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Sample records for activity guided fractionation

  1. Trypanocidal Activity of Smallanthus sonchifolius: Identification of Active Sesquiterpene Lactones by Bioassay-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Frank, F. M.; Ulloa, J.; Cazorla, S. I.; Maravilla, G.; Malchiodi, E. L.; Grau, A.; Martino, V.; Catalán, C.; Muschietti, L. V.

    2013-01-01

    In order to find novel plant-derived biologically active compounds against Trypanosoma cruzi, we isolated, from the organic extract of Smallanthus sonchifolius, the sesquiterpene lactones enhydrin (1), uvedalin (2), and polymatin B (3) by bioassay-guided fractionation technique. These compounds showed a significant trypanocidal activity against the epimastigote forms of the parasite with IC50 values of 0.84 μM (1), 1.09 μM (2), and 4.90 μM (3). After a 24 h treatment with 10 μg/mL of enhydrin or uvedalin, parasites were not able to recover their replication rate. Compounds 1 and 2 showed IC50 values of 33.4 μM and 25.0 μM against T. cruzi trypomastigotes, while polymatin B was not active. When the three compounds were tested against the intracellular forms of T. cruzi, they were able to inhibit the amastigote replication with IC50 of 5.17 μM, 3.34 μM, and 9.02 μM for 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was evaluated in Vero cells obtaining CC50 values of 46.5 μM (1), 46.8 μM (2), and 147.3 μM (3) and the selectivity index calculated. According to these results, enhydrin and uvedalin might have potentials as agents against Chagas disease and could serve as lead molecules to develop new drugs. PMID:23840260

  2. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  3. Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hua; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:25379465

  4. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and analysis of compounds with anti-influenza virus activity from Gardenia jasminoides Ellis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Quanjun; Wu, Bin; Shi, Yujing; Du, Xiaowei; Fan, Mingsong; Sun, Zhaolin; Cui, Xiaolan; Huang, Chenggang

    2012-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Fructus Gardeniae led to analysis of its bioactive natural products. After infection by influenza virus strain A/FM/1/47-MA in vivo, antiviral activity of the extracts were investigated. The target fraction was orally administered to rats and blood was collected. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo diode array detector and electrospray ion trap multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry was applied to screen the compounds absorbed into the blood. A structural characterization based on the retention time, ultraviolet spectra, parent ions and fragmentation ions was performed. Thirteen compounds were confirmed or tentatively identified. This provides an accurate profile of the composition of bioactive compounds responsible for the anti-influenza properties. PMID:22297738

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of furanocoumarins from Angelica archangelica L. roots and fruits.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Jamróz, Marta K; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2011-09-14

    Isolation and identification of the inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), obtained from the extracts of roots and fruits of Angelica archangelica L., are reported. Our results confirmed the weak inhibitory effect of Angelica roots on acetylcholinesterase activity. BChE inhibition was much more pronounced at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for hexane extracts and attained a higher rate than 50%. The TLC bioautography guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis led to the isolation and identification of imperatorin from the fruit's hexane extract and of heraclenol-2'-O-angelate from the root's hexane extract. Both compounds showed significant BChE inhibition activity with IC(50) = 14.4 ± 3.2 μM and IC(50) = 7.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively. Only C8-substituted and C5-unsubstituted furanocoumarins were active, which could supply information about the initial structures of specific BChE inhibitors. PMID:21786787

  6. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

  7. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  8. A Bio-Guided Fractionation to Assess the Inhibitory Activity of Calendula officinalis L. on the NF-κB Driven Transcription in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Elisa; Sangiovanni, Enrico; D'Ambrosio, Michele; Bosisio, Enrica; Ciocarlan, Alexandru; Fumagalli, Marco; Guerriero, Antonio; Harghel, Petru; Dell'Agli, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Calendula officinalis L. has been largely known for its topical anti-inflammatory properties; however, there are no experimental evidences about its antiphlogistic effect at the gastric level. To investigate whether marigold might exert an activity against gastric inflammation, a CH2Cl2 extract obtained from C. officinalis flowers was evaluated in vitro on the NF-κB pathway. The lipophilic extract demonstrated a significant inhibitory effect on the NF-κB driven transcription. The identification of active compounds was conducted by a bio-guided fractionation of the extract that afforded 16 fractions. Fraction J exhibited a concentration-dependent inhibitory activity on the NF-κB driven transcription and significantly contributed to the antiphlogistic effect showed by CH2Cl2 extract. The main components of fraction J were loliolide and the fucoside acetates of β-eudesmol and viridiflorol. HPLC analysis of fractions D and E led to the identification and isolation of triterpene esters that showed a concentration-dependent inhibition of the NF-κB driven transcription, with faradiol-3-myristate and the corresponding aglycone being the most active compounds. The present study provides some experimental evidences that Calendula officinalis L. may exert an anti-inflammatory activity on the gastric district by the inhibition of the NF-κB system, identifying the compounds responsible, at least in part, for the observed effect. PMID:26491463

  9. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Benovit, Simone C; Silva, Lenise L; Salbego, Joseânia; Loro, Vania L; Mallmann, Carlos A; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L(-1)) was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L(-1). Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnished E-(-)-pinocamphone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol. E-(-)-pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+)-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L(-1)) promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+)-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(-)-pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+)-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic. PMID:26221984

  10. Activity-guided fractionation and evaluation of potent antioxidants from extract of angel wings mushroom, Pleurotus porrigens (higher Basidiomycetes).

    PubMed

    Yim, Hip Seng; Chye, Fook Yee; Mah, Sook Yee; Sia, Chiaw Mei; Samuagam, Loshnie; Ho, Chun Wai

    2013-01-01

    Pleurotus porrigens is a well-known edible, wild mushroom enjoyed as a delicacy by aborigines in Sabah and as source of income for the aborigines who collect and sell them at tamu (local market). This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant activity in vitro and identify potent antioxidative components of aqueous extracts of P. porrigens. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS radical cation inhibition activity, ferric reducing/antioxidant power, and total phenolic content. Activity-guided purifications based on DPPH radical scavenging ability resulted in 5 subfractions (SF). The highest DPPH radical scavenging ability was found in SF-III and SF-IV, but all were lower than butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and α-tocopherol. Analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detectors found presence of ascorbic acid and (+)-catechin in SFs of P. porrigens, as well as some unidentified components that may have contributed to the radical scavenging ability. In conclusion, aqueous extract of P. porrigens possesses promising antioxidant activities, although they are lesser in their partially purified SFs. Nonetheless, P. porrigens could be promoted as an antioxidant-rich food as part of a normal diet that provides antioxidative benefit. PMID:23510280

  11. In vivo bioassay-guided fractionation of marine sediment extracts from the Southern California Bight, USA, for estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Schlenk, Daniel; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Irwin, Mary Ann; Xie, Lingtian; Hwang, Wendy; Reddy, Sharanya; Brownawell, Bruce J; Armstrong, Jeff; Kelly, Mike; Montagne, David E; Kolodziej, Edward P; Sedlak, David; Snyder, Shane

    2005-11-01

    The exposure and uptake of environmental estrogenic compounds have been reported in previous studies of demersal flatfish species in the central Southern California Bight (SCB), USA. The objective of this study was to evaluate the estrogenic or feminizing activity of marine sediments from the SCB by using in vivo vitellogenin (VTG) assays in male or juvenile fish. In 2003, sediments were collected near wastewater outfalls serving the counties of Los Angeles (LACSD) and Orange (OCSD), and the city of San Diego (SD), California, USA. Cultured male California halibut (CH; Paralichthys californicus) were either directly exposed to sediments for 7 d or treated with two intraperitoneal injections of sediment extract over 7 d. The 17beta-estradiol (E2) equivalent values ranged from 1 to 90 microg/kg with LACSD > SD > OCSD. Measurable concentrations of E2 were observed in all sediment extracts and ranged from 0.16 to 0.45 ng/g. Estrone (El) was only observed in sediments near the LACSD outfall (0.6 ng/g). Alkylphenols and alkylphenol ethoxylates were observed in all sediment samples, but were highest near the OCSD outfall, where concentrations of nonylphenol were 3,200 ng/g. Fractionation studies of the LACSD sediment extract collected in 2004 failed to demonstrate relationships between VTG expression and 62 analytes, including E2, which was observed in the whole extract (2.9 ng/g). Oxybenzone (1.6 ng/g) was identified in bioactive fractions as well as unknown compounds of relatively high polarity. These results indicate that estrogen receptor-based assays may underestimate environmental estrogenic activity and estrogenic compounds other than classic natural and xenoestrogens may contribute to estrogenic activity of sediments from the SCB. PMID:16398118

  12. Activity-based and fraction-guided analysis of Phyllanthus urinaria identifies loliolide as a potent inhibitor of hepatitis C virus entry.

    PubMed

    Chung, Chueh-Yao; Liu, Ching-Hsuan; Burnouf, Thierry; Wang, Guey-Horng; Chang, Shun-Pang; Jassey, Alagie; Tai, Chen-Jei; Tai, Cheng-Jeng; Huang, Ching-Jang; Richardson, Christopher D; Yen, Ming-Hong; Lin, Chun-Ching; Lin, Liang-Tzung

    2016-06-01

    Without a vaccine, hepatitis C virus (HCV) remains a global medical and socio-economic burden, predisposing about 170 million carriers worldwide to end-stage liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Although the recently developed direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have revolutionized hepatitis C treatment, most of them are unsuitable for monotherapy due to risks of resistance, thus necessitating combination with interferon (IFN)-alpha, ribavirin, or additional DAAs. More importantly, the high cost associated with the DAAs restricts their accessibility to most parts of the world. Developing novel cost-effective anti-HCV therapeutics may help expand the scope of antivirals and treatment strategies against hepatitis C. Herein, we applied an activity-based and fraction-guided analysis of extracts from the medicinal plant Phyllanthus urinaria (P. urinaria), which yielded fraction 13 (F13) as possessing the most potent inhibitory activity against early viral entry of cell-culture HCV infection. Chemical analysis (silica gel chromatography followed by ESI LC-MS plus (1)H and (13)C NMR) of F13 identified loliolide (LOD), a monoterpenoid lactone, as a novel inhibitor of HCV entry. Specifically, LOD could efficiently inactivate HCV free virus particles, abrogate viral attachment, and impede viral entry/fusion, with minimal effect on viral replication/translation, particle production, and induction of type I IFN host antiviral immune response. ELISA-based binding analysis confirmed the monoterpenoid's ability in efficiently blocking HCV particle attachment to the host cell surface. Furthermore, LOD could inhibit infection by several genotypic strains of HCV. This is the first report characterizing P. urinaria and its bioactive compound LOD as potent HCV entry inhibitors, which merit further evaluation for development as candidate antiviral agents against hepatitis C. PMID:27012176

  13. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  14. Fractional active disturbance rejection control.

    PubMed

    Li, Dazi; Ding, Pan; Gao, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-01

    A fractional active disturbance rejection control (FADRC) scheme is proposed to improve the performance of commensurate linear fractional order systems (FOS) and the robust analysis shows that the controller is also applicable to incommensurate linear FOS control. In FADRC, the traditional extended states observer (ESO) is generalized to a fractional order extended states observer (FESO) by using the fractional calculus, and the tracking differentiator plus nonlinear state error feedback are replaced by a fractional proportional-derivative controller. To simplify controller tuning, the linear bandwidth-parameterization method has been adopted. The impacts of the observer bandwidth ωo and controller bandwidth ωc on system performance are then analyzed. Finally, the FADRC stability and frequency-domain characteristics for linear single-input single-output FOS are analyzed. Simulation results by FADRC and ADRC on typical FOS are compared to demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed scheme. PMID:26928516

  15. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands, "Baking Soda and Vinegar" which…

  16. Activities: Understanding Division of Fractions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezuk, Nadine S.; Armstrong, Barbara E.

    1993-01-01

    Presents a series of five activities that introduce division of fractions through real-world situations. Discusses problems related to resurfacing a highway, painting dividing stripes on a highway, covering one area A with another area B, looking for patterns, and maximizing the result of a division problem. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  17. Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    To effectively suppress the external disturbances and parameter perturbation problem of the maglev guiding system, and improve speed and robustness, the electromagnetic guiding system is exactly linearized using state feedback method, Fractional calculus theory is introduced, the order of integer order PID control was extended to the field of fractional, then fractional order PIλDμ Controller was presented, Due to the extra two adjustable parameters compared with traditional PID controller, fractional order PIλDμ controllers were expected to show better control performance. The results of the computer simulation show that the proposed controller suppresses the external disturbances and parameter perturbation of the system effectively; the system response speed was increased; at the same time, it had flexible structure and stronger robustness.

  18. Activity-guided fractionation to characterize a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of gastric acid secretion as compared to regular coffee.

    PubMed

    Rubach, Malte; Lang, Roman; Skupin, Carola; Hofmann, Thomas; Somoza, Veronika

    2010-04-14

    In some individuals, the consumption of coffee beverages is related to symptoms of gastric irritation. Hot water steam-treatment of raw coffee beans is hypothesized to reduce the contents of stomach irritating compounds, and products to which this technology is applied are launched as stomach-friendly coffee. However, data on the effect of steam-treated coffee on gastric acid secretion are conflicting and it has not been proven yet as to which coffee components act as pro- or antisecretory stimulants. The work presented here aimed at the characterization of a coffee beverage that effectively down-regulates mechanisms of proton secretion in human gastric cells (HGT-1). At first, a regular coffee beverage was fractionated by using solvents of different polarity: water, ethylacetate, dichloromethane, and pentane. Functional assays on the proton secretory activity (PSA) of these solvent fractions revealed the least pronounced effect for the water fraction, for which quantitative analyses demonstrated the highest distribution of chlorogenic acid (95%), (beta)N-alkanoyl-5-hydroxytryptamides (55%), and N-methylpyridinium (N-MP, >99%) among all fractions. Following experiments demonstrated that HGT-1 cells treated with regular coffee fortified with N-MP at a concentration of about 20 mg/mL N-MP showed a significantly decreased PSA as compared to cells which were exposed to coffee beverages containing higher (32-34 mg/L) or lower (5 mg/L) N-MP concentrations. Results from cellular pathway analyses of transcription (ATF-1 and Akt1) and signaling (cAMP and EGFr) factors and kinases (ERK1/2), and experiments on the gene expression of pro (histamine-HRH2 and acetylcholine-CHRM3)- and anti (somatostatin-SSTR1)-secretory receptors and H(+),K(+)-ATPase verified this antisecretory activity of N-MP in coffee beverages. PMID:20235536

  19. Bioactivity-guided fractionation and GC/MS fingerprinting of Angelica sinensis and Angelica archangelica root components for antifungal and mosquito deterrent activity.

    PubMed

    Wedge, David E; Klun, Jerome A; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Demirci, Betul; Ozek, Temel; Baser, Kemal Husnu Can; Liu, Zhijun; Zhang, Sui; Cantrell, Charles L; Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-28

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract from the roots of Angelica sinensis led to isolation and characterization of (Z)-ligustilide using direct-bioautography with Colletotrichum species. The structure of (Z)-ligustilide was confirmed by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and GC/MS. (Z)-Ligustilide deterred the biting of two mosquito species more effectively than DEET. Three different A. sinensis accessions and one Angelica archangelica root oil were evauated by GC and GC/MS, and the dominant component in A. sinensis was 61-69% (Z)-ligustilide. Two other prominent compounds in A. sinensis oils were 5.7-9.8% (E)-3-butylidene phthalide and 1.5-2.3% (Z)-3-butylidene phthalide. The main constituents that comprised A. archangelica oil were monoterpene hydrocarbons such as 24.5% alpha-pinene, 13.8% delta-3-carene, 10.1% beta-phellandrene, 8.8% p-cymene, 8.4% limonene, and 6.3% sabinene. Phthalides and monoterpene hydrocarbons were determined to be good systematic markers or chemical fingerprints for A. sinensis and A. archangelica root oils. Chemical fingerprinting by GC/MS of A. sinensis also confirmed the misidentification of one A. archangelica sample sold in the Chinese market. PMID:19113871

  20. Anticancer activity of selected Colocasia gigantia fractions.

    PubMed

    Pornprasertpol, Apichai; Sereemaspun, Amornpun; Sooklert, Kanidta; Satirapipatkul, Chutimon; Sukrong, Suchada

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the anticancer potential of the extract of Colocasia gigantea C. gigantea), a plant member of the Araceae family. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxic activity of C. gigantea extract on cervical cancer (Hela) and human white blood cells (WBC) in vitro. The authors then identified the bioactive ingredients that demonstrated cytotoxicity on tested cells and evaluated those bioactive ingredients using the bioassay-guided fractionation method. The results showed that not all parts of C. gigantea promote cytotoxic activity. The dichloromethane leaf fraction showed significant cell proliferation effect on Hela cells, but not on WBCs. Only the n-hexane tuber fraction (Fr. 1T) exhibited significant cytotoxicity on Hela cells (IC50 = 585 μg/ml) and encouraged WBC cell proliferation. From GC-Mass spectrometry, 4,22-Stigmastadiene-3-one, Diazoprogesterone, 9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, hexyl ester and Oleic Acid were the components of Fr 1T that demonstrated cytotoxic potential. In conclusion, C. gigantea's Fr 1T shows potential for cervical cancer treatment. PMID:25764620

  1. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  2. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-01-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6′-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4′,6′ diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1–9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  3. Identification of Neuroactive Constituents of the Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Cyperi Rhizoma Using Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation.

    PubMed

    Sim, Yeomoon; Choi, Jin Gyu; Gu, Pil Sung; Ryu, Byeol; Kim, Jeong Hee; Kang, Insug; Jang, Dae Sik; Oh, Myung Sook

    2016-07-01

    Cyperi Rhizoma (CR), the rhizome of Cyperus rotundus L., exhibits neuroprotective effects in in vitro and in vivo models of neuronal diseases. Nevertheless, no study has aimed at finding the neuroactive constituent(s) of CR. In this study, we identified active compounds in a CR extract (CRE) using bioactivity-guided fractionation. We first compared the anti-oxidative and neuroprotective activities of four fractions and the CRE total extract. Only the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction revealed strong activity, and further isolation from the bioactive EA fraction yielded nine constituents: scirpusin A (1), scirpusin B (2), luteolin (3), 6'-acetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (4), 4',6' diacetyl-3,6-diferuloylsucrose (5), p-coumaric acid (6), ferulic acid (7), pinellic acid (8), and fulgidic acid (9). The activities of constituents 1-9 were assessed in terms of anti-oxidative, neuroprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-amyloid-β activities. Constituents 1, 2, and 3 exhibited strong activities; constituents 1 and 2 were characterized for the first time in this study. These results provide evidence for the value of CRE as a source of multi-functional neuroprotectants, and constituents 1 and 2 may represent new candidates for further development in therapeutic use against neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27350341

  4. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC50 of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC50 of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds. PMID:22174990

  5. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  6. A study of the potential anticancer activity of Mangifera zeylanica bark: Evaluation of cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of the hexane extract and bioassay-guided fractionation to identify phytochemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    EDIRIWEERA, MERAN KESHAWA; TENNEKOON, KAMANI HEMAMALA; SAMARAKOON, SAMEERA RANGANATH; THABREW, IRA; DILIP DE SILVA, EGODAGE

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the potential anticancer activity of the bark of Mangifera zeylanica, an endemic plant in Sri Lanka that has been traditionally used for cancer therapy. Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects were investigated in vitro using sulphorodamine assay, acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining, caspase-3 and −7 activity, DNA fragmentation and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction in estrogen receptor positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines, SKOV-3 ovarian cancer cell line and MCF-10A normal mammary epithelial cells. Hexane extract demonstrated increased levels of cytotoxicity in cancer cells (IC50, 86.6–116.5 µg/ml) compared with normal cells (IC50, 217.2 µg/ml). Chloroform extract demonstrated increased cytotoxicity to normal cells (IC50, 92.9 µg/ml) compared with cancer cells (IC50, 280.1–506.5 µg/ml). Exposure to the hexane extract led to morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis and DNA fragmentation in the three cancer cell lines. Caspase-3 and −7 were significantly activated in MDA-MB-231 and SKOV-3 cells, indicating the occurrence of caspase-dependent apoptosis in these cells, and caspase-independent apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, upregulation of proapoptotic Bcl-2-associated X protein occurred in the three cancer cell lines, and antiapoptotic survivin was downregulated in MCF-7 and SKOV-3 cells; by contrast, tumor protein p53 was upregulated only in MCF-7 cells, suggesting p53-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 cells and p53-independent apoptosis in the remaining cancerous cell lines. In addition, fraction M1 obtained from bioactivity-guided fractionation of the hexane extract demonstrated increased cytotoxicity in cancer cells (IC50, 15.4–38.7 µg/ml) compared with normal cells (IC50, 114.6 µg/ml), with the highest cytotoxicity observed in MDA-MB-231 triple-negative breast cancer cells. The hexane extract of M. zeylanica bark contained polyphenols and

  7. BIOASSAY-GUIDED FRACTIONATION AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE PROPERTIES OF FRACTIONS AND CRUDE EXTRACTS OF PERISTROPHE BICALYCULATA (RETZ) NEES.

    PubMed

    Abdulazeez, Mansurah A; Ibrahim, Sani; Ameh, Danladi A; Ameh, Danladi Amodu; Ayo, Joseph O; Carvalho, Luiz J C B; Manosroi, Jiradej; Ibrahim, Abdulrazak B

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important public health issue in both developed and developing countries due to its high incidence and morbidity. This has motivated researchers especially in developing countries to search for strategies for the treatment using different plant parts. The use of the aqueous decoction of the leaves of Peristiophe bicalyculata in the treatment of hypertension has been documented. This study was designed to carry out a bioassay-guided isolation of the antihypertensive components of the leaves of Peristrophe bicalyculata in L-NAME hypertensive rats, determine the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the extracts and fractions obtained and identify the constituent(s) present. From our results, L-NAME hypertensive rats given the cold water extract had significantly (p < 0.05) lower mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) with longer duration of action than other extracts. Also, the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of the cold water extract was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of other extracts. From the GC-MS analysis of the most effective fraction (fraction 4), P,P,P-triphenyl-imino(triphenyl)phosphorane and andrographolide 2(3H)-furanone were identified among others. The present work demonstrates the hypotensive effect of the cold water extract of Peiistiophe bicalyculata on L-NAME hypertensive rats, which further justifies the folkloric application of extracts of the plant in the management as well as treatment of hypertension. PMID:26642682

  8. The active fraction of psyllium seed husk.

    PubMed

    Marlett, Judith A; Fischer, Milton H

    2003-02-01

    A series of experiments and evaluations of fractions isolated from psyllium seed husk (PSH) were used to test the overall hypothesis that a gel-forming component of PSH is not fermented and that it is this component that is responsible for the laxative and cholesterol-lowering properties of PSH. A gel is isolated from human stools collected during a controlled diet study when PSH is consumed but not when the control diet only is consumed. Evaluations of three fractions isolated from PSH suggest that gel-forming fraction B, which is about 55% of PSH, is poorly fermented and is the component that increases stool moisture and faecal bile acid excretion, the latter leading to lower blood cholesterol levels. Fraction C, representing < 15% of PSH, is viscous, but is rapidly fermented. Fraction A is alkali-insoluble material that is not fermented. In concentrations comparable with their presence in PSH, fractions A and C do not alter moisture and bile acid output. The active fraction of PSH is a highly-branched arabinoxylan consisting of a xylose backbone and arabinose- and xylose-containing side chains. In contrast to arabinoxylans in cereal grains that are extensively fermented, PSH possesses a structural feature, as yet unidentified, that hinders its fermentation by typical colonic microflora. PMID:12749348

  9. Bioassay-guided fractionation and in vivo antiplasmodial effect of fractions of chloroform extract of Artemisia maciverae Linn.

    PubMed

    Ene, A C; Atawodi, S E; Ameh, D A; Ndukwe, G I; Kwanashie, H O

    2009-12-01

    In the search for new plant-derived anti-malarial compounds, chromatographic fractions of chloroform extract of whole plants of Artemisia maciverae were tested in vivo using chloroquine resistant and chloroquine sensitive Plasmodium berghei NK 65 infected Swiss albino mice. One fraction and a sub-fraction of this were most active at 10/mg and cleared parasitemia in mice within 3 days. The different fractions and sub-fractions were tested with different reagents to determine the broad classes of compounds present. The active fraction tested positive for triterpenes and alkaloids, and the sub-fraction for only triterpenes. These tests suggest that the anti-malarial activities observed with these fractions may be due to these classes of compounds in the chloroform extract of the A. maciverae. Further chemical work is however required to characterize the active constituents. PMID:19695214

  10. Bioassay Guided Fractionation Identified Hederagenin as a Major Cytotoxic Agent from Cyclocarya paliurus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ying; He, Chunnian; Bi, Wu; Wu, Guofan; Altman, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    An ethanol extract prepared from the leaves of Cyclocarya paliurus, also known as sweet tea, which is one of the most popular teas utilized in traditional Chinese medicine, exhibited significant cytotoxicity against human lung and breast cancer cells. Using a bioassay-guided fractionation, we purified a pentacyclic triterpenoid, hederagenin, which exhibited superior and selective cytotoxicity against human breast and lung cancer cells. Evaluation of the structure-activity relationship between hederagenin and seven other pentacyclic triterpenoids revealed that the C3 hydroxyl group, the C17 carboxyl group and the Δ (12,13) double bond could be important active groups for the bioactivity of pentacyclic triterpenoids, whereas introduction of a hydroxyl group at C2 or C23 might reduce their bioactivity. We also investigated the cytotoxic activity of hedeargenin and demonstrated that it induces apoptosis, increases the cell membrane permeability, reduces the mitochondria potential, and suppresses NF-κB activation. PMID:26393939

  11. Single fraction multimodal image guided focal salvage high-dose-rate brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rischke, Hans-Christian; Meyer, Philipp Tobias; Knobe, Sven; Volgeova-Neher, Natalja; Kollefrath, Michael; Jilg, Cordula Annette; Grosu, Anca Ligia; Baltas, Dimos; Kroenig, Malte

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We present a novel method for treatment of locally recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) following radiation therapy: focal, multimodal image guided high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy. Material and methods We treated two patients with recurrent PCa after primary (#1) or adjuvant (#2) external beam radiation therapy. Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI), choline, positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (PET/CT), or prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA)-PET combined with CT identified a single intraprostatic lesion. Positron emission tomography or magnetic resonance imaging – transrectal ultrasound (MRI-TRUS) fusion guided transperineal biopsy confirmed PCa within each target lesion. We defined a PET and mpMRI based gross tumor volume (GTV). A 5 mm isotropic margin was applied additionally to each lesion to generate a planning target volume (PTV), which accounts for technical fusion inaccuracies. A D90 of 18 Gy was intended in one fraction to each PTV using ultrasound guided HDR brachytherapy. Results Six month follow-up showed adequate prostate specific antygen (PSA) decline in both patients (ΔPSA 83% in patient 1 and ΔPSA 59.3% in patient 2). Follow-up 3-tesla MRI revealed regressive disease in both patients and PSMA-PET/CT showed no evidence of active disease in patient #1. No acute or late toxicities occurred. Conclusions Single fraction, focal, multimodal image guided salvage HDR brachytherapy for recurrent prostate cancer is a feasible therapy for selected patients with single lesions. This approach has to be evaluated in larger clinical trials. PMID:27504134

  12. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties and constituents of Xanthium strumarium L.

    PubMed

    Han, T; Li, H-L; Zhang, Q-Y; Han, P; Zheng, H-C; Rahman, K; Qin, L-P

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this study was to fractionate an extract of Xanthium strumarium L. (EXS) and to investigate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of the extract and its fractions. The ethanol extract of X. strumarium (EXS) was fractionated on the basis of polarity. Among the different fractions, the n-butanol fraction showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity in the croton-oil-induced ear edema test and furthermore reduced the number of writhings induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose-dependent manner. This indicates that the n-butanol fraction of X. strumarium possesses potent analgesic effects which are likely to be mediated by its anti-inflammatory activity. Bioassay-guided fractionation of EXS led to the isolation and identification of ten caffeoylquinic acids and three heterocyclics by HPLC-DAD-MS(n) from the active n-butanol fraction, implying that the active compounds are polar in nature. The isolated caffeoylquinic acids could partially explain the antinociceptive effect of X. strumarium polar extract. PMID:17350237

  13. Normal tissue dose conformality measures to guide radiotherapy fractionation decisions

    SciTech Connect

    Myerson, Robert J.

    2011-04-15

    Purpose: To determine conditions under which hypofractionation could be favorable for a normal tissue--even if tumor [{alpha}/{beta}] exceeds the normal tissue's [{alpha}/{beta}]. Methods: The hypofractionation sufficiency condition (HSC) for an organ is defined as a dose conformality constraint such that, if satisfied, a family of tumor control probability isoeffective fractionation schemes will show decreasing normal tissue complication probability with decreasing number of fractions. Results: In the extended equivalent uniform dose (EUD) model [obtained by replacing dose with linear quadratic (LQ) 2 Gy equivalent dose], the HSC for a normal organ is proven to be satisfied if a suitably weighted average of the relative dose [hypofractionation sufficiency index (HSI)] is less than the ratio of normal tissue to tumor [{alpha}/{beta}]. The HSI is determined solely by dose distribution and the normal tissue volume factor, ''a.'' If the HSC is satisfied for every normal tissue of concern, then there is a therapeutic gain with hypofractionation. The corresponding multifractionation sufficiency condition (therapeutic gain with increasing number of fractions) and multifractionation sufficiency index (MSI) are also derived. A sample clinical case is presented. Conclusions: Within the context of the LQ/EUD models, conformality measures (HSI and MSI) can be used to inform fractionation decisions.

  14. Cytotoxic activity of a dichloromethane extract and fractions obtained from Eudistoma vannamei (Tunicata: Ascidiacea).

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Paula C; Wilke, Diego V; Takeara, Renata; Lotufo, Tito M C; Pessoa, Cláudia; de Moraes, Manoel Odorico; Lopes, Norberto P; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2008-11-01

    This study consists of the bioassay-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract from Eudistoma vannamei and the pharmacological characterization of the active fractions. The dried hydromethanolic extract dissolved in aqueous methanol was partitioned with dichloromethane and chromatographed on a silica gel flash column. The anti-proliferative effect was monitored by the MTT assay. Four of the latest fractions, numbered 14 to 17, which held many chemical similarities amongst each other, were found to be the most active. The selected fractions were tested for viability, proliferation and death induction on cultures of HL-60 promyeloblastic leukemia cells. The results suggested that the observed cytotoxicity is related to apoptosis induction. PMID:17400012

  15. Building Big with David Macaulay. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, James; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Curtis, Paul

    This activity guide is designed for educators and features suggestions for possible activity paths for different amounts of available time and survival tips for activity leaders. Each activity is divided into two sections--educator ideas and activity handouts. Activity sections include: (1) Foundations; (2) Bridges; (3) Domes; (4) Skyscrapers; (5)…

  16. Bioactivity-Guided Fractionation Identifies Amygdalin as a Potent Neurotrophic Agent from Herbal Medicine Semen Persicae Extract

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chuanbin; Zhao, Jia; Cheng, Yuanyuan; Li, Xuechen; Rong, Jianhui

    2014-01-01

    Herbal medicine Semen Persicae is widely used to treat blood stasis in Chinese medicine and other oriental folk medicines. Although little is known about the effects of Semen Persicae and its active compounds on neuron differentiation, our pilot study showed that Semen Persicae extract promoted neurite outgrowth in rat dopaminergic PC12 cells. In the present study, we developed a bioactivity-guided fractionation procedure for the characterization of the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. The resultant fractions were assayed for neurite outgrowth in PC12 cells based on microscopic assessment. Through liquid-liquid extraction and reverse phase HPLC separation, a botanical glycoside amygdalin was isolated as the active compound responsible for the neurotrophic activity of Semen Persicae extract. Moreover, we found that amygdalin rapidly induced the activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). A specific ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 attenuated the stimulatory effect of amygdalin on neurite outgrowth. Taken together, amygdalin was identified as a potent neurotrophic agent from Semen Persicae extract through a bioactivity-guided fractional procedure. The neurotrophic activity of amygdalin may be mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 pathway. PMID:25050339

  17. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  18. Antioxidant activity of cod (Gadus morhua) protein hydrolysates: Fractionation and characterisation of peptide fractions.

