponsoring failed designs, or joining existing infrastructures not suitable to programmatic needs. Specifically, most Active Directory structures will fall under one of three common designs: Single Domain, Single Forest with Multiple Domains, or Multiple Forests. Each has benefits and concerns, depending on programmatic and organizational structures. The comparison of these three approaches will facilitate almost any Active Directory design effort. Finally, this paper describes some best practices to consider when designing Active Directory based on three years of research and experience.

  2. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  3. Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 μM, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following

  4. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. PMID:27547805

  5. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables.

  6. Photoinductive activity of humic acid fractions with the presence of Fe(III): the role of aromaticity and oxygen groups involved in fractions.

    PubMed

    Ou, Xiaoxia; Chen, Shuo; Quan, Xie; Zhao, Huimin

    2008-06-01

    Relationship between the photoinductive activity and the properties of humic acids (HA) fractions were investigated with and without Fe(III). Three fractions were separated based on the molecular weight (M(w)) and were obtained following the order of M(w): F(A)>F(B)>F(C). Compared to F(A) and F(B), photodegradation of atrazine under simulated sunlight was much faster in solution containing F(C), whose structure was dominated by greater aromaticity, more oxygen groups and fluorophores. The interaction of HA fractions and Fe(III) was studied using fluorescence spectrometry and F(C) had the largest quenching constant. The capacity of electron transfer, estimated from the amount of photoformed Fe(II), was also highest for F(C). Thus, the Fe(III)-F(C) complex was efficient in phototransformation of atrazine in nearly neutral aqueous solutions. These results suggest that the aromaticity and oxygen groups content of HA exert great influence on the binding ability of metals and on the fate of pollutants in natural waters.

  7. Argonaute2 cleaves the anti-guide strand of siRNA during RISC activation.

    PubMed

    Rand, Tim A; Petersen, Sean; Du, Fenghe; Wang, Xiaodong

    2005-11-18

    The mRNA-cleavage step of RNA interference is mediated by an endonuclease, Argonaute2 (Ago2), within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Ago2 uses one strand of the small interfering (si) RNA duplex as a guide to find messenger RNAs containing complementary sequences and cleaves the phosphodiester backbone at a specific site measured from the guide strand's 5' end. Here, we show that both strands of siRNA get loaded onto Ago2 protein in Drosophila S2 cell extracts. The anti-guide strand behaves as a RISC substrate and is cleaved by Ago2. This cleavage event is important for the removal of the anti-guide strand from Ago2 protein and activation of RISC.

  8. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  9. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  10. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  11. Texture Guided Active Appearance Model Propagation for Prostate Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    Fusion of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images during TRUS guided prostate biopsy improves localization of the malignant tissues. Segmented prostate in TRUS and MRI improve registration accuracy and reduce computational cost of the procedure. However, accurate segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images can be a challenging task due to low signal to noise ratio, heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate, and imaging artifacts like speckle noise and shadow. We propose to use texture features from approximation coefficients of Haar wavelet transform for propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis of prior shape and texture informations of the prostate from the training data. The parameters are then modified with prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve optimal prostate segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient value of 0.95±0.01, and mean segmentation time of 0.72±0.05 seconds when validated on 25 TRUS images, grabbed from video sequences, in a leave-one-out validation framework. Our proposed model performs computationally efficient accurate prostate segmentation in presence of intensity heterogeneity and imaging artifacts.

  12. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Solid Waste and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It is divided into three activity levels: awareness, transitional, and operational. The activity sequence is designed to motivate students toward a concern for environmental quality, take action related to particular…

  14. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  15. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  16. Polyphenolics from various extracts/fractions of red onion (Allium cepa) peel with potent antioxidant and antimutagenic activities.

    PubMed

    Singh, Brahma N; Singh, B R; Singh, R L; Prakash, D; Singh, D P; Sarma, B K; Upadhyay, G; Singh, H B

    2009-06-01

    In order to determine antioxidant activity, the five extracts/fractions of red onion peel were studied for their total content of phenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), antioxidant activity (AOA), free radical scavenging activity (FRSA), assayed by DPPH radical in the terms of anti-radical power (ARP) and reducing power (RP), expressed as ascorbic acid equivalents (ASE)/ml. High TPC (384.7 +/- 5.0 mg GAE/g), TFC (165.2+/- 3.2 mg QE/g), AOA (97.4 +/- 7.6%), ARP (75.3 +/-4.5) and RP (1.6 +/-0.3 ASE/ml) were found for the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction. EA fraction had markedly higher antioxidant capacity than butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) in preventive or scavenging capacities against FeCl3-induced lipid peroxidation, protein fragmentation, hydroxyl (site-specific and non-site-specific), superoxide anion and nitric oxide radicals. EA fraction also showed dose dependent antimutagenic activity by following the inhibition of tobacco-induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium strains (TA102) and hydroxyl radical-induced nicking in plasmid pUC18 DNA. HPLC and MS/MS analysis showed the presence of ferulic, gallic, protocatechuic acids, quercetin and kaempferol. The large amount of polyphenols contained in EA fraction may cause its strong antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. This information shows that EA fraction of red onion peel can be used as natural antioxidant in nutraceutical preparations. PMID:19425188

  17. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  18. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized. PMID:26099240

  19. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized.

  20. Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Calories Burned per Hour Hiking Light gardening/yard work Dancing Golf (walking and carrying clubs) ... Bicycling (less than 10 mph) Downhill skiing Dancing Gardening Golf (on foot) Hiking (flat ground) Horseback riding ...

  1. Exploring the Moon: A teacher's guide with activities for Earth and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Martel, Linda M. V.; Bays, Brooks G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This guide contains educational materials designed for use in upper elementary through high schools with the Lunar Sample Disk. A set of thirty-six 35-mm slides complements the activities in this guidebook. The book contains: (1) information on the Lunar Sample Disk; (2) a curriculum content matrix; (3) a teacher's guide; (4) moon ABC's fact sheet; (5) rock ABC's fact sheet; (6) progress in Lunar Science chart; (7) seventeen activities; (8) a resource section for each unit; (9) a glossary; and (10) a list of NASA educational resources.

  2. Development of Light-Activated CRISPR Using Guide RNAs with Photocleavable Protectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Piyush K; Ramanan, Vyas; Schepers, Arnout G; Dalvie, Nisha S; Panda, Apekshya; Fleming, Heather E; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2016-09-26

    The ability to remotely trigger CRISPR/Cas9 activity would enable new strategies to study cellular events with greater precision and complexity. In this work, we have developed a method to photocage the activity of the guide RNA called "CRISPR-plus" (CRISPR-precise light-mediated unveiling of sgRNAs). The photoactivation capability of our CRISPR-plus method is compatible with the simultaneous targeting of multiple DNA sequences and supports numerous modifications that can enable guide RNA labeling for use in imaging and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27554600

  3. Trichomonas vaginalis: identification of a phospholipase A-dependent hemolytic activity in a vesicular subcellular fraction.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito D; González-Salazar, Francisco; Lozano-Garza, Hector G; Cortes-Gutierrez, Elva I; Palaclos-Corona, Rebeca; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia G; Ramírez-Bon, Enrique; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2003-02-01

    Trichomonad total extracts (TTE), or vesicular (P30) and soluble (530) subcellular fractions from 3 pathogenic Trichomonas vaginalis strains (GT-3. GT-13. and GT-15), lysed both human and Sprague-Dawley rat erythrocytes in a time- and dose-dependent manner. The entire hemolytic activity of TTE was located in P30, showing 2 peaks of maximum activity, one at pH 6.0 and another at pH 8.0. in the presence of 1 mM Ca2+. Hemolytic activity on rat erythrocytes was greater at pH 6.0 16.71 +/- 0.33 hemolytic units IHU]/mg/hr to 11.60 +/- 0.24 HU/mg/hr) than at pH 8.0 (3.81 +/- 0.30 HU/mg/hr to 5.75 +/- 0.65 HU/mg/hr). and it was greater than that on human red blood cells at pH 6.0 (2.67 +/- 0.19 HU/mg/hr to 4.08 +/- 0.15 HU/mg/hr) or pH 8.0 (2.24 +/- 0.0 9 HU/mg/hr to 2.81 +/- 0.06 HU/mg/hr). The alkaline and acidic hemolytic activity diminished (60-93% at pH 6.0 and 78-93% at pH 8.0) by the effect of 80 microM Rosenthal's inhibitor, which also inhibited 27-45% and 29-54% trichomonad alkaline and acidic phospholipase A activities, respectively. Vesicles, vacuoles, and hydrogenosomes were rich in P30. Trichomonas vaginalis has a hemolytic PLA, which could be involved in its cytopathogenic mechanism. PMID:12659311

  4. Short fungal fractions of β-1,3 glucans affect platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyneste, Hélène; Charlet, Rogatien; Guerardel, Yann; Choteau, Laura; Bauters, Anne; Tardivel, Meryem; François, Nadine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Soloviev, Dmitry; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are capable of binding, aggregating, and internalizing microorganisms, which enhances the elimination of pathogens from the blood. The yeast Candida albicans is a pathobiont causing life-threatening invasive infections. Its cell wall contains β-1,3 glucans that are known to trigger a wide range of host cell activities and to circulate during infection. We studied the effect of β-1,3 glucan fractions (BGFs) consisting of diglucosides (Glc2), tetraglucosides (Glc4), and pentaglucosides (Glc5) on human platelets, their mechanisms of action, and their possible impact on host defenses. The effect of BGFs on the coagulation process was determined by measuring thrombin generation. Platelets pretreated with BGFs were analyzed in terms of activation, receptor expression, aggregation, and adhesion to neutrophils and to C. albicans The results show that BGFs affected the endogenous thrombin potential in a concentration-dependent manner. For platelet activation, BGFs at a low concentration (2 μmol/l) reduced ATP release and prevented the phosphorylation of protein kinase C. BGFs diminished the expression of P-selectin and the activation of αIIbβ3 BGFs decreased platelet aggregation and the interaction between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils, fibrinogen, and C. albicans GLc5 decreased ATP release and TGF-β1 production in response to TLR4 upregulation in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but TLR4 blockage abolished the effect of BGFs on platelets. This study provides evidence that fungal pentaglucosides modulate platelet activity mediated via TLR4 stimulation and reduce platelet-neutrophil interaction. PMID:27288438

  5. Renin-Angiotensin Activation and Oxidative Stress in Early Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Negi, Smita I; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veleder, Emir; Jones, Dean P; Fan, Tai-Hwang M; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Danilov, Sergei M; Fukai, Tohru; Dudley, Samuel C

    2015-01-01

    Animal models have suggested a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and subsequent cardiac oxidation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Nevertheless, RAS blockade has failed to show efficacy in treatment of HFpEF. We evaluated the role of RAS activation and subsequent systemic oxidation in HFpEF. Oxidative stress markers were compared in 50 subjects with and without early HFpEF. Derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROMs), F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs), and ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione (E h GSH) and cysteine (E h CyS) were measured. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels and activity were measured. On univariate analysis, HFpEF was associated with male sex (p = 0.04), higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.003), less oxidized E h CyS (p = 0.001), lower DROMs (p = 0.02), and lower IsoP (p = 0.03). Higher BMI (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and less oxidized E h CyS (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4) maintained associations with HFpEF on multivariate analysis. Though ACE levels were higher in early HFpEF (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05), ACE activity was similar to that in controls. HFpEF is not associated with significant systemic RAS activation or oxidative stress. This may explain the failure of RAS inhibitors to alter outcomes in HFpEF. PMID:26504834

  6. Antioxidant activity measured in different solvent fractions obtained from Mentha spicata Linn.: an analysis by ABTS*+ decolorization assay.

    PubMed

    Arumugam, Ponnan; Ramamurthy, Perumal; Santhiya, Sathiyavedu Thyagarajan; Ramesh, Arabandi

    2006-01-01

    Antioxidant compounds are abundantly available in plants and play an important role in scavenging free radicals, thus providing protection to humans against oxidative DNA damage. Mentha spicata Linn., commonly called spearmint, belongs to the family lamiaceae. It was selected in the present study because Mentha extracts have antioxidant properties due to the presence of eugenol, caffeic acid, rosmarinic acid and alpha-tocopherol. Four solvent fractions (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water) of ethanolic extract of dried leaves powder of M. spicata were analyzed for total antioxidant activity (TAA) and relative antioxidant activity (RAA) and compared with standard antioxidants such as Quercetin, beta-carotene, L-ascorbic acid and glutathione using ABTS*+ decolorization assay (ABTS/Potassium persulphate). The antioxidant activity was assumed to be from the total phenolic content of the ethanolic extract. Total phenolics are found to be highest in ethyl acetate fraction (54 mg/g) and least in hexane fraction (13 mg/g) and more or less similar in water and chloroform fractions (30-32 mg/g). TAA is found to be less in hexane and chloroform fractions (<53% at 50 microg/ml) and highest in ethyl acetate (95% at 20 microg/ml) and water (84% at 30 microg/ml) fractions. The RAA of ethyl acetate fraction is 1.1 compared to quercetin (at 5 microM/ml), but greater when compared to beta-carotene (15 microM/ml), L-ascorbic acid (15 microM/ml) and glutathione (15 microM/ml). The RAAs with these antioxidants are in the range of 1.31 -1.6. The values of RAAs for water fraction also show similar trend and are in the range of 1.0-1.4. The antioxidant activities of the solvent factions are closely related to the content of total phenolics present in them.