    PubMed

    Sabeena Farvin, K H; Andersen, Lisa Lystbæk; Otte, Jeanette; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch; Jessen, Flemming; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to characterise peptide fractions (>5kDa, 3-5kDa and <3kDa) with antioxidative activity obtained from a cod protein hydrolysate. The free amino acids in all fractions were dominated by Ala, Gly, Glu and Ser. The total amino acid composition had high proportions of Lys, Ala and Glu. The 3-5kDa and <3kDa fractions were further fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. All sub-fractions showed high Fe(2+) chelating activity. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the 3-5kDa fraction was exerted mainly by one sub-fraction dominated by peptides with masses below 600Da. The DPPH radical-scavenging activity of the <3kDa fraction was exerted by sub-fractions with low molecular weight. The highest reducing power was found in a sub-fraction containing peptides rich in Arg, Tyr and Phe. Both free amino acids and low molecular weight peptides thus seemed to contribute to the antioxidative activity of the peptide fractions, and Tyr seemed to play a major role in the antioxidant activity. PMID:26988519

  19. Algorithms for testing of fractional dynamics: a practical guide to ARFIMA modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnecki, Krzysztof; Weron, Aleksander

    2014-10-01

    In this survey paper we present a systematic methodology which demonstrates how to identify the origins of fractional dynamics. We consider three mechanisms which lead to it, namely fractional Brownian motion, fractional Lévy stable motion and an autoregressive fractionally integrated moving average (ARFIMA) process but we concentrate on the ARFIMA modelling. The methodology is based on statistical tools for identification and validation of the fractional dynamics, in particular on an ARFIMA parameter estimator, an ergodicity test, a self-similarity index estimator based on sample p-variation and a memory parameter estimator based on sample mean-squared displacement. A complete list of algorithms needed for this is provided in appendices A-F. Finally, we illustrate the methodology on various empirical data and show that ARFIMA can be considered as a universal model for fractional dynamics. Thus, we provide a practical guide for experimentalists on how to efficiently use ARFIMA modelling for a large class of anomalous diffusion data.

  20. Bioactivity guided fractionation of Moringa oleifera Lam. flower targeting Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manoj Kumar; Paul, Joydeep; De, Tripti; Chakraborti, Tapati

    2015-11-01

    Leishmaniases is a group of diseases caused by the protozoan parasite belonging to the genus Leishmania. At least 20 species of Leishmania are known to infect humans transmitted by female sandflies, Phlebotomus spp. Leishmania donovani causes visceral leishmaniasis, considered most lethal among the common three forms of leishmaniasis. Lack of appropriate vaccines, emergence of drug resistance and side effects of currently used drugs stress the need for better alternative drugs, particularly from natural sources. Here, we conducted in vitro and in vivo experiments to study the efficacy of different parts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against Leishmania donovani promastigotes. The flower extract of M. oliefera (MoF) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial agent when compared to other parts of the plant like leaf, root, bark and stem. It imparted significant reduction in parasite number in infected macrophages. The bioactivity guided fractionation of MoF showed ethyl acetate fraction (MoE) as the most active and gave significant parasite reduction in the infected macrophages. Further, growth kinetics studies revealed loss of L. donovani promastigotes viability in the presence of MoE in both time and dose dependent manner. In vivo experiment in Balb/c mouse model of leishmaniasis supported the in vitro findings with a remarkable reduction of the parasite burden in both liver and spleen. PMID:26669018

  1. Study on Fuzzy Adaptive Fractional Order PIλDμ Control for Maglev Guiding System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qing; Hu, Yuwei

    The mathematical model of the linear elevator maglev guiding system is analyzed in this paper. For the linear elevator needs strong stability and robustness to run, the integer order PID was expanded to the fractional order, in order to improve the steady state precision, rapidity and robustness of the system, enhance the accuracy of the parameter in fractional order PIλDμ controller, the fuzzy control is combined with the fractional order PIλDμ control, using the fuzzy logic achieves the parameters online adjustment. The simulations reveal that the system has faster response speed, higher tracking precision, and has stronger robustness to the disturbance.

  2. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  3. Bioassay-guided isolation of DPP-4 inhibitory fractions from extracts of submerged cultured of Inonotus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Geng, Yan; Lu, Zhen-Ming; Huang, Wei; Xu, Hong-Yu; Shi, Jin-Song; Xu, Zheng-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Inonotus obliquus is a medicinal mushroom used in Russian and Eastern European folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Previous studies in our laboratory have demonstrated that the mycelium powders of I. obliquus possess significant antihyperglycemic effects in a mouse model of diabetic disease induced by alloxan. However, the active ingredients of mycelium powders responsible for the diabetes activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of I. obliquus mycelium powders by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the mechanism of action of these active ingredients by using a well-established DPP-4 (an important enzyme as a new therapeutic target for diabetes) inhibitory assay model. The results showed the chloroform extract of mycelium was potential inhibitory against DPP-4. Bioactivity guided fractionation led to the identification of 19 compounds using UPLC-Q-TOF-MS. Molecular docking between the compounds and DPP-4 revealed that compounds 5, 8, 9, 14, 15 may be the active components responsible for the DPP-4 inhibitory activity. PMID:23325103

  4. Screening for fractions of Oxytropis falcata Bunge with antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H; Hu, J R; Zhan, W Q; Liu, X

    2009-01-01

    Preliminary studies with the four extracts of Oxytropis falcate Bunge exhibited that the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed stronger antibacterial activities against the nine tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The HPLC-scanned and bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation and identification of the main flavonoid compounds, i.e. rhamnocitrin, kaempferol, rhamnetin, 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone and 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon. Except 2',4',beta-trihydroxy-dihydrochalcon, four other compounds had good antibacterial activities. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the four compounds ranged between 125 and 515 microg mL(-1). Staphylococcus aureus was the most susceptible to these compounds, with MIC and MBC values from 125 to 130 microg mL(-1). This is the first report of antibacterial activity in O. falcate Bunge. In this study, evidence to evaluate the biological functions of O. falcate Bunge is provided, which promote the rational use of this herb. PMID:19521909

  5. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation and In Vitro Antiproliferative Effects of Fractions of Artemisia nilagirica on THP-1 cell line.

    PubMed

    Gul, Mir Zahoor; Chandrasekaran, Sambamurthy; K, Manjulatha; Bhat, Mohd Yasin; Maurya, Radheshyam; Qureshi, Insaf Ahmed; Ghazi, Irfan Ahmad

    2016-10-01

    ABSTACT Artemisia nilagirica (Clarke) is a widely used medicinal herb in Indian traditional system of medicine. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. nilagirica extracts/fractions on inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in a human monocytic leukemia (THP-1) cell line. The crude extracts (A. nilagirica ethyl acetate extract [ANE] and A. nilagirica methanolic extract [ANA]) showed cytotoxic activity toward THP-1 cells with the IC50 values of 38.21 ± 7.37 and 132.41 ± 7.19 µg/ml, respectively. However, the cytotoxic activity of active fractions (ANE-B and ANM-9) obtained after column chromatography was found to be much more pronounced than their parent extracts. The IC50 values of ANE-B and ANM-9 were found to be 27.04 ± 2.54 µg/ml and 12.70 ± 4.79 µg/ml, respectively, suggesting greater susceptibility of the malignant cells. Cell cycle analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling (TUNEL) assay revealed that inhibition of cell growth by A. nilagirica fractions on THP-1 cells was mediated by apoptosis. Active fractions of A. nilagirica increased the expression levels of caspase-3, -7, and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP), a critical member of the apoptotic pathway. These results suggested that active fractions of A. nilagirica may play a promising role in growth suppression by inducing apoptosis in human monocytic leukemic cells via mitochondria-dependent and death receptor-dependent apoptotic pathways. PMID:27618154

  6. Long-term outcomes of fractional flow reserve-guided vs. angiography-guided percutaneous coronary intervention in contemporary practice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Elrashidi, Muhamad Y.; Flammer, Andreas J.; Lennon, Ryan J.; Bell, Malcolm R.; Holmes, David R.; Bresnahan, John F.; Rihal, Charanjit S.; Lerman, Lilach O.; Lerman, Amir

    2013-01-01

    Aims Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the reference standard for the assessment of the functional significance of coronary artery stenoses, but is underutilized in daily clinical practice. We aimed to study long-term outcomes of FFR-guided percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the general clinical practice. Methods and results In this retrospective study, consecutive patients (n = 7358), referred for PCI at the Mayo Clinic between October 2002 and December 2009, were divided in two groups: those undergoing PCI without (PCI-only, n = 6268) or with FFR measurements (FFR-guided, n = 1090). The latter group was further classified as the FFR-Perform group (n = 369) if followed by PCI, and the FFR-Defer group (n = 721) if PCI was deferred. Clinical events were compared during a median follow-up of 50.9 months. The Kaplan–Meier fraction of major adverse cardiac events at 7 years was 57.0% in the PCI-only vs. 50.0% in the FFR-guided group (P = 0.016). Patients with FFR-guided interventions had a non-significantly lower rate of death or myocardial infarction compared with those with angiography-guided interventions [hazard ratio (HR): 0.85, 95% CI: 0.71–1.01, P = 0.06]; the FFR-guided deferred-PCI strategy was independently associated with reduced rate of myocardial infarction (HR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.26–0.82, P = 0.008). After excluding patients with FFR of 0.75–0.80 and deferring PCI, the use of FFR was significantly associated with reduced rate of death or myocardial infarction (HR: 0.80, 95% CI: 0.66–0.96, P = 0.02). Conclusion In the contemporary practice, an FFR-guided treatment strategy is associated with a favourable long-term outcome. The current study supports the use of the FFR for decision-making in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. PMID:23344979

  7. Guiding-center hall viscosity and intrinsic dipole moment of fractional quantum Hall states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, YeJe

    The fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE) is the archetype of the strongly correlated systems and the topologically ordered phases. Unlike the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) which can be explained by single-particle physics, FQHE exhibits many emergent properties that are due to the strong correlation among many electrons. In this Thesis, among those emergent properties of FQHE, we focus on the guiding-center metric, the guiding-center Hall viscosity, the guiding-center spin, the intrinsic electric dipole moment and the orbital entanglement spectrum. Specifically, we show that the discontinuity of guiding-center Hall viscosity (a bulk property) at edges of incompressible quantum Hall fluids is associated with the presence of an intrinsic electric dipole moment on the edge. If there is a gradient of drift velocity due to a non-uniform electric field, the discontinuity in the induced stress is exactly balanced by the electric force on the dipole. We show that the total Hall viscosity has two distinct contributions: a "trivial'' contribution associated with the geometry of the Landau orbits, and a non-trivial contribution associated with guiding-center correlations. We describe a relation between the intrinsic dipole moment and "momentum polarization'', which relates the guiding-center Hall viscosity to the "orbital entanglement spectrum(OES)''. We observe that using the computationally-more-onerous "real-space entanglement spectrum (RES)'' in the momentum polarization calculation just adds the trivial Landau-orbit contribution to the guiding-center part. This shows that all the non-trivial information is completely contained in the OES, which also exposes a fundamental topological quantity gamma = c˜ - nu, the difference between the "chiral stress-energy anomaly'' (or signed conformal anomaly) and the chiral charge anomaly. This quantity characterizes correlated fractional quantum Hall fluids, and vanishes in integer quantum Hall fluids which are uncorrelated.

  8. Energy and Man's Environment: Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication provides the goals, concepts, objectives, and rationale for the six activity guides in this series of energy education materials. The organization of this series, as presented in this publication, centers around six goals which correspond to the activity guides. Under each goal are several concepts, which in turn, have several…

  9. Freaky Fractions. Activity Book [for Grades 1-5].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, Becky; Daniel, Charlie

    These activities were designed to introduce and reinforce fraction concepts. The worksheets begin with naming the numerator and denominator and go on to provide practice with halves, thirds, fourths, fifths, sixths, eighths, ninths, twelfths, and equivalent fractions. Coloring, dot-to-dot puzzles, and identifying activities predominate. A test and…

  10. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  11. Lipolytic activity in adipocyte cell fractions.

    PubMed

    Oschry, Y; Shapiro, B

    1980-05-28

    Adipocytes release only negligible amounts of free fatty acids unless stimulated, but reveal considerable lipolytic activity when homogenized. Epinephrine treatment of the cells caused only a 20-40% increase in the activity of infranatants of homogenates while raising the activity associated with the fat layer up to 10-fold. Full activity (i.e. that of intact-activated cells) could be revealed by epinephrine treatment of the homogenate as well as by sonication of the fat layer in buffer. The combination of both treatments did not yield higher activities. The fat cake contains the bulk of the potential activities which are only realized when dispersed in the aqueous phase by sonication, or upon hormone activation of the whole homogenate. Increase in activity could also be obtained by removal of most of the lipid from the fat layer by extraction with petroleum ether. Re-introduction of extracted lipid inhibited lipolysis. The active enzyme could be separated by flotation at 1.12 specific gravity. The data suggest that the lack of activity in the intact non-stimulated cell may be due to the lack of availability of the aqueous phase to the enzyme. PMID:7378439

  12. Isolation of bioactive allelochemicals from sunflower (variety Suncross-42) through fractionation-guided bioassays.

    PubMed

    Anjum, Tehmina; Bajwa, Rukhsana

    2010-11-01

    Plants are rich source of biologically active allelochemicals. However, natural product discovery is not an easy task. Many problems encountered during this laborious practice can be overcome through the modification of preliminary trials. Bioassay-directed isolation of active plant compounds can increase efficiency by eliminating many of the problems encountered. This strategy avoids unnecessary compounds, concentrating on potential components and thus reducing the cost and time required. In this study, a crude aqueous extract of sunflower leaves was fractionated through high performance liquid chromatography. The isolated fractions were checked against Chenopodium album and Rumex dentatus. The fraction found active against two selected weeds was re-fractionated, and the active components were checked for their composition. Thin layer chromatography isolated a range of phenolics, whereas the presence of bioactive terpenoids was confirmed through mass spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. PMID:20981619

  13. Guide to Nonsexist Teaching Activities (K-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Karen; And Others

    Designed to offset the effect of sexually biased texts and materials, this annotated bibliography lists available nonsexist instructional resource material for students in kindergarten through twelfth grades. The majority of items focus on activities teachers can use in classroom settings. The guide is organized into the following eight subject…

  14. Human Development Program: Level VI Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade 6. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to aid teachers in instilling responsibility and self-confidence in children. The nucleus of the Human Development Program is a circle session…

  15. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  16. Selected Technology Lab Activities Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    These materials supplement state guides for junior high or middle school technology education programs. The materials show instructors how to implement 81 hours of new technology-related activities into existing programs. Introductory materials include a rationale, philosophy, and goals for technology education. Areas of instruction are as…

  17. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Easter lily (Lilium longiflorum) flowers reveals unprecedented structural variability of steroidal glycoalkaloids.

    PubMed

    Uhlig, Silvio; Hussain, Fozia; Wisløff, Helene

    2014-12-15

    Several Lilium species are nephrotoxic in cats (Felis silvestris catus), among them Easter lilies (Lilium longiflorum). Although clinical trials have been carried out, the causative toxic phytochemicals have not yet been identified. We thus aimed to determine the toxic constituents of Easter lily flowers applying a bioassay-guided approach based on a feline kidney cell line model. The bioassay-guided fractionation traced the observed cytotoxicity to a complex mixture of compounds that were tentatively identified as steroidal glycoalkaloids of the solasodine-type, based on multiple-fragmentation ion trap and high-resolution mass spectrometry. The glycoalkaloids in the active fraction possessed trisaccharide chains, and at least 16 different congeners could be separated using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. The two principal compounds were solasodine trisaccharides containing two hexose and one deoxy-hexose unit. In the remaining 14 analogues, one or two of the hydroxyl groups of the second hexose from the aglycone were acetylated. In addition, some of the analogues appeared to be carbonate esters. Esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in plants has only been reported once and was in accordance with higher antifungal activity of the acetylated versus the parent congener. Our pilot study shows that esterification of steroidal glycoalkaloids in Lilium species might be common resulting in an array of different analogues with largely unexplored structural variability and bioactivity. PMID:25269117

  18. HPTLC Analysis of Bioactivity Guided Anticancer Enriched Fraction of Hydroalcoholic Extract of Picrorhiza kurroa

    PubMed Central

    Mallick, Md. Nasar; Singh, Mhaveer; Parveen, Rabea; Khan, Washim; Ahmad, Sayeed; Zeeshan Najm, Mohammad; Husain, Syed Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Hydroalcoholic extract of Picrorhiza kurroa and its fractions were subjected to in vitro screening for cytotoxicity; further best active fraction (BAF) obtained was tested against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) model in Balb/c mice after its quality control analysis. Methods. Cytotoxicities of all the fractions and mother extract of P. kurroa were determined, using MTT assay on breast cancer (MCF-7, MDA-MB 231) and cervical cancer (HeLa, SiHa) cell lines. Metabolic fingerprinting was developed using HPTLC with quantification of biomarkers (cucurbitacins B and E; betulinic acid; picrosides 1 and 2; and apocynin) in BAF. The EAC tumor-bearing mice were used for in vivo anticancer activity after oral administration (50 mg Kg−1) for 10 days. Results. Cytotoxicity assay of mother extract and its fractions over breast cancer and cervix cancer cell lines showed that dichloromethane (DCM) fraction was most cytotoxic (IC50 36.0–51.0 µg mL−1 at 72 h). Oral administration of DCM fraction showed significant reduction in tumor regression parameters, viable tumor cell count and restoration of hematological parameters may be due to presence of cucurbitacins B and E; betulinic acid; picrosides 1 and 2; and apocynin, as compared to the untreated mice of the control group. Conclusion. The DCM fraction of P. kurroa displayed potent anticancer activity and can be further explored for the development of a potential candidate for cancer therapy. PMID:26557675

  19. A bioassay-guided fractionation scheme for characterization of new antibacterial compounds from Prosopis cineraria aerial parts

    PubMed Central

    Neghabi-Hajiagha, Mahdieh; Aliahmadi, Atousa; Taheri, Mohammad Reza; Ghassempour, Alireza; Irajian, Gholamreza; Rezadoost, Hassan; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Due to the importance of finding of new antibacterial agents, the antibacterial properties of Prosopis cineraria aerial parts were investigated using a bioassay guided fractionation scheme. Materials and Methods: The organic extract was prepared via maceration in methanol, followed by the fractionation using n-hexane and ethyl acetate. The MICs of fractions were determined against some human pathogenic bacteria using broth micro-dilution assay. The primary characterization and identification of bioactive substance(s) was based on a bio-autographical method using HPTLC and flash chromatography in parallel with agar overlay assays. Finally the exact mass of effective compound(s) was determined by LC-MS. Results: The best antibacterial activities were related to the ethyl acetate fraction. The effective antibacterial compound of the plant were 2 substances with molecular weight of 348 and 184 Dalton that inhibited the growth of assessed Gram positive bacteria with MIC values lower than 125 to 62.5 μg/ml synergistically. Conclusion: Further analysis using nuclear magnetic resonance could reveal the exact structure of these two antibacterial substances. These 2 effective antibacterial compounds could be applied as lead compound for synthesis of new antibacterial agents. PMID:27092218

  20. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  1. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic fractions of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following claims that some plants have antimicrobial activities against infectious microbes, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent fractions of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta were evaluated against eight standard bacteria and clinical isolates. Methods The solvent partitioning protocol involving ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, was used to extract various fractions of dried pulverized Cryptolepis sanguinolenta roots. Qualitative phyto-constituents screening was performed on the ethanol extract, chloroform fraction and the water fraction. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to ascertain the antibiogram of the test organisms while the agar diffusion method was used to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the crude plant extracts. The microplate dilution method aided in finding the MICs while the MBCs were obtained by the method of Nester and friends. The SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the percentages of inhibitions and bactericidal activities. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, polyuronides, anthocyanosides and triterpenes. The ethanol extract inhibited 5 out of 8 (62.5%) of the standard organisms and 6 out of 8 (75%) clinical isolates. The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 4 out of 8 (50%) of the standard microbes and 1 out of 8 (12.5%) clinical isolates. It was also observed that the chloroform fraction inhibited the growth of all the organisms (100%). Average inhibition zones of 14.0 ± 1.0 mm to 24.67 ± 0.58 mm was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction which halted the growth of 3 (37.5%) of the standard organisms. Inhibition of 7 (87.5%) of standard strains and 6 (75%) of clinical isolates were observed in the water fraction. The chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity against all the test organisms while the remaining fractions showed varying degrees of bacteriostatic activity

  2. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  3. Fractional flow reserve-guided management in stable coronary disease and acute myocardial infarction: recent developments

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Colin; Corcoran, David; Hennigan, Barry; Watkins, Stuart; Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.

    2015-01-01

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a leading global cause of morbidity and mortality, and improvements in the diagnosis and treatment of CAD can reduce the health and economic burden of this condition. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an evidence-based diagnostic test of the physiological significance of a coronary artery stenosis. Fractional flow reserve is a pressure-derived index of the maximal achievable myocardial blood flow in the presence of an epicardial coronary stenosis as a ratio to maximum achievable flow if that artery were normal. When compared with standard angiography-guided management, FFR disclosure is impactful on the decision for revascularization and clinical outcomes. In this article, we review recent developments with FFR in patients with stable CAD and recent myocardial infarction. Specifically, we review novel developments in our understanding of CAD pathophysiology, diagnostic applications, prognostic studies, clinical trials, and clinical guidelines. PMID:26038588

  4. Antimicrobial activity of the solvent fractions from Bulbine natalensis Tuber.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, M T; Mostafa, M; Ashafa, A O T; Afolayan, A J

    2012-01-01

    Bulbine natalensis Baker has been acclaimed to be used as an antimicrobial agent in the folklore medicine of South Africa without scientific evidence to substantiate or refute this claim. In view of this, the in vitro antimicrobial activity of solvent fractions (ethanol, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water) from Bulbine natalensis Tuber against 4 Gram positive and 12 Gram negative bacteria as well as 3 fungal species were investigated using agar dilution. The ethanolic extract, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions inhibited 75, 87.5 and 100% respectively of the bacterial species in this study. The ethanolic, n-butanol and ethyl acetate fractions produced growth inhibition at MIC range of 1-10, 3-10 as well as 1 and 5 mg/ml respectively whereas the water fraction did not inhibit the growth of any of the bacterial species. Again, it was only the ethyl acetate fraction that inhibited the growth of Shigelli flexneri, Staphyloccus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ethanolic, ethyl acetate and n-butanolic fractions dose dependently inhibited the growth of Aspergillus niger and A. flavus whereas the water fraction produced 100% growth inhibition of the Aspergillus species at all the doses investigated. In contrast, no growth inhibition was produced on Candida albicans. The growth inhibition produced by the solvent fractions of B. natalensis Tuber in this study thus justifies the acclaimed use of the plant as an antimicrobial agent. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent. PMID:23983381

  5. Antioxidative activities of fractions obtained from brewed coffee.

    PubMed

    Yanagimoto, Kenichi; Ochi, Hirotomo; Lee, Kwang-Geun; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2004-02-11

    The antioxidative activity of column chromatographic fractions obtained from brewed coffee was investigated to find antioxidants and to assess the benefit of coffee drinking. The dichloromethane extract inhibited hexanal oxidation by 100 and 50% for 15 days and 30 days, respectively, at the level of 5 microg/mL. A GC/MS analysis of fractions, which exhibited oxidative activity, revealed the presence of antioxidative heterocyclic compounds including furans, pyrroles, and maltol. The residual aqueous solution exhibited slight antioxidative activity. The inhibitory activity (%) of the seven fractions from an aqueous solution toward malonaldehde formation from lipid oxidation ranged from 10 to 90 at a level of 300 microg/mL. The results indicate that brewed coffee contains many antioxidants and consumption of antioxidant-rich brewed coffee may inhibit diseases caused by oxidative damages. PMID:14759154

  6. Separation and identification of multiple constituents in Xiao Chai Hu Decoction (Sho-saiko-to) by bioactivity-guided fractionation combined with LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yingying; Peng, Ying; Song, Cui; Li, Lingzhi; Ma, Hui; Li, Danqi; Wang, Fang; Yang, Jingyu; Song, Shaojiang; Wu, Chunfu

    2015-08-01

    Xiao Chai Hu Decoction (XCHD), named Sho-saiko-to in Japanese, is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine formula used in Asia. However, the characterization methods used in the past have lacked sensitivity and the nature of the active constituents of XCHD remains unclear. This study was carried out to establish the hyphenated method of bioactivity-guided fractionation and liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS) in order to identify the major bioactive constituents of XCHD. D101 macroporous resin was used to separate and enrich the material base into four fractions, XCHD-1, XCHD-2, XCHD-3 and XCHD-4. Each fraction was then evaluated for its antidepressant effect using depression-related parameters. An LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS method in both positive and negative ion mode was also applied for separation and identification of the biological active fractions of XCHD. As a result, 79 compounds including polysaccharides, flavonoids, saikosaponins, ginsenosides, licoricesaponins and gingerols were detected, 69 of them were identified or tentatively characterized. Based on our preliminary characterization investigations, polysaccharides, gingerols and flavonoids in XCHD may contribute to the antidepressant effect of XCHD. In conclusion, the hyphenated method of bioactivity-guided fractionation and LC-ESI-QTOFMS/MS was meaningful for the isolation and preliminary identification of the biological active components in complex matrices of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:25545370

  7. Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Melanin Fractions from Chestnut Shell.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zeng-Yu; Qi, Jian-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Chestnut shell melanin can be used as a colorant and antioxidant, and fractionated into three fractions (Fr. 1, Fr. 2, and Fr. 3) with different physicochemical properties. Antioxidant activities of the fractions were comparatively evaluated for the first time. The fractions exhibited different antioxidative potential in different evaluation systems. Fr. 1, which is only soluble in alkaline water, had the strongest peroxidation inhibition and superoxide anion scavenging activity; Fr. 2, which is soluble in alkaline water and hydrophilic organic solvents but insoluble in neutral and acidic water, had the greatest power to chelate ferrous ions; and Fr. 3, which is soluble both in hydrophilic organic solvents and in water at any pH conditions, had the greatest hydroxyl (·OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH·) radicals scavenging abilities, reducing power, and phenolic content. The pigment fractions were superior to butylated hydroxytolune (BHT) in ·OH and DPPH· scavenging and to ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) in the Fe(2+)-chelation. They were inferior to BHT in peroxidation inhibition and O₂·(-) scavenging and reducing power. However, BHT is a synthetic antioxidant and cannot play the colorant role. The melanin fractions might be used as effective biological antioxidant colorants. PMID:27110763

  8. Assessing the Nonbiodegradable Fraction of the Thickened Waste Activated Sludge.

    PubMed

    Elbeshbishy, Elsayed; Dhar, Bipro Ranjan; Nakhla, George

    2015-08-01

    In this study, the feasibility of using three methods to estimate the nonbiodegradable fraction of five thickened waste activated sludge (TWAS) samples was evaluated using long-term biochemical methane potential tests at four substrate to biomass ratios. The nonbiodegradable fraction was calculated based on the remaining volatile suspended solids (VSS), remaining total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), and remaining total organic carbon (TOC). It was evident that the nonbiodegradable fraction of TWAS ranged from 12 to 27%. The average nonbiodegradable fractions of TWAS were 21, 18, and 23% based on remaining VSS, TCOD, and TOC, respectively. The proposed method can be potentially used to characterize biosolids for design and modeling anaerobic treatment processes. PMID:26237686

  9. Education & Recycling: Educator's Waste Management Resource and Activity Guide 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Conservation. Sacramento. Div. of Recycling.

    This activity guide for grades K-12 reinforces the concepts of recycling, reducing, and reusing through a series of youth-oriented activities. The guide incorporates a video-based activity, multiple session classroom activities, and activities requiring group participation and student conducted research. Constructivist learning theory was…

  10. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Chang, Leng-Chee; Wall, Marisa; Wong, D K W; Yu, Xianzhong; Wei, Yanzhang

    2013-01-01

    Noni has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 year. Recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-cancer activities. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of fermented noni exudates (fNE) were previously found to induce significant tumor rejection in a S180 mouse sarcoma tumor model, while natural killer (NK) cells were demonstrated to be markedly involved in fNE-induced antitumor activity. In this study, fNE was partitioned into three fractions and their antitumor effects were examined using i.p. injection or as water supplement. The in vivo animal study results showed that when delivered by i.p. injection, n-butanol fraction of fNE (BuOH) effectively rejected (100%) tumor challenge and eradicated existing tumors (75%). When delivered as a water supplement, 62.5% of the mice receiving the n-butanol or ethyl acetate fractions resisted tumor cells. The tumor-resistant mice effectively rejected more and higher doses of tumor challenge, indicating that the immune system was activated. The findings confirm those of an earlier study showing fNE to have anti-tumor activity and demonstrating that the n-butanol fraction of fNE contains active antitumor components, to be further identified. More importantly, the antitumor effect of fNE and its fractions as water supplements renders a significant potential for identifying novel and powerful new dietary products for cancer prevention. PMID:24649140

  11. Antiplasmin activity of electrophoretically separated human serum fractions

    PubMed Central

    Mann, R. D.; Cotton, Susan; Jackson, D.

    1966-01-01

    The antiplasmin which migrates electrophoretically with the alpha2 globulins preponderates in effect over that of the alpha1 migrating antiplasmin. This preponderance persists at physiological pH value in vitro and the significance of this finding is discussed. No evidence has been obtained of the existence of anti-urokinase activity in antiplasmin-free serum fractions. PMID:4160096

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of zein protein fractions.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ning; Zhuang, Hong

    2014-11-01

    Zein protein was extracted from the by-product corn gluten meal. The obtained zein protein was 1st hydrolyzed by 4 different proteases. The antioxidant activities of the hydrolysates or peptides were evaluated by free radical scavenging activity, metal ion chelating activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibitory capacity. Among hydrolysates produced, alkaline protease hydrolysates exhibited the highest antioxidant activity. A regression model was established by uniform design to optimize the alkaline protease hydrolysis conditions. The hydrolysates with molecular weight < 3 kDa obtained from ultrafiltration showed the highest antioxidant activities in all relevant assays. The hydrolysates with molecular weight <3 kDa were subsequently purified by gel filtration chromatography, and fraction F3 exhibited the highest antioxidant activities. Two peptides were identified from fraction F3 using LC-ESI-Q-TOF MS/MS as Pro-Phe (263.13 Da) and Leu-Pro-Phe (375.46 Da). These peptides exhibited good free radical scavenging activity and lipid peroxidation inhibitory effect. The results clearly indicated that zein protein fractions are good sources for the development of natural antioxidants for the food industry. PMID:25350353

  13. Antimicrobial activity of Carpolobia lutea extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Nwidu, Lucky L; Nwafor, Paul A; Vilegas, Wagner

    2012-01-01

    Carpolobia lutea (G. Don) (Polygalaceae) is a tropical medicinal plant putative in traditional medicines against gonorrhea, gingivitis, infertility, antiulcer and malaria. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial, antifungal and antihelicobacter effects of extracts C. lutea leaf, stem and root. The extracts were examined using the disc-diffusion and Microplates of 96 wells containing Muller-Hinton methods against some bacterial strains: Eschericia coli (ATCC 25922), E. coli (ATCC10418), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Staphyllococus aureus (ATCC 6571), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and Bacillus subtilis (NCTC 8853) and four clinical isolates: one fungi (Candida albican) and three bacteria (Salmonella, Sheigella and staphylococcus aureus). The Gram-positive bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923), Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212), Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 19659) and the Gram-negative bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853), Cândida albicans (ATCC 18804) and Helicobacter pylori (ATCC 43504). Some of these extracts were found to be active against some tested strains but activity against H. pylori was >1000mg/ml and good fungistatic activity against C. albican. The MIC against C. albican is in the order n-HF > CHF > ETF= EAF.The order of potency of fraction was the ethanol root > n-HF leaf > ethanol fraction stem > chloroform fraction leaf = ethyl acetate fraction leaf. Polyphenols were demonstrated in ethanol fraction, ethyl acetate fraction, crude ethyl acetate extract and ethanol extract, respectively. These polyphenols isolated may partly explain and support the use of C. lutea for the treatment of infectious diseases in traditional Ibibio medicine of Nigeria. PMID:23983362

  14. Trypanocidal activity of extracts and fractions of Bertholletia excelsa.

    PubMed

    Campos, Francinete R; Januário, Ana H; Rosas, Lisandra V; Nascimento, Samara K R; Pereira, Paulo S; França, Suzelei C; Cordeiro, Milade S C; Toldo, Miriam P A; Albuquerque, Sérgio

    2005-01-01

    Crude extracts and fractions of Bertholletia excelsa stem barks were tested for trypanocidal activity. Acetone and methanol extracts showed significant in vitro trypanocidal activity against trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi since in the concentration of 500 microg/ml, the parasites were reduced in 100% and 90.3% respectively, whereas the triterpene betulinic acid pure isolated from hexane extract presented 75.4%. PMID:15664458

  15. Office Reprographics. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with office reprographics. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives, suggestions…

  16. Active control technique of fractional-order chaotic complex systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Ahmed, Mansour E.; Abed-Elhameed, Tarek M.

    2016-06-01

    Several kinds of synchronization of fractional-order chaotic complex systems are challenging research topics of current interest since they appear in many applications in applied sciences. Our main goal in this paper is to introduce the definition of modified projective combination-combination synchronization (MPCCS) of some fractional-order chaotic complex systems. We show that our systems are chaotic by calculating their Lyapunov exponents. The fractional Lyapunov dimension of the chaotic solutions of these systems is computed. A scheme is introduced to calculate MPCCS of four different (or identical) chaotic complex systems using the active control technique. Special cases of this type, which are projective and anti C-C synchronization, are discussed. Some figures are plotted to show that MPCCS is achieved and its errors approach zero.