  7. Defining the Active Fraction of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Using a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Garonzik, Samira M.; Lenhard, Justin R.; Forrest, Alan; Holden, Patricia N.; Bulitta, Jϋrgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the presence of varying concentrations of human serum (HS) in vitro to quantify the fraction of daptomycin that is ‘active’. Time kill experiments were performed with daptomycin (0 to 256 mg/L) against two MRSA strains at log-phase growth, in the presence of HS (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) combined with Mueller-Hinton broth. Daptomycin ≥ 2 mg/L achieved 99.9% kill within 8 h at all HS concentrations; early killing activity was slightly attenuated at higher HS concentrations. After 1 h, bacterial reduction of USA300 upon exposure to daptomycin 4 mg/L ranged from -3.1 to -0.5 log10CFU/mL in the presence of 0% to 70% HS, respectively. Bactericidal activity was achieved against both strains at daptomycin ≥ 4 mg/L for all fractions of HS exposure. A mechanism-based mathematical model (MBM) was developed to estimate the active daptomycin fraction at each %HS, comprising 3 bacterial subpopulations differing in daptomycin susceptibility. Time-kill data were fit with this MBM with excellent precision (r2 >0.95). The active fraction of daptomycin was estimated to range from 34.6% to 25.2% at HS fractions of 10% to 70%, respectively. Despite the reported low unbound fraction of daptomycin, the impact of protein binding on the activity of daptomycin was modest. The active fraction approach can be utilized to design in vitro experiments and to optimize therapeutic regimens of daptomycin in humans. PMID:27284923

  8. Targeted Gene Activation Using RNA-Guided Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander; Woods, Wendy S; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) system and its adaptation for targeted manipulation of DNA in diverse species has revolutionized the field of genome engineering. In particular, the fusion of catalytically inactive Cas9 to any number of transcriptional activator domains has resulted in an array of easily customizable synthetic transcription factors that are capable of achieving robust, specific, and tunable activation of target gene expression within a wide variety of tissues and cells. This chapter describes key experimental design considerations, methods for plasmid construction, gene delivery protocols, and procedures for analysis of targeted gene activation in mammalian cell lines using CRISPR-Cas transcription factors. PMID:27662880

  9. A high fraction of double-peaked narrow emission lines in powerful active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yang; Liu, Xin

    2016-11-01

    1 per cent of redshift z ˜ 0.1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) show velocity splitting of a few hundred km s-1 in the narrow emission lines in spatially integrated spectra. Such line profiles have been found to arise from the bulk motion of ionized gas clouds associated with galactic-scale outflows, merging pairs of galaxies each harbouring a supermassive black hole (SMBH), and/or galactic-scale disc rotation. It remains unclear, however, how the frequency of narrow-line velocity splitting may depend on AGN luminosity. Here we study the correlation between the fraction of Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked narrow emission lines and AGN luminosity as indicated by [O III] λ5007 emission-line luminosity L_[O III]. We combine the sample of Liu et al. at z ˜ 0.1 with a new sample of 178 Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III] emission lines at z ˜ 0.5. We select the new sample from a parent sample of 2089 Type 2 AGNs from the SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a statistically significant (˜4.2σ) correlation between L_[O III] and the fraction of objects that exhibit double-peaked narrow emission lines among all Type 2 AGNs, corrected for selection bias and incompleteness due to [O III] line width, equivalent width, splitting velocity, and/or equivalent width ratio between the two velocity components. Our result suggests that galactic-scale outflows and/or merging pairs of SMBHs are more prevalent in more powerful AGNs, although spatially resolved follow-up observations are needed to resolve the origin(s) for the narrow-line velocity splitting for individual AGNs.

  10. OBSCURING FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: IMPLICATIONS FROM RADIATION-DRIVEN FOUNTAIN MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-10

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction f{sub obs} for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, f{sub obs} for N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 22} cm{sup −2} increases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity L{sub X} in the L{sub X} = 10{sup 42–44} erg s{sup −1} range, but f{sub obs} becomes small (∼0.4) above a luminosity (∼10{sup 45} erg s{sup −1}). The behaviors of f{sub obs} can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given L{sub AGN}, f{sub obs} is always smaller (∼0.2–0.3) for a larger column density (N{sub H} ≥ 10{sup 23} cm{sup −2}). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  11. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm‑2 increases from ∼0.2 to ∼0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042–44 erg s‑1 range, but fobs becomes small (∼0.4) above a luminosity (∼1045 erg s‑1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (∼0.2–0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm‑2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  12. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; González-Hernández, Silvia; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé) leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i) ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii) sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb) and drug-resistant (RMtb) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA). These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA) of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods. PMID:21584254

  13. The Nature Specialist: A Complete Guide to Program and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lenore Hendler

    This manual contains a collection of approaches and activities for nature specialists at residential or day camps. It is organized so that the novice may use it to maximize the effectiveness of a camp program. The book is full of descriptions of various field experiments in which children can participate. Comments in section 1, "Getting Started,"…

  14. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which, whenever possible, live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. By careful selection and modification of the chapter questions, activities, and…

  15. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  16. Boundary Breakers: A Team Building Guide for Student Activity Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, John

    Boundary breakers, the modern term for "icebreakers," tear down barriers that sometimes form within student groups and organizations, and offer a low-risk way for group members to become better acquainted. This document is a "hands on" booklet that covers such boundary-breaking activities as "Send a Letter,""The Lap Game,""One-Minute Interview,"…

  17. Using Guided, Corpus-Aided Discovery to Generate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, educators have proposed a variety of active learning pedagogical approaches that focus on encouraging students to discover for themselves the principles and solutions that will engage them in learning and enhance their educational outcomes. Among these approaches are problem-based, inquiry-based, experiential, and discovery…

  18. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using your manual ... activities a couple of days a week: • Heavy gardening (digging,shoveling) • Lifting weights • Push-ups on the ...

  19. An Art Activity Guide for Teachers of Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burst, Judy; And Others

    This manual presents 48 visual art activities developed for severely disabled elementary and secondary school students. Brief explanations are presented for several handicapping conditions (cerebral palsy, Down's Syndrome, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and communication handicaps), and information is given for positioning of students and…

  20. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  1. [In vitro transdermal delivery of the active fraction of xiangfusiwu decoction based on principal component analysis].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Hao; Liu, Pei; Qian, Da-Wei; Li, Wei; Shang, Er-Xin; Duan, Jin-Ao

    2013-06-01

    The objective of the present study was to establish a method based on principal component analysis (PCA) for the study of transdermal delivery of multiple components in Chinese medicine, and to choose the best penetration enhancers for the active fraction of Xiangfusiwu decoction (BW) with this method. Improved Franz diffusion cells with isolated rat abdomen skins were carried out to experiment on the transdermal delivery of six active components, including ferulic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, protopine, tetrahydropalmatine and tetrahydrocolumbamine. The concentrations of these components were determined by LC-MS/MS, then the total factor scores of the concentrations at different times were calculated using PCA and were employed instead of the concentrations to compute the cumulative amounts and steady fluxes, the latter of which were considered as the indexes for optimizing penetration enhancers. The results showed that compared to the control group, the steady fluxes of the other groups increased significantly and furthermore, 4% azone with 1% propylene glycol manifested the best effect. The six components could penetrate through skin well under the action of penetration enhancers. The method established in this study has been proved to be suitable for the study of transdermal delivery of multiple components, and it provided a scientific basis for preparation research of Xiangfusiwu decoction and moreover, it could be a reference for Chinese medicine research. PMID:23984531