  17. Turing pattern formation in fractional activator-inhibitor systems.

    PubMed

    Henry, B I; Langlands, T A M; Wearne, S L

    2005-08-01

    Activator-inhibitor systems of reaction-diffusion equations have been used to describe pattern formation in numerous applications in biology, chemistry, and physics. The rate of diffusion in these applications is manifest in the single parameter of the diffusion constant, and stationary Turing patterns occur above a critical value of d representing the ratio of the diffusion constants of the inhibitor to the activator. Here we consider activator-inhibitor systems in which the diffusion is anomalous subdiffusion; the diffusion rates are manifest in both a diffusion constant and a diffusion exponent. A consideration of this problem in terms of continuous-time random walks with sources and sinks leads to a reaction-diffusion system with fractional order temporal derivatives operating on the spatial Laplacian. We have carried out an algebraic stability analysis of the homogeneous steady-state solution in fractional activator-inhibitor systems, with Gierer-Meinhardt reaction kinetics and with Brusselator reaction kinetics. For each class of reaction kinetics we identify a Turing instability bifurcation curve in the two-dimensional diffusion parameter space. The critical value of d , for Turing instabilities, decreases monotonically with the anomalous diffusion exponent between unity (standard diffusion) and zero (extreme subdiffusion). We have also carried out numerical simulations of the governing fractional activator-inhibitor equations and we show that the Turing instability precipitates the formation of complex spatiotemporal patterns. If the diffusion of the activator and inhibitor have the same anomalous scaling properties, then the surface profiles of these patterns for values of d slightly above the critical value varies from smooth stationary patterns to increasingly rough and nonstationary patterns as the anomalous diffusion exponent varies from unity towards zero. If the diffusion of the activator is anomalous subdiffusion but the diffusion of the inhibitor

  18. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Extracts from Codiaeum variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica Discovers Compounds That Modify Expression of Ceramide Biosynthesis Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Mfotie Njoya, Emmanuel; Weber, Christian; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Hon, Chung-Chau; Janin, Yves; Kamini, Melanie F. G.; Moundipa, Paul F.; Guillén, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Codiaeum variegatum (“garden croton”) are used against bloody diarrhoea by local populations in Cameroon. This study aims to search for the active components from C. variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica, and thereby initiate the study of their mechanism of action. A bioassay-guided screening of the aqueous extracts from C. variegatum leaves and various fractions was carried out against trophozoites of E. histolytica axenic culture. We found that the anti-amoebic activity of extracts changed with respect to the collection criteria of leaves. Thereby, optimal conditions were defined for leaves' collection to maximise the anti-amoebic activity of the extracts. A fractionation process was performed, and we identified several sub-fractions (or isolated compounds) with significantly higher anti-amoebic activity compared to the unfractionated aqueous extract. Anti-amoebic activity of the most potent fraction was confirmed with the morphological characteristics of induced death in trophozoites, including cell rounding and lysis. Differential gene expression analysis using high-throughput RNA sequencing implies the potential mechanism of its anti-amoebic activity by targeting ceramide, a bioactive lipid involved in disturbance of biochemical processes within the cell membrane including differentiation, proliferation, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Regulation of ceramide biosynthesis pathway as a target for anti-amoebic compounds is a novel finding which could be an alternative for drug development against E. histolytica. PMID:24416462

  19. Bioassay-guided fractionation of extracts from Codiaeum variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica discovers compounds that modify expression of ceramide biosynthesis related genes.

    PubMed

    Mfotie Njoya, Emmanuel; Weber, Christian; Hernandez-Cuevas, Nora Adriana; Hon, Chung-Chau; Janin, Yves; Kamini, Melanie F G; Moundipa, Paul F; Guillén, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    Leaves of Codiaeum variegatum ("garden croton") are used against bloody diarrhoea by local populations in Cameroon. This study aims to search for the active components from C. variegatum against Entamoeba histolytica, and thereby initiate the study of their mechanism of action. A bioassay-guided screening of the aqueous extracts from C. variegatum leaves and various fractions was carried out against trophozoites of E. histolytica axenic culture. We found that the anti-amoebic activity of extracts changed with respect to the collection criteria of leaves. Thereby, optimal conditions were defined for leaves' collection to maximise the anti-amoebic activity of the extracts. A fractionation process was performed, and we identified several sub-fractions (or isolated compounds) with significantly higher anti-amoebic activity compared to the unfractionated aqueous extract. Anti-amoebic activity of the most potent fraction was confirmed with the morphological characteristics of induced death in trophozoites, including cell rounding and lysis. Differential gene expression analysis using high-throughput RNA sequencing implies the potential mechanism of its anti-amoebic activity by targeting ceramide, a bioactive lipid involved in disturbance of biochemical processes within the cell membrane including differentiation, proliferation, cell growth arrest and apoptosis. Regulation of ceramide biosynthesis pathway as a target for anti-amoebic compounds is a novel finding which could be an alternative for drug development against E. histolytica. PMID:24416462

  20. Electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death beyond the left ventricular ejection fraction.

    PubMed

    Gatzoulis, Konstantinos A; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Arsenos, Petros; Tousoulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-26

    Sudden cardiac death threats ischaemic and dilated cardiomyopathy patients. Anti- arrhythmic protection may be provided to these patients with implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICD), after an efficient risk stratification approach. The proposed risk stratifier of an impaired left ventricular ejection fraction has limited sensitivity meaning that a significant number of victims will remain undetectable by this risk stratification approach because they have a preserved left ventricular systolic function. Current risk stratification strategies focus on combinations of non invasive methods like T wave alternans, late potentials, heart rate turbulence, deceleration capacity and others, with invasive methods like the electrophysiologic study. In the presence of an electrically impaired substrate with formed post myocardial infarction fibrotic zones, programmed ventricular stimulation provides important prognostic information for the selection of the patients expected to benefit from an ICD implantation, while due to its high negative predictive value, patients at low risk level may also be detected. Clustering evidence from different research groups and electrophysiologic labs support an electrophysiologic testing guided risk stratification approach for sudden cardiac death. PMID:26839662

  1. Real-time 3D-surface-guided head refixation useful for fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shidong; Liu Dezhi; Yin Gongjie; Zhuang Ping; Geng, Jason

    2006-02-15

    Accurate and precise head refixation in fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy has been achieved through alignment of real-time 3D-surface images with a reference surface image. The reference surface image is either a 3D optical surface image taken at simulation with the desired treatment position, or a CT/MRI-surface rendering in the treatment plan with corrections for patient motion during CT/MRI scans and partial volume effects. The real-time 3D surface images are rapidly captured by using a 3D video camera mounted on the ceiling of the treatment vault. Any facial expression such as mouth opening that affects surface shape and location can be avoided using a new facial monitoring technique. The image artifacts on the real-time surface can generally be removed by setting a threshold of jumps at the neighboring points while preserving detailed features of the surface of interest. Such a real-time surface image, registered in the treatment machine coordinate system, provides a reliable representation of the patient head position during the treatment. A fast automatic alignment between the real-time surface and the reference surface using a modified iterative-closest-point method leads to an efficient and robust surface-guided target refixation. Experimental and clinical results demonstrate the excellent efficacy of <2 min set-up time, the desired accuracy and precision of <1 mm in isocenter shifts, and <1 deg. in rotation.

  2. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  3. Human Development Program: Level IV Activity Guide, Revised 1976.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for grade four. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. The activity guide presents topics and directions for 180 sequential…

  4. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the triglyceride-lowering component and in vivo and in vitro evaluation of hypolipidemic effects of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In folklore, some people take the decoction of Calyx seu Fructus Physalis (CSFP) for lowering blood lipids. The present study is designed to evaluate the lipid-lowering activities of CSFP, and search for its pharmacodynamical material. Methods CSFP was extracted by water and 75% ethanol, respectively. The extracts of CSFP for reducing serum lipid levels were evaluated on mouse model of hyperlipidemia. The optimized extract was subjected to the bioactivity-guided fractionation in which the liquid-liquid extraction, collumn chromatography, the in vivo and in vitro models of hyperlipidemia were utilized. The structure of active component was determined by 13 C-NMR and 1H-NMR. Results The 75% ethanol extract of CSFP decreased the serum total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia. Followed a separation process for the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP, the fraction B was proved to be an active fraction for lowering lipid in vivo and in vitro experiments, which could significantly decrease the serum TC and TG levels in mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and remarkably decrease the increase of TG in primary mouse hepatocytes induced by high glucose and the increase of TG in HepG2 cells induced by oleic acid. The fraction B2, isolated from B on bioactivity-guided fractionation, could significantly decrease TG level in HepG2 cells. One compound with the highest content in B2 was isolated and determined as luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside by NMR spectra. It could significantly reduce the TG level in HepG2 cells, and inhibited the accumulation of lipids by oil red O stain. Conclusion Our results demonstrated that the 75% ethanol extract of CSFP could improve in vitro and in vivo lipid accumulation. Luteolin-7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside might be a leading pharmacodynamical material of CSFP for lowering lipids. PMID:22413998

  5. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  6. Bioactive Guided Fractions of Annona reticulata L. bark: Protection against Liver Toxicity and Inflammation through Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Proinflammatory Cytokines.

    PubMed

    Kandimalla, Raghuram; Dash, Suvakanta; Kalita, Sanjeeb; Choudhury, Bhaswati; Malampati, Sandeep; Kalita, Kasturi; Kotoky, Jibon

    2016-01-01

    Herbal medicine is popularized worldwide due to its ability to cure the diseases with lesser or no side effects. North Eastern part of India comes under one of the world biodiversity hotspots which is very rich in traditional herbal medicine. Annona reticulata L. (Annonaceae) is one such plant used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases, liver ailments and diabetes by traditional healers. The present study was aimed to scientifically validate this folk knowledge and to develop an herbal remedy through evaluating bioactive guided fractions of A. reticulata (AR) bark against hepatotoxicity and inflammation using in vitro and in vivo models. Results of this study demonstrates that among all fractions of AR bark, methanol extract and its water fraction possess strong anti-oxidant ability and showed protection against CCl4 induced toxicity in HepG2 cell lines and rats. Both the fractions also exhibit dose dependent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation in rats. Water fraction showed potent response in the entire tests conducted than methanol extract, which states that polar components of the AR bark methanol extract were responsible for these activities. Further, from the experiments conducted to elucidate the mechanism of action, the results revealed that AR bark showed liver protection and anti-inflammatory response through inhibiting the oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27445809

  7. What Fraction of Active Galaxies Actually Show Outflows?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganguly, Rajib; Brotherton, M. S.

    2007-12-01

    Outflows from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) seem to be common and are thought to be important from a variety of perspectives: as an agent of chemical enhancement of the interstellar and intergalactic media, as an agent of angular momentum removal from the accreting central engine, and as an agent limiting star formation in starbursting systems by blowing out gas and dust from the host galaxy. To understand these processes, we must determine what fraction of AGNs feature outflows and understand what forms they take. We examine recent surveys of outflows detected in ultraviolet absorption over the entire range of velocities and velocity widths (i.e., broad absorption lines, associated absorption lines, and high-velocity narrow absorption lines). While the fraction of specific forms of outflows depends on AGN properties, the overall fraction displaying outflows is fairly constant, approximately 60%, over many orders of magnitude in luminosity. We discuss implications of this result and ways to refine our understanding of outflows. We acknowledge support from the US National Science Foundation through grant AST 05-07781.

  8. Canada's physical activity guides: background, process, and development.

    PubMed

    Sharratt, Michael T; Hearst, William E

    2007-01-01

    This historical background paper chronicles the major events leading to the development of Canada's physical activity guides (for children, youth, adults, and older adults). The paper outlines the process and the steps used, including information (where applicable) regarding national partners, project administration, Health Canada communications, product development, endorsement, distribution and implementation, collateral activities, media relations and evaluation framework. Brief summaries of the science that led to the recommended guidelines are included. The paper also summarizes the various physical activity guide assessment and evaluation projects and their findings, particularly as they relate to research carried out on Canada's physical activity guides for children and youth (and the associated support resources). PMID:18213939

  9. ANTIRADICAL AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF PHENOLIC FRACTIONS OBTAINED FROM HONEYS.

    PubMed

    Mazol, Irena; Sroka, Zbigniew; Sowa, Alina; Ostrowska, Anna; Dryś, Andrzej; Gamian, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Honey is a natural product consisting of multiple components which determine its dietary and medicinal properties. In this work there were studied methanol fractions obtained from seven honeys from Lower Silesia (Poland) collected in different seasons of three successive years. Melissopalynologic studies revealed that two of them were polyfloral, and five were classified as monofloral (two buckwheat and three rapes). The amount of phenolic compounds in honeys varied from 0.09 to 0.38 mg per g of honey. Honeys harvested in 2010 were the richest in phenolic compounds and especially rich was buckwheat honey, comparing to 2011- 2012. Determination of antioxidant potential with the DPPH radical revealed that the strongest antiradical activity was exhibited by extracts obtained from polyfloral (1.22 TAU(515/mg)) and buckwheat (1.06 TAU(515lmg)) honeys, while the highest number of antiradical units was observed for rape honey (3.64 TAU(515/g)). Polyphenolic fractions exhibited various bactericidal activities against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus and weak or no activity was observed against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. PMID:27180430

  10. A Social Studies Activities Guide for Students in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide uses an activities-based approach to reinforce both social studies content and skills for special education elementary students. The guide has been designed to correspond with the scope and sequence of New York City's Minimum Teaching Essentials. Six themes are examined: (1) developing individuality and a sense of self (social/emotional…

  11. Economics and Entrepreneurship: Student Activities. Master Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    Correlated to the Economics and Entrepreneurship Teaching Strategies Master Curriculum Guide, this book features 66 student activities, case studies, comprehension quizzes, and lessons related to economic concepts. Designed for high school students of economics, social studies, and business education, this curriculum guide combines study of basic…

  12. Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

  13. Space-Based Astronomy: A Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help grade 5-8 students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outside the Earth's atmosphere. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy-related spacecraft that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sent into…

  14. Antibacterial activity of Momordica charantia (Curcubitaceae) extracts and fractions

    PubMed Central

    Costa, José Galberto M.; Nascimento, Eidla M. M.; Campos, Adriana R.; Rodrigues, Fabiola F. G.

    2010-01-01

    Momordica charantia L. belongs to the family Curcubitaceae and it is very common in many Brazilian regions. The plant is a liana with flowers and yellow fruits that present red seeds when are ripe. Popularly known as “melão-de-sãocaetano”, “melão amargo” or “cabaço-amargo”, it possesses many uses: antidiabetic, antihelmintic, antmicrobial, anticancerigenous and antioxidant. The phytochemical prospection of the fresh and dried leaves extracts showed the presence of different classes of secondary metabolites, as flavonoids, alkaloids and tannins, that have demonstrated antimicrobial action. Fresh and dried leaves presented significantly antimicrobial activity against all bacterial strains tested, specially Escherichia coli. Ethyl acetate fractions were effective against Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus. The modulatory activity was significative too PMID:24826002

  15. Bioassay-directed fractionation for discovery of bioactive neutral lipids guided by relative mass defect filtering and multiplexed collision-induced dissociation

    PubMed Central

    Stagliano, Michael C.; DeKeyser, Joshua G.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Jones, A. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We report a synergistic method using bioassay-directed liquid chromatography fractionation and time-of-flight mass spectrometry to guide and accelerate bioactive compound discovery. To steer purification and assays toward anticipated neutral lipid activators of a constitutive androstane receptor splice variant, a relative mass defect filter was calculated, based on the ratio of the mass defect to the measured ion mass, and used to reduce the number of candidate ion masses. Mass measurements often lack sufficient accuracy to provide unambiguous assignments of elemental compositions, and since the relative mass defect reflects fractional hydrogen content of ions, this value is largely determined by the hydrogen content of a compound’s biosynthetic precursors. A relative mass defect window ranging from 600–1000 ppm, consistent with an assortment of lipids, was chosen to assess the number of candidate ions in fractions of fetal bovine serum. This filter reduced the number of candidate ion m/z values from 1345 to 892, which was further reduced to 21 by intensity and isotope filtering. Accurate mass measurements from time-of-flight mass spectrometry and fragment ion masses generated using nonselective collision-induced dissociation suggested dioctyl phthalate as one of few neutral lipid constituents in the active fraction. The identity of this compound was determined to be di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate using GC/MS, and it was ranked as a promising candidate for reporter assay screening. PMID:21080510

  16. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  17. Career Pathways Skill-Building Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    In an effort to relate academic skills with workplace skills and facilitate the transition from school to work, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a skill-based instructional model targeted at 9th through 12th graders and consisting of 6 instructional areas, or strands, and 31 related skills. This guide provides suggested activities…

  18. Rockets: Physical Science Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R., Ed.

    Rockets have evolved from simple tubes filled with black powder into mighty vehicles capable of launching a spacecraft out into the galaxy. The guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac…

  19. Classroom Archaeology: An Archaeology Activity Guide for Teachers. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Nancy W.

    This guide describes archaeology activities appropriate for middle school students, but some activities can be used in intermediate and primary grades or high school and college classes. The activities range in length from less than one hour to 15 hours. A sequence of activities may be used together as a unit on archaeology, or individual…

  20. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  1. Guide to good practices for line and training manager activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction for line and training managers in carrying out their responsibilities for training and qualifying personnel and to verify that existing training activities are effective.

  2. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  3. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  4. Do You Read Me? Industrial Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  5. Agricultural Science Lab Activities. Instructor Guide. Volume 27, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory W.; And Others

    This instructor guide contains 20 laboratory activities for grades 9-10 Agricultural Science I-II classes. The activities are cross-referenced to Missouri Core Competencies and Key Skills. The activities are organized into the following areas: introductory (microscope use); animal nutrition (absorption of nutrients, bacteria and disease, enzyme…

  6. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  7. Teacher's Activity Guide to Coastal Awareness. Marine Bulletin No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This teacher's guide was prepared for use with "Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book," as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. Contained are instructions on the use of the Activity Book, page-by-page, with glossaries, activity ideas, resources, places to visit, and notes…

  8. Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

  9. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  10. Do You Read Me? Environmental Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  11. Broad spectrum antimutagenic activity of antioxidant active fraction of punica granatum L. peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Zahin, Maryam; Aqil, Farrukh; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2010-12-21

    Over the past few decades, scientific research has indicated a credible basis for some of the traditional ethnomedicinal uses of pomegranate. This study aims to evaluate the broad spectrum antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of peel extracts of pomegranate. The sequentially extracted Punica granatum peel fractions were tested for their antioxidant activity by DPPH free radical scavenging, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP (Fe(3+) reducing power) and CUPRAC (cupric ions (Cu(2+)) reducing ability) assays. The methanol fraction showed highest antioxidant activity by all the four in vitro assays comparable to ascorbic acid and butylated hydroxy toluene (BHT) followed by activity in ethanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate fractions. Based on the promising antioxidant activities, the methanol fraction was evaluated for antimutagenic activity by Ames Salmonella/microsome assay against sodium azide (NaN(3)), methyl methane sulphonate (MMS), 2-aminofluorene (2-AF) and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) induced mutagenicity in Salmonella typhimurium (TA97a, TA98, TA100 and TA102) tester strains. The methanol fraction showed no sign of mutagenicity at tested concentration of 10-80μg/mL. This fraction showed antimutagenic activity against NaN(3) and MMS with percent inhibition of mutagenicity ranging from 66.76% to 91.86% in a concentration-dependent manner. Similar trend of inhibition of mutagenicity (81.2-88.58%) against indirect mutagens (2-AF and B(a)P) was also recorded. Phytochemical analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and total phenolic content revealed high content of ellagitannins which might be responsible for promising antioxidant and antimutagenic activities of P. granatum peel extract. Further, contribution of bioactive compounds detected in this study is to be explored to understand the exact mechanism of action as well as their therapeutic efficacy. PMID:20708098

  12. Developing specialized guided worksheets for active learning in physics lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujarittham, T.; Emarat, N.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Tanamatayarat, J.

    2016-03-01

    As universities attempt to integrate active learning into their lectures, a range of strategies is emerging. Amongst the strategies is pre-prepared worksheets which students work through, facilitated by the lecturer. Despite the fact that worksheets have not yet been the subject of much research activity, there are instances of their use. Once such instance is by a pair of physics lecturers at Mahidol University, Thailand. The worksheets, called guided worksheets as they provide structure for students to take notes as the content in the lectures progresses, are prepared by the lecturers and have been in use since 2004. Evaluations showed that the guided worksheets met their intent but there were issues around certain topics which students found challenging. Concerted effort lead to the development of research based specialized guided worksheets for those topics that had issues. These specialized guided worksheets requiring substantially more interactions and student problem solving in line with active learning strategies, have been in use since 2012. This paper aims to describe the design of the specialized guided worksheets for the topic of electric field, and its evaluation. Pre- and post-tests were implemented over 2 years. The first was with guided worksheets with 260 students in 2011, and the second included specialized guided worksheets with 163 students in 2012. Gains on student understanding were higher in 2012 and students who were interviewed indicated that they found the specialized guided worksheets helpful for learning. The results indicate that the specialized guided worksheets made a difference in topics that students find challenging.

  13. High-Dose, Single-Fraction Image-Guided Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy for Metastatic Spinal Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Yoshiya Bilsky, Mark H.; Lovelock, D. Michael; Venkatraman, Ennapadam S.; Toner, Sean; Johnson, Jared; Zatcky, Joan N.P.; Zelefsky, Michael J.; Fuks, Zvi

    2008-06-01

    Purpose: To report tumor control and toxicity for patients treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiotherapy (RT) for spinal metastases with high-dose single-fraction RT. Methods and Materials: A total of 103 consecutive spinal metastases in 93 patients without high-grade epidural spinal cord compression were treated with image-guided intensity-modulated RT to doses of 18-24 Gy (median, 24 Gy) in a single fraction between 2003 and 2006. The spinal cord dose was limited to a 14-Gy maximal dose. The patients were prospectively examined every 3-4 months with clinical assessment and cross-sectional imaging. Results: The overall actuarial local control rate was 90% (local failure developed in 7 patients) at a median follow-up of 15 months (range, 2-45 months). The median time to local failure was 9 months (range, 2-15 months) from the time of treatment. Of the 93 patients, 37 died. The median overall survival was 15 months. In all cases, death was from progression of systemic disease and not local failure. The histologic type was not a statistically significant predictor of survival or local control. The radiation dose was a significant predictor of local control (p = 0.03). All patients without local failure also reported durable symptom palliation. Acute toxicity was mild (Grade 1-2). No case of radiculopathy or myelopathy has developed. Conclusion: High-dose, single-fraction image-guided intensity-modulated RT is a noninvasive intervention that appears to be safe and very effective palliation for patients with spinal metastases, with minimal negative effects on quality of life and a high probability of tumor control.

  14. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Four - Impacts of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the fourth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on the socioeconomic effects of energy uses and crises and the understandings needed to assess those effects. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  15. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  16. Continuous-time random walk as a guide to fractional Schroedinger equation

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzi, E. K.; Ribeiro, H. V.; Mukai, H.; Mendes, R. S.

    2010-09-15

    We argue that the continuous-time random walk approach may be a useful guide to extend the Schroedinger equation in order to incorporate nonlocal effects, avoiding the inconsistencies raised by Jeng et al. [J. Math. Phys. 51, 062102 (2010)]. As an application, we work out a free particle in a half space, obtaining the time dependent solution by considering an arbitrary initial condition.

  17. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  18. Off to Adventure: 24 Guided Activities for K-3 Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knothe, Carol; Lang, Karen; Lange, Pauline; Most, JoAnn; Palmer, Terry; Sorte, Joanne

    This book contains 24 guided environmental education activities for K-3 children that offer young children opportunities to explore and learn about their world in a positive environment. The activities encourage the children to gain confidence and develop a positive self-image; develop important life skills; learn about science, literature, and…

  19. Illinois State Bar Association Law Day Activities Guide. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Bar Association, Springfield.

    These law-related lessons and activities can facilitate participation in a Law Day program. Following an introduction, this activities guide is divided into these sections: "Tips for Teachers" ("What Can a Lawyer Add to the Classroom?"; "So You Have Been Asked to Speak to Kids about the Law"; "A Checklist for Lawyers and Judges in the Classroom");…

  20. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  1. Career Motivation Activities Guide, 4th through 6th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toledo Public Schools, OH.

    The activities guide is intended primarily to assist teachers in grades 4-7 in teaching career awareness concepts. Instructional activities correlate basic skill and career education objectives. The 29 units cover topics related to social studies (self-awareness, the community, the school, transportation, the environment, family roles, economic…

  2. Kanienkehaka Tiontenientenstakwa [Mohawk Guide Book]. Activities and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine; And Others

    This collection of activities and games is a supplement to "The Language Guide for Elementary Mohawk." These activities and games provide additional classroom practice for the topical language components in the companion book. The vocabulary encompasses names, singular commands, colors, numbers, foods, animals, clothing, household, money, seasons,…

  3. Growing Together with the Treetures. Activity Guide. Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Bobbi; Blau, Judith H.; Hinrichs, Jennifer Judd

    This activity guide is designed to be used with the Growing Together program. Tree-related activities are correlated to the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, the recommended standards for mathematics, science, and technology suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The Treature Educational Program is dedicated…

  4. Antioxidant activity of phenolic fractions in olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    Azaizeh, Hassan; Halahlih, Fares; Najami, Naim; Brunner, Doris; Faulstich, Martin; Tafesh, Ahmed

    2012-10-15

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) contains a substantial amount of valuable antioxidant phenols that can be recovered for industrial application as food additives and pharmaceuticals. The present study was aimed at extracting different phenolic OMW fractions, and determining their antioxidant potential. Five different OMW fractions were obtained using fractionation techniques, their antioxidant potential determined by DPPH, ORAC and a β-carotene bleaching test. The total phenol level ranged between 115 and 170 mg/l. The phenolic compounds present in individual fractions were identified using the HPLC-PAD method, where the main compounds were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, verbascoside, oleuropein, ferulic acid, and p-coumaric acid. The five OMW fractions showed different antioxidant levels depending on the test used. DPPH test showed that the fraction of alkyl aromatic alcohols (AAAs) was the best with EC(50) of 20 mg/l and the pure hydroxytyrosol with 2 mg/l. ORAC test showed that AAA and semi hydrolysed total phenol (s-TP) fractions were significantly better than Trolox when compared to 20 mg/l of Trolox. PMID:23442678

  5. Suited for spacewalking: A teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Manning, Cheryl A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is an activity guide for teachers on spacesuits and spacewalking. It uses the intensive interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for hands-on-opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The guide concludes with a brief glossary as well as references and resources.

  6. Radiobiologically guided optimisation of the prescription dose and fractionation scheme in radiotherapy using BioSuite

    PubMed Central

    Uzan, J; Nahum, A E

    2012-01-01

    Objective Radiobiological models provide a means of evaluating treatment plans. Keeping in mind their inherent limitations, they can also be used prospectively to design new treatment strategies which maximise therapeutic ratio. We propose here a new method to customise fractionation and prescription dose. Methods To illustrate our new approach, two non-small cell lung cancer treatment plans and one prostate plan from our archive are analysed using the in-house software tool BioSuite. BioSuite computes normal tissue complication probability and tumour control probability using various radiobiological models and can suggest radiobiologically optimal prescription doses and fractionation schemes with limited toxicity. Results Dose–response curves present varied aspects depending on the nature of each case. The optimisation process suggests doses and fractionation schemes differing from the original ones. Patterns of optimisation depend on the degree of conformality, the behaviour of the normal tissue (i.e. “serial” or “parallel”), the volume of the tumour and the parameters of clonogen proliferation. Conclusion Individualising the prescription dose and number of fractions with the help of BioSuite results in improved therapeutic ratios as evaluated by radiobiological models. PMID:22457318

  7. Activity Guide for Career Education. Middle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festus School District R-6, MO.

    The suggestions for learning activities in career education at the middle level (Grades 6-7) are presented with the aim of establishing career awareness related to five occupational clusters: environmental control, manufacturing, business office, fine arts and humanities, and marine science. The activities are presented under the headings of four…

  8. Wise Water Ways. Teaching Guide. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Alice; And Others

    To increase student's awareness of the need to conserve water and ways they can become personally involved in developing water-saving habits, a water conservation education program was established. The program described contains a series of activities to be presented in the form of discussions, games, and puzzles. Each activity involves the…

  9. Fractional flow reserve vs. angiography in guiding management to optimize outcomes in non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: the British Heart Foundation FAMOUS–NSTEMI randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Layland, Jamie; Oldroyd, Keith G.; Curzen, Nick; Sood, Arvind; Balachandran, Kanarath; Das, Raj; Junejo, Shahid; Ahmed, Nadeem; Lee, Matthew M.Y.; Shaukat, Aadil; O'Donnell, Anna; Nam, Julian; Briggs, Andrew; Henderson, Robert; McConnachie, Alex; Berry, Colin; Hannah, Andrew; Stewart, Andrew; Metcalfe, Malcolm; Norrie, John; Chowdhary, Saqib; Clark, Andrew; Henderson, Robert; Balachandran, Kanarath; Berry, Colin; Baird, Gordon; O'Donnell, Anna; Sood, Arvind; Curzen, Nick; Das, Raj; Ford, Ian; Layland, Jamie; Junejo, Shahid; Oldroyd, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Aim We assessed the management and outcomes of non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) patients randomly assigned to fractional flow reserve (FFR)-guided management or angiography-guided standard care. Methods and results We conducted a prospective, multicentre, parallel group, 1 : 1 randomized, controlled trial in 350 NSTEMI patients with ≥1 coronary stenosis ≥30% of the lumen diameter assessed visually (threshold for FFR measurement) (NCT01764334). Enrolment took place in six UK hospitals from October 2011 to May 2013. Fractional flow reserve was disclosed to the operator in the FFR-guided group (n = 176). Fractional flow reserve was measured but not disclosed in the angiography-guided group (n = 174). Fractional flow reserve ≤0.80 was an indication for revascularization by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). The median (IQR) time from the index episode of myocardial ischaemia to angiography was 3 (2, 5) days. For the primary outcome, the proportion of patients treated initially by medical therapy was higher in the FFR-guided group than in the angiography-guided group [40 (22.7%) vs. 23 (13.2%), difference 95% (95% CI: 1.4%, 17.7%), P = 0.022]. Fractional flow reserve disclosure resulted in a change in treatment between medical therapy, PCI or CABG in 38 (21.6%) patients. At 12 months, revascularization remained lower in the FFR-guided group [79.0 vs. 86.8%, difference 7.8% (−0.2%, 15.8%), P = 0.054]. There were no statistically significant differences in health outcomes and quality of life between the groups. Conclusion In NSTEMI patients, angiography-guided management was associated with higher rates of coronary revascularization compared with FFR-guided management. A larger trial is necessary to assess health outcomes and cost-effectiveness. PMID:25179764

  10. Antioxidant Activities of Extract and Fractions from the Hypocotyls of the Mangrove Plant Kandelia candel

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of 70% acetone extract (70% AE) from the hypocotyls of the mangrove plant Kandelia candel and its fractions of petroleum ether (PF), ethyl acetate (EF), water (WF), and the LF (WF fraction further purified through a Sephadex LH-20 column), were investigated by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. The results showed that all the extract and fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity. There was a significant linear correlation between the total phenolics concentration and the ferric reducing power or free radical scavenging activity of the extract and fractions. Among the extract and fractions, the LF fraction exhibits the best antioxidant performance. The MALDT-TOF MS and HPLC analyses revealed that the phenolic compounds associated with the antioxidant activity of the LF fraction contains a large number of procyanidins and a small amount of prodelphinidins, and the epicatechin is the main extension unit. PMID:21152321

  11. Fragrant volatile sesquiterpenoids isolated from the essential oil of Laggera pterodonta by using olfactory-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Long; Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oil from Laggera pterodonta (Compositae) was inverstigated. GC/MS Analyses led to the identification of 68 components, representing more than 96% of the total oil. By focusing on the woody note fraction of the essential oil, one new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid, bisabola-2,7(14),11-trien-10-ol (1), together with ten known compounds, bisabolol oxide B (2), ylangenol (3), copaborneol (4), guai-11-en-10-ol (5), spathulenol (6), aromadendran-10-ol (7), caryophyllenol (8), 5α,7α-eudesm-11(13)-en-4α-ol (9), γ-costic acid (10), and eudesma-4(15),11(13)-diene-12,5β-olide (11), were isolated by using olfactory-guided fractionation. The structures of the eleven compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses. All the volatile compounds reported here were isolated for the first time from this plant. On the basis of preliminary odor assessment, the odor of the woody-note fractions of the essential oil was assumed to be due to these isolated sesquiterpenoids. PMID:25238080

  12. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    An attempt to add substance to history, the curriculum guide for grades 7-8 presents in 12 culture guides information on American Indians for teachers to use as supplement materials to social studies texts. Each culture guide is accompanied with a teacher guide offering activities or discussion/quiz questions. Topics of culture guides encompass…