  2. Characterization and mesenteric lymph node cells-mediated immunomodulatory activity of litchi pulp polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Juan; Su, Dongxiao; Yi, Yang; Wang, Guangjin; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    Three water-soluble hetero-polysaccharides, designated LP1-3, were isolated from litchi pulp. Their structures, solution properties and immunomodulatory activities were evaluated. LP1 contained (1→4,6)-β-d-Glc and (1→4)-α-l-Gal, while LP2 contained (1→3)-α-l-Ara and (l→2)-β-d-Gal, and LP3 contained α-l-Ara and (l→4)-β-Rha. Their molecular weights ranged from 105,880 to 986,470g/mol. LP1 had a spherical conformation with hyper-branched structure and LP2 was semi-flexible chain, while the polysaccharide chains of LP3 were cross linked to form network-like conformation in solution. In addition, all fractions strongly stimulated mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-6 secretion in the dose range of 25-100μg/mL compared with untreated control group (p<0.05). LP1 exhibited the strongest stimulation of mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, which may be attributed to its unique chemical structure and chain conformation. This is the first report on the solution properties and intestinal immunity activities of polysaccharides from litchi pulp. PMID:27516297

  3. Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer Anne

    This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching

  4. Fast Identification of Radical Scavengers from Securigera varia by Combining 13C-NMR-Based Dereplication to Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sientzoff, Pacôme; Hubert, Jane; Janin, Coralie; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Renault, Jean-Hugues; Nuzillard, Jean-Marc; Harakat, Dominique; Magid, Abdulmagid Alabdul

    2015-08-14

    Securigera varia (Fabaceae) is a common herbaceous perennial plant widely growing in Europe and Asia and purposely established for erosion control, roadside planting, and soil rehabilitation. The aim of this study was to determine the radical scavenging activity of a crude methanol extract of S. varia aerial parts by using the free radical DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and to rapidly identify the compounds involved in this activity. The crude extract was initially separated in five fractions on Diaion HP20 resin and the most active part was fractionated by Centrifugal Partition Extraction (CPE). Known compounds were directly identified by a (13)C-NMR-based dereplication method. Semi-preparative high performance liquid chromatography purification experiments were further performed to identify unknown or minor active compounds. As a result, one new (13) and twelve known flavonoid glycosides together with three nitropropanoylglucopyranoses were isolated, including astragalin (1), kaempferol-3-O-(6-O-acetyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), kaempferol-3,4'-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), trifolin (4), isoquercitrin (5), hyperoside (6), isovitexin (7), isoorientin (8), isovitexin 4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (10), luteolin 7-O-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (11), apigenin 7-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (12), apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (13), 6-O-(3-nitropropanoyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), coronillin (16) and coronarian (15). 120 mg of the most active compound isoorientin against the free radical DPPH was recovered by CPE with an HPLC purity of 99%.

  5. Guided learning chemistry activities in the physical science (PSCI 1030) lab at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Barry

    2005-07-01

    Guided learning labs as alternatives to traditional style chemistry-related labs were tested in the course, Topics in Physical Science. Guided learning labs emphasized students' conceptual understanding of the science content and actively involved the instructor during the lab. The control group performed traditional lab exorcise while students who carried out the guided learning activities formed the treatment group. Both groups had similar demographic and academic backgrounds. This research compared student performances on the three labs: Density, Kinetic Theory and Chemical Reactions. Both groups completed pre-lab and post-lab quizzes and answered conceptual questions for each lab. Students also participated in a post-course quiz via email. Scores on all these assessments were compared using independent samples t tests. The treatment group outscored the control group on all summary assessments, and performed significantly better than the control group on the post-lab quizzes and conceptual questions for all three labs. Students in the treatment group demonstrated stronger Pearson's correlations between their ACT Mathematics, Science Reasoning and Reading Comprehension scores and their scores on the assessments. Student reactions to the guided learning style of lab were favorable. The implication is that guided learning labs improve conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts in a physical science lab course.

  6. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  7. T & I--Auto Service Repair. Kit No. 14. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto service repair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  8. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  9. Suited for Spacewalking. Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical and Life Science. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of spacewalking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of…

  10. T & I--Gas Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on gas welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  11. T & I--Plumbing. Kit No. 67. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on plumbing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  12. Assisting in Radiology/Imaging. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is designed for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This…

  13. T & I, Power Mechanics. Kit No. 35. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on power mechanics are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  14. Time Management. Office Occupations. Audiovisual Package. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This instructor's guide and student activity packet (together with a slide/tape presentation not available here) comprise a module for the postsecondary office occupations education competency area of time management. Modules for other competency areas are available separately. The purpose stated for the module is to help students obtain basic…

  15. Earth Science Activities: A Guide to Effective Elementary School Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Yasso, Warren E.

    The primary emphasis of this book is on new or revised earth science activities that promote concept development rather than mere verification of concepts learned by passive means. Chapter 2 describes philosophies, strategies, methods, and techniques to guide preservice and inservice teachers, school building administrators, and curriculum…

  16. Agriculture--Livestock Management. Kit No. 61. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on livestock management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. Suited for Spacewalking: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; George, Jane A. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Human Resources and Education Education Division Washington, DC Education Working Group NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas This publication is in the Public Domain and is not protected by copyright. Permission is not required for duplication.

  18. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  19. Folklife and the Federal Government. A Guide to Activities, Resources, Funds, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Linda C., Comp.

    The guide describes fifty-four diverse federal programs and activities which are potential sources of financial and other assistance to those interested in various aspects of folklife. Potential users are folk artists; folklorists; researchers in linguistics, anthropology, and ethnology; members of ethnic or regional groups involved in presenting…

  20. Living with a Star: An Educator Guide with Activities in Sun-Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator guide is designed to provide references and resource materials to K-12 educators about the connection between the sun and the earth. Chapters include: (1) "Common Questions and Answers"; (2) "Sun-Earth Connection Missions"; (3) "Website Resources"; (4) "NASA CORE Materials"; (5) "Activities"; (6) "NASA Educator Workshop Resources";…

  1. A Teacher's Activities Guide for Chinese New Year - Gung Hei Fat Choy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonoma County Superintendent of Schools, Santa Rosa, CA.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide information and activities on the Chinese New Year and on aspects of the culture and heritage of the Chinese-American. Background material is given on the history of Chinese immigration to America, the lunar calendar, the Chinese cycle of years, the Chinese zodiac, the philosophical concept of yin and…

  2. Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide discusses rockets and includes activities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focus on Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain…

  3. Building Early Literacy and Language Skills: A Resource and Activity Guide for Preschool and Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Lucy Hart; Noble, Linda Attridge; Jepson, Stacia; van den Pol, Rick

    This book is a resource and activity guide for early childhood educators and care providers that helps to enhance the development of early and emerging literacy skills in young children. Its philosophy is based on the premise that both language and literacy development begin at birth and that educators and caretakers of young children have a…

  4. An Activity Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park. Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Neil, Comp.