  13. On Campus Activity Guide. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinellas County School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    Descriptions of about 100 secondary-level activities that can be done on the school grounds are presented. Among the lessons included are a study of life in sidewalk cracks, methods of estimating animal populations, soil testing, constructing and using triangulation instruments to map the school area, and creative writing exercises. Although most…

  14. Ripples: A Big Sweep Elementary Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Carla B., Ed.

    Littering is a careless act indicating lack of respect for the environment, other people, and wildlife. Through education people can learn the consequences of littering and how to stop doing it. This book, designed for elementary children, presents a collection of 16 activities, ideas and resources concerning litter in the aquatic and marine…

  15. Antioxidant Activities of Fractions of Polymeric Procyanidins from Stem Bark of Acacia confusa

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Shu-Dong; Zhou, Hai-Chao; Lin, Yi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    The polymeric procyanidins extracted from Acacia confusa stem bark were fractionated with a step gradient of water, methanol and acetone on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The antioxidant activity of the collected fractions was investigated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. All fractions possessed potent antioxidant activity with the highest activity observed for fraction F9. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) analyses suggested that the collected fractions consisted primarily of oligomeric and polymeric procyanidins, with different polymer ranges and most abundant polymer size. For each fraction, catechin and epicatechin were present as both terminal and extension units, and epicatechin was the major component in the extended chain. The mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of each fraction differed, ranging from 1.68 (fraction F2) to 17.31 (fraction F11). There was a relationship between antioxidant activity (IC50/DPPH and FRAP) and mDP (R2DPPH = 0.861, P = 0.006 and R2FRAP = 0.608, P = 0.038), respectively. However, the highest antioxidant activity of fraction (F9) was not coincident with the maximum mDP of fraction (F11). PMID:21541049

  16. A steryl glycoside fraction with hemolytic activity from tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Ng, T B; Li, W W; Yeung, H W

    1986-10-01

    A hemolytic fraction has been obtained from fresh tubers of Momordica cochinchinensis. The fraction was strongly adsorbed on DEAE-Sepharose CL6B. It did not stain with Coomassie brilliant blue in SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and it gave no immunoprecipitin arcs in immunoelectrophoresis. The hemolytic activity of the fraction was resistant to heat and proteolytic enzymes. The behavior of the fraction in thin-layer chromatography and its positive reaction in Liebermann-Burchard test indicated that the hemolytic activity of the fraction can be attributed to a steryl glycoside(s). PMID:3821135

  17. Branching Out: The North Carolina Forest Stewardship Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chesson, Gail

    Stewardship is the responsibility of individuals to maintain and improve their natural resources and surroundings. The Forest Stewardship Program (FSP) in North Carolina aims at enhancing the management of all forest resources on private lands. This activity guide is designed to help youth appreciate and understand forests and natural…

  18. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  19. Nutrition Activities Guide for Students in Special Education: Citywide Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide is designed to provide special education students with nutrition education in terms of daily living skills. Activities are organized according to five themes: what we eat (awareness of the physical and sensory characteristics of food, identification of food eaten at various meals); how we eat (identification of cutlery, manners, use of…

  20. Atmospheric Detectives. Atlas 2 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Affairs Div.

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS 2 will help develop a thorough picture of the Sun's output, its interaction with the atmosphere, and the well-being of Earth's middle atmosphere. This middle school level guide probes the connection between the activities of scientists and the observable…

  1. Community Guide to Evaluating Aboriginal Healing Foundation Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aboriginal Healing Foundation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The Aboriginal Healing Foundation (AHF), based in Ottawa (Ontario), works with Canada Native communities to reduce incidents of physical and sexual abuse, children in care, suicide, and incarceration among residential school survivors and their families. This guide has been prepared to help communities evaluate their AHF-funded activities in the…

  2. Teacher's Resource Guide on Acidic Precipitation with Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The purpose of this teacher's resource guide is to help science teachers incorporate the topic of acidic precipitation into their curricula. A survey of recent junior high school science textbooks found a maximum of one paragraph devoted to the subject; in addition, none of these books had any related laboratory activities. It was on the basis of…

  3. Thinking Science: Classroom Activities in Secondary Science. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adey, Philip; And Others

    This teacher's guide is part of a program of activities that help secondary-level students develop the complex thinking skills needed to succeed in science. This program can be used with current curriculum materials. It is designed to help students integrate ideas and develop concepts that demonstrate higher level thinking. A rich environment of…

  4. MRI-Guided Vascular Access with an Active Visualization Needle

    PubMed Central

    Saikus, Christina E.; Ratnayaka, Kanishka; Barbash, Israel M.; Colyer, Jessica H.; Kocaturk, Ozgur; Faranesh, Anthony Z.; Lederman, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To develop an approach to vascular access under MRI, as a component of comprehensive MRI-guided cardiovascular catheterization and intervention. Materials and Methods We attempted jugular vein access in healthy pigs as a model of “difficult” vascular access. Procedures were performed under real-time MRI guidance using reduced field of view imaging. We developed an “active” MRI antenna-needle having an open-lumen, distinct tip appearance and indicators of depth and trajectory, in order to enhance MRI visibility during the procedure. We compared performance of the active needle against an unmodified commercial passively-visualized needle, measured by procedure success among operators with different levels of experience. Results MRI-guided central vein access was feasible using both the active needle and the unmodified passive needle. The active needle required less time (88 vs. 244 sec, p=0.022) and fewer needle passes (4.5 vs. 9.1, p=0.028), irrespective of operator experience. Conclusion MRI-guided access to central veins is feasible in our animal model. When image guidance is necessary for vascular access, performing this component under MRI will allow wholly MRI-guided catheterization procedures that do not require adjunctive imaging facilities such as X-ray or ultrasound. The active needle design showed enhanced visibility, as expected. These capabilities may permit more complex catheter-based cardiovascular interventional procedures enabled by enhanced image guidance. PMID:22006552

  5. Activity Guide for Nutrition Education, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chula Vista City School District, CA.

    This activity guide for foods and nutrition education at the primary level is divided into two sections: lesson plans and resource materials. Five concepts are outlined in the lesson plan: food choices, factors influencing choices, consumer competencies, food related careers, and food protection. Each lesson plan provides information on…

  6. Ecosystem Matters: Activity and Resource Guide for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mary; And Others

    An ecological approach involved making conscious decisions which result in actions that responsibly contribute to the long-term stewardship of natural resources. This activity and resource guide was designed for use by both educators and resource managers to supplement existing courses and programs concerning ecological matters. These…

  7. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  8. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  9. Made in USA: Project Ethnic Heritage: Activity and Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    The teaching guide suggests a variety of discussion and activity strategies relating to ethnicity for secondary and continuing education students. Objectives include helping people understand the nature and significance of their own heritage as well as that of each ethnic group, and encouraging participants to realize and deal with the impact…

  10. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  11. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  12. Sports Medicine. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course designed for students investigating the activities within the sports medicine department or considering any of the areas of kinesiology as a career. The material is designed for individualized study and is competency based with educational outcomes stated for…

  13. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells. PMID:23391534

  14. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  15. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jeffrey K; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S

    2015-08-18

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  16. Antihepatoma activity of Artocarpus communis is higher in fractions with high artocarpin content.

    PubMed

    Tzeng, Cheng-Wei; Yen, Feng-Lin; Lin, Liang-Tzung; Lee, Chiang-Wen; Yen, Ming-Hong; Tzeng, Wen-Sheng; Lin, Chun-Ching

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from natural plants have been used in traditional medicine for many centuries worldwide. Artocarpus communis is one such plant that has been used to treat liver cirrhosis, hypertension, and diabetes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the antihepatoma activity of A. communis toward HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells and the first to explore the relationship between antihepatoma activity and the active compound artocarpin content in different fractions of A. communis. A. communis methanol extract and fractions induced dose-dependent reduction of tumor cell viability. DNA laddering analysis revealed that A. communis extract and fractions did not induce apoptosis in HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells. Instead, acridine orange staining revealed that A. communis triggered autophagic cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The antihepatoma activity of A. communis is attributable to artocarpin. The fractions with the highest artocarpin content were also the fractions with the highest antihepatoma activity in the following order: dichloromethane fraction > methanol extract > ethyl acetate fraction > n-butanol fraction > n-hexane fraction. Taken together, A. communis showed antihepatoma activity through autophagic cell death. The effect was related to artocarpin content. Artocarpin could be considered an indicator of the anticancer potential of A. communis extract. PMID:25133268

  17. Lectin, hemolysin and protease inhibitors in seed fractions with ovicidal activity against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    Salles, Hévila Oliveira; Braga, Ana Carolina Linhares; Nascimento, Maria Thayana dos Santos Canuto do; Sousa, Ana Márjory Paiva; Lima, Adriano Rodrigues; Vieira, Luiz da Silva; Cavalcante, Antônio Cézar Rocha; Egito, Antonio Silvio do; Andrade, Lúcia Betânia da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Bioactive molecules of plant species are promising alternatives for the chemical control of gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants. Extracts of native and exotic seed species from Brazil's semi-arid region were tested in vitro in an egg hatch assay and the bioactivity of their proteins was investigated. Each seed species was subjected to three extractions with three types of solvents. All the seeds showed ovicidal activity, which varied according to the solvents. Higher ovicidal activity was found in the molecule fractions of low molecular weight (<12 kDa) for Albizia lebbeck, Ipomoea asarifolia, Jatropha curcas, Libidibia ferrea, Moringa oleifera and Ricinus communis (P<0.05, Bonferroni test). The two fractions of Crotalaria spectabilis showed the same ovicidal activity (P>0.05, Bonferroni test). Hemagglutinating activity was detected in the fractions of C. spectabilis and M. oleifera fractions, hemolysin activity in the A. lebbeck and M. oleifera fractions, serine protease inhibitory activity in the A. lebbeck, I. asarifolia, J. curcas, M. oleifera and R. communis fractions, cysteine protease inhibitor activity in the M. oleifera fraction, and no protein activity in the L. ferrea fraction. The results of this work reveal new plant species with a potential for use in controlling nematode parasites in goats, thus opening a new field of research involving plant protein molecules with ovicidal properties. PMID:25054490

  18. Outcomes and Toxicity for Hypofractionated and Single-Fraction Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Sarcomas Metastasizing to the Spine

    SciTech Connect

    Folkert, Michael R.; Bilsky, Mark H.; Tom, Ashlyn K.; Oh, Jung Hun; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Laufer, Ilya; Tap, William D.; Yamada, Yoshiya

    2014-04-01

    Purpose: Conventional radiation treatment (20-40 Gy in 5-20 fractions, 2-5 Gy per fraction) for sarcoma metastatic to the spine provides subtherapeutic doses, resulting in poor durable local control (LC) (50%-77% at 1 year). Hypofractionated (HF) and/or single-fraction (SF) image-guided stereotactic radiosurgery (IG-SRS) may provide a more effective means of managing these lesions. Methods and Materials: Patients with pathologically proven high-grade sarcoma metastatic to the spine treated with HF and SF IG-SRS were included. LC and overall survival (OS) were analyzed by the use of Kaplan-Meier statistics. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed by the use of Cox regression with competing-risks analysis; all confidence intervals are 95%. Toxicities were assessed according to Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. Results: From May 2005 to November 11, 2012, 88 patients with 120 discrete metastases received HF (3-6 fractions; median dose, 28.5 Gy; n=52, 43.3%) or SF IG-SRS (median dose, 24 Gy; n=68, 56.7%). The median follow-up time was 12.3 months. At 12 months, LC was 87.9% (confidence interval [CI], 81.3%-94.5%), OS was 60.6% (CI, 49.6%-71.6%), and median survival was 16.9 months. SF IG-SRS demonstrated superior LC to HF IG-SRS (12-month LC of 90.8% [CI, 83%-98.6%] vs 84.1% [CI, 72.9%-95.3%] P=.007) and retained significance on multivariate analysis (P=.030, hazard ratio 0.345; CI, 0.132-0.901]. Treatment was well tolerated, with 1% acute grade 3 toxicity, 4.5% chronic grade 3 toxicity, and no grade >3 toxicities. Conclusions: In the largest series of metastatic sarcoma to the spine to date, IG-SRS provides excellent LC in the setting of an aggressive disease with low radiation sensitivity and poor prognosis. Single-fraction IG-SRS is associated with the highest rates of LC with minimal toxicity.

  19. Robust plan optimization for electromagnetic transponder guided hypo-fractionated prostate treatment using volumetric modulated arc therapy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Hunt, Margie; Happersett, Laura; Yang, Jie; Zelefsky, Michael; Mageras, Gig

    2013-11-01

    To develop an optimization algorithm for volumetric modulated arc therapy which incorporates an electromagnetic tracking (EMT) guided gating strategy and is robust to residual intra-fractional motion uncertainties. In a computer simulation, intra-fractional motion traces from prior treatments with EMT were converted to a probability distribution function (PDF), truncated using a patient specific action volume that encloses allowed deviations from the planned position, and renormalized to yield a new PDF with EMT-gated interventions. In lieu of a conventional planning target volume (PTV), multiple instances of clinical target volume (CTV) and organs at risk (OARs) were replicated and displaced to extreme positions inside the action volume representing possible delivery scenarios. When optimizing the volumetric modulated arc therapy plan, doses to the CTV and OARs were calculated as a sum of doses to the replicas weighted by the PDF to account for motion. A treatment plan meeting the clinical constraints was produced and compared to the counterpart conventional margin (PTV) plan. EMT traces from a separate testing database served to simulate motion during gated delivery. Dosimetric end points extracted from dose accumulations for each motion trace were utilized to evaluate potential clinical benefit. Five prostate cases from a hypofractionated protocol (42.5 Gy in 5 fractions) were retrospectively investigated. The patient specific gating window resulted in tight anterior and inferior action levels (~1 mm) to protect rectal wall and bladder wall, and resulted in an average of four beam interruptions per fraction in the simulation. The robust-optimized plans achieved the same average CTV D95 coverage of 40.5 Gy as the PTV-optimized plans, but with reduced patient-averaged rectum wall D1cc by 2.2 Gy (range 0.7 to 4.7 Gy) and bladder wall mean dose by 2.9 Gy (range 2.0 to 3.4 Gy). Integration of an intra-fractional motion management strategy into the robust optimization

  20. Ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation by high intensity focused ultrasound in an in vivo porcine liver model.

    PubMed

    Khokhlova, Tatiana D; Wang, Yak-Nam; Simon, Julianna C; Cunitz, Bryan W; Starr, Frank; Paun, Marla; Crum, Lawrence A; Bailey, Michael R; Khokhlova, Vera A

    2014-06-01

    The clinical use of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy for noninvasive tissue ablation has been recently gaining momentum. In HIFU, ultrasound energy from an extracorporeal source is focused within the body to ablate tissue at the focus while leaving the surrounding organs and tissues unaffected. Most HIFU therapies are designed to use heating effects resulting from the absorption of ultrasound by tissue to create a thermally coagulated treatment volume. Although this approach is often successful, it has its limitations, such as the heat sink effect caused by the presence of a large blood vessel near the treatment area or heating of the ribs in the transcostal applications. HIFU-induced bubbles provide an alternative means to destroy the target tissue by mechanical disruption or, at its extreme, local fractionation of tissue within the focal region. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of a recently developed approach to HIFU-induced ultrasound-guided tissue fractionation in an in vivo pig model. In this approach, termed boiling histotripsy, a millimeter-sized boiling bubble is generated by ultrasound and further interacts with the ultrasound field to fractionate porcine liver tissue into subcellular debris without inducing further thermal effects. Tissue selectivity, demonstrated by boiling histotripsy, allows for the treatment of tissue immediately adjacent to major blood vessels and other connective tissue structures. Furthermore, boiling histotripsy would benefit the clinical applications, in which it is important to accelerate resorption or passage of the ablated tissue volume, diminish pressure on the surrounding organs that causes discomfort, or insert openings between tissues. PMID:24843132

  1. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention: where to after FAME 2?

    PubMed

    van de Hoef, Tim P; Meuwissen, Martijn; Piek, Jan J

    2015-01-01

    Fractional flow reserve (FFR) is a well-validated clinical coronary physiological parameter derived from the measurement of coronary pressures and has drastically changed revascularization decision-making in clinical practice. Nonetheless, it is important to realize that FFR is a coronary pressure-derived estimate of coronary blood flow impairment. It is thereby not the same as direct measures of coronary flow impairment that determine the occurrence of signs and symptoms of myocardial ischemia. This consideration is important, since the FAME 2 study documented a limited discriminatory power of FFR to identify stenoses that require revascularization to prevent adverse events. The physiological difference between FFR and direct measures of coronary flow impairment may well explain the findings in FAME 2. This review aims to address the physiological background of FFR, its ambiguities, and its consequences for the application of FFR in clinical practice, as well as to reinterpret the diagnostic and prognostic characteristics of FFR in the light of the recent FAME 2 trial outcomes. PMID:26673639

  2. Antioxidant and metal chelating activities of peptide fractions from phaseolin and bean protein hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Castilla, Janet; Hernández-Álvarez, Alan Javier; Jiménez-Martínez, Cristian; Jacinto-Hernández, Carmen; Alaiz, Manuel; Girón-Calle, Julio; Vioque, Javier; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria

    2012-12-01

    Bean protein isolate and phaseolin were hydrolysed using pepsin and pancreatin, and the resulting hydrolysates were filtered through a 1kDa cut-off membrane and fractionated by size exclusion chromatography. Three fractions corresponding to MW 0.7-1.0kDa, 0.43-0.7kDa and <0.43kDa (A1, A2, and A3 for protein isolate fractions, and B1, B2, and B3 for phaseolin fractions) were assayed for antioxidant and metal chelating activity and they were also subjected to amino acid and SDS-PAGE analysis. Fractions A1 and B1 had the highest copper chelating activity (78% and 82%, respectively), while iron chelating activity was the highest in fractions A1 and B3 (36% and 16%, respectively). Fractions A2 and B3 had the highest antioxidant activity as determined by inhibition of reducing power and β-carotene bleaching, while the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity was found in A3 and B3. Thus, fractions coming from the isolate and phaseolin had similar activities except for iron chelation, suggesting that phaseolin is the major contributor to the antioxidant and copper chelating activities of the hydrolysed protein isolate. PMID:22953924

  3. Anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. fruits and its chemical constituents.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaolu; Lu, Jincai; Xin, Hailiang; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Yuliang; Tang, Kexuan

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to ascertain the anti-arthritic active fraction of Capparis spinosa L. (Capparidaceae) fruits and its chemical constituents. The adjuvant arthritic rat model was developed to evaluate the anti-arthritic effects of different fractions of ethanol extraction from C. spinosa L. The fraction eluted by ethanol-water (50:50, v/v) had the most significant anti-arthritic activity. The chemical constituents of this fraction were therefore studied; seven known compounds were isolated and identified as: P-hydroxy benzoic acid; 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural; bis(5-formylfurfuryl) ether; daucosterol; α-D-fructofuranosides methyl; uracil; and stachydrine. PMID:21372539

  4. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  5. Antioxidant activities of bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) protein hydrolysates and their membrane ultrafiltration fractions.

    PubMed

    Arise, Abimbola K; Alashi, Adeola M; Nwachukwu, Ifeanyi D; Ijabadeniyi, Oluwatosin A; Aluko, Rotimi E; Amonsou, Eric O

    2016-05-18

    In this study, the bambara protein isolate (BPI) was digested with three proteases (alcalase, trypsin and pepsin), to produce bambara protein hydrolysates (BPHs). These hydrolysates were passed through ultrafiltration membranes to obtain peptide fractions of different sizes (<1, 1-3, 3-5 and 5-10 kDa). The hydrolysates and their peptide fractions were investigated for antioxidant activities. The membrane fractions showed that peptides with sizes <3 kDa had significantly (p < 0.05) reduced surface hydrophobicity when compared with peptides >3 kDa. This is in agreement with the result obtained for the ferric reducing power, metal chelating and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities where higher molecular weight peptides exhibited better activity (p < 0.05) when compared to low molecular weight peptide fractions. However, for all the hydrolysates, the low molecular weight peptides were more effective diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavengers but not superoxide radicals when compared to the bigger peptides. In comparison with glutathione (GSH), BPHs and their membrane fractions had better (p < 0.05) reducing power and ability to chelate metal ions except for the pepsin hydrolysate and its membrane fractions that did not show any metal chelating activity. However, the 5-10 kDa pepsin hydrolysate peptide fractions had greater (88%) hydroxyl scavenging activity than GSH, alcalase and trypsin hydrolysates (82%). These findings show the potential use of BPHs and their peptide fraction as antioxidants in reducing food spoilage or management of oxidative stress-related metabolic disorders. PMID:27156453

  6. Tissue feature-based intra-fractional motion tracking for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Yaoqin; Xing, Lei; Gu, Jia; Liu, Wu

    2013-06-01

    Real-time knowledge of tumor position during radiation therapy is essential to overcome the adverse effect of intra-fractional organ motion. The goal of this work is to develop a tumor tracking strategy by effectively utilizing the inherent image features of stereoscopic x-ray images acquired during dose delivery. In stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation delivery, two orthogonal x-ray images are acquired either simultaneously or sequentially. The essence of markerless tumor tracking is the reliable identification of inherent points with distinct tissue features on each projection image and their association between two images. The identification of the feature points on a planar x-ray image is realized by searching for points with high intensity gradient. The feature points are associated by using the scale invariance features transform descriptor. The performance of the proposed technique is evaluated by using images of a motion phantom and four archived clinical cases acquired using either a CyberKnife equipped with a stereoscopic x-ray imaging system, or a LINAC equipped with an onboard kV imager and an electronic portal imaging device. In the phantom study, the results obtained using the proposed method agree with the measurements to within 2 mm in all three directions. In the clinical study, the mean error is 0.48 ± 0.46 mm for four patient data with 144 sequential images. In this work, a tissue feature-based tracking method for stereoscopic x-ray image guided radiation therapy is developed. The technique avoids the invasive procedure of fiducial implantation and may greatly facilitate the clinical workflow.

  7. Antioxidant activities and functional properties of protein and peptide fractions isolated from salted herring brine.

    PubMed

    Taheri, Ali; Sabeena Farvin, K H; Jacobsen, Charlotte; Baron, Caroline P

    2014-01-01

    In the present study proteins isolated from herring brine, which is a by-product of marinated herring production were evaluated for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Herring brine was collected from the local herring industry and proteins were precipitated by adjusting the pH to 4.5 and the obtained supernatant was further fractionated by using ultrafiltration membranes with molecular weight cut offs of 50, 10 and 1kDa. The obtained >50kDa, 50-10kDa, 10-1kDa fractions and pH precipitated fraction were studied for their functional properties and antioxidant activity. Functional properties revealed that >50kDa polypeptides showed good emulsion activity index when compared to the other fractions. However all fractions had low emulsion stability index. The pH precipitated fraction showed the highest foaming capacity and stability at pH 10. The 50-10kDa and 10-1kDa peptide fractions showed good radical scavenging activity and reducing power at a concentration of 0.5mg protein/ml. All the fractions demonstrated low iron chelating activity and did not inhibit oxidation in a soybean phosphatidylcholine liposome model system. However all the fractions were to some extent able to delay iron catalyzed lipid oxidation in 5% fish oil in water emulsions and the 10-50kDa fraction was the best. These results show the potential of proteins and peptide fractions recovered from waste water from the herring industry as source of natural antioxidants for use in food products. PMID:24001848

  8. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Compounds from Datura stramonium with TRAIL-Resistance Overcoming Activity.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Toume, Kazufumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most cancer cells, but not in normal cells, and therefore has deserved intense interest as a promising agent for cancer therapy. In the search for bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Datura stramonium leaves led to the isolation of three alkaloids--scopolamine (1), trigonelline (2), and tyramine (3). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 50, 150, and 100 µM, respectively in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. PMID:27032197

  9. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • The use of bio-guided fractionation to explore the use of leftover biomass in Dutch flower bulb production as allelochemicals against weeds.

      PubMed

      Wahyuni, Dinar S C; van der Kooy, Frank; Klinkhamer, Peter G L; Verpoorte, Rob; Leiss, Kirsten

      2013-01-01

      A major problem in flower bulb cultivation is weed control. Synthetic herbicides are mainly used, although they cause a range of problems, and integrated weed control through application of naturally occurring allelochemicals would be highly desirable. Flower bulb production creates large amounts of leftover biomass. Utilizing this source for weed control may provide new applications of the bulb crops. We therefore screened 33 flower bulb extracts for allelochemical activity against weeds. Several methanol and chloroform extracts were observed to inhibit germination and growth of Senecio vulgaris L. and Lolium perenne L., as representatives of di- and mono-cotyledonous weeds, respectively. Narciclasine was identified as the bioactive compound in Narcissus. The extract of Amaryllis belladonna L. was equally active, but did not contain any narciclasine. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the A. belladonna extract resulted in the identification of lycorine as the bio-active compound. The IC₅₀ measured for radicle growth inhibition was 0.10 µM for narciclasine and 0.93 µM for lycorine, compared to 0.11 mM of chlorpropham, a synthetic herbicide. Therefore, the leftover biomass from the spring bulb industry represents an interesting potential source for promising allelochemicals for further studies on weed growth inhibition. PMID:23595089

    • Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

      NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

      Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

      1992-01-01

      This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

    • Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of the sesquiterpene fraction from Annona reticulata L. bark.

      PubMed

      Chavan, Machindra J; Wakte, Pravin S; Shinde, Devanand B

      2012-01-01

      The sesquiterpene fraction of Annona reticulata bark was studied by GC/MS. Three major components were identified: copaene (35.40%), patchoulane (13.49%) and 1H-cycloprop(e)azulene (22.77%). The fraction was also screened for its analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. The sesquiterpene fraction at doses 12.5 and 25 mg kg⁻¹ and the unsaponified petroleum ether extract at a dose of 50 mg kg⁻¹ exhibited significant central as well as peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. These activities were comparable with the standard drugs used in the respective experiments. PMID:22007723

    • Antioxidant and Wound Healing Activity of Polyherbal Fractions of Clinacanthus nutans and Elephantopus scaber

      PubMed Central

      Ahmad, Muhammad Syarhabil; Mamat, Awang Soh; Ahmad, Muhammad Zamharir; Salam, Faridah

      2016-01-01

      Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans are traditionally used as wound healing herb. The objective of the present study is to develop a new polyherbal formulation, by comparison, the herbal combination of Elephantopus scaber and Clinacanthus nutans as an in vitro antioxidant activity with their individual herbal activity followed by fractionation of polyherbal formulation for in vivo wound healing activities and identification of bioactive compounds from their active fractions. Antioxidant activity was performed in vitro by DPPH scavenging antioxidant activity followed by in vivo wound healing activities using excision wound model, incision wound model, and burn wound model. Toxicity of the fractions of the polyherbal formulation was performed by a dermal toxicity test. The result showed that Elephantopus scaber crude extract on the basis of EC50 performs a much faster action (15.67 μg/mL) but with less % inhibition (87.66%) as compared to the combination of the new polyherbal formulation of crude extract (30 μg/mL). The polyherbal formulation has the highest % inhibition (89.49%) at the same dose as compared to Elephantopus scaber (87.66%). In comparison among all crude and fractions of new polyherbal formulation, it was found that the ethyl acetate fraction of polyherbal formulation has the fastest activity (EC50 14.83 μg/mL) with % inhibition (89.28%). Furthermore, during evaluation of wound contraction on excision and incision wound model, ethyl acetate fraction possesses the highest activity with (P < 0.001) and (P < 0.0001), respectively. During burn wound model, aqueous fraction (P < 0.001) possesses the highest activity followed by an ethyl acetate fraction (P < 0.0001). LC-MS analysis discovered the presence of several flavonoid-based compounds that work synergistically with sesquiterpene lactone and other bioactive compounds. In conclusion, flavonoid increases the antioxidant activity that surges the rate of wound contraction and works

    • Antioxidant activity and phenolic compositions of lentil (Lens culinaris var. Morton) extract and its fractions

      PubMed Central

      Zou, Yanping; Chang, Sam K.C.; Gu, Yan; Qian, Steven Y.

      2011-01-01

      Phenolic compounds were extracted from Morton lentils using acidified aqueous acetone. The crude Morton extract (CME) was applied onto a macroresin column and desorbed by aqueous methanol to obtain a semi-purified Morton extract (SPME). The SPME was further fractionated over Sephadex LH-20 column into five main fractions (Fr I – Fr V). The phytochemical contents such as total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and condensed tannin content (CTC) of the CME, SPME, and its fractions were examined by colorimetric methods. Antioxidant activity of extracts and fractions were screened by DPPH scavenging activity, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric reduced antioxidant power (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC) methods. In addition, the compositions of active fractions were determined by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS methods. Results showed that fraction enriched in condensed tannins (Fr V) exhibited significantly higher value of TPC, CTC and higher antioxidant activity as compared to the crude extract, SPME and low-molecular-weight fractions (Fr I – IV). Eighteen compounds existed in those fractions, and seventeen were tentatively identified by UV and MS spectra. HPLC-MS analysis revealed Fr II contained mainly kaempferol glycoside, Fr III and Fr IV mainly contained flavonoid glycosides, and Fr V was composed of condensed tannins. The results suggested that extract of Morton lentils is a promising source of antioxidant phenolics, and may be used as a dietary supplement for health promotion. PMID:21332205

    • Hypoglycemic activity of leaf organic extracts from Smallanthus sonchifolius: Constituents of the most active fractions.

      PubMed

      Genta, Susana B; Cabrera, Wilfredo M; Mercado, María I; Grau, Alfredo; Catalán, César A; Sánchez, Sara S

      2010-04-29

      The aim of the present study was to determine the in vivo hypoglycemic activity of five organic extracts and enhydrin obtained from yacon leaves. The main constituents of the most active fraction were identified. Five organic extracts and pure crystalline enhydrin were administered to normoglycemic, transiently hyperglycemic and streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. The fasting and post-prandial blood glucose, and serum insulin levels were estimated and an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was performed for the evaluation of hypoglycemic activity and dose optimization of each extract. We found that the methanol, butanol and chloroform extracts showed effective hypoglycemic activity at minimum doses of 50, 10 and 20mg/kg body weight, respectively, and were selected for further experiments. Oral administration of a single-dose of each extract produced a slight lowering effect in the fasting blood glucose level of normal healthy rats, whereas each extract tempered significantly the hyperglycemic peak after food ingestion. Daily administration of each extract for 8 weeks produced an effective glycemic control in diabetic animals with an increase in the plasma insulin level. Phytochemical analysis of the most active fraction, the butanol extract, showed that caffeic, chlorogenic and three dicaffeoilquinic acids were significant components. Additionally, enhydrin, the major sesquiterpene lactone of yacon leaves, was also effective to reduce post-prandial glucose and useful in the treatment of diabetic animals (minimum dose: 0.8mg/kg body weight). The results presented here strongly support the notion that the phenolic compounds above as well as enhydrin are important hypoglycemic principles of yacon leaves that could ameliorate the diabetic state. PMID:20211156

    • Antimalarial activity of fractions of aqueous extract of Acacia nilotica root

      PubMed Central

      Alli, Lukman Adewale; Adesokan, Abdulfatai Ayoade; Salawu, Adeola Oluwakanyinsola

      2016-01-01

      Background: The problem of resistance of malarial parasites to available antimalarial drugs makes the development of new drugs imperative, with natural plant products providing an alternative source for discovering new drugs. Aim: To evaluate the antimalarial activity of eluted fractions of Acacia nilotica root extract and determine the phytochemicals responsible for its antimalarial activity. Materials and Methods: The extract was eluted successively in gradients of solvent mixture (hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol) in multiples of 100 ml, and each fraction was collected separately. Eluates that showed similar thin layer chromatographic profiles and Rf values were combined to produce 4 main fractions (F-1, F-2, F-3, and F-4), which were tested separately for antimalarial activity using the curative test. Changes in body weight, temperature, and packed cell volume (PCV) were also recorded. Results: Fraction F-1 of A. nilotica at 50 and 100 mg/kg b/w produced significant and dose-dependent reduction in parasite count in Plasmodium berghei infected mice compared to the control, and also significantly increased the survival time of the mice compared to the control group. This fraction also ameliorated the malaria-induced anemia by improving PCV in treated mice. Conclusion: Antimalarial activity of extract of A. nilotica root is probably localized in the F-1 fraction of the extract, which was found to be rich in alkaloids and phenolics. Further study will provide information on the chemical properties of the active metabolites in this fraction. PMID:27104040

    • Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Bioaccessible Fraction from Eryngium foetidum Leaves

      PubMed Central

      Dawilai, Suwitcha; Muangnoi, Chawanphat; Praengamthanachoti, Phawachaya; Tuntipopipat, Siriporn

      2013-01-01

      Eryngium foetidum (EF) has long been used as a medicinal plant and culinary spice in tropical regions. Phytochemicals in its leaves have been proposed to be responsible for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The present study used in vitro digestion coupled with Caco-2 cells to assess such activities. Caco-2 cells were incubated with aqueous fraction from simulated digestion (bioaccessible fraction) of EF leaves with/without bile extract prior to stimulation with interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and IL-8 in culture media and the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. Approximately 24% β-carotene and 35% lutein of leaves were present in the aqueous fraction. The transfer of caffeic and chlorogenic acids to the aqueous fraction was 76%–81%, while that of kaempferol was 48%. Prior incubation of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction suppressed IL-1β activated IL-8 and MCP-1 by 33%, but the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased IL-8 and MCP-1 levels only by 11%. The pretreatment of Caco-2 cells with the bioaccessible fraction of EF reduced ROS by 34%; the fraction lacking mixed micelles decreased ROS by 28%. These data suggest that bioactive compounds partitioning in mixed micelles play a significant role to suppress the proinflammatory insult but with a modest antioxidant effect. PMID:24151629

    • Physicochemical characteristics and biological activities of polysaccharide fractions from Phellinus baumii cultured with different methods.

      PubMed

      Li, Tingting; Yang, Yan; Liu, Yanfang; Zhou, Shuai; Yan, Meng Qiu; Wu, Di; Zhang, Jingsong; Tang, Chuanhong

      2015-11-01

      Nine polysaccharide fractions were obtained from the fruiting bodies, submerged mycelia, and solid state fermented products of Phellinus baumii using different concentrations of ethanol precipitation. The chemical characteristics and in vitro immunological activities of the nine polysaccharide fractions were compared and studied. Results indicated that the fractions precipitated with 50% ethanol had higher yields of polysaccharides and submerged mycelia contributed to high extraction yields of polysaccharides and possessed higher polysaccharide contents. HPSEC-MALLS-RI analysis showed that the molecular weight (Mw) of polysaccharide fractions from these three materials decreased with the increasing of precipitated ethanol concentration. The Mw of fruiting body polysaccharide fractions ranged from 1.98×10(4)Da to 1.89×10(6)Da. Large-molecular-weight polysaccharides (from 2.11×10(6)Da to 2.01×10(7)Da) were found in submerged mycelia. Some lower-molecular-weight polysaccharide components were found in solid fermented products. Different culture methods contributed to significant differences in monosaccharide components and molar ratios. The 50% ethanol precipitated fractions exhibited more complexity on monosaccharide compositions comparing with fractions precipitated with 30% and 70% ethanol. Polysaccharide fractions derived from submerged mycelia exhibited higher macrophages stimulation activities. Submerged culture was found to be a suitable method to prepare active polysaccharides because of its short culture span and reasonable cost. PMID:26344493

    • C isotope fractionation during heterotrophic activity driven carbonate precipitation

      NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

      Balci, Nurgul; Demirel, Cansu

      2016-04-01

      Stable carbon isotopic fractionation during carbonate precipitation induced by environmentally enriched heterotrophic halophilic microorganims was experimentally investigated under various salinity (% 4.5, %8, %15) conditions at 30 °C. Halophilic heterotrophic microorganims were enriched from a hypersaline Lake Acigöl located in SW Turkey (Balci et al.,2015) and later used for the precipitation experiments (solid and liquid medium). The carbonate precipitates had relatively high δ13C values (‑4.3 to ‑16.9 ‰) compared to the δ13C values of the organic compounds that ranged from ‑27.5 to ‑25.4 ‰. At salinity of 4.5 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -4.9 ‰ to -10.9 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +20 to +16 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC (-27.5) . At salinity 8 % δ13C values of carbonate ranged from -16.3 ‰ to -11.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of+11.3 to+15.9 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The respected values for 15 % salinity ranged from -12.3 ‰ to -9.7 ‰ with a 13C-enrichment factor of +15.2 to+16.8 ‰ higher than the δ13C values of the associated DOC. The carbonate precipitates produced in the solid medium are more enriched in 13C relative to liquid culture experiments. These results suggest that the carbon in the solid was derived from both the bacterial oxidation of organic compounds in the medium and from the atmospheric CO2. A solid medium used in the experiments may have suppressed convective and advective mass transport favouring diffusion-controlled system. This determination suggests that the rate and equilibration of CO2 exchange with the atmosphere is the major control on C isotope composition of carbonate minerals precipitated in the experiments. Key words: Lake Acıgöl, halophilic bacteria, carbonate biomineralization, C isotopes References Nurgul Balci, Meryem Menekşe, Nevin Gül Karagüler, M. Şeref Sönmez,Patrick Meister 2015.Reproducing authigenic

    • Direct activation of GABAA receptors by substances in the organic acid fraction of Japanese sake.

      PubMed

      Izu, Hanae; Shigemori, Kensuke; Eguchi, Masaya; Kawane, Shuhei; Fujii, Shouko; Kitamura, Yuji; Aoshima, Hitoshi; Yamada, Yasue

      2017-01-01

      We investigated the effect of substances present in Japanese sake on the response of ionotropic γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Sake was fractionated by ion-exchange chromatography. The fraction containing organic acids (OA fraction) showed agonist activities on the GABAA receptor. OA fractions from sake were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOFMS). Of the 64 compounds identified, 13 compounds showed GABAA receptor agonist activities. Especially, l-lactic acid showed high agonist activity and its EC50 value was 37μM. Intraperitoneal injections of l-lactic acid, gluconic acid, and pyruvic acid (10, 10, and 5mg/kg BW, respectively), which showed agonistic activity on the GABAA receptor, led to significant anxiolytic effects during an elevated plus-maze test in mice. PMID:27507485

  1. Assessment of phytochemicals, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of extract and fractions from Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Pakistan Fagonia olivieri (Zygophyllaceae) is commonly used in the indigenous system of medicine for treatment of conditions like diabetes, cancer, fever, asthma, toothache, stomach troubles and kidney disorders. This study evaluated the crude methanol extract of F. olivieri (FOM) and its derived fractions for their antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities as well as the classes of phytochemical. Methods Dried powder of whole plant of F. olivieri was extracted with methanol (FOM) and the resultant was fractionated to give n-hexane fraction (FOH), chloroform fraction (FOC), ethyl acetate fraction (FOE), n-butanol fraction (FOB) and residual aqueous fraction (FOA). Methanol extract and its derived fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening using standard procedures. Also the extract and fractions were assayed for antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities using agar well diffusion technique, agar tube dilution method and brine shrimps lethality test, respectively. Results The results obtained for phytochemical analysis indicate the presence of saponins and alkaloids in all the tested extract and fractions while anthraquinones were not detected. The results showed that all the bacterial strains tested in this study were susceptible to at least one of the fractions tested. However, FOE and FOB were the best antibacterial fractions and showed antibacterial activity against maximum number of bacterial strains. The results showed that Escherichia coli was the most sensitive bacterium while Bordetella bronchiseptica and Enterobacter aerogenes were less susceptible against various fractions. Maximum percent inhibition for growth was recorded for the fungus Aspergillus flavus with FOE whereas growth of Aspergillus fumigatus and Fusarium solani was inhibited by FOM and its all derived fractions. Minimum LC50 (24.07 mg/L) for brine shrimp assay was recorded for FOE followed by LC50 of FOC (26.1 mg/L) and FOB (30.05 mg/L) whereas maximum LC50 was

  2. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (%) ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 (IC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 (IC50 = 4.78 μg/mL) from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  3. Fractionation of Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Propolis and Their Activity in the Yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Petelinc, Tanja; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Jamnik, Polona

    2013-01-01

    We have here investigated the activities of Slovenian propolis extracts in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and identified the phenolic compounds that appear to contribute to these activities. We correlated changes in intracellular oxidation and cellular metabolic energy in these yeasts with the individual fractions of the propolis extracts obtained following solid-phase extraction. The most effective fraction was further investigated according to its phenolic compounds. PMID:23409133

  4. A novel, variable angle guide grid for neuronal activity studies

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Thomas; Ide, David; Liu, Ning; Turchi, Janita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Surgically implanted chambers with removable grids are routinely used for studying patterns of neuronal activity in primate brains; however, accessing target tissues is significantly constrained by standard grid designs. Typically, grids are configured with a series of guide holes drilled vertically, parallel to the walls of the chamber, thus targeted sites are limited to those in line vertically with one of the guide holes. Methods: By using the three-dimensional modeling software, a novel grid was designed to reach the targeted sites far beyond the standard reach of the chamber. The grid was fabricated using conventional machining techniques and three-dimensional printing. Results: A pilot study involving microinjection of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadolinium into the discrete regions of interest (ROIs) in the temporal cortex of an awake, behaving monkey demonstrated the effectiveness of this new design of the guide grid. Using multiple different angles of approach, we were readily able to access 10 injection sites, which were up to 5 mm outside the traditional, orthogonal reach of the chamber. PMID:22319479

  5. Effect of aqueous extract and fractions of Fagonia arabica on in vitro anticoagulant activity.

    PubMed

    Chourasia, Sweta R; Kashyap, Rajpal Singh; Deopujari, Jayant Y; Purohit, Hemant J; Taori, Girdhar M; Daginawala, Hatim F

    2014-11-01

    Fagonia arabica (FA) is a deobstruent and blood purifier, which possesses thrombolytic and antioxidant activities. In this study, the anticoagulant effects of FA and its derived fractions were evaluated. Plasma recalcification was performed with multisolvent extracts of FA and then with extracts prepared successively with increasing polarity of the solvents. Aqueous extract was the most potent anticoagulant extract, which was fractionated by thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography. Five fractions collected were checked for their anticoagulation effect. The most potent fraction was screened for phytoconstituents. Aqueous extract of FA is the most active anticoagulant (31 minutes). Results were statistically significant when compared to heparin (38 minutes) and saline (4.04 minutes; P > .001). The Fifth fraction (FA5), the most potent fraction (27 minutes), was found positive for flavonoids, saponin, tannin, triterpenoids, carbohydrates, reducing sugar, and monosaccharides. Aqueous FA and fraction FA5 were most active in in vitro anticoagulation, and any of the phytochemicals identified could be considered the active component. PMID:23814169

  6. Fractionation and Characterization of Biologically-active Polysaccharides from Artemisia tripartita

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Siemsen, Daniel W.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Wiley, James A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    The leaves of Artemisia species have been traditionally used for prevention and treatment of a number of diseases. In this study, five polysaccharide fractions (designated A-I to A-V) were isolated from the leaves of Artemisia tripartita Rydb. by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, and chromatography. The homogeneity and average molecular weight of each fraction were determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Artemisia polysaccharides consisted primarily of xylose, glucose, arabinose, galactose, and galactosamine. Moreover, all fractions contained at least 3.4% sulfate, and fractions A-II through A-V contained an arabinogalactan type II structure. All fractions exhibited macrophage-activating activity, enhancing production of intracellular reactive oxygen species and release of nitric oxide, interleukin 6, interleukin 10, tumor necrosis factor α, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1. In addition, all fractions exhibited scavenging activity for reactive oxygen species generated enzymatically or produced extracellularly by human neutrophils. Finally, fractions A-I and A-V exhibited complement-fixing activity. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Artemisia extracts, and suggest the possibility of using Artemisia polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:18325553

  7. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This educator's guide features activities for science, mathematics, and technology education. The activities in this curriculum guide were developed based on the hands-on approach. The guide starts with introductory information and is followed by five units: (1) "The Atmospheric Filter"; (2) "The Electromagnetic Spectrum"; (3) "Collecting…

  8. Inhibitory activity of the ethyl acetate fraction from Viscum coloratum on bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Han, Na; Xu, Xinyang; Liu, Zhihui; Zhang, Baoyan; Kadota, Shigetoshi

    2008-02-01

    The effects of four fractions, a hexane fraction, an ethyl acetate fraction, an N-butanol fraction and a water fraction, from a water extract of Herba Visci were investigated to find the fraction, in IN VITRO experiments, with the greatest ability to inhibit the formation of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells from mouse bone marrow cells and also to inhibit (45)Ca release from a mouse parietal bone organ culture system. The ethyl acetate fraction was able to inhibit the formation of osteoclast-like cells in a dose-dependent manner and was also able to potently inhibit the release of (45)Ca even at a low concentration. Therefore, a further IN VIVO experiment was performed to determine if the ethyl acetate fraction had antiosteoporotic activity. It was found to inhibit the decreases in total and cancellous bone mineral density, in cancellous and cortical bone mineral content as well as in cortical bone thickness and in the X-axis strength index of tibiae of ovariectomized rats. The principle constituents of the ethyl acetate fraction were determined to be (+)-syringaresinol O- beta-glucopyranoside, 2-homoeriodictyol 7- O-glucoside and viscumneoside I by HPLC analysis. PMID:18247260

  9. Cardiovascular activity of the n-butanol fraction of the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb.

    PubMed

    Ameer, O Z; Salman, I M; Siddiqui, M J A; Yam, M F; Sriramaneni, R N; Sadikun, A; Ismail, Z; Shah, A M; Asmawi, M Z

    2010-02-01

    We investigated the vascular responses and the blood pressure reducing effects of different fractions obtained from the methanol extract of Loranthus ferrugineus Roxb. (F. Loranthaceae). By means of solvent-solvent extraction, L. ferrugineus methanol extract (LFME) was successively fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The ability of these LFME fractions to relax vascular smooth muscle against phenylephrine (PE)- and KCl-induced contractions in isolated rat aortic rings was determined. In another set of experiments, LFME fractions were tested for blood pressure lowering activity in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g, 14-18 weeks). The n-butanol fraction of LFME (NBF-LFME) produced a significant concentration-dependent inhibition of PE- and KCl-induced aortic ring contractions compared to other fractions. Moreover, NBF-LFME had a significantly higher relaxant effect against PE- than against high K+-induced contractions. In anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats, NBF-LFME significantly lowered blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner and with a relatively longer duration of action compared to the other fractions. HPLC, UV and IR spectra suggested the presence of terpenoid constituents in both LFME and NBF-LFME. Accordingly, we conclude that NBF-LFME is the most potent fraction producing a concentration-dependent relaxation in vascular smooth muscle in vitro and a dose-dependent blood pressure lowering activity in vivo. The cardiovascular effects of NBF-LFME are most likely attributable to its terpenoid content. PMID:20084331

  10. Hypericum lanceolatum (Hypericaceae) as a potential source of new anti-malarial agents: a bioassay-guided fractionation of the stem bark

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria is a major public health threat in Africa, and traditional medicine continues to play a key role in its control especially in rural areas. A bioassay-guided fractionation was carried out in order to evaluate the anti-malarial potential and the safety of the methanol extract of the Hypericum lanceolatum stem bark. Methods The anti-plasmodial activity was assayed by the lactate dehydrogenase method (pLDH) against the multidrug-resistant W2mef laboratory strain, and a field isolate (SHF4) of Plasmodium falciparum. Cytotoxicity tests were carried out using the LLC-MK2 monkey kidney epithelial cells. Results Five compounds were isolated from the most active and least cytotoxic ethylacetate sub-extract: betulinic acid (HLT1), 2,2',5,6'-tetrahydroxybenzophenone (HLT2), 5-hydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone (HLT3), 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyxanthone (HLT4) and HLT0 (yet to be identified). Three of the tested compounds presented significant anti-plasmodial activities (with 50% inhibitory concentration, IC50 < 5 μM), with 5-hydroxy-3-methoxyxanthone exerting the highest activity, followed by HLT0 and betulinic acid. All the compounds with significant anti-plasmodial activity were non-cytotoxic, except betulinic acid which showed a 50% cytotoxic concentration, CC50 of 25 μg/mL. Conclusions These findings justify the use of H. lanceolatum stem bark as anti-malarial by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new drug candidates or phytomedicines for malaria. PMID:21682873

  11. Development of Active Catheter,Active Guide Wire and Micro Sensor Systems

    PubMed Central

    Haga, Y.; Mineta, T.; Totsu, K.; Makishi, W.; Esashi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Summary Active catheters and active guide wires which move like a snake have been developed for catheter-based minimally invasive diagnosis and therapy. Communication and control IC chips in the active catheter reduce the number of lead wires for control. The active catheter can be not only bent but also torsioned and extended. An ultra minature fiber-optic pressure sensor; a forward-looking ultrasonic probe and a magnetic position and orientation sensor have been developed for catheters and guide wires. These moving mechanisms and several sensors which are fitted near the tip of the catheter and the guide wire will provide detailed information near the tip and enable delicate and effective catheter intervention. PMID:20663389

  12. Antiproliferative Activity and Apoptosis Induction of Crude Extract and Fractions of Avicennia Marina

    PubMed Central

    Momtazi-borojeni, Amir abbas; Behbahani, Mandana; Sadeghi-aliabadi, Hojjat

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): Regarding the presence of many active biological constituents in Avicennia marina, the present investigation was carried out to study cytotoxic activity of crude methanol leave extract and column chromatographic fractions of A. marina against MDA-MB 231 cell line (human breast cancer cell) and HEK (Human embryonic kidney cell) line. Materials and Methods: The anticancer activity of crude methanol extract and sub-fractions were evaluated, using MTT assay. The induction of apoptosis was determined by analyzing DNA fragmentation in breast cancer cells treated with active fraction of crude methanol extract using agarose gel electrophoresis. To investigate molecular mechanism of apoptosis, gene expression levels of p53 and Bcl-2 were measured using quantitative real time PCR. Results: Fraction 10 was the most active fraction and was detected with HPLC as luteolin. The 50% cell cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of crude methanol extract and luteolin was 250 and 28 µg/ml, respectively. This fraction was found to be an apoptotic agent against MDA-MB 231 cells, which leads to causing DNA fragmentation. The mRNA expression level of Bcl-2 and p53 was significantly decreased and increased respectively in cancer cells treated by luteolin. Conclusion: The results suggested that Luteolin isolated from Avicennia marina could probably induce apoptosis on breast cancer cell line by the regulation of p53 and Bcl-2 pathways. PMID:24494074

  13. Activity Markers of the Anti-Breast Carcinoma Cell Growth Fractions of Vernonia amygdalina Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Oyugi, Daniel A.; Luo, Xuan; Lee, Ken S.; Hill, Brandon; Izevbigie, Ernest B.

    2010-01-01

    Vernonia amygdalina (VA) is an edible plant of the Asteraceae family used in many herbal formulations prescribed by herbalists for many diseases. We have previously reported that aqueous VA extracts inhibit the growth of estrogen receptor-positive human breast cancerous cells in vitro. Activity markers of the VA extracts have not been previously identified or characterized. Hence, the objective of this study was to identify activity markers of the VA extracts associated with cell growth inhibition. Extraction of VA with multiple solvents of various polarity indexes yielded three fractions (A1-2, B-3) that significantly inhibited cell growth (p <0.05) at 0.1 mg/ml concentration. At a higher concentration of 1 mg/ml, six fractions of hexane, chloroform, butanol, and ethyl acetate (A1-3, B2-4) inhibited DNA synthesis by 76, 98, 94, 98, 98, and 96% respectively. These fractions were UV-detected from 250–730 nm; and all showed three distinct peaks around 410, 431, and 664 nm. Furthermore, HPLC analysis of the fractions revealed similar retention times of 2.213, 2.167, and 2.151 min respectively. Bioactivity assays showed that HPLC retention of approximately 2 min is required for cell growth-inhibitory activity of VA fractions. Interestingly, all active fractions exhibited HPLC peaks at approximately 2 min. Therefore, the UV and HPLC peaks may be used as predictive tools to determine VA extracts activities. PMID:19176872

  14. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different fractions of Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots extract

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219

  15. Bioactive fraction of Saraca indica prevents diabetes induced cataractogenesis: An aldose reductase inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Somani, Gauresh; Sathaye, Sadhana

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Saraca indica (SI) flowers extract and different bioactive fraction on in vitro aldose reductase (AR) inhibitory activity, high glucose-induced cataract in goat lens and in vivo streptozotocin (STZ; 45 mg/kg, i.p) induced cataract in rats. Methods: Extract of flowers of SI tested for inhibition against rat lens AR. Furthermore, bioactive fraction was investigated against high glucose-induced opacification of the lens in vitro lens culture and STZ induced diabetic cataract in rats. Identification of the bioactive component was attempted through high-performance thin-layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. Results: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica (EASI) produced maximum inhibition that may be due to high phenolic content. Goat lenses in media containing glucose developed a distinctly opaque ring in 72 h and treatment with EASI fraction lowered lens opacity in 72 h. Prolonged treatment with EASI to STZ-induced diabetic rats inhibited the AR activity and delayed cataract progression in a dose dependent manner. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate fraction of S. indica fraction has potential to inhibit rat lens AR enzyme and prevent cataractogenesis not only in goat lens model (in vitro), but also in STZ induced diabetic rats (in vivo). This study is suggestive of the anticataract activity of EASI fraction that could be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in the same. PMID:25709218

  16. The immunogenic activity of ribosomal fractions derived from Brucella abortus.

    PubMed Central

    Corbel, M. J.

    1976-01-01

    The immunizing activity of ribosome preparations derived from Brucella abortus strain 19 cells was examined in guinea-pigs and mice. After subcutaneous injections of Br. abortus ribosomes in Freund's incomplete adjuvant, both mice and guinea-pigs developed immunity to challenge by virulent Br. abortus 544 organisms which was at least as effective as the protection conferred by live strain 19 vaccine. Both mice and guinea-pigs also developed agglutinating and complement-fixing antibodies and delayed hypersensitivity to Br. Abortus antigens. Conversely, ribosome preparations elicited delayed hypersensitivity reactions on intracutaneous injection into guinea-pigs chronically infected with Br. abortus or Br. melitensis. On injection into rabbits, Br. abortus ribosomes incorporated in incomplete adjuvant induced high titres of agglutinins, complement fxing antibodies and precipitins for Br. abortus antigens. On immunochemical examination, the ribosome preparations were not grossly contaminated with antigens derived from the cell surface. They were chemically complex, however, and in addition to RNA contained numerous protein components identified by disk electrophoresis. The nature of the components responsible for conferring protection against Br. abortus was not determined. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:812900

  17. A Dosimetric Comparison between Conventional Fractionated and Hypofractionated Image-guided Radiation Therapies for Localized Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming; Li, Gao-Feng; Hou, Xiu-Yu; Gao, Hong; Xu, Yong-Gang; Zhao, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Background: Image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) is the preferred method for curative treatment of localized prostate cancer, which could improve disease outcome and reduce normal tissue toxicity reaction. IGRT using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in combination with volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) potentially allows smaller treatment margins and dose escalation to the prostate. The aim of this study was to compare the difference of dosimetric diffusion in conventional IGRT using 7-field, step-and-shoot intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and hypofractionated IGRT using VMAT for patients with localized prostate cancer. Methods: We studied 24 patients who received 78 Gy in 39 daily fractions or 70 Gy in 28 daily fractions to their prostate with/without the seminal vesicles using IMRT (n = 12) or VMAT (n = 12) for prostate cancer between November 2013 and October 2015. Image guidance was performed using kilovoltage CBCT scans equipped on the linear accelerator. Offline planning was performed using the daily treatment images registered with simulation computed tomography (CT) images. A total of 212 IMRT plans in conventional cohort and 292 VMAT plans in hypofractionated cohort were enrolled in the study. Dose distributions were recalculated on CBCT images registered with the planning CT scanner. Results: Compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT, VMAT plans resulted in improved planning target volume (PTV) D95% (7663.17 ± 69.57 cGy vs. 7789.17 ± 131.76 cGy, P < 0.001). VMAT reduced the rectal D25 (P < 0.001), D35 (P < 0.001), and D50 (P < 0.001), bladder V50 (P < 0.001), D25 (P = 0.002), D35 (P = 0.028), and D50 (P = 0.029). However, VMAT did not statistically significantly reduce the rectal V50, compared with 7-field, step-and-shoot IMRT (25.02 ± 5.54% vs. 27.43 ± 8.79%, P = 0.087). Conclusions: To deliver the hypofractionated radiotherapy in prostate cancer, VMAT significantly increased PTV D95% dose and decreased the dose of radiation

  18. Control and switching synchronization of fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique.

    PubMed

    Radwan, A G; Moaddy, K; Salama, K N; Momani, S; Hashim, I

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the continuous effect of the fractional order parameter of the Lü system where the system response starts stable, passing by chaotic behavior then reaching periodic response as the fractional-order increases. In addition, this paper presents the concept of synchronization of different fractional order chaotic systems using active control technique. Four different synchronization cases are introduced based on the switching parameters. Also, the static and dynamic synchronizations can be obtained when the switching parameters are functions of time. The nonstandard finite difference method is used for the numerical solution of the fractional order master and slave systems. Many numeric simulations are presented to validate the concept for different fractional order parameters. PMID:25685479

  19. Evidence of Antibacterial Activities in Peptide Fractions Originating from Snow Crab (Chionoecetes opilio) By-Products.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Lucie; Thibodeau, Jacinthe; Desbiens, Michel; Saint-Louis, Richard; Zatylny-Gaudin, Céline; Thibault, Sharon

    2010-10-01

    Antibacterial peptide fractions generated via proteolytic processing of snow crab by-products exhibited activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Among the bacterial strains tested, peptide fractions demonstrated inhibitory activity against the Gram-negative bacteria such as Aeromonas caviae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Campylobacter jejuni, Listonella anguillarum, Morganella morganii, Shewanella putrefasciens, Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus and against a few Gram-positive bacteria such as Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus agalactiae. The principal bioactive peptide fraction was comprised mainly of proteins and minerals (74.3 and 15.5%, respectively). Lipids were not detected. The amino acid content revealed that arginine (4.6%), glutamic acid (5.3%) and tyrosine (4.8%) residues were represented in the highest composition in the antibacterial peptide fraction. The optimal inhibitory activity was observed at alkaline pH. The V. vulnificus strain, most sensitive to the peptide fraction, was used to develop purification methods. The most promising chromatography resins selected for purification, in order to isolate peptides of interest and to carry out their detailed biochemical characterization, were the SP-Sepharose™ Fast Flow cation exchanger and the Phenyl Sepharose™ High Performance hydrophobic interaction media. The partially purified antibacterial peptide fraction was analyzed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination, and the value obtained was 25 μg ml(-1). Following mass spectrometry analysis, the active peptide fraction seems to be a complex of molecules comprised of several amino acids and other organic compounds. In addition, copper was the main metal found in the active peptide fraction. Results indicate the production of antibacterial molecules from crustacean by-products that support further applications for high-value bioproducts in several areas such as food and health

  20. Antioxidant activity of fractions from oregano essential oils obtained by molecular distillation.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, Ruben; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson Ruben

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of fractions separated from oregano essential oil by short-path molecular distillation. Two residue (R1 and R2) and two distillate (D1 and D2) fractions were prepared by molecular distillation. The major components were: carvacrol, terpinen-4-ol and γ-terpinene in R1 and R2; and γ-terpinene, α-terpineol and sabinene in D1 and D2. Free-radical scavenging activity was observed in all fractions and was highest in R2 (77.2%). D1 and D2 showed a smaller amount of volatile oxidation compounds produced from sunflower oil stored at 60°C for 14days. The greatest antioxidant activity was observed in D1 and D2. The thermal stability of oregano essential oil and its fractions was also analysed. R1 and R2 presented an increased carvacrol concentration and thermal stability. The short-path molecular distillation fractions can be used to prepare fractions from oregano essential oil with a higher antioxidant activity. PMID:24629960

  1. Immunobiological activities of a porin fraction isolated from Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953.

    PubMed Central

    Takada, H; Ogawa, T; Yoshimura, F; Otsuka, K; Kokeguchi, S; Kato, K; Umemoto, T; Kotani, S

    1988-01-01

    From Fusobacterium nucleatum ATCC 10953 cell envelope fraction whose inner membranes had been removed by treatment with sodium N-lauroyl sarcosinate, an outer membrane protein (37,000 Mr in a native state) was prepared by extraction with lithium dodecyl sulfate. The protein thus obtained showed distinct porin activity, namely, the ability to form hydrophilic diffusion pores by incorporation into the artificial liposome membrane. The porin fraction exhibited strong immunobiological activities in the in vitro assays: B-cell mitogenicity and polyclonal B-cell activation on murine splenocytes, stimulatory effects on guinea pig peritoneal macrophages, and enhancement of the migration of human blood monocytes. The porin fraction also exhibited immunoadjuvant activity to increase the antibody production against sheep erythrocytes in the spleen of mice that were immunized by sheep erythrocytes with porin. Although chemical analyses revealed that the test porin fraction contained a considerable amount of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (around 12% of the fraction), the studies with LPS-nonresponding C3H/HeJ mice and on the inhibitory effects of polymyxin B strongly suggest that most of the above bioactivities are due to porin protein itself, not to coexistent LPS in the porin fraction. Images PMID:2831155

  2. Antibacterial, antifungal, phytotoxic, antioxidant and hemagglutination activities of organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum.

    PubMed

    Azam, Sadiq; Saqib, Muhammad Shahab; Zar, Faisal; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Ibrar; Zeb, Zermina; Khan, Imran

    2016-05-01

    In the current study, the antimicrobial, phytotoxic, haemagglutination and antioxidant potential of crude methanolic extract (Crd. MeOH Ext.) and four organic fractions of Arisaema tortuosum was investigated. All fractions have been screened for antimicrobial properties against eight bacterial pathogens and six fungal pathogens using agar well diffusion and tube dilution method, respectively. Furthermore, the organic fractions were also screened for its phytotoxicity against Lemna minor. Haemagglutination was performed against all human blood groups while free radical scavenging activity was performed to investigate the antioxidant potential of A. tortuosum. Results obtained for antibacterial activity exhibited various degree of zone of inhibition and significant activity was observed for Pseudomonas aeruginosa (27.16±0.60) followed by Bacillus cereus (18.55±0.69) for Crd. MeOH Ext. and chloroform (CHCl3) fraction, respectively while some strains showed resistant at same concentration. Similarly, non-significant antifungal activity was observed for the plant extracts. However, the highest activity among the strains was observed for Alternaria alternata (22±1.24%) and Aspergillus niger (20±1.00%) for ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction and Crd. MeOH Ext., respectively. The plant extracts showed good phytotoxic activity with 77.06% inhibition for n-hexane fraction at 1000µg/mL. The result of Nitric Oxide (NO) reducing assay revealed that the plant has less antioxidant activity with 46.06% inhibition for CHCl(3) fraction at 900μg/mL. For haemagglutination assay, the result displayed no agglutination in all the testing concentration. Based on the current results, it can be concluded that A. tortuosum has significant antimicrobial and moderate phytotoxic potential and therefore can leads to antibiotics and herbicide production. PMID:27166544

  3. Analgesic and Antioxidant Activities of Stem Bark Extract and Fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus

    PubMed Central

    Orabueze, Celestina Ifeoma; Adesegun, Sunday Adeleke; Coker, Herbert Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Background: Petersianthus macrocarpus (Lecythidaceae) is widely used in the folk medicine in Nigeria to relieve pain and fever associated with malaria. This study evaluated the analgesic and antioxidant activities of the methanol extract and fractions of the stem bark of the plant. Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity was determined in mice using hotplate and acetic acid-induced writhing models. Morphine sulphate (5 mg/kg, i.p.) and aspirin (100 mg/ml, p.o.) were used as reference analgesic agents. The antioxidant potential was evaluated using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical; reducing power, iron chelating properties and determination of total phenolic content. Results: The extract at 200 and 500 mg/kg, produced an insignificant (P > 0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate but a significant (P < 0.05) increase at 1000 mg/kg. The extract significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the writhing induced by acetic acid in mice in a dose dependent manner. Fractionation increased the analgesic activities significantly (P < 0.05) in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions (200 mg/kg). The extract demonstrated strong DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 0.05 mg/ml, good reducing power and weak iron chelating activities. The total phenol content was 142.32 mg/gin term of gallic acid. The antioxidant effects were more pronounced in ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. Conclusion: The findings of the study suggested that the extract has strong analgesic and antioxidant activities which reside mainly in the polar fractions thus confirming the traditional use of the plant to alleviate pains. SUMMARY Analgesic and antioxidant activities of extract and solvent fractions of Petersianthus macrocarpus investigated indicated that extract has analgesic and antioxidant properties that reside mainly in the polar fractions. Abbreviations Used: DMSO: Dimethyl sulphoxide, ANOVA: analysis of variance, EDTA: ethylene diamne tetraacetic acid, SDM: standard deviation of mean

  4. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities and Phytochemical Analysis of Euphorbia wallichii Root Extract and its Fractions

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Ihsan; Ullah, Nazif; Bibi, Gulnaz; Kanwal, Simab; Sheeraz Ahmad, Muhammad; Mirza, Bushra

    2012-01-01

    Euphorbia wallichii a perennial herb growing mainly in Himalayas has been widely used in folk medicines for its medicinal properties. In the present study, the crude methanolic root extract (CME) and its fractions; n-Hexane Fraction (NHF), n-Butanol Fraction (NBF), Chloroform Fraction (CHF), Ethyl acetate Fraction (EAF) and Aqueous Fraction (AQF) of this plant specie were investigated for antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis. Antioxidant activity was determined by using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) and DNA protection assay performed on pBR322 plasmid DNA. In both these assays, promising results were obtained for CME as well as other fractions. The IC50 values for DPPH assay were in a range of 7.89 to 63.35 μg/ml in which EAF showed the best anti-oxidant potential and almost all the tested samples showed certain level of DNA protection. The cytotoxic activity was assessed by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay on human cell lines; H157 (Lung Carcinoma) and HT144 (Malignant Melanoma). The IC50 values of the tested samples ranged from 0.18 to 1.4 mg/mL against H157 cell line whereas against HT144 cell line the IC50 values ranged from 0.46 to 17.88 mg/mL with NBF fraction showing maximum potential for both. Furthermore, the phytochemical analysis of CME and its fractions showed the presences of flavonoids, saponins, tannins, terpenoides and cardiac glycosides with varying concentrations. PMID:24250446

  5. Closed-loop and activity-guided optogenetic control.

    PubMed

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H; Deisseroth, Karl

    2015-04-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  6. Active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yen, P-L; Davies, B L

    2010-01-01

    The concept of active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery is introduced, together with its benefits and a short outline of its history. The clinical use of active constraint control in orthopaedic surgery is discussed, together with the outcomes of a clinical trial for unicondylar knee replacement surgery. The evolution of the robotic design from large costly structures towards simpler, more cost-effective systems is also presented, leading to the design of the Acrobot 'Sculptor' system. A new approach to the achievement of robotic total knee replacement is also presented, in which a high-speed rotary cutter is used to slice through the bone to achieve a speedy resection. The control concept is presented, together with the results of trials on animal bones and a cadaver, showing that it is possible to remove large quantities of bone both quickly and accurately. PMID:20718267

  7. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  8. Pharmacological Mechanisms Underlying Gastroprotective Activities of the Fractions Obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Polygonum minus were fractionated using an eluting solvent to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcerogenic activity of P. minus. Different P. minus fractions were obtained and evaluated for their ulcer preventing capabilities using the ethanol induction method. In this study, Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150–200 g were used. Different parameters were estimated to identify the active fraction underlying the mechanism of the gastroprotective action of P. minus: the gastric mucus barrier, as well as superoxide dismutase, total hexosamine, and prostaglandin synthesis. Amongst the five fractions from the ethanolic extract of P. minus, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction (F2) significantly (p < 0.005) exhibited better inhibition of ulcer lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rats pre-treated with F2 showed a significant elevation in superoxide dismutase (SOD), hexosamine and PGE2 levels in the stomach wall mucosa in a dose-dependent matter. Based on these results, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction was considered to be the best fraction for mucous protection in the ethanol induction model. The mechanisms underlying this protection were attributed to the synthesis of antioxidants and PGE2. PMID:22408403

  9. Pharmacological mechanisms underlying gastroprotective activities of the fractions obtained from Polygonum minus in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Qader, Suhailah Wasman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Chua, Lee Suan; Sirat, Hasnah Mohd; Hamdan, Salehhuddin

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Polygonum minus were fractionated using an eluting solvent to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms underlying the anti-ulcerogenic activity of P. minus. Different P. minus fractions were obtained and evaluated for their ulcer preventing capabilities using the ethanol induction method. In this study, Sprague Dawley rats weighing 150-200 g were used. Different parameters were estimated to identify the active fraction underlying the mechanism of the gastroprotective action of P. minus: the gastric mucus barrier, as well as superoxide dismutase, total hexosamine, and prostaglandin synthesis. Amongst the five fractions from the ethanolic extract of P. minus, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction (F2) significantly (p < 0.005) exhibited better inhibition of ulcer lesions in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, rats pre-treated with F2 showed a significant elevation in superoxide dismutase (SOD), hexosamine and PGE2 levels in the stomach wall mucosa in a dose-dependent matter. Based on these results, the ethyl acetate:methanol 1:1 v/v fraction was considered to be the best fraction for mucous protection in the ethanol induction model. The mechanisms underlying this protection were attributed to the synthesis of antioxidants and PGE2. PMID:22408403

  10. In vitro evaluation of antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of lignin fractions extracted from Acacia nilotica.