    Everglades National Park is recognized as one of the most threatened National Parks in the country. Human and technological intervention has affected the park's water resources, fauna and flora through the introduction of foreign species. This curriculum-based activity guide is intended for intermediate grade students. It has been designed from a…

  5. A.C.T.I.V.E. Administrator's Guide: Organizational and Administrative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    Presented is the administrative guide for Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) designed to assist school districts or agencies in training educators to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for handicapped students, prekindergarten through high school. Chapter I provides the…

  6. Assisting in the Medical Laboratory. Instructor's Guide, Students' Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a hospital, clinic, or physician's office. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The course is intended for individualized study and is…

  7. Office Occupations--Clerical--Calculators. Kit No. 75. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ada

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the clerical use of calculators are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  8. CHAD USER’S GUIDE: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) User Guide offers a short tutorial about CHAD Access; background on the CHAD Databases; background on individual studies in CHAD; and information about using CHAD data, caveats, known problems, notes, and database design and develop...

  9. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  10. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  11. T & I--Textiles, Cotton Boll. Kit No. 59. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, David

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the cotton boll are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (textiles). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  12. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  13. Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA): More than Hearing and Better than Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, James Brian, II; Fornari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA) are podcast-delivered instruction designed to facilitate learning through all-body experiments. Instruction by MAGA has undergone preliminary testing in an introductory physics course at Central Michigan University. Topics are currently focused on mechanics and range from discovering the differences between…

  14. Health Occupations--Thermometer. Kit No. 2. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the oral thermometer are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  15. T & I--Graphics, Rubber Stamp. Kit No. 90. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on making a rubber stamp are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (graphics). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  16. A Curriculum Guide for Industrial Arts Activities for Children with Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael J.; And Others

    The course guide contained in this document was developed to provide industrial arts instructors with some understanding of emotional disturbances and remedial objectives which can be stressed with mainstreamed emotionally disturbed children through industrial arts activities. Major discussion centers on (1) laws, legislation, and regulations…

  17. Medical Asepsis. Kit No. 302. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Gloria

    This instructor's manual and student learning guide comprise a module on medical asepsis for a secondary-level health occupations program. The six activities in the module cover medical asepsis terms; ways organisms spread; types of medical asepsis; aseptic equipment care; proper handwashing; and procedures for using masks, gloves, and gowns.…

  18. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  19. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  20. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  1. Partners against Hate Program Activity Guide: Helping Children Resist Bias and Hate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotorson, Michael

    This guide provides parents, educators, and other adults with tools and strategies to engage in constructive discussions and activities about the causes and effects of prejudice and bias-motivated behavior and to intervene when needed with children who engage in such behavior. Though it targets elementary school, much of the material is relevant…

  2. Health Occupations--Respiration Therapy Technician. Kit No. 66. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on respiration therapy technician are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  3. Health Occupations--Dental Assistant. Kit No. 62. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on a dental assistant are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  4. Distributive Education--Fashion Show. Kit No. 88. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion shows are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  5. For Spacious Skies Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, C. Whitney; Borden, Jack

    Despite the fact that the sky is the most dominant feature of our surroundings, it plays the role of an unseen background for may objects. It is the intent of this guide to bring about an awareness of the sky to young people. Topics for activities include: (1) "Sky Awareness"; (2) "Compass"; (3) "Hand Lens"; (4) "Prism"; (5) "Binoculars"; (6)…

  6. Optics: Light, Color, and Their Uses. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This educator's guide from discusses optics, light, color and their uses. Activities include: (1) "Reflection of Light with a Plane (Flat) Mirror--Trace a Star"; (2) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a 90-Degree Angle"; (3) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a Number of…

  7. Cabinetmaking. Kit No. 13. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gull, Gaynell

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cabinetmaking are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  8. Working in Pharmacies. Instructor's Guide. Student's Manual. Student Learning Activities. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; And Others

    This document combines three separately bound volumes, a student manual, an instructor's guide, and student learning activities designed for students who are either in beginning-level pharmacy technician courses or considering careers in pharmacy. The material is intended to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The…

  9. T & I--Arc Welding. Kit No. 86. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on arc welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  10. Office Occupations--Business Communications. Kit No. 20. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on business communications are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  11. Office Occupations--Accounting. Kit No. 8. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on accounting are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  12. T & I--Building Construction, Safety. Kit No. 1. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building construction safety are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  13. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  14. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  15. Bubble Festival: Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline; Willard, Carolyn

    This learning station guide adapts the Bubble Festival, an all-school event, for individual classrooms. It presents students with a variety of different challenges at learning stations set up around the classroom. The activities are student-centered and involve open-ended investigations. Also included are ways to extend students' experiences at…

  16. Nature's for ME. Preschool Environmental and Recycling Activity Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Diana, Ed.

    Environmental attitudes and behaviors established during the preschool years provide the basis for a lifetime of responsible actions. Each activity in this guide is designed to stand alone and have been arranged by key experiences (classification, number concepts, representation, seriation, spatial relations, and time) and by environmental topics…

  17. Office Occupations--Accounting, Payroll. Kit No. 64. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on payroll management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations (accounting). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  18. Comet Kohoutek, 1973-1974, A Teachers' Guide with Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robert D.

    This teacher's guide provides background information, curriculum source materials, and suggested class activities for class discussion and study. Information related to the discovery of the comet is presented as well as photographic and schematic pictures showing the sky through which the comet travels. Historical data regarding comets of the past…

  19. Agriculture--Forestry. Kit No. 31. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics, distributive…

  20. Cosmetology. Kit No. 3. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Thelma

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cosmetology are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  1. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  2. Agriculture--Agricultural Sales and Service. Kit No. 21. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caines, Royce

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural sales and service are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  3. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Parent/Community In-Service Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    This inservice guide for elementary school teachers provides a competency based nutrition course to be used to increase parent/community participation in nutrition education activities and to lead parents toward providing better nutrition for themselves and their children. The curriculum is presented in six lessons which cover the following…

  4. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide explains microgravity, provides information on the history of microgravity, the domains of microgravity research and introduces classroom activities. Among the contents are the following: (1) "First, What Is Gravity?"; (2) "What Is Microgravity?"; (3) "Creating Microgravity"; (4) "The Microgravity Environment of Orbiting…