    PubMed

    Barapatre, Anand; Meena, Avtar Singh; Mekala, Sowmya; Das, Amitava; Jha, Harit

    2016-05-01

    Lignin is one of the most important phytomacromolecule with diverse therapeutic properties such as anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory. The present study was carried out to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant, free radical scavenging and anti-proliferative/cytotoxic activities of eleven different lignin fractions, extracted from the wood of Acacia nilotica by pressurized solvent extraction (PSE) and successive solvent extraction (SSE) methods. Results indicate that the PSE fractions have high polyphenolic content and reducing power. However, the antioxidant efficiency examined by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assay was higher in SSE fractions. All lignin fractions revealed a significant ability to scavenge nitric oxide, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals. The extracted lignin fractions display high ferric ion reducing capacity and also possess excellent antioxidant potential in the hydrophobic (linoleic acid) system. Fractions extracted by polar solvent has the highest iron (Fe(2+)) chelating activity as compared to other factions, indicating their effect on the redox cycling of iron. Four lignin fractions depicted higher cytotoxic potential (IC50: 2-15 μg/mL) towards breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) but were ineffective (IC50: ≥ 100 μg/mL) against normal primary human hepatic stellate cells (HHSteCs). These findings suggest that the lignin extracts of A. nilotica wood has a remarkable potential to prevent disease caused by the overproduction of radicals and also seem to be a promising candidate as natural antioxidant and anti-cancer agents. PMID:26836619

  11. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis supports Dehalococcoides mccartyi reductive dechlorination activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Im, Jeongdae; Yang, Yi; Löffler, Frank E.

    2013-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are corrinoid-auxotrophic Bacteria and axenic cultures that require vitamin B12 (CN-Cbl) to conserve energy via organohalide respiration. Cultures of D. mccartyi strains BAV1, GT and FL2 grown with limiting amounts of 1 µg l−1 CN-Cbl quickly depleted CN-Cbl, and reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes was incomplete leading to vinyl chloride (VC) accumulation. In contrast, the same cultures amended with 25 µg l−1 CN-Cbl exhibited up to 2.3-fold higher dechlorination rates, 2.8–9.1-fold increased growth yields, and completely consumed growth-supporting chlorinated ethenes. To explore whether known cobamide-producing microbes supply Dehalococcoides with the required corrinoid cofactor, co-culture experiments were performed with the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro and two acetogens, Sporomusa ovata and Sporomusa sp. strain KB-1, as Dehalococcoides partner populations. During growth with H2/CO2, M. barkeri axenic cultures produced 4.2 ± 0.1 µg l−1 extracellular cobamide (factor III), whereas the Sporomusa cultures produced phenolyl- and p-cresolyl-cobamides. Neither factor III nor the phenolic cobamides supported Dehalococcoides reductive dechlorination activity suggesting that M. barkeri and the Sporomusa sp. cannot fulfil Dehalococcoides' nutritional requirements. Dehalococcoides dechlorination activity and growth occurred in M. barkeri and Sporomusa sp. co-cultures amended with 10 µM 5′,6′-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), indicating that a cobalamin is a preferred corrinoid cofactor of strains BAV1, GT and FL2 when grown with chlorinated ethenes as electron acceptors. Even though the methanogen and acetogen populations tested did not produce cobalamin, the addition of DMB enabled guided biosynthesis and generated a cobalamin that supported Dehalococcoides' activity and growth. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis may offer opportunities to sustain and enhance Dehalococcoides activity in contaminated

  12. Determination of Free Radical Scavenging, Antioxidative DNA Damage Activities and Phytochemical Components of Active Fractions from Lansium domesticum Corr. Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Klungsupya, Prapaipat; Suthepakul, Nava; Muangman, Thanchanok; Rerk-Am, Ubon; Thongdon-A, Jeerayu

    2015-01-01

    Lansium domesticum Corr. or “long-kong” is one of the most popular fruits in Thailand. Its peel (skin, SK) and seeds (SD) become waste unless recycled or applied for use. This study was undertaken to determine the bioactivity and phytochemical components of L. domesticum (LD) skin and seed extracts. Following various extraction and fractionation procedures, 12 fractions were obtained. All fractions were tested for antioxidant capacity against O2−• and OH•. It was found that the peel of L. domesticum fruits exhibited higher O2−• and OH• scavenging activity than seeds. High potential antioxidant activity was found in two fractions of 50% ethanol extract of peel followed by ethyl acetate (EA) fractionation (LDSK50-EA) and its aqueous phase (LDSK50-H2O). Therefore, these two active fractions were selected for further studies on their antioxidative activity against DNA damage by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human TK6 cells using comet assay. The comet results revealed DNA-protective activity of both LDSK50-EA and LDSK50-H2O fractions when TK6 human lymphoblast cells were pre-treated at 25, 50, 100, and 200 μg/mL for 24 h prior to H2O2 exposure. The phytochemical analysis illustrated the presence of phenolic substances, mainly scopoletin, rutin, and chlorogenic acid, in these two active fractions. This study generates new information on the biological activity of L. domesticum. It will promote and strengthen the utilization of L. domesticum by-products. PMID:26287238

  13. [Protein fractions and their enzyme activity in the rat myocardium in a Kosmos-936 biosatellite experiment].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Nosova, E A; Kolchina, E V; Veresotskaia, N A; Kurkina, L M

    1981-01-01

    The effect of artificial gravity on protein fractions and their enzyme activity in the myocardium of rats flown on board Cosmos-936 was studied. In weightless rats the content of sarcoplasmic proteins increased at R + O and that of T fraction proteins decreased at R + 25. In centrifuged rats such changes were not seen. In centrifuged rats the enzyme activity of sarcoplasmic proteins did not alter. In weightless rats ATPase activity of myosin decreased significantly, and in centrifuged rats it remained almost unchanged. PMID:6457219

  14. Fractionation of an anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract and in vitro antioxidative activity testing.

    PubMed

    Juadjur, A; Mohn, C; Schantz, M; Baum, M; Winterhalter, P; Richling, E

    2015-01-15

    The incidence of chronic diseases increases with advancing age of the population. A commonly discussed cause of chronic diseases is oxidative stress, which occurs in the body when there is an imbalance between the formation and inactivation of so-called reactive oxygen species (ROS). Epidemiological data suggest that a 'healthy diet', with a high content of flavonoids indicates preventive properties and correlates with an inverse effect with respect to the risk of chronic diseases. Berries (especially bilberries, Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are an important source of these flavonoids. In this study, we investigated, in vitro, the antioxidative properties of fractions obtained from a commercially available anthocyanin-rich bilberry extract (BE). As markers for antioxidative activity, the intracellularly generated ROS levels, oxidative DNA damage, and total glutathione (tGSH) levels were determined in the human colon cell lines Caco-2 and HT-29. In Caco-2 cells, the ROS levels and, in both cell lines, the oxidative DNA damage, were significantly reduced in the presence of the original BE and phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction. Total GSH levels were slightly increased after pretreatment with BE, phenolcarbonic acid and the polymeric fractions, but not with the anthocyanin fraction. In summary, the BE and the therefrom-isolated phenolcarbonic acid-rich fraction, showed the most potent antioxidative activity whereas the polymeric and anthocyanin-rich fraction, in total, were less active. PMID:25149006

  15. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-04-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment. PMID:26754253

  16. A potential anti-inflammation activity and depigmentation effect of Lespedeza bicolor extract and its fractions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Jin; Hossaine, M.D. Akil; Park, Seung Chun

    2015-01-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is an acquire hypermelanosis after cutaneous inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a natural ingredient with the anti-inflammatory and depigmentation activities into possible applications of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Methanol extracts of Lespedeza bicolor and its various fractions inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, the ethyl acetate fraction was shown to be inhibition of NO production (89%) and down-regulation of iNOS mRNA without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation (P < 0.05), indicating the anti-inflammatory activity due to NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, extracts, mainly ethyl acetate fraction, exhibited not only DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50, 112.45 μg/mL) with 4 times lower activity than ascorbic acid, but also anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50, 1 μg/mL) with a similar activity to arbutin showing a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, vitexin and haginins A, B and C were identified through LC–MS analysis as potential compounds responsible for these effects. These results suggest that L. bicolor extract have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effect and it might be used in the management of postinflammatory pigmentation through inhibition of pathogenic process involved in hyperpigmentation. PMID:26858533

  17. A potential anti-inflammation activity and depigmentation effect of Lespedeza bicolor extract and its fractions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Jin; Hossaine, M D Akil; Park, Seung Chun

    2016-01-01

    Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is an acquire hypermelanosis after cutaneous inflammation and injury. The aim of the present study was to investigate a natural ingredient with the anti-inflammatory and depigmentation activities into possible applications of postinflammatory hyperpigmentation. Methanol extracts of Lespedeza bicolor and its various fractions inhibited LPS-induced NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages in a concentration-dependent manner. In particular, the ethyl acetate fraction was shown to be inhibition of NO production (89%) and down-regulation of iNOS mRNA without causing cytotoxicity. In addition, ethyl acetate fraction significantly attenuated LPS-induced NF-κB activation (P < 0.05), indicating the anti-inflammatory activity due to NF-κB inhibition. Moreover, extracts, mainly ethyl acetate fraction, exhibited not only DPPH free radical scavenging activity (IC50, 112.45 μg/mL) with 4 times lower activity than ascorbic acid, but also anti-tyrosinase activity (IC50, 1 μg/mL) with a similar activity to arbutin showing a competitive inhibitor. Furthermore, vitexin and haginins A, B and C were identified through LC-MS analysis as potential compounds responsible for these effects. These results suggest that L. bicolor extract have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activities and tyrosinase inhibitory effect and it might be used in the management of postinflammatory pigmentation through inhibition of pathogenic process involved in hyperpigmentation. PMID:26858533

  18. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Geert J M; Denissen, Ad J M; Jäger, Mark; Vernon, David; Dekker, Marian K J; Mihajlović, Vojkan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-03-01

    Fifty healthy participants took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which they were either given auditory alpha activity (8-12Hz) training (N=18), random beta training (N=12), or no training at all (N=20). A novel wireless electrode system was used for training without instructions, involving water-based electrodes mounted in an audio headset. Training was applied approximately at central electrodes. Post-training measurement using a conventional full-cap EEG system revealed a 10% increase in alpha activity at posterior sites compared to pre-training levels, when using the conventional index of alpha activity and a non-linear regression fit intended to model individual alpha frequency. This statistically significant increase was present only in the group that received the alpha training, and remained evident at a 3 month follow-up session, especially under eyes open conditions where an additional 10% increase was found. In an exit interview, approximately twice as many participants in the alpha training group (53%) mentioned that the training was relaxing, compared to those in either the beta (20%) or no training (21%) control groups. Behavioural measures of stress and relaxation were indicative of effects of alpha activity training but failed to reach statistical significance. These results are discussed in terms of a lack of statistical power. Overall, results suggest that self-guided alpha activity training using this novel system is feasible and represents a step forward in the ease of instrumental conditioning of brain rhythms. PMID:22119661

  19. Inhibitory effect of a bioactivity-guided fraction from Rheum undulatum on the acid production of Streptococcus mutans biofilms at sub-MIC levels.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Eun; Kim, Hye-Jin; Pandit, Santosh; Chang, Kee-Wan; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2011-04-01

    Rheum undulatum root has been used traditionally in Korea for the treatment of dental diseases. The purpose of this study was to separate a fraction from R. undulatum showing anti-acid production activity against Streptococcus mutans biofilms and identify the main components in that fraction. Methanol extract of R. undulatum root and its fractions were prepared. To select a fraction exhibiting anti-acid production activity, suspension glycolytic pH-drop assay was performed. Among the fractions tested, dichloromethane fraction exhibited the strongest activity in a dose-dependent manner. To examine the effect of the selected fraction on the anti-acid production of S. mutans biofilms, 74 h old S. mutans biofilms were used. The selected fraction reduced the initial rate of acid production of S. mutans biofilms at sub-minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) levels. HPLC qualitative analysis of the selected fraction indicated that the presence of anthraquinone derivatives, such as aloe-emodin, emodin, chrysophanol and physcion, as main components. PMID:21059383

  20. Math Skills for Business. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with math skills for business. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives,…

  1. Managing the Office Employee. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with managing the office employee. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives,…

  2. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  3. Screening of Ficus religiosa leaves fractions for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities

    PubMed Central

    Gulecha, Vishal; Sivakumar, T; Upaganlawar, Aman; Mahajan, Manoj; Upasani, Chandrashekhar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the different fractions of dried leaves of Ficus religiosa Linn for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity using different models of pain and inflammation Materials and Methods: The analgesic activity of F. religiosa carried out using acetic acid-induced writhing in mice and tail flick test in rats. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-granuloma formation in rats. Five different fractions (FRI, FRII, FRIII, FRIV and FRV) of F. religiosa at the dose level of 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o were tested. Results: The fraction FRI (40 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (40 mg/kg, p.o) were found to be more effective (P<0.01) in preventing carrageenan induced rat paw edema, cotton pellet granuloma formation, and acetic acid induced writhing compared to the other fractions. FRI (20 mg/kg, p.o.) and FRIII (20 mg/kg, p.o.) were also found to be more effective in increasing latency period in tail flick method. Conclusion: Out of five different fractions of F. religiosa leaves tested, FRI and FRIII possess potent analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities against different models of inflammation and pain. PMID:22144770

  4. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  5. [Enzyme activity in the subcellular fractions of the liver of rats following a flight on board the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Tigranian, R A; Vetrova, E G; Abraham, S; Lin, C; Klein, H

    1983-01-01

    The activities of malate, isocitrate, and lactate dehydrogenases were measured in the liver mitochondrial and cytoplasmatic fractions of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard Cosmos-1129. The activities of the oxidative enzymes, malate and isocitrate dehydrogenases, in the mitochondrial fraction and those of the glycolytic enzyme, lactate dehydrogenase, in the cytoplasmatic fraction were found to decrease. PMID:6855177

  6. Antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fractions of Melanthera scandens

    PubMed Central

    Akpan, Enomfon J; Okokon, Jude E; Offong, Emem

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the antidiabetic and hypolipidemic activities of ethanolic leaf extract and fraction of Melanthera scandens (M. scandens) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods M. scandens leaf extract/fractions (37–111 mg/kg) were administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats for 14 days and blood glucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats were monitored at intervals of 7 hours for acute study and 14 days for prolonged study. Lipid profiles of the treated diabetic rats were determined after the period of treatment. Results Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats with the extract/fractions caused a significant (P<0.001) reduction in fasting bloodglucose levels (BGL) of the diabetic rats both in acute study and prolonged treatment (2 weeks). The activities of the extract and fractions were more than that of the reference drug, glibenclamide. The extract/fractions exerted a significant reduction in the levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL of extract with increases in HDL levels of the diabetic rats. Conclusions These results suggest that the leaf extract/fractions of M. scandens possesses antidiabetic effect on alloxan induced diabetic rats and this justifies its use in ethno medicine and can be exploited in the management of diabetes. PMID:23569963

  7. Activation of intrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway in cancer cells by Cymbopogon citratus polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Thangam, Ramar; Sathuvan, Malairaj; Poongodi, Arasu; Suresh, Veeraperumal; Pazhanichamy, Kalailingam; Sivasubramanian, Srinivasan; Kanipandian, Nagarajan; Ganesan, Nalini; Rengasamy, Ramasamy; Thirumurugan, Ramasamy; Kannan, Soundarapandian

    2014-07-17

    Essential oils of Cymbopogon citratus were already reported to have wide ranging medical and industrial applications. However, information on polysaccharides from the plant and their anticancer activities are limited. In the present study, polysaccharides from C. citratus were extracted and fractionated by anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Two different polysaccharide fractions such as F1 and F2 were obtained, and these fractions were found to have distinct acidic polysaccharides as characterized by their molecular weight and sugar content. NMR spectral analysis revealed the presence of (1→4) linked b-d-Xylofuranose moiety in these polysaccharides. Using these polysaccharide fractions F1 and F2, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities were evaluated against cancer cells in vitro and the mechanism of action of the polysaccharides in inducing apoptosis in cancer cells via intrinsic pathway was also proposed. Two different reproductive cancer cells such as Siha and LNCap were employed for in vitro studies on cytotoxicity, induction of apoptosis and apoptotic DNA fragmentation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and profiles of gene and protein expression in response to treatment of cells by the polysaccharide fractions. These polysaccharide fractions exhibited potential cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on carcinoma cells, and they induced apoptosis in these cells through the events of up-regulation of caspase 3, down-regulation of bcl-2 family genes followed by cytochrome c release. PMID:24702929

  8. SU-E-J-258: Inter- and Intra-Fraction Setup Stability and Couch Change Tolerance for Image Guided Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Teboh, Forbang R; Agee, M; Rowe, L; Creasy, T; Schultz, J; Bell, R; Wong, J; Armour, E

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Immobilization devices combine rigid patient fixation as well as comfort and play a key role providing the stability required for accurate radiation delivery. In the setup step, couch re-positioning needed to align the patient is derived via registration of acquired versus reference image. For subsequent fractions, replicating the initial setup should yield identical alignment errors when compared to the reference. This is not always the case and further couch re-positioning can be needed. An important quality assurance measure is to set couch tolerances beyond which additional investigations are needed. The purpose of this work was to study the inter-fraction couch changes needed to re-align the patient and the intra-fraction stability of the alignment as a guide to establish the couch tolerances. Methods: Data from twelve patients treated on the Accuray CyberKnife (CK) system for fractionated intracranial radiotherapy and immobilized with Aquaplast RT, U-frame, F-Head-Support (Qfix, PA, USA) was used. Each fraction involved image acquisitions and registration with the reference to re-align the patient. The absolute couch position corresponding to the approved setup alignment was recorded per fraction. Intra-fraction set-up corrections were recorded throughout the treatment. Results: The average approved setup alignment was 0.03±0.28mm, 0.15±0.22mm, 0.06±0.31mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.00±0.35degrees, 0.03±0.32degrees, 0.08±0.45degrees for roll, pitch and yaw respectively. The inter-fraction reproducibility of the couch position was 6.65mm, 10.55mm, and 4.77mm in the L/R, A/P and S/I directions respectively and 0.82degrees, 0.71degrees for roll and pitch respectively. Intra-fraction monitoring showed small average errors of 0.21±0.21mm, 0.00±0.08mm, 0.23±0.22mm in the L/R, A/P, S/I directions respectively and 0.03±0.12degrees, 0.04±0.25degrees, and 0.13±0.15degrees in the roll, pitch and yaw respectively. Conclusion

  9. Phytochemical screening, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of hexane fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismaeel, Mahmud Yusef Yusef; Yaacob, Wan Ahmad; Tahir, Mariya Mohd.; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2015-09-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa fruits have been widely used in the traditional medicine for the treatment of several infections. The current study was done to determine the phytochemical content, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of the hexane fraction (HF) of P. macrocarpa fruits. In the hexane fraction of P. macarocarpa fruits, phytochemical screening showed the presence of terpenoids whereas saponins, alkaloids, tannins and anthraquinones were not present. Evaluation on Vero cell lines by using MTT assay showed that the 50% cytotoxic concentration (CC50) value was 0.48 mg/mL indicating that the fraction is not cytotoxic. Antiviral properties of the plant extracts were determined by plaque reduction assay. The effective concentration (EC50) was 0.18 mg/mL. Whereas the selective index (SI = CC50/EC50) of hexane fraction is 2.6 indicating low to moderate potential as antiviral agent.

  10. Popullution or Conservival: A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Phyllis; And Others

    This teaching guide contains a variety of environmental education activities divided by grade level. A general objective is stated, followed by as many as 25 related activities. Each activity is short, and many are followed by discussion questions. This guide should prepare students for critical appraisal and responsible decision-making in…

  11. Antifungal activity of fractions and two pure compounds of flowers from Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Sartori, M R K; Pretto, J B; Cruz, A B; Bresciani, L F V; Yunes, R A; Sortino, M; Zacchino, S A; Cechinel, V Filho

    2003-08-01

    Wedelia paludosa (Acmela brasiliensis) (Asteraceae), a traditionally used native Brazilian medicinal plant, showed antifungal activity against dermatophytes in dilution tests. The hexane, dichloromethane and butanol fractions displayed activity against Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes, with minimal inhibitory concentrations between 250 and 1000 microg/mL. Two pure compounds, identified as kaurenoic acid (1) and luteolin (2), also showed activity against these dermatophytes. PMID:12967035

  12. Anticipation Guides: Ready-to-Use Guides & Fun Activities to Boost Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hines, Joanne I; Vincent, Pamela J.

    2004-01-01

    Anticipation guides--work sheets that students complete before reading a book--can be invaluable tools for building prediction skills and helping students learn where to focus their attention. In this book, veteran teachers Joanne I. Hines and Pamela J. Vincent offer classroom-tested anticipation guides for a variety of trade books sure to engage…

  13. Screening the Hemostatic Active Fraction of Artemisia annua L. In-vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bochu; Sui, Jing; Yu, Zhengwen; Zhu, Liancai

    2011-01-01

    Artemisinin extracted from Artemisia annua L. is the best medicine with the highest efficiency, the most effective and the lowest toxicity in treating ague nowadays. At present, most studies focus on artemisinin and its derivatives, while the study and report about the other active components are rare. This paper purposed to further discover new indication of Artemisia annua L. connecting with the record of traditional medicine. We screened the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. in-vitro by plasma recalcification time (PRT). The crude extract and the extract of n-butanol were purified by polyamide, MCI, gel column in order. Determining the part of 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel is the hemostatic active fraction of Artemisia annua L. The shorten rate of clotting time are followed by: crude extract of Artemisin annua L. (8.51%); the n-butanol extract (14.89%); water eluting fraction after the extract of n-butanol was purificated by polyamide (22.11%); 20% methanol fraction after column chromatography of MCI gel (27.37%). It can provide experimental data for the clinical application of Artemisia annua L. which can be exploited as hemostatic. This topic has a certain academic value and potential prospects on the deep research of the Artemisia annua L. resource. PMID:24363681

  14. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  15. Evaluation of Antioxidant, Immunomodulatory Activities, and Safety of Ethanol Extract and Fractions of Gongronema latifolium Fruit.

    PubMed

    Agwaramgbo, Amanze; Ilodigwe, Emmanuel Emeka; Ajaghaku, Daniel Lotanna; Onuorah, Maureen Ugochukwu; Mbagwu, Sonne Ikechukwu

    2014-01-01

    Gongronema latifolium fruit has wide application in ethnomedicine, especially in maintaining healthy living and general body healing. We therefore investigated the antioxidant, immunomodulatory activities, and safety of its ethanol extract and fractions. The in vitro antioxidant activities of the extract and fractions were determined using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test while in vivo activities were determined using carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced oxidative stress. Cell and humoral mediated immune responses were also evaluated together with toxicity studies. The extract, ethyl acetate, and methanol fractions showed inhibition of DPPH radical with IC50s 120, 90, and 60 μg/mL, respectively. Methanol fraction at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) inhibition of lipid peroxidation (MDA conc. 1.2 μmol/L) compared to control (2.8 μmol/L). Both ethyl acetate and methanol fractions at 200 mg/kg produced significant (P < 0.05) phagocytic index of 0.021 and 0.025, respectively, compared with control (0.01). Significant (P < 0.05) elevations of white blood cells, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase were noticed on the 91st day at higher doses. Generally, this study justified the traditional use of G. latifolium fruit for general body healing and maintenance of healthy living. Long term administration is safe on the haematological and biochemical systems especially at lower doses and its toxicity at higher doses is reversible. PMID:27433504

  16. Microgravity: Teacher's guide with activities for physical science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This guide is an educational tool for teachers of grades 5 through 12. It is an introduction to microgravity and its application to spaceborne laboratory experiments. Specific payloads and missions are mentioned with limited detail, including Spacelab, the International Microgravity Laboratory, and the United States Microgravity Laboratory. Activities for students demonstrate chemistry, mathematics, and physics applications of microgravity. Activity objectives include: modeling how satellites orbit Earth; demonstrating that free fall eliminates the local effects of gravity; measuring the acceleration environments created by different motions; using a plasma sheet to observe acceleration forces that are experienced on board a space vehicle; demonstrating how mass can be measured in microgravity; feeling how inertia affects acceleration; observing the gravity-driven fluid flow that is caused by differences in solution density; studying surface tension and the fluid flows caused by differences in surface tension; illustrating the effects of gravity on the burning rate of candles; observing candle flame properties in free fall; measuring the contact angle of a fluid; illustrating the effects of gravity and surface tension on fiber pulling; observing crystal growth phenomena in a 1-g environment; investigating temperature effects on crystal growth; and observing crystal nucleation and growth rate during directional solidification. Each activity includes a background section, procedure, and follow-up questions.

  17. Active beam shaping in multiple laser guide stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Katharine J.

    2012-10-01

    Adaptive beam shaping is a critical part of multiple Laser Guide Stars (LGS) for Multiple Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) for ground-based astronomical telescopes. There are two kinds of Laser Guide Stars: Na Laser Guide Stars (at 589 nm and 92 km altitude) and Rayleigh Laser Guide Stars (at 532 nm and 20 km altitude). Multiple Conjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO) corrects for each "layer" of atmosphere independently. Multiple Laser Guide Stars are being developed to achieve a measure of tilt and increase the isoplanatic patch. Multiple Laser Guide Stars are being combined with Multiple Conjugate Optics in the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT): more than one Laser Guide Star (4-5) and two different wavelengths: 589 nm and 532 nm. Other observatories have multiple Laser Guide Stars but only one wavelength: 589 nm or 532 nm. Because Laser Guide Stars are launched into the atmosphere, adaptive beam shaping will be carried out before the laser is launched and will be different depending on which laser is being used, presumably to effect the tightest beam which can be achieved at the power level which is required to provide the requisite return to gound-based wavefront sensors. A complete range of devices are used. Beam attenuation and divergnece will take place. Multiple Laser Guide Stars of major observatories (SOR, LBT, MMT, ESO VLT and Gemini South) will be evaluated for effective adaptive beam shaping and impact on performance

  18. Antiulcer Effect of Extract/Fractions of Eruca sativa : Attenuation of Urease Activity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Haroon; Khan, Murad Ali

    2014-03-19

    Eruca sativa (Rocket salad) is known for its antiulcer properties in the traditional system of treatment. The present study was, therefore, designed to scrutinize its effect on urease activity in vitro. The results demonstrated marked attenuation of urease by the crude extract of various test concentrations with IC50 value of 7.77 mg/mL. On fractionation, marked change in inhibitory profile was observed. The ethyl acetate fraction was the most potent urease inhibitor with IC50 value of 4.17 mg/mL followed by the aqueous fraction with an IC50 value of 5.83 mg/mL. However, hexane did not show significant urease inhibition. In conclusion, the present study illustrated strong antagonism of urease activity and thus validated scientifically the traditional use of the plant in the treatment of ulcers. PMID:24647097

  19. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells.

    PubMed

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

  20. Antiproliferative and Proapoptotic Effects of Labisia pumila Ethanol Extract and Its Active Fraction in Human Melanoma HM3KO Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lope Pihie, Azimahtol Hawariah; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Othman, Fezah

    2012-01-01

    The present study was to determine the anticancer potential of Labisia pumila in in vitro models. Results from the study revealed that ethanol extract of L. pumila was more cytotoxic against HM3KO cells while having reduced effects on nonmalignant cells as compared to aqueous and hexane extracts. Thus, ethanol extract was selected to be further separated by using the bioassay-guided fractionation method to give an active fraction, SF2Lp. Results obtained from the flow cytometry analysis showed that SF2Lp was able to arrest the HM3KO cell cycle at the G1 phase, while morphological findings from AO-EB nuclear staining assays along with the Apoptotic Index confirmed the induction of apoptosis by SF2Lp in HM3KO cells. Results from the mechanistic study further revealed that SF2Lp treatment was able to concurrently increase the expression level of p53 and pro-apoptotic protein Bax and also reduce the expression level of anti-apoptotic protein BCl-2 in HM3KO cells, directly contributing to the increase in Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These findings, therefore, suggested that L. pumila was able to inhibit HM3KO cell growth possibly by arresting the cell cycle at G1 phase and inducing apoptosis in HM3KO cells via the up- and down-regulation of Bax/Bcl-2 protein, mediated through a p53-dependent pathway. PMID:22474490

  1. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell variability in overcoming a caspase activity threshold

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Jérémie; Hafner, Marc; Bandara, Samuel; Sims, Joshua J; Hudson, Hannah; Chai, Diana; Sorger, Peter K

    2015-01-01

    When cells are exposed to death ligands such as TRAIL, a fraction undergoes apoptosis and a fraction survives; if surviving cells are re-exposed to TRAIL, fractional killing is once again observed. Therapeutic antibodies directed against TRAIL receptors also cause fractional killing, even at saturating concentrations, limiting their effectiveness. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell fluctuations in protein levels (extrinsic noise), but how this results in a clean bifurcation between life and death remains unclear. In this paper, we identify a threshold in the rate and timing of initiator caspase activation that distinguishes cells that live from those that die; by mapping this threshold, we can predict fractional killing of cells exposed to natural and synthetic agonists alone or in combination with sensitizing drugs such as bortezomib. A phenomenological model of the threshold also quantifies the contributions of two resistance genes (c-FLIP and Bcl-2), providing new insight into the control of cell fate by opposing pro-death and pro-survival proteins and suggesting new criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25953765

  2. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell variability in overcoming a caspase activity threshold.

    PubMed

    Roux, Jérémie; Hafner, Marc; Bandara, Samuel; Sims, Joshua J; Hudson, Hannah; Chai, Diana; Sorger, Peter K

    2015-05-01

    When cells are exposed to death ligands such as TRAIL, a fraction undergoes apoptosis and a fraction survives; if surviving cells are re-exposed to TRAIL, fractional killing is once again observed. Therapeutic antibodies directed against TRAIL receptors also cause fractional killing, even at saturating concentrations, limiting their effectiveness. Fractional killing arises from cell-to-cell fluctuations in protein levels (extrinsic noise), but how this results in a clean bifurcation between life and death remains unclear. In this paper, we identify a threshold in the rate and timing of initiator caspase activation that distinguishes cells that live from those that die; by mapping this threshold, we can predict fractional killing of cells exposed to natural and synthetic agonists alone or in combination with sensitizing drugs such as bortezomib. A phenomenological model of the threshold also quantifies the contributions of two resistance genes (c-FLIP and Bcl-2), providing new insight into the control of cell fate by opposing pro-death and pro-survival proteins and suggesting new criteria for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic TRAIL receptor agonists. PMID:25953765

  3. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals

    PubMed Central

    Bachhav, R. S.; Sambathkumar, R.

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as “Arogyappacha” meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  4. Evaluation of Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloid Fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn on Experimental Animals.

    PubMed

    Bachhav, R S; Sambathkumar, R

    2016-01-01

    Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn, (Trichopodaceae) is also known as "Arogyappacha" meaning the greener of health by tribal inhabitants (Kani tribes). This plant used as health tonic and rejuvenator. The whole plant material of Trichopus zeylanicus is defatted and successively extracted with methanol. The alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus was obtained from methanol extract. Up to the dose of 2000 mg/kg b.w. per orally alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus did not show any mortality or toxicity. Immunomodulatory activity of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus Gaertn was evaluated using various in vivo models including neutrophil adhesion test, delayed type hypersensitivity reaction, and effect on hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin and cyclophosphamide induce immunosupression. Sheep red blood cells were used to immunized the animals. The percentage of neutrophils adhesion to the nylon fiber was dose dependently increased in alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus75, 150 and 300 mg/kg, p.o treated groups (50.57, 52.99 and 54.21%), respectively compared to control group. A dose dependent potentiating of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction induced by sheep red blood cells was also observed from the alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus. On chronic administration of alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus (75, 150 and 300 mg/kg. p.o.) caused significant (P<0.001) increased in hematological parameter like, total white blood cell's, red blood cell's and hemoglobin. Alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus also prevented the myelosupression in mice treated cyclophosphamide (30 mg/kg, p.o.). The result of present investigation suggested that alkaloid fraction of Trichopus zeylanicus stimulate defense system by modulating several immunological parameters. PMID:27168696

  5. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves.

    PubMed

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  6. Effect of biologically active fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi on cerulein-induced acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Gi-Sang; Kim, Min-Sun; Park, Kyoung-Chel; Koo, Bon Soon; Jo, Il-Joo; Choi, Sun Bok; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Kim, Tae-Hyeon; Seo, Sang-Wan; Shin, Yong Kook; Song, Ho-Joon; Park, Sung-Joo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if the fraction of Nardostachys jatamansi (NJ) has the potential to ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). METHODS: Mice were administered the biologically active fraction of NJ, i.e., the 4th fraction (NJ4), intraperitoneally, and then injected with the stable cholecystokinin analogue cerulein hourly for 6 h. Six hours after the last cerulein injection, the pancreas, lung, and blood were harvested for morphological examination, measurement of cytokine expression, and examination of neutrophil infiltration. RESULTS: NJ4 administration attenuated the severity of AP and lung injury associated with AP. It also reduced cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration and resulted in the in vivo up-regulation of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Furthermore, NJ4 and its biologically active fraction, NJ4-2 inhibited the cerulein-induced death of acinar cells by inducing HO-1 in isolated pancreatic acinar cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that NJ4 may be a candidate fraction offering protection in AP and NJ4 might ameliorate the severity of pancreatitis by inducing HO-1 expression. PMID:22783046

  7. Characterisation and Antioxidant Activity of Crude Extract and Polyphenolic Rich Fractions from C. incanus Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Gori, Antonella; Ferrini, Francesco; Marzano, Maria Cristina; Tattini, Massimiliano; Centritto, Mauro; Baratto, Maria Camilla; Pogni, Rebecca; Brunetti, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Cistus incanus (Cistaceae) is a Mediterranean evergreen shrub. Cistus incanus herbal teas have been used as a general remedy in traditional medicine since ancient times. Recent studies on the antioxidant properties of its aqueous extracts have indicated polyphenols to be the most active compounds. However, a whole chemical characterisation of polyphenolic compounds in leaves of Cistus incanus (C. incanus) is still lacking. Moreover, limited data is available on the contribution of different polyphenolic compounds towards the total antioxidant capacity of its extracts. The purpose of this study was to characterise the major polyphenolic compounds present in a crude ethanolic leaf extract (CEE) of C. incanus and develop a method for their fractionation. Superoxide anion, hydroxyl and DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assays were also performed to evaluate the antioxidant properties of the obtained fractions. Three different polyphenolic enriched extracts, namely EAC (Ethyl Acetate Fraction), AF1 and AF2 (Aqueos Fractions), were obtained from CEE. Our results indicated that the EAC, enriched in flavonols, exhibited a higher antiradical activity compared to the tannin enriched fractions (AF1 and AF2). These findings provide new perspectives for the use of the EAC as a source of antioxidant compounds with potential uses in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:27548139

  8. ALKYTIN INHIBITION OF ATPASE ACTIVITIES IN TISSUE HOMOGENATES AND SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS FROM NEONATAL AND ADULT RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of triethyltin (TET) on ATPase activities in brain and liver homogenates and subcellular fractions were compared in neonatal and adult rats. n 5 day old rats, relative sensitivities to TET inhibition were: brain and liver mitochondrial ATPase >> rain Na+/K+ ATPase > b...

  9. Cytotoxicity and antitumoral activity of dichloromethane extract and its fractions from Pothomorphe umbellata.

    PubMed

    Sacoman, J L; Monteiro, K M; Possenti, A; Figueira, G M; Foglio, M A; Carvalho, J E

    2008-05-01

    The cytotoxicity of the dichloromethane crude extract (DCE), obtained from the aerial parts of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq (Piperaceae), was evaluated against nine human cancer cell lines (MCF-7, NCI-ADR/RES, OVCAR-3, PC-3, HT-29, NCI-H460, 786-O, UACC-62, K-562). The DCE presented antiproliferative activity with good potency against all cell lines at low concentrations (between 4.0 and 9.5 microg/mL) and with selectivity (1.55 microg/mL) for the leukemia cell line (K-652). DCE (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/kg, ip) was also evaluated in the Ehrlich ascites tumor model. Both the survival number and the life span of the animals that died increased by at least 45 and 50%, respectively (8 animals per group), demonstrating P. umbellata extract potential anticancer activity. The results of the in vivo antitumor activity prompted the fractionation of the crude extract. The crude extract was submitted to dry column chromatography with dichloromethane-methanol (99:1). The column effluent fractions were extracted with methanol, dried under vacuum yielding fractions FR1 (less polar), FR2 (medium polarity), and FR3 (polar), which were analyzed for their growth inhibition or cytotoxic properties by a 48-h sulforhodamine B cell viability assay by measuring the total protein content. FR1 demonstrated high potency and cytotoxicity, a result compatible with the high toxicity of oxalic acid; FR2, containing 4-nerolidylcathecol, presented the lowest cytotoxic activity compared to the other two fractions but with selectivity for prostate cancer cell line; FR3, containing a mixture of steroids described in the literature as possessing various biological activities, also presented potent anticancer in vitro activity. These results suggest that P. umbellata DCE in vivo antitumor activity may be a consequence of the activity of different active principles. PMID:18545814

  10. Evaluation of in vitro antimalarial activity of different extracts of Artemisia aucheri Boiss. and A. armeniaca Lam. and fractions of the most potent extracts.

    PubMed

    Mojarrab, Mahdi; Shiravand, Ali; Delazar, Abbas; Heshmati Afshar, Fariba

    2014-01-01

    Ten extracts with different polarity from two Iranian Artemisia species, A. armeniaca Lam. and A. aucheri Boiss, were screened for their antimalarial properties by in vitro   β -hematin formation assay. Dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of both plants showed significant antimalarial activities with IC50 values of 1.36±0.01 and 1.83±0.03 mg/mL and IC90 values of 2.12±0.04 and 2.62±0.09 mg/mL for A. armeniaca and A. aucheri, respectively. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of DCM extracts of both plants by vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) over silica gel with solvent mixtures of increasing polarities afforded seven fractions. Two fractions from DCM extract of A. armeniaca and four fractions from DCM extract of A. aucheri showed potent antimalarial activity with reducing IC50 and IC90 values compared to extracts. The most potent fraction belonged to DCM extract of A. armeniaca with IC50 and IC90 values of 0.47±0.006 and 0.71±0.006 mg/mL, respectively. PMID:24558335

  11. Evaluation of the purified fraction of Wilbrandia (c.f.) verticillata for antitumour activity.

    PubMed

    Rao, V S; Almeida, F R; Moraes, A P; Silva, J V; Nascimento, S C; Moraes, M O

    1991-01-01

    Cucurbitacins are known to produce cytotoxic and anticancer activities. Two novel norcucurbitacin glucosides (Wv1 and Wv2) have recently been isolated from a purified fraction obtained from the rhizome of Wilbrandia verticillata. The present study evaluates the cytotoxic and antitumour activities of these norcucurbitacins. We have found a regular cytotoxicity in KB cells (Cy50 = 12 micrograms/ml) as well as a significant inhibition in the Walker 256 carcinosarcoma growth (approximately 75%). PMID:1842011

  12. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of Hydroalcoholic Extract and its Fractions of Leaves of Ficus benghalensis Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bhanwase, Anil Subhash; Alagawadi, Kallanagouda Ramappa

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ficus benghalensis is a folk medicine indigenous plant of India. Several studies on this plant reported and focused on the biological profile of the plant. Objectives: This study is aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of F. benghalensis leaf extract using various in vitro screening methods of both parameters. Materials and Methods: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and it's four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) of leaves of F. benghalensis investigated for their free radical scavenging activity using 1-1-diphneyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. A dose-response curve was plotted and IC50 values were determined to assess antioxidant activity. Nitroblue tetrazolium test, phagocytosis of killed Candida albicans and candidacidal assay were carried out to assess the immunomodulatory activity. Positive non-lymphoid cell number, mean particle number of killed C. albicans, percent value of killed C. albicans by neutrophils were calculated and presented. Results: All extracts showed antioxidant and prominent immunomodulatory activity with compared to standard. Conclusions: Hydroalcoholic (FB1) extract and its four fractions viz. n-hexane (FB2), n-butanol (FB3), chloroform (FB4), and water (FB5) showed promising antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. SUMMARY Hydroalcoholic extract and its fractions of F. benghalensis Linn exhibited different DPPH and ABTS scavenging activity in concentration dependent manner.The extract, fractions and reference antioxidants showed DPPH scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB2 > FB1 > FB5 > FB4> FB3 and ABTS scavenging effect in the order of Vit-C > Quercetin > FB1> FB2 > FB5 > FB3> FB4.FB2 and FB3 showed promising immunomodulatory activity at all concentrations. PMID:26941536

  13. Brucella fractions behave as nonspecific mitogens and polyclonal B-cell activators for human lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Vendrell, J P; Rabesandratana, H; Huguet, M F; Cannat, A; Serre, A

    1985-01-01

    Two lipid-A-free fractions which were extracted from Brucella melitensis and were designated PI and SF stimulated human unsensitized mononuclear cells to proliferate and to secrete immunoglobulins. Both of these effects were observed in cultures of peripheral blood, tonsils, and cord blood lymphocytes. Neither B cells nor T cells alone proliferated in the presence of these fractions, whereas the proliferative response of T cells plus B cells was largely independent of accessory cells. Polyclonal activation was estimated by counting the cells which secreted immunoglobulins of different isotypes into culture supernatants. This phenomenon was strongly T dependent. PMID:3876286

  14. Antimicrobial activity of extracts and fractions from aerial parts of selected plants (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against some pathogenic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Melim, Carla; Guimarães, Karoliny; Martin-Quintal, Zhelmy; Alves, Aurea Damaceno; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira; Delle Monache, Franco; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Cruza, Alexandre Bella; Niero, Rivaldo

    2013-11-01

    As part of the program of our research group to search for new and effective substances from the Brazilian biodiversity, the present work evaluates the antibacterial activity of four species from the Brazilian flora (Garcinia achachairu, Macrosiphonia velame, Rubus niveus and Pilea microphylla) against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and S. saprophyticus (Gram-positive bacteria), Escherichia coli (Gram-negative bacterium) and Candida albicans (yeast). The extracts of R. niveus and M. velame showed promising antibacterial activity with MICs, ranging from 1000 to 125 microg/mL. Bio-guided fractionation of M. velame yielded four compounds, with the highest inhibition being observed for compound 3, with a MIC of 125 microg/mL against S. aureus. The combinations of fractions 2 and 4 showed beneficial effect against Gram-positive bacteria (additive effect), suggesting a possible synergistic effect. PMID:24427943

  15. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected cereal grains and their different morphological fractions.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, H; Kozłowska, H

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antioxidant properties of water and 80% methanolic extracts of cereal grains and their different morphological fractions. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Almari and cv. Henika, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Gregor and cv. Mobek, rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. Dańkowskie Zlote, oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. Slawko and buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) cv. Kora were used. PC (L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine) liposome system and spectrophotometric assay of total antioxidant activity (TAA) were used to evaluate the antioxidative activity of extracts. Among the water extracts, only the one prepared from buckwheat exhibited antioxidant activity at the concentration analyzed. The following hierarchy of antioxidant activity was provided for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grain: buckwheat > barley > oat > wheat congruent with rye. The antioxidant activity was observed in extract prepared from separated parts of buckwheat and barley. In respect to hulls, the antioxidant hierarchy was as follows: buckwheat > oat > barley. The correlation coefficient between total phenolic compounds and total antioxidative activity of the extracts was -0.35 for water extracts and 0.96, 0.99, 0.80, and 0.99 for 80% methanolic extracts originated from whole grains, hulls, pericarb with testa fractions and endosperm with embryo fractions, respectively. PMID:10888490

  16. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  17. Antitumor effect of seaweeds. II. Fractionation and partial characterization of the polysaccharide with antitumor activity from Sargassum fulvellum.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, I; Nagumo, T; Fujihara, M; Takahashi, M; Ando, Y

    1977-06-01

    An almost purified antitumor polysaccharide fraction (SFPP) was obtained by fractional precipitation with ethanol from hot-water extract of Sargassum fulvellum. The fraction showed remarkable tumor-inhibiting effect against sarcoma-180 implanted subcutaneously in mice. The results of chemical and physical analyses suggested that the active substance may be either a sulphated peptidoglycuronoglycan or a sulphated glycuronoglycan. PMID:916293

  18. Homesteading: The Free Land Idea. An Activity Guide for Teachers Grades 4 through 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberson, Wesley; Lange, L. S.; Sutter, Jason; Sutter, Gail

    This curriculum/activity guide is designed for use by teachers and other educators who live within trip distance of Homestead National Monument of America in Nebraska. However, some activities in the guide are designed for the classroom, and some are more effective if they are conducted outdoors; but many can be completed at school. The activity…

  19. Printing & Publishing from the Classroom to Careers. An Activity Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulen, Robert

    This activity guide was developed in Oregon using the theme of the 150th anniversary of the Oregon Trail to help teachers conduct classroom activities that make use of the skills involved in printing and publishing. It was written by a classroom teacher and designed and published by the printing industry. The guide has the following six purposes:…

  20. Coping with Fears and Stress. An Activity Guide: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    This guide consists of a set of activities to help elementary school students cope with fears and stress. Each activity includes the curricular areas in which it would fit (i.e., language arts, social studies, etc.), the grade level and group size for which it is suitable, and the approximate time necessary for its completion. The guide is divided…

  1. Chloroform fraction of Euphorbia maculata has antiplatelet activity via suppressing thromboxane B2 formation.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Se-Uk; Cha, Ji-Yoon; Lee, Hoon-Yeon; Xin, Mingjie; Ji, Su-Jeong; Kim, Dae-Ki; Park, Do-Sim; Pyo, Mi-Kyung; Lee, Young-Mi

    2015-06-01

    Euphorbia maculata (EM) is a traditionally used antidiarrheal, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant agent. However, the effects of EM on platelet activity remain to be elucidated. Therefore, the present study investigated the antiplatelet effect of various EM extract fractions on platelet aggregation in rats. The antiplatelet activity of the EM fractions on collagen or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)‑induced platelet aggregation was evaluated in vitro and ex vivo. Thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation, rat‑tail bleeding time and coagulation time were also measured. Among the fractions, the chloroform fraction of EM (CFEM) significantly inhibited ADP‑induced platelet aggregation in vitro. Furthermore, oral administration of 50 mg/kg CFEM to rats significantly reduced ADP‑induced platelet aggregation without increasing the tail bleeding time or coagulation time. In addition, EM significantly inhibited the level of TXB2 formation in a dose‑dependent manner. These results suggest that CFEM exhibits antiplatelet activity, without causing bleeding, via the suppression of TXB2 formation. CFEM may be a type of food which has the potential for preventing cardiovascular disease. PMID:25672843

  2. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action. PMID:22185934

  3. Global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhixia; Shen, Yi; Wang, Leimin

    2016-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization for a class of fractional-order neural networks with discontinuous activations (FNNDAs). We give the concept of Filippov solution for FNNDAs in the sense of Caputo's fractional derivation. By using a singular Gronwall inequality and the properties of fractional calculus, the existence of global solution under the framework of Filippov for FNNDAs is proved. Based on the nonsmooth analysis and control theory, some sufficient criteria for the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization of FNNDAs are derived by designing a suitable controller. The proposed results enrich and enhance the previous reports. Finally, one numerical example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results. PMID:26562442

  4. Comparative studies on antioxidant activities of extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Haixia; Wang, Zhaoshuai; Lan, Gaoshuang; Zhang, Likang

    2013-12-01

    The antioxidant potency of various extracts and fractions from the leaves and stem of Epimedium koreanum Nakai was evaluated using three esteblished methods, specifically the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radica-scavenging activity assay, the inhibitory effect on lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+)/ascorbate (MDA) assay and the ferric reducing power (FRP) assay. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the extracts and fractions were determined by spectrophotometric methods and the content of icariin was determined by HPLC. The results showed that all the extracts and fractions exhibited antioxidant activities at different magnitudes of potency. The leaf extract and fractions demonstrated superior antioxidant activity in most of the assays. The decreasing order of antioxidant activities among the extracts/fractions assayed through the three methods were found to be n-BuOH fraction>ethyl acetate fraction>ethanol extract>petroleum ether fraction>water fraction. A positive correlation was found between the amounts of total phenolics, total flavonoids and icariin and DPPH radical scavenging activity (R(2) = 0.9935, 0.9944 and 0.9997, respectively) and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation (R(2) = 0.9987, 0.9830 and 0.9886, respectively). The results suggested that Icariin was one of the main constituents contribute to the antioxidant activity of Epimedium koreanum Nakai and the n-BuOH fractions of leaf extract might be valuable antioxidant natural sources. PMID:24426024

  5. On-Board Imaging Validation of Optically Guided Stereotactic Radiosurgery Positioning System for Conventionally Fractionated Radiotherapy for Paranasal Sinus and Skull Base Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Murphy, James D.; Chu, Karen P.M.; Hsu, Annie; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the positioning accuracy of an optical positioning system for stereotactic radiosurgery in a pilot experience of optically guided, conventionally fractionated, radiotherapy for paranasal sinus and skull base tumors. Methods and Materials: Before each daily radiotherapy session, the positioning of 28 patients was set up using an optical positioning system. After this initial setup, the patients underwent standard on-board imaging that included daily orthogonal kilovoltage images and weekly cone beam computed tomography scans. Daily translational shifts were made after comparing the on-board images with the treatment planning computed tomography scans. These daily translational shifts represented the daily positional error in the optical tracking system and were recorded during the treatment course. For 13 patients treated with smaller fields, a three-degree of freedom (3DOF) head positioner was used for more accurate setup. Results: The mean positional error for the optically guided system in patients with and without the 3DOF head positioner was 1.4 {+-} 1.1 mm and 3.9 {+-} 1.6 mm, respectively (p <.0001). The mean positional error drifted 0.11 mm/wk upward during the treatment course for patients using the 3DOF head positioner (p = .057). No positional drift was observed in the patients without the 3DOF head positioner. Conclusion: Our initial clinical experience with optically guided head-and-neck fractionated radiotherapy was promising and demonstrated clinical feasibility. The optically guided setup was especially useful when used in conjunction with the 3DOF head positioner and when it was recalibrated to the shifts using the weekly portal images.

  6. Leishmanicidal activity in vitro of Musa paradisiaca L. and Spondias mombin L. fractions.

    PubMed

    Accioly, Marina Parissi; Bevilaqua, Claudia Maria Leal; Rondon, Fernanda C M; de Morais, Selene Maia; Machado, Lyeghyna K A; Almeida, Camila A; de Andrade, Heitor Franco; Cardoso, Roselaine P A

    2012-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a zoonotic disease characterized by infection of mononuclear phagocytes by Leishmania chagasi. The primary vector is Lutzomyia longipalpis and the dog is the main domestic reservoir. The control and current treatment of dogs using synthetic drugs have not shown effectiveness in reducing the incidence of disease in man. In attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal action, plant secondary metabolites have been studied in search of treatments of VL. This study aimed to evaluate the leishmanicidal activity of Musa paradisiaca (banana tree) and Spondias mombin (cajazeira) chemical constituents on promastigotes and amastigotes of L. chagasi. Phytochemical analysis by column chromatography was performed on ethanol extracts of two plants and fractions were isolated. Thin layer chromatography was used to compare the fractions and for isolation the substances to be used in vitro tests. The in vitro tests on promastigotes of L. chagasi used the MTT colorimetric method and the method of ELISA in situ was used against amastigotes besides the cytotoxicity in RAW 264.7 cells. Of the eight fractions tested, Sm1 and Sm2 from S. mombin had no action against promastigotes, but had good activity against amastigotes. The fractions Mp1 e Mp4 of M. paradisiaca were very cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells. The best result was obtained with the fraction Sm3 from S. mombin with IC(50) of 11.26 μg/ml against promastigotes and amastigotes of 0.27 μg/ml. The fraction Sm3 characterized as tannic acid showed the best results against both forms of Leishmania being a good candidate for evaluation in in vivo tests. PMID:22521971

  7. Inorganic fractions in extracellular polymeric substance extracted from activated sludge and biofilm samples by different methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiyan; Geng, Jinju; Ding, Lili; Ren, Hongqiang

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted the inorganic fractions in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) extract from two activated sludges and one biofilm. Nine EPS extraction methods (centrifugation, sonication, cation exchange resin (CER) + sonication, CER, heating, formaldehyde + heating, formaldehyde + NaOH, ethanol and EDTA) were used in the study. The EPS extracts had large inorganic fractions, which ranged from 28% to 94% of the EPS dry weight. The EPS inorganic fraction was dependent on the source of the sludge and wastewater, the kinds of bacteria and the extraction method. The EPS extracts obtained by heating and sonication had smaller inorganic fractions than those obtained by centrifugation. The compositions of the inorganic fraction of EPS extracts obtained with CER and sonication + CER showed similar trends. The chemical extraction methods could contaminate the inorganic composition of EPS extracts by impurities, carrying over of the extractant itself or by changing the pH of the solution. Ethanol was the most effective extractant for obtaining inorganic ions. PMID:22828296

  8. Terahertz study on porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient of pharmaceutical tablets.

    PubMed

    Bawuah, Prince; Tan, Nicholas; Tweneboah, Samuel Nana A; Ervasti, Tuomas; Axel Zeitler, J; Ketolainen, Jarkko; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2016-08-01

    In this study, terahertz time-domain spectroscopic (THz-TDS) technique has been used to ascertain the change in the optical properties, as a function of changing porosity and mass fraction of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API), of training sets of pharmaceutical tablets. Four training sets of pharmaceutical tablets were compressed with microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) excipient and indomethacin API by varying either the porosity, height, and API mass fraction or all three tablet parameters. It was observed, as far as we know, for the first time, that the THz time-domain and frequency-domain effective refractive index, as well as, the frequency-domain effective absorption coefficient both show linear correlations with the porosity and API mass fraction for training sets of real pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that, the observed linear correlations can be useful in basic research and quality inspection of pharmaceutical tablets. Additionally, we propose a novel optical strain parameter, based on THz measurement, which yields information on the conventional strain parameter of a tablet as well as on the change of fill fraction of solid material during compression of porous pharmaceutical tablets. We suggest that the THz measurement and proposed method of data analysis, in addition to providing an efficient tool for basic research of porous media, can serve as one of the novel quality by design (QbD) implementation techniques to predict critical quality attributes (CQA) such as porosity, API mass fraction and strain of flat-faced pharmaceutical tablets before production. PMID:27288937

  9. Atomic force microscopy-guided fractionation reveals the influence of cranberry phytochemicals on adhesion of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prachi; Song, Biqin; Neto, Catherine; Camesano, Terri A

    2016-06-15

    Cranberry juice has been long used to prevent infections because of its effect on the adhesion of the bacteria to the host surface. Proanthocyanidins (PACs) comprise of one of the major classes of phytochemicals found in cranberry, which have been extensively studied and found effective in combating adhesion of pathogenic bacteria. The role of other cranberry constituents in impacting bacterial adhesion haven't been studied very well. In this study, cranberry juice fractions were prepared, characterized and tested for their effect on the surface adhesion of the pathogenic clinical bacterial strain E. coli B78 and non-pathogenic control E. coli HB101. The preparations tested included crude cranberry juice extract (CCE); three fractions containing flavonoid classes including proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins and flavonols; selected sub-fractions, and commercially available flavonol glycoside, quercetin-3-O-galactoside. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to quantify the adhesion forces between the bacterial surface and the AFM probe after the treatment with the cranberry fractions. Adhesion forces of the non-pathogenic, non fimbriated lab strain HB101 are small (average force 0.19 nN) and do not change with cranberry treatments, whereas the adhesion forces of the pathogenic, Dr adhesion E. coli strain B78 (average force of 0.42 nN) show a significant decrease when treated with cranberry juice extract or fractions (average force of 0.31 nN, 0.37 nN and 0.39 nN with CCE, Fraction 7 and Fraction 4 respectively). In particular, the fractions that contained flavonols in addition to PACs were more efficient at lowering the force of adhesion (average force of 0.31 nN-0.18 nN between different sub-fractions containing flavonols and PACs). The sub-fractions containing flavonol glycosides (from juice, fruit and commercial quercetin) all resulted in reduced adhesion of the pathogenic bacteria to the model probe. This strongly suggests the anti adhesive role of other classes of

  10. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection

    PubMed Central

    Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F.; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin

  11. Active and Secretory IgA-Coated Bacterial Fractions Elucidate Dysbiosis in Clostridium difficile Infection.

    PubMed

    Džunková, Mária; Moya, Andrés; Vázquez-Castellanos, Jorge F; Artacho, Alejandro; Chen, Xinhua; Kelly, Ciaran; D'Auria, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The onset of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has been associated with treatment with wide-spectrum antibiotics. Antibiotic treatment alters the activity of gut commensals and may result in modified patterns of immune responses to pathogens. To study these mechanisms during CDI, we separated bacteria with high cellular RNA content (the active bacteria) and their inactive counterparts by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) of the fecal bacterial suspension. The gut dysbiosis due to the antibiotic treatment may result in modification of immune recognition of intestinal bacteria. The immune recognition patterns were assessed by FACS of bacterial fractions either coated or not with intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA). We described the taxonomic distributions of these four bacterial fractions (active versus inactive and SIgA coated versus non-SIgA coated) by massive 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and quantified the proportion of C. difficile toxin genes in the samples. The overall gut microbiome composition was more robustly influenced by antibiotics than by the C. difficile toxins. Bayesian networks revealed that the C. difficile cluster was preferentially SIgA coated during CDI. In contrast, in the CDI-negative group Fusobacterium was the characteristic genus of the SIgA-opsonized fraction. Lactobacillales and Clostridium cluster IV were mostly inactive in CDI-positive patients. In conclusion, although the proportion of C. difficile in the gut is very low, it is able to initiate infection during the gut dysbiosis caused by environmental stress (antibiotic treatment) as a consequence of decreased activity of the protective bacteria. IMPORTANCE C. difficile is a major enteric pathogen with worldwide distribution. Its expansion is associated with broad-spectrum antibiotics which disturb the normal gut microbiome. In this study, the DNA sequencing of highly active bacteria and bacteria opsonized by intestinal secretory immunoglobulin A (SIg

  12. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus

    PubMed Central

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S. M. Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  13. Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Methanol Extract and Its Fraction from the Root of Schoenoplectus grossus.

    PubMed

    Subedi, Nirmal Kumar; Rahman, S M Abdur; Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul

    2016-01-01

    The study aims to evaluate analgesic and antipyretic activities of the methanol extract and its different fractions from root of Schoenoplectus grossus using acetic acid induced writhing and radiant heat tail flick method of pain models in mice and yeast induced pyrexia in rats at the doses of 400 and 200 mg/kg. In acetic acid writhing test, the methanol extract, petroleum ether, and carbon tetrachloride fractions produced significant (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05) inhibition of writhing responses in dose dependent manner. The methanol extract at 400 and 200 mg/kg being more protective with 54% and 45.45% of inhibition compared to diclofenac sodium of 56% followed by petroleum ether fractions of 49.69% and 39.39% at the same doses. The extracts did not produce any significant antinociceptive activity in tail flick test except standard morphine. When studied on yeast induced pyrexia, methanol and petroleum ether fractions significantly lowered the rectal temperature time dependently in a manner similar to standard drug paracetamol and distinctly more significant (P < 0.001) after second hour. These findings suggest that the root extracts of S. grossus possess significant peripherally acting analgesic potential and antipyretic property. The phytochemical screening showed the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, and tannins. PMID:26977173

  14. A caspase active site probe reveals high fractional inhibition needed to block DNA fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Méthot, Nathalie; Vaillancourt, John P; Huang, JingQi; Colucci, John; Han, Yongxin; Ménard, Stéphane; Zamboni, Robert; Toulmond, Sylvie; Nicholson, Donald W; Roy, Sophie

    2004-07-01

    Apoptotic markers consist of either caspase substrate cleavage products or phenotypic changes that manifest themselves as a consequence of caspase-mediated substrate cleavage. We have shown recently that pharmacological inhibitors of caspase activity prevent the appearance of two such apoptotic manifestations, alphaII-spectrin cleavage and DNA fragmentation, but that blockade of the latter required a significantly higher concentration of inhibitor. We investigated this phenomenon through the use of a novel radiolabeled caspase inhibitor, [(125)I]M808, which acts as a caspase active site probe. [(125)I]M808 bound to active caspases irreversibly and with high sensitivity in apoptotic cell extracts, in tissue extracts from several commonly used animal models of cellular injury, and in living cells. Moreover, [(125)I]M808 detected active caspases in septic mice when injected intravenously. Using this caspase probe, an active site occupancy assay was developed and used to measure the fractional inhibition required to block apoptosis-induced DNA fragmentation. In thymocytes, occupancy of up to 40% of caspase active sites had no effect on DNA fragmentation, whereas inhibition of half of the DNA cleaving activity required between 65 and 75% of active site occupancy. These results suggest that a high and persistent fractional inhibition will be required for successful caspase inhibition-based therapies. PMID:15067000

  15. A Practical Guide for the Treatment of Symptomatic Heart Failure with Reduced Ejection Fraction (HFrEF)

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Brent N; Sueta, Carla A

    2015-01-01

    This review will outline the management of patients with symptomatic systolic heart failure or heart failure with reduced ejec-tion fraction (HFrEF), i.e., those with structural heart disease and previous or current symptoms. Determination of volume status and appropriate diuretic administration is important in heart failure management. Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone and sympathetic nervous systems improves survival and decreases hospitalizations in patients with systolic or reduced ejection fraction HF (HFrEF). Beta blockers and aldosterone antagonists improve ejection fraction. Indications for additional agents including nitrates plus hydralazine, digoxin, statins, omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, anticoagulants, and antiarrhythmics will be discussed. Choice of agents, dose-related effects, strategies to minimize adverse effects, and medications to avoid will be presented. PMID:24251455

  16. Radiological and instrumental neutron activation analysis determined characteristics of size-fractionated fly ash.

    PubMed

    Peppas, T K; Karfopoulos, K L; Karangelos, D J; Rouni, P K; Anagnostakis, M J; Simopoulos, S E

    2010-09-15

    The concentration of trace elements and radionuclides in fly ash particles of different size can exhibit significant variation, due to the various processes taking place during combustion inside a coal-fired power plant. An investigation of this effect has been performed by analyzing samples of fly ash originating in two different coal-fired power plants, after separation into size fractions by sieving. The samples were analyzed by gamma-ray spectrometry, including low-energy techniques, radon exhalation measurement and instrumental neutron activation analysis for the determination of Al, As, Ga, K, La, Na, Mn, Mg, Sr, Sc, and V. Variations are observed in the results of various samples analyzed, while the activity balances calculated from the results of individual size fractions are consistent with those of the raw ash samples. Correlations among the radionuclides examined are also observed, while individual nuclide behavior varies between the two types of fly ash examined. PMID:20605322

  17. Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tekale, Satishkumar S; Jaiwal, Bhimrao V; Padul, Manohar V

    2016-11-15

    Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity. Total 37 compounds including some short peptides and five major abundant compounds were identified in active fraction of C. cajan seeds. This study concludes that C. cajan seeds are good source of antioxidants and Iron chelating activity. Metabolites found in C. cajan seeds which remove reactive oxygen species (ROS), may help to alleviate oxidative stress associated dreaded health problem like cancer and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:27283694

  18. Fractionation and identification of minor and aroma-active constituents in Kangra orthodox black tea.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Robin; Gulati, Ashu

    2015-01-15

    The aroma constituents of Kangra orthodox black tea were isolated by simultaneous distillation extraction (SDE), supercritical fluid extraction and beverage method. The aroma-active compounds were identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry. Geraniol, linalool, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, (E)-2-hexenal, phytol, β-ionone, hotrienol, methylpyrazine and methyl salicylate were major volatile constituents in all the extracts. Minor volatile compounds in all the extracts were 2-ethyl-5-methylpyrazine, ethylpyrazine, 2-6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecanone, acetylfuran, hexanoic acid, dihydroactinidiolide and (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal. The concentrated SDE extract was fractionated into acidic, basic, water-soluble and neutral fractions. The neutral fraction was further chromatographed on a packed silica gel column eluted with pentane and diethyl ether to separate minor compounds. The aroma-active compounds identified using gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry were 2-amylfuran, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, 1-pentanol, epoxylinalool, (Z)-jasmone, 2-acetylpyrrole, farnesyl acetone, geranyl acetone, cadinol, cubenol and dihydroactinidiolide. AEDA studies showed 2-hexenal, 3-hexenol, ethylpyrazine, (Z/E)-linalool oxides, linalool, (E/Z)-2,6-nonadienal, geraniol, phenylethanol, β-ionone, hotrienol and dihydroactinidiolide to be odour active components. PMID:25148991

  19. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  20. So What's It to Me? Sexual Assault Information for Guys: Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, Gayle M.; Rants-Rodriguez, Deanna

    This document is a group leader activity guide to accompany a sexual assault prevention program focusing on information for male teenagers. Background information, large group activities, comments for small group leaders, extension activities, activity sheets, and transparency masters are included for 15 group activities. These topics are covered…

  1. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  2. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity.