  5. T & I--Metalworking, Forging. Kit No. 55. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forging are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (metalworking). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  6. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferative activity between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and fraction PII separated by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Siqun; Chai, Wenjie; Guo, Gai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Dai, Jun; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and its fraction PII that were separated by Biologic low pressure (LP) chromatography system followed by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. Results of in vitro experiments showed that the reducing power and the scavenging capacity of KCCP towards hydroxyl radicals (OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased in a concentration dependent manner and were stronger than that of fraction PII. Results of the antiproliferative effect of KCCP and fraction PII on cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophagus cancer Eca109 cells, and mouse ascites hepatomas H22 cells indicated that both KCCP and its fraction PII possessed inhibitory activity on all the tested cancer cells at a dose- and time-dependent manner, with KCCP showing higher inhibitory activity than that of fraction PII. The present study demonstrates that KCCP and its fraction PII have antioxidant properties that may help fight cancers. PMID:26809376

  7. Using activity-based costing to guide strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Dowless, R M

    1997-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is not widely used in the healthcare industry. Some healthcare provider organizations are considering ABC, however, because of its potential to improve resource management and thereby maximize efficiency. ABC supports better pricing practices through more accurate costing and can be used to identify underutilized resources as well as associated costs that can be reduced. ABC can be a useful tool for determining the cost of unused capacity and for making strategic management decisions that will reduce costs. PMID:10167847

  8. Classic to Contemporary: Famous Artists and Activities. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists' Biographies and Enrichment/Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; Lewis-Spicer, Lisa

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  9. Let's Meet Famous Artists. A Creative Art Activity Book. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists and Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; And Others

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  10. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  11. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization.

  12. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  13. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  14. Guiding Catalytically Active Particles with Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Dietrich, S.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2016-07-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemiosmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemiosmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemiosmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials or follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  15. Suited for spacewalking: Teacher's guide with activities for physical and life science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Manning, Cheryl A.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    1994-01-01

    Space walking has captured the imagination of generations of children and adults since science-fiction authors first placed their characters on the Moon. This publication is an activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The chart on curriculum application at the back of the book is designed to help teachers incorporate activities into various subject areas.

  16. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  17. Adjuvant effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin active fraction on antivirulent property of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Alexandar, V; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, application of single QSI may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. In such conditions, combination of QSIs can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. In the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fraction (PAF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at their sub-MICs using standard methods followed by analysis of their mode of action on QS using TLC and molecular docking. There was significant improvement in action of CIP when it was combined with PAF in reducing the QS controlled virulence factors (p < 0.05), motilities and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. TLC profiles of QS signals [(Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)] indicated that CIP in combination with PAF, besides showing inhibitory action on production of AHLs, also modulated production and inactivation of PQS. Docking scores also supported the observation. We therefore hypothesize that PAF-CIP combination, having improved anti-virulence property; can be exploited as a potent drug pairing against P. aeruginosa. PMID:26620081

  18. Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Polysaccharide Fraction of Curcuma longa Extract (NR-INF-02).

    PubMed

    Illuri, Ramanaiah; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Anandakumar, Senthilkumar; Murugan, Sasikumar; Joseph, Joshua A; Mundkinajeddu, Deepak; Agarwal, Amit; Chandrasekaran, C V

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the safety and anti-inflammatory effects of polysaccharide fraction (F1) of Curcuma longa extract (NR-INF-02) in classical rodent models of inflammation. F1 was evaluated for its acute oral toxicity and found to be safe upto 5000 mg/kg body weight in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity of F1 was evaluated in acute (carrageenan - induced paw edema; xylene - induced ear edema) and chronic (cotton pellet - induced granuloma) models of inflammation. The results of the study demonstrated that F1 significantly (p ≤ 0.05) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw edema at 1 h and 3 h at doses of 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg body weight in rats. Also, F1 at doses of 15.75, 31.5 and 63 mg/kg significantly inhibited the xylene induced ear edema in mice. In a chronic model, F1 at 11.25, 22.5 and 45 mg/kg doses produced significant reduction of wet and dry weights of cotton pellets in rats. Overall results indicated that F1 of NR-INF-02 significantly attenuated acute and chronic inflammation in rodent models. This study emphasizes on the importance of Curcuma longa polysaccharide's role in acute and chronic inflammation.

  19. Reconstitution of coronary vasculature by an active fraction of Geum japonicum in ischemic hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hao; Cheng, Lei; Lin, Xiaoli; Zhou, Xiaping; Cai, Zhiming; Li, Ming

    2014-02-01

    Chronic coronary heart disease (cCHD) is characterized by atherosclerosis, which progressively narrows the coronary artery lumen and impairs myocardial blood flow. Restoration of occluded coronary vessels with newly formed collaterals remains an ideal therapeutic approach due to the need for redirecting blood flow into the ischemic heart. In this study, we investigated the effect of an active fraction isolated from Geum joponicum (AFGJ) on angiogenesis in cCHD hearts. Our results demonstrated that AFGJ not only enhanced capillary tube formation of endothelial cells, but also promoted the growth of new coronary collaterals (at the diameter 0.021-0.21 mm) in the ischemic region of hearts in rat cCHD model. Our study also indicated that the growth of new collaterals in ischemic hearts resulted in improved functional recovery of the cCHD hearts as demonstrated by ECG and echocardiography analyses. These data suggest that AFGJ may provide a novel therapeutic method for effective treatment of cCHD.

  20. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source.

  1. Fractional flow reserve versus angiography in guiding management to optimize outcomes in non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (FAMOUS-NSTEMI): Rationale and design of a randomized controlled clinical trial☆

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Layland, Jamie; Sood, Arvind; Curzen, Nick P.; Balachandran, Kanarath P.; Das, Raj; Junejo, Shahid; Henderson, Robert A.; Briggs, Andrew H.; Ford, Ian; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2013-01-01

    Background In patients with acute non–ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), coronary arteriography is usually recommended; but visual interpretation of the angiogram is subjective. We hypothesized that functional assessment of coronary stenosis severity with a pressure-sensitive guide wire (fractional flow reserve [FFR]) would have additive diagnostic, clinical, and health economic utility as compared with angiography-guided standard care. Methods and design A prospective multicenter parallel-group 1:1 randomized controlled superiority trial in 350 NSTEMI patients with ≥1 coronary stenosis ≥30% severity (threshold for FFR measurement) will be conducted. Patients will be randomized immediately after coronary angiography to the FFR-guided group or angiography-guided group. All patients will then undergo FFR measurement in all vessels with a coronary stenosis ≥30% severity including culprit and nonculprit lesions. Fractional flow reserve will be disclosed to guide treatment in the FFR-guided group but not disclosed in the “angiography-guided” group. In the FFR-guided group, an FFR ≤0.80 will be an indication for revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass surgery, as appropriate. The primary outcome is the between-group difference in the proportion of patients allocated to medical management only compared with revascularization. Secondary outcomes include the occurrence of cardiac death or hospitalization for myocardial infarction or heart failure, quality of life, and health care costs. The minimum and average follow-up periods for the primary analysis are 6 and 18 months, respectively. Conclusions Our developmental clinical trial will address the feasibility of FFR measurement in NSTEMI and the influence of FFR disclosure on treatment decisions and health and economic outcomes. PMID:24093845

  2. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  3. Antioxidant activity of fractionated extracts of rhizomes of high-altitude Podophyllum hexandrum: role in radiation protection.

    PubMed

    Chawla, Raman; Arora, Rajesh; Kumar, Raj; Sharma, Ashok; Prasad, Jagdish; Singh, Surendar; Sagar, Ravinder; Chaudhary, Pankaj; Shukla, Sandeep; Kaur, Gurpreet; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar; Puri, Satish Chander; Dhar, Kanaya Lal; Handa, Geeta; Gupta, Vinay Kumar; Qazi, Ghulam Nabi

    2005-05-01

    Whole extract of rhizomes of Podophyllum hexandrum has been reported earlier by our group to render whole-body radioprotection. High-altitude P. hexandrum (HAPH) was therefore fractionated using solvents of varying polarity (non-polar to polar) and the different fractions were designated as, n-hexane (HE), chloroform (CE), alcohol (AE), hydro-alcohol (HA) and water (WE). The total polyphenolic content (mg% of quercetin) was determined spectrophotometrically, while. The major constituents present in each fraction were identified and characterized using LC-APCI/MS/MS. In vitro screening of the individual fractions, rich in polyphenols and lignans, revealed several bioactivities of direct relevance to radioprotection e.g. metal-chelation activity, antioxidant activity, DNA protection, inhibition of radiation (250 Gy) and iron/ascorbate-induced lipid peroxidation (LPO). CE exhibited maximum protection to plasmid (pBR322) DNA in the plasmid relaxation assay (68.09% of SC form retention). It also showed maximal metal chelation activity (41.59%), evaluated using 2,2'-bipyridyl assay, followed by AE (31.25%), which exhibited maximum antioxidant potential (lowest absorption unit value: 0.0389 +/- 0.00717) in the reducing power assay. AE also maximally inhibited iron/ascorbate-induced and radiation-induced LPO (99.76 and 92.249%, respectively, at 2000 microg/ml) in mouse liver homogenate. Under conditions of combined stress (radiation (250 Gy) + iron/ascorbate), at a concentration of 2000 microg/ml, HA exhibited higher percentage of inhibition (93.05%) of LPO activity. HA was found to be effective in significantly (p < 0.05) lowering LPO activity over a wide range of concentrations as compared to AE. The present comparative study indicated that alcoholic (AE) and hydro-alcoholic (HA) fractions are the most promising fractions, which can effectively tackle radiation-induced oxidative stress.

  4. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [ SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  5. Activity Supplement for Puedo Leer: Teacher's Guide and Use of Charts. Program for Initial Reading in Spanish for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Sara

    This activity supplement is intended to accompany the Puedo Leer/I Can Read Teacher's Guide for initial reading in Spanish for bilingual children. The supplement, which consists of a teacher's guide and a set of charts on card stock, provides suggestions for a wide variety of pre-reading activities and approaches, which expand on the activities…

  6. Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Methods Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5 ± 0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Results Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p = 0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. Conclusions At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®. PMID:24325935

  7. Association of guide RNA binding protein gBP21 with active RNA editing complexes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Allen, T E; Heidmann, S; Reed, R; Myler, P J; Göringer, H U; Stuart, K D

    1998-10-01

    RNA editing in Trypanosoma brucei mitochondria produces mature mRNAs by a series of enzyme-catalyzed reactions that specifically insert or delete uridylates in association with a macromolecular complex. Using a mitochondrial fraction enriched for in vitro RNA editing activity, we produced several monoclonal antibodies that are specific for a 21-kDa guide RNA (gRNA) binding protein initially identified by UV cross-linking. Immunofluorescence studies localize the protein to the mitochondrion, with a preference for the kinetoplast. The antibodies cause a supershift of previously identified gRNA-specific ribonucleoprotein complexes and immunoprecipitate in vitro RNA editing activities that insert and delete uridylates. The immunoprecipitated material also contains gRNA-specific endoribonuclease, terminal uridylyltransferase, and RNA ligase activities as well as gRNA and both edited and unedited mRNA. The immunoprecipitate contains numerous proteins, of which the 21-kDa protein, a 90-kDa protein, and novel 55- and 16-kDa proteins can be UV cross-linked to gRNA. These studies indicate that the 21-kDa protein associates with the ribonucleoprotein complex (or complexes) that catalyze RNA editing.

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation.

  9. Dichloromethane fraction of Melissa officinalis induces apoptosis by activation of intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in human leukemia cell lines.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimnezhad Darzi, Salimeh; Amirghofran, Zahra

    2013-06-01

    Various components from medicinal plants are currently used in cancer therapy because of their apoptosis-inducing effects. The present study has aimed to investigate the growth inhibitory and apoptotic effects of Melissa officinalis on tumor cells. We prepared different fractions of this plant to investigate their inhibitory effects on two leukemia cell lines, Jurkat and K562. Fractions with the highest inhibitory effects were examined for induction of apoptosis by the annexin V/propidium iodide assay and cell cycle changes by flow cytometry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction evaluated the changes in expression of apoptosis-related genes. Among different fractions, dichloromethane and n-hexane dose-dependent showed the strongest inhibitory effects on both K562 and Jurkat cells. The dichloromethane fraction significantly induced apoptosis at concentration of 50 µg/ml on Jurkat (85.66 ± 4.9%) and K562 cells (65.04 ± 0.93%) at 24 h after treatment (p < 0.002). According to cell cycle analysis, more than 70% of the cells accumulated in the sub-G1 phase when cultured in the presence of the dichloromethane fraction. This fraction up-regulated Fas and Bax mRNA expression as well as the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio according to cell type, showing its effect on the activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. The expression of apoptosis-related genes did not significantly change following treatment with the n-hexane fraction. These data indicated that the dichloromethane fraction of M. officinalis had the ability to induce apoptosis and change apoptosis-related gene expression in leukemia cells.

  10. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  11. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  12. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS.

  13. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  14. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  15. Chemical properties and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides fractions from mycelial culture of Inonotus obliquus in a ground corn stover medium.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yuling; Xu, Xiangqun; Li, Juan

    2012-10-15

    The medicinal mushroom Inonotus obliquus has been a folk remedy for a long time in East-European and Asian countries. We first reported the enhancement in production and antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharides by I. obliquus culture under lignocellulose decomposition. In this study, the two different sources of exopolysaccharides from the control medium and the lignocellulose (corn stover) containing medium by I. obliquus in submerged fermentation were fractionated and purified by chromatography. The exopolysaccharides from the corn stover-containing medium presented significantly stronger hydroxyl and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging activity than the control. Three fractions from the control medium and the corn stover-containing medium were isolated respectively. The fraction of DEPL3 from the corn stover-containing medium with the highest protein content (38.3%), mannose content (49.6%), and the lowest molecular weight (29 kDa) had the highest antioxidant activity with the lowest IC50 values. In conclusion, lignocellulose decomposition changed the chemical characterisation and significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide fractions.

  16. Hemorrhagic, coagulant and fibrino(geno)lytic activities of crude venom and fractions from mapanare (Bothrops colombiensis) snakes.

    PubMed

    Girón, María E; Salazar, Ana M; Aguilar, Irma; Pérez, John C; Sánchez, Elda E; Arocha-Piñango, Carmen L; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis; Guerrero, Belsy

    2008-01-01

    Bothrops colombiensis venom from two similar geographical locations were tested for their hemostatic functions and characterized by gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. The snakes were from Caucagua and El Guapo towns of the Venezuelan state of Miranda. Fibrino(geno)lytic, procoagulant, hemorrhagic, lethal activities, gel-filtration chromatography and SDS-PAGE profiles were analyzed and compared for both venoms. The highest hemorrhagic activity of 5.3 mug was seen in El Guapo venom while Caucagua venom had the lowest LD(50) of 5.8 mg/kg. Both venoms presented similar thrombin-like activity. El Guapo showed a factor Xa-like activity two times higher than Caucagua. Differences were observed in kallikrein-like and t-PA activities, being highest in El Guapo. Caucagua venom showed the maximum fibrin lysis. Both crude venom runs on Sephadex G-100 chromatography gave fraction SII with the high fibrinolytic activity. Proteases presented in SII fractions and eluted from Benzamidine-Sepharose (not bound to the column) provoked a fast degradation of fibrinogen alpha chains and a slower degradation of beta chains, which could possibly be due to a higher content of alpha fibrinogenases in these venoms. The fibrinogenolytic activity was decreased by metalloprotease inhibitors. The results suggested that metalloproteases in SII fractions were responsible for the fibrinolytic activity. The analysis of samples for fibrin-zymography of SII fractions showed an active band with a molecular mass of approximately 30 kDa. These results reiterate the importance of using pools of venoms for antivenom immunization, to facilitate the neutralization of the maximum potential number of toxins.

  17. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from the Mediterranean brown seaweed Cystoseira sedoides.

    PubMed

    Mhadhebi, Lamia; Laroche-Clary, Audrey; Robert, Jacque; Bouraoui, Abderrahman

    2011-12-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative activities of organic fractions from Cystoseira sedoides (Desfontaines) C. Agardh . Various fractions of C. sedoides (chloroform (F-CHCl3), ethyl acetate (F-AcOEt), and methanol (F-MeOH)) were screened for total phenol content, as well as antioxidant activity, using the stable radical 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and assays for determining the reducing power of these fractions. The anti-inflammatory properties of these fractions were assessed using the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema model. The antiproliferative activity of C. sedoides fractions was evaluated on normal Madin-Darby canine kiney (MDCK), and fibroblast cells and on cancer cell lines (A549, MCF7, and HCT15), using the ability of the cells to metabolically reduce 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) formazan dyes. The F-CHCl3 and F-AcOEt fractions showed significant total phenolic content at 55.09 and 61.30 mg gallic-acid equivalent/g dried sample, respectively. Using the DPPH method, the F-CHCl3 and the F-AcOEt fractions exhibited the strongest radical scavenging activity, with IC50 120 µg/mL for F-CHCl3 and 121 µg/mL for F-AcOEt, which approaches the activity of the powerful antioxidant standard, Trolox (IC50 = 90 µg/mL). The reducing power of the samples was in the following order: F-AcOEt > F-CHCl3  > F-MeOH fraction. The F-CHCl3 and F-AcOEt fractions of C. sedoides tested at different doses (25 and 50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p)), exhibited a dose-dependent reduction of rat paw oedema. The percentage of inhibition of oedema, 3 h after carrageenan injection, ranged from 67.71% to 73.49% and from 67.74% to 74.58%, for F-CHCl3 and F-AcOEt, respectively. Their effects are comparable with that of lysine acetylsalicylate (300 mg/kg body mass; i.p.), which is used as a reference drug with the ability to inhibit oedema by 66.14%. Our results

  18. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant.

  19. The total protein content, protein fractions and proteases activities of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera due to varrosis.

    PubMed

    Zółtowska, Krystyna; Lipiński, Zbigniew; Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata

    2005-01-01

    The proteins level and activities of acid and alkaline proteases in whole body extracts of drone prepupae of Apis mellifera naturally infested with Varroa destructor were studied. The infested and a non-infested group did not differ significantly in their total protein content. However, some differences in protein profiles were found. A lack of three protein fractions of moderate and lower molecular weight in infested prepupae was noted. Moreover, some differences in the quantity of protein in most of the fractions were observed. The activity of acid proteases from infested prepupae was lower (p < 0.05) compared with the activity of these proteases from the non-infested one group. The infested drone had higher activity of alkaline proteases than non-infested but this difference was not statisticaly significant. PMID:16841690

  20. [Estimation of Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation for Winter Wheat Based on Hyperspectral Characteristic Parameters].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Cai, Huan-jie; Li, Zhi-jun

    2015-09-01

    Estimating fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) precisely has great importance for detecting vegetation water content, energy and carbon cycle balance. Based on this, ASD FieldSpec 3 and SunScan canopy analyzer were applied to measure the canopy spectral reflectance and photosynthetically active radiation over whole growth stage of winter wheat. Canopy reflectance spectral data was used to build up 24 hyperspectral characteristic parameters and the correlation between FPAR and different spectral characteristic parameters were analyzed to establish the estimation model of FPAR for winter wheat. The results indicated that there were extremely significant correlations (p<0.01) between FPAR and hyperspectral characteristic parameters except the slope of blue edge (Db). The correlation coefficient between FPAR and the ratio of red edge area to blue edge area (VI4) was the highest, reaching at 0.836. Seven spectral parameters with higher correlation coefficient were selected to establish optimal linear and nonlinear estimation models of FPAR, and the best estimating models of FPAR were obtained by accuracy analysis. For the linear model, the inversin model between green edge and FPAR was the best, with R2, RMSE and RRMSE of predicted model reaching 0.679, 0.111 and 20.82% respectively. For the nonlinear model, the inversion model between VI2 (normalized ratio of green peak to red valley of reflectivity) and FPAR was the best, with R2, RMSE and RRMSE of predicted model reaching 0.724, 0.088 and 21.84% for. In order to further improve the precision of the model, the multiple linear regression and BP neural network methods were used to establish models with multiple high spectral parameters BP neural network model (R2=0.906, RMSE=0.08, RRMSE=16.57%) could significantly improve the inversion precision compared with the single variable model. The results show that using hyperspectral characteristic parameters to estimate FPAR of winter wheat is