    PubMed

    Lombardo-Earl, Galia; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II). The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol) which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester. PMID:24812568

  3. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    PubMed Central

    Lombardo-Earl, Galia; Roman-Ramos, Rubén; Zamilpa, Alejandro; Herrera-Ruiz, Maribel; Rosas-Salgado, Gabriela; Tortoriello, Jaime; Jiménez-Ferrer, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II). The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol) which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester. PMID:24812568

  4. Poster — Thur Eve — 13: Inter-Fraction Target Movement in Image-Guided Radiation Therapy of Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, Congwu; Zeng, Grace G.

    2014-08-15

    We investigated the setup variations over the treatment courses of 113 patients with intact prostate treated with 78Gy/39fx. Institutional standard bladder and bowel preparation and image guidance protocols were used in CT simulation and treatment. The RapidArc treatment plans were optimized in Varian Eclipse treatment planning system and delivered on Varian 2100X Clinacs equipped with On-Board Imager to localize the target before beam-on. The setup variations were calculated in terms of mean and standard deviation of couch shifts. No correlation was observed between the mean shift and standard deviation over the treatment course and patient age, initial prostate volume and rectum size. The mean shifts in the first and last 5 fractions are highly correlated (P < 10{sup −10}) while the correlation of the standard deviations cannot be determined. The Mann-Kendall tests indicate trends of the mean daily Ant-Post and Sup-Inf shifts of the group. The target is inferior by ∼1mm to the planned position when the treatment starts and moves superiorly, approaching the planned position at 10th fraction, and then gradually moves back inferiorly by ∼1mm in the remain fractions. In the Ant-Post direction, the prostate gradually moves posteriorly during the treatment course from a mean shift of ∼2.5mm in the first fraction to ∼1mm in the last fraction. It may be related to a systematic rectum size change in the progress of treatment. The biased mean shifts in Ant-Post and Sup-Inf direction of most patients suggest systematically larger rectum and smaller bladder during the treatment than at CT simulation.

  5. Antioxidant and Immunomodulatory Activity of the Alkaloidal Fraction of Cissampelos pareira Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  6. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity of the alkaloidal fraction of Cissampelos pareira linn.

    PubMed

    Bafna, Anand; Mishra, Shrihari

    2010-01-01

    The alkaloidal fraction (AFCP) of roots of Cissampelos pareira Linn. was screened for in-vitro antioxidant activity and immunomodulatory activity in mice. The HPTLC finger print profile was also established for the identification of AFCP which was found to contain 0.176 % of berberine. AFCP possess strong antioxidant activity which was revealed by its ability to scavenge the stable free radical DPPH, superoxide ion and to inhibit lipid peroxidation in rat liver homogenate induced by iron/ADP/Ascorbate complex. AFCP was found to have significant immunosuppressive activity at lower doses (25 and 50 mg/kg) while no activity was observed at higher doses (75 and 100 mg/kg). Humoral antibody titre was significantly (p<0.01) lowered by AFCP at the doses of 25 and 50 mg/kg. Delayed type hypersensitivity response was also significantly (p<0.01) suppressed by the AFCP at the dose of 75 mg/kg. Thus the present study revealed the immunosuppressive and antioxidant activities of the alkaloidal fraction of C. pareira roots. PMID:21179368

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Watershed Investigations and Environmental Studies, Volume 6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gail, Peter A.; And Others

    This curriculum activities guide provides the teacher with a model for a comprehensive program in watershed studies. With increased concern over water pollution, a study of the watershed is important to complete an understanding of water drainage problems. This guide includes a rationale for the study of watersheds and develops methods of…

  8. That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran

    Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences…

  9. Readings and Activities for Character Education: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diane L.

    This resource guide, for teachers and students in the upper elementary and middle school grades, has been developed in response to the nationwide interest in asking schools to play an active role in preparing students to become informed and responsible citizens. The guide is divided into seven sections, one for each character trait: Caring, Civic…

  10. The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

  11. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  12. The Farkleberry Cookbook in Environmental Education. An Activity Guide for Creative Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, William L., Ed.

    This interdisciplinary environmental education guide, developed by teachers, focuses on the creative teacher, presenting him/her an approach for involving all types of students in junior and senior high schools in activities which would cause them to evaluate values and give them an opportunity to express their own thoughts. The guide includes six…

  13. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  14. In Vitro Anticancer Activity of a Nonpolar Fraction from Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino.

    PubMed

    Li, Yantao; Huang, Jiajun; Lin, Wanjun; Yuan, Zhongwen; Feng, Senling; Xie, Ying; Ma, Wenzhe

    2016-01-01

    Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino (GpM) has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) for the treatment of various diseases including cancer. Most previous studies have focused primarily on polar fractions of GpM for anticancer activities. In this study, a nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM showed potent growth inhibitory activities against four cancer cell lines with IC50 ranging from 31.62 μg/mL to 38.02 μg/mL. Furthermore, EA1.3A also inhibited the growth of breast cancer cell MDA-MB-453 time-dependently, as well as its colony formation ability. EA1.3A induced apoptosis on MDA-MB-453 cells both dose-dependently and time-dependently as analyzed by flow cytometry and verified by western blotting analysis of apoptosis marker cleaved nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (cPARP). Additionally, EA1.3A induced cell cycle arrest in G0/G1 phase. Chemical components analysis of EA1.3A by GC-MS revealed that this nonpolar fraction from GpM contains 10 compounds including four alkaloids, three organic esters, two terpenes, and one catechol substance, and all these compounds have not been reported in GpM. In summary, the nonpolar fraction EA1.3A from GpM inhibited cancer cell growth through induction of apoptosis and regulation of cell cycle progression. Our study shed light on new chemical bases for the anticancer activities of GpM and feasibilities to develop new anticancer agents from this widely used medicinal plant. PMID:27034692

  15. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  16. Partial Fractionation of Venoms from Two Iranian Vipers, Echis carinatus and Cerastes persicus Fieldi and Evaluation of Their Antiplatelet Activity.

    PubMed

    Mehdizadeh Kashani, Toktam; Vatanpour, Hossein; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Hooshdar Tehrani, Hasan; Heydari, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Platelet aggregation inhibitory effect and anticoagulant properties of fractions separated from the venoms of Cerastes persicus fieldi and Echis carinatus were investigated. The partial fractionation was performed on a Sephadex G-100 column. Two fractions separated from Cerastes persicus fieldi showed anti platelet aggregation activity on ADP (200 μM)-induced platelet aggregation (ca 80% inhibition). Attempts to measure the antiplatelet aggregation activity of crude Echis carinatus venom and its fractions were not successful due to the protein coagulation of the plasma samples after the addition of venom. Anticoagulant activities of venoms were also evaluated. Total venom of Echis carinatus showed anti coagulant activity in PT test, while its fractions showed procoagulant activity. PMID:24250552

  17. Partial Fractionation of Venoms from Two Iranian Vipers, Echis carinatus and Cerastes persicus Fieldi and Evaluation of Their Antiplatelet Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mehdizadeh Kashani, Toktam; Vatanpour, Hossein; Zolfagharian, Hossein; Hooshdar Tehrani, Hasan; Heydari, Mohammad Hossein; Kobarfard, Farzad

    2012-01-01

    Platelet aggregation inhibitory effect and anticoagulant properties of fractions separated from the venoms of Cerastes persicus fieldi and Echis carinatus were investigated. The partial fractionation was performed on a Sephadex G-100 column. Two fractions separated from Cerastes persicus fieldi showed anti platelet aggregation activity on ADP (200 μM)-induced platelet aggregation (ca 80% inhibition). Attempts to measure the antiplatelet aggregation activity of crude Echis carinatus venom and its fractions were not successful due to the protein coagulation of the plasma samples after the addition of venom. Anticoagulant activities of venoms were also evaluated. Total venom of Echis carinatus showed anti coagulant activity in PT test, while its fractions showed procoagulant activity. PMID:24250552

  18. Comprehensive Evaluation of Anti-hyperglycemic Activity of Fractionated Momordica charantia Seed Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Shailesh Kumar; Chhabra, Gagan; Sharma, Dipali; Vashishta, Aruna; Ohri, Sujata; Dixit, Aparna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluates anti-hyperglycemic activity of fractionated Momordica charantia (bitter gourd) seed extracts. Fasting blood glucose levels were evaluated before and after administration of different fractions of the seed extract. Among the three fractions tested, fraction Mc-3 (15 mg/kg b.wt.) showed the maximum anti-hyperglycemic activity and reduced blood glucose levels in experimental diabetic rats significantly. The activities of the key regulatory enzymes of glucose metabolism (hexokinase, pyruvate kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) were determined in Mc-3-treated diabetic animals. Once-daily administration of the fraction Mc-3 for prolonged period of 18 days to the experimental diabetic animals did not result in any nephrotoxicity or hepatotoxicity as evident from insignificant changes in biochemical parameters indicative of liver and kidney functions. Further fractionation of the fraction Mc-3 by size exclusion chromatography resulted in a fraction, designated Mc-3.2, possessing anti-hyperglycemic activity. The fraction Mc-3.2 showed the presence of a predominant protein band of ~11 kDa on SDS-PAGE. Loss in anti-hyperglycemic activity of the Mc-3.2 upon protease treatment indicates the proteinaceous nature of the anti-hyperglycemic principles. Overall, the results suggest that Momordica charantia seeds contain an effective anti-hyperglycemic protein(s) which may find application in treatment of diabetes without evident toxic effects. PMID:23320026

  19. Antioxidative and anticancer activities of various ethanolic extract fractions from crown-of-thorns starfish (Acanthaster planci).

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Chiu; Hsieh, Hernyi Justin; Hsieh, Cheng-Hong; Hwang, Deng-Fwu

    2014-11-01

    Many studies currently researching marine invertebrates to determine the therapeutic potential of their bioactive materials have been showing very promising results. The crown-of-thorns starfish Acanthaster planci, an Echinodermata of the class Asteroidea, is infamous as the unique venomous starfish and as a destroyer of coral reefs. Starfish possesses many useful pharmacological and biological characteristics. In this study, A. planci was extracted with 70% ethanol and lyophilized to obtain an ethanol fraction. The ethanol fraction was dissolved with water and defatted with petroleum ether to obtain a non-polar fraction. The residual solution was successively partitioned with ethylacetate and butanol to obtain an ethylacetate fraction and butanol fraction, respectively. Four fractions were used to examine the antioxidant and anticancer properties. The ethanol fraction of A. planci contained the highest antioxidant effects such as ABTS, DPPH, Fe(2+) chelating activity and reducing power when compared with four fractions. Among the four fractions, the butanol fraction was especially shown to inhibit human malignant melanoma A375.S2 cells' proliferation, which is involved in the apoptotic progression. This fraction could induce apoptosis and even necrosis in A375.S2 cells as evidenced by double staining with an Annexin V-FITC and PI assay and DNA fragmentation analysis. These results indicated that the starfish A. planci is a good resource for obtaining the biologically active substances for antioxidant and anticancer effects. PMID:25305737

  20. Distribution of Cathepsin D Activity between Lysosomes and a Soluble Fraction of Marinating Brine.

    PubMed

    Szymczak, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    This paper is the first ever to describe the phenomenon of bimodal distribution of cathepsin D in the lysosomal and soluble fractions of brine left after herring marinating. Up to 2 times higher cathepsin D activity was observed in the lysosome fraction. Activity of cathepsin D in brine increased according to the logarithmic function during low frequency-high power ultrasounds treatment or according to the linear function after multiple freezing-thawing of brine. Activity enhancement was achieved only in the brine devoid of lipids and suspension. Study results show also that measurement of lysosomal cathepsin D activity in the marinating brine requires also determining cathepsin E activity. Decreasing pore size of microfilter from 2.7 to 0.3 μm significantly reduced the lysosome content in the brine. The presence of lysosomes and the possibility of their separation as well as the likely release of cathepsins shall be considered during industrial application of the marinating brine, as new cathepsins preparations in fish and meat technology. PMID:27351340

  1. Activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-staphylococcal components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    Manubolu, Manjunath; Goodla, Lavanya; Ravilla, Sivajyothi; Obulum, Vijayasarathi Reddy

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate activity-guided isolation and identification of anti-Staphylococcus aures components from Senecio tenuifolius Burm. F. (S. tenuifolius). Methods Hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and aqueous extracts of S. tenuifolius were prepared by soxilation for antimicrobial activity against one registered Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) (ATCC No: 25923) and two clinical isolates, methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus. NCCL standard methods were followed for antibacterial activity. GC-MS was performed to identify the chemical composition of bio active fraction. Results Among all solvent extracts, methanol extract significantly reduced the growth of S. aureus (ATCC No: 25923), methicillin resistant and methicillin sensitive S. aureus with the best zone of inhibition at 16.23, 14.06 and 15.23 mm and minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) values at 426.16, 683.22 and 512.12 µg/mL, respectively. In order to detect the active component in methanol extract, it was further purified by column chromatography, which yielded four fractions (St1, St2, St3, and St4). Among these four fractions, St3 was effective against the tested strains of S. aures, with the best zone of inhibition at 15.09, 13.25 and 14.12 mm and with best MIC values at 88.16, 128.11 and 116.12 µg/mL, respectively. Effective fraction partially purified from S. tenuifolius (St3) yielded MIC's that were at least 20 fold less when compared to crude extract. GC-MS analysis of St3 revealed the presence of 3-[methyl-6,7-dihydro benzofuran-4 (5H)-one], 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, hydroquinone, methyl ester and 3 unknown compounds. Conclusions The study provides scientific evidence for traditional and folklore medicinal use of S. tenuifolius in skin infections treatment. PMID:23620836

  2. Direct and Indirect Antioxidant Activity of Polyphenol- and Isothiocyanate-Enriched Fractions from Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Boyunegmez Tumer, Tugba; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]-isothiocyanate and 4-[(4′-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  3. Direct and indirect antioxidant activity of polyphenol- and isothiocyanate-enriched fractions from Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Tumer, Tugba Boyunegmez; Rojas-Silva, Patricio; Poulev, Alexander; Raskin, Ilya; Waterman, Carrie

    2015-02-11

    Moringa oleifera Lam. is a fast-growing, tropical tree with various edible parts used as nutritious food and traditional medicine. This study describes an efficient preparatory strategy to extract and fractionate moringa leaves by fast centrifugal partition chromatography (FCPC) to produce polyphenol and isothiocyanate (ITC) rich fractions. Characterization and further purification of these fractions showed that moringa polyphenols were potent direct antioxidants assayed by oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), whereas moringa ITCs were effective indirect antioxidants assayed by induction of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) activity in Hepa1c1c7 cells. In addition, purified 4-[(α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate and 4-[(4'-O-acetyl-α-l-rhamnosyloxy)benzyl]isothiocyanate were further evaluated for their ORAC and NQO1 inducer potency in comparison with sulforaphane (SF). Both ITCs were as potent as SF in inducing NQO1 activity. These findings suggest that moringa leaves contain a potent mixture of direct and indirect antioxidants that can explain its various health-promoting effects. PMID:25605589

  4. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts.

    PubMed

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D'Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-09-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. PMID:26378547

  5. Development and Application of a Novel SPE-Method for Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Marine Extracts

    PubMed Central

    Cutignano, Adele; Nuzzo, Genoveffa; Ianora, Adrianna; Luongo, Elvira; Romano, Giovanna; Gallo, Carmela; Sansone, Clementina; Aprea, Susanna; Mancini, Francesca; D’Oro, Ugo; Fontana, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    The biological diversity of marine habitats is a unique source of chemical compounds with potential use as pharmaceuticals, cosmetics and dietary supplements. However, biological screening and chemical analysis of marine extracts pose specific technical constraints and require adequate sample preparation. Here we report an improved method on Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) to fractionate organic extracts containing high concentration of salt that hampers the recovery of secondary metabolites. The procedure uses a water suspension to load the extracts on a poly(styrene-divynylbenzene)-based support and a stepwise organic solvent elution to effectively desalt and fractionate the organic components. The novel protocol has been tested on MeOH-soluble material from three model organisms (Reniera sarai, Dendrilla membranosa and Amphidinium carterae) and was validated on a small panel of 47 marine samples, including sponges and protists, within discovery programs for identification of immuno-stimulatory and anti-infective natural products. PMID:26378547

  6. Relationship between redox activity and chemical speciation of size-fractionated particulate matter

    PubMed Central

    Ntziachristos, Leonidas; Froines, John R; Cho, Arthur K; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2007-01-01

    Background Although the mechanisms of airborne particulate matter (PM) related health effects remain incompletely understood, one emerging hypothesis is that these adverse effects derive from oxidative stress, initiated by the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) within affected cells. Typically, ROS are formed in cells through the reduction of oxygen by biological reducing agents, with the catalytic assistance of electron transfer enzymes and redox active chemical species such as redox active organic chemicals and metals. The purpose of this study was to relate the electron transfer ability, or redox activity, of the PM samples to their content in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and various inorganic species. The redox activity of the samples has been shown to correlate with the induction of the stress protein, hemeoxygenase-1. Results Size-fractionated (i.e. < 0.15; < 2.5 and 2.5 – 10 μm in diameter) ambient PM samples were collected from four different locations in the period from June 2003 to July 2005, and were chemically analyzed for elemental and organic carbon, ions, elements and trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The redox activity of the samples was evaluated by means of the dithiothreitol activity assay and was related to their chemical speciation by means of correlation analysis. Our analysis indicated a higher redox activity on a per PM mass basis for ultrafine (< 0.15 μm) particles compared to those of larger sizes. The PM redox activity was highly correlated with the organic carbon (OC) content of PM as well as the mass fractions of species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and selected metals. Conclusion The results of this work demonstrate the utility of the dithiothreitol assay for quantitatively assessing the redox potential of airborne particulate matter from a wide range of sources. Studies to characterize the redox activity of PM from various sources throughout the Los Angeles basin are currently

  7. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  8. Anticancer and antioxidant activities of the peptide fraction from algae protein waste.

    PubMed

    Sheih, I-Chuan; Fang, Tony J; Wu, Tung-Kung; Lin, Peng-Hsiang

    2010-01-27

    Algae protein waste is a byproduct during production of algae essence from Chlorella vulgaris. There is no known report on the anticancer peptides derived from the microalgae protein waste. In this paper, the peptide fraction isolated from pepsin hydrolysate of algae protein waste had strong dose-dependent antiproliferation and induced a post-G1 cell cycle arrest in AGS cells; however, no cytotoxicity was observed in WI-38 lung fibroblasts cells in vitro. The peptide fraction also revealed much better antioxidant activity toward peroxyl radicals and LDL than those of Trolox. Among these peptides, a potent antiproliferative, antioxidant, and NO-production-inhibiting hendecapeptide was isolated, and its amino acid sequence was VECYGPNRPQF. These results demonstrate that inexpensive algae protein waste could be a new alternative to produce anticancer peptides. PMID:19916544

  9. ACE-I Inhibitory Activity from Phaseolus lunatus and Phaseolus vulgaris Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration.

    PubMed

    Betancur-Ancona, David; Dávila-Ortiz, Gloria; Chel-Guerrero, Luis Antonio; Torruco-Uco, Juan Gabriel

    2015-11-01

    The involvement of angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE-I) as one of the mechanisms controlling blood pressure is being studied to find alternative means of control of hypertension on human beings. On the market there are synthetic drugs that can control it, but these can cause undesirable health side effects. In this work was assessed the fractionation by ultrafiltration of the Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) and Jamapa bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), protein hydrolysates obtained with Alcalase(®) and Flavourzyme(®) on ACE-I inhibitory activity. Four membranes of different molecular cutoffs (10, 5, 3, and 1 kDa) were used. Fractions that had a higher inhibitory activity in both legumes were denominated as E (<1 kDa) with IC50 of 30.3 and 51.8 μg/mL values for the P. lunatus with Alcalase and Flavourzyme, respectively, and for the Phaseolus vulgaris with Alcalase and Flavourzyme with about 63.8 and 65.8 μg/mL values, respectively. The amino acid composition of these fractions showed residues in essential amino acids, which make a good source of energy and amino acids. On the other hand, the presence of hydrophobic amino acids such as V and P is a determining factor in the ACE-I inhibitor effect. The results suggest the possibility of obtaining and utilizing these peptide fractions in the development and innovation of a functional product that helps with treatment and/or prevention of hypertension. PMID:26061663

  10. Antinociceptive Activity of the Ethanolic Extract, Fractions, and Aggregatin D Isolated from Sinningia aggregata Tubers

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Geórgea V.; Bastos-Pereira, Amanda L.; Frois, Gisele R. A.; Ribas, João L. C.; Verdan, Maria H.; Kassuya, Cândida A. L.; Stefanello, Maria E.; Zampronio, Aleksander R.

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of the ethanolic extract (ESa), fractions, and compounds isolated from Sinningia aggregata in male Swiss mice on carrageenan-induced paw edema, neutrophil migration, mechanical hyperalgesia, formalin-induced nociception, and lipopolysaccharide-induced fever. The ESa did not alter edema, neutrophil migration, or fever at any of the doses tested. However, the ESa reduced phase II of formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. The petroleum ether (PE) and ethyl acetate (EA) fractions and aggregatin D (AgD; isolated from the EA fraction) reduced formalin-induced nociception. Anthraquinones from the PE fraction were ineffective. AgD also inhibited carrageenan-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. Neither the ESa nor AgD altered thermal nociception or motor performance. Local administration of AgD also reduced hyperalgesia induced by carrageenan, bradykinin, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant, prostaglandin E2, and dopamine but not hyperalgesia induced by forskolin or dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The positive control dipyrone reduced the response induced by all of the stimuli. Additionally, glibenclamide abolished the analgesic effect of dipyrone but not the one induced by AgD. AgD did not change lipopolysaccharide-induced nitric oxide production by macrophages or the nociception induced by capsaicin, cinnamaldehyde, acidified saline, or menthol. These results suggest that the ESa has important antinociceptive activity, and this activity results at least partially from the presence of AgD. AgD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia induced by several inflammatory mediators through mechanisms that are different from classic analgesic drugs. PMID:25719394

  11. Baroreflex Activation Therapy in Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Available Data and Future Perspective.

    PubMed

    Halbach, Marcel; Fritz, Thorsten; Madershahian, Navid; Pfister, Roman; Reuter, Hannes

    2016-04-01

    Progression of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) is promoted by sympathovagal imbalance. Baroreflex activation therapy, i.e., electrical stimulation of baroreceptors at the carotid sinus, can restore sympathovagal balance. Large animal studies of baroreflex activation therapy revealed improvements in cardiac function, susceptibility to ventricular arrhythmias, and a survival benefit as compared to untreated controls. Recently, the first randomized and controlled trial of optimal medical and device therapy alone or plus baroreflex activation therapy in patients suffering from HFrEF was published. It demonstrated a reasonable safety profile in this severely ill patient population. Moreover, the study found significant improvements in New York Heart Association class, quality of life, 6-min walk distance, and NT-proBNP levels. This review provides an overview on baroreflex activation therapy for the treatment of HFrEF-from the concept and preclinical findings to most recent clinical data and upcoming trials. PMID:26879389

  12. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    This guide is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. This book addresses such concerns of life science teachers as the environmental soundness of methods and…

  13. A Guide for Perceptual-Motor Training Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Euclid - Lyndhurst City Schools, Lyndhurst, OH.

    This document has been prepared as part of a kindergarten perceptual-training program of the South Euclid-Lyndhurst City School District near Cleveland, Ohio. The guide contains information on training and procedures related to perceptual-motor learning. This information is structured primarily into 150 lesson plans, devised as 30-minute sessions…

  14. Earth's Mysterious Atmosphere: Atlas 1 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Corp., Huntsville, AL.

    This atmospheric studies teacher's guide for use with middle school students blends lessons in chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences in an attempt to accomplish the following: to nurture students' natural curiosity and excitement about science, mathematics, and technology; to encourage career exploration in science,…

  15. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L., Ed.; Wargo, Michael J., Ed.

    A microgravity environment is one that will impart to an object a net acceleration that is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. In practice, such acceleration will range from about one percent of Earth's gravitational acceleration to better than one part in a million. this teacher's guide presents an introduction to…

  16. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  17. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  18. Immunostimulant activity of n-butanol fraction of root bark of Oroxylum indicum, vent.

    PubMed

    Zaveri, Maitreyi; Gohil, Priyanshee; Jain, Sunita

    2006-07-01

    In the present study, the immunomodulatory activity and the mechanism of action of the n-butanol fraction (100 mg/kg body weight, per os, once daily for 22 consecutive days) of the root bark of Oroxylum indicum, vent. (Bignoniaceae) was evaluated in rats using measures of immune responses to sheep red blood cells (SRBC haemagglutinating antibody [HA] titer) and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reactions. In response to SRBC, treatment with the n-butanol fraction caused a significant rise in circulating HA titers during secondary antibody responses, indicating a potentiation of certain aspects of the humoral response. The treatment also resulted in a significant rise in paw edema formation, indicating increased host DTH response. Additionally, the antioxidant potential of the drug was exhibited by significant reductions in whole blood malondialdehyde (MDA) content along with a rise in the activities/levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH). Furthermore, histopathologic analysis of lymphoid tissues showed an increase in cellularity, e.g., T-lymphocytes and sinusoids, in the treatment group. In contrast, dexamethasone treatment caused significant reduction in the HA titer, DTH responses, and antioxidant potential. In a triple antigen-mediated immunological edema model, the extent of edema raised in drug-treated rats was greater compared to that in control rats, thus confirming enhanced DTH reactions in response to the drug treatment. Based on the above findings, the reported immunomodulatory activity of an active fraction of O. indicum might be attributed to its ability to enhance specific immune responses (both humoral and cell-mediated) as well as its antioxidant potential. PMID:18958688

  19. Fractionation and Biological Activities of Water-Soluble Polysaccharides from Sclerotium of Tiger Milk Medicinal Mushroom, Lignosus rhinocerotis (Agaricomycetes).

    PubMed

    Keong, Choong Yew; B, Vimala; Daker, Maelinda; Hamzah, Mohd Yusof; Mohamad, Shaiful Azuar; Lan, Jin; Chen, Xiangdong; Yang, Yu-Ping

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, and the direct cytotoxic effect of Lignosus rhinocerotis fractions, especially the polysaccharide fraction, on nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells. L. rhinocerotis crude extract was obtained through hot water extraction. The precipitate saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate was purified with ion-exchanged chromatography. Gel permeation chromatography multiangle laser light scattering analysis equipped with light scattering and UV signals revealed two district groups of polymers. A total of four peaks were observed in the total carbohydrate test. Fraction C, which was the second region of the second peak eluted with 0.3 M NaOH, showed the highest integrated molecular weight, whereas fraction E had the lowest integrated molecular weight of 19,790 Da. Fraction A contained the highest β-D-glucan content. Enzymatic analysis showed that most of the polysaccharide fractions contained β-1-3 and β-1-6 skeletal backbones. The peak eluted with 0.6 M NaOH was separated in fraction D (flask 89-92) and fraction E (93-96). The results showed that fraction E expressed higher antioxidant activities than fraction D whereas fraction D expressed higher chelating activity than fraction E. The extract saturated with 30% ammonium sulfate exhibited higher reducing power than the extract saturated with 100% ammonium sulfate. Fractions D and E significantly inhibited the secretion of tumor necrosis factor-α in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. There was no apparent difference in the viability of cells exposed or unexposed to L. rhinocerotis fractions. PMID:27279536

  20. Pharmacodynamic studies on the isolated active fraction of Acacia farnesiana (L.) willd

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Bino; Kayarohanam, Saminathan; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acacia farnesiana is a medicinal plant that grows throughout tropical parts of Indian subcontinent, particularly in sandy soils of river beds in Northern India. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anti-hyperglycemic activity of the extracts using glucose tolerance test. Isolation of an active fraction (AF) from the active extract (water extract) using alcohol precipitation and to get insight to the mechanism of action of the AF of A. farnesiana. Materials and Methods: Glucose uptake by isolated rat diaphragm of the AF was performed. Further the effect of release of Insulin from isolated and cultured pancreatic β-cell was determined. Besides, effect of oral administration of the AF was compared with that of intraperitonial administration. The effect of AF on serum glucose levels in orally glucose loaded rats was compared with that of intraperitoneal glucose loaded rats. Results: The water extract significantly lowered the blood glucose level. When precipitated with alcohol, the activity was found in the soluble fraction. Glucose uptake in the isolated rat hemidiaphragm, was increased by the AF at 40 μg/ml concentration, the AF did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. The AF was found to be effective in orally glucose loaded in contrast to intraperitonial route. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that this plant is promising for further studies leading to the development of valuable medicine for diabetes. PMID:24991104

  1. Chemical composition and in vitro antitrypanosomal activity of fractions of essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus L.

    PubMed

    Muhd Haffiz, J; Norhayati, I; Getha, K; Nor Azah, M A; Mohd Ilham, A; Lili Sahira, H; Roshan Jahn, M S; Muhd Syamil, A

    2013-03-01

    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis. PMID:23665703

  2. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities of sub fraction 18 of Melastoma malabathricum towards Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohazila M., H.; Nazlina, I.; Yaacob W., A.

    2014-09-01

    A study was carried out to isolate and identify the active compounds from Melastoma malabathricum stem bark that exhibit anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities against Streptococcus mutans. Purification of the active compounds from the stem bark extract was performed via silica gel chromatography to produce 12 fractions. Further fractionation of fraction 9 by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) produced 21 sub fractions. All the sub fractions were subjected to thin layer chromatography (TLC) bioautography as preliminary screening to determine anti bacterial activity. TLC-bioautography showed that sub fraction 18 (SF18) demonstrated large inhibited zone against S. mutans. Gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GCMS) was used to identify the active compounds in SF18. Fraction SF18 revealed 27 compounds such as hexanoic acid, 8-methyl-1-undecene, propanenitrile, and 1-decene. Anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were determined using crystal violet and glass surface assays respectively. The concentrations that produced 50% reduction in anti-biofilm and anti-adherence activities were 1.88 mg/ml and 3.75 mg/ml respectively.

  3. Liposomal Formulation of Turmerone-Rich Hexane Fractions from Curcuma longa Enhances Their Antileishmanial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Gomes, Luciana A.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de A.; Ferreira, José Luiz P.; Ramos, Aline de S.; Rosa, Maria do Socorro S.; Vermelho, Alane B.; Rodrigues, Igor A.

    2014-01-01

    Promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were treated with different concentrations of two fractions of Curcuma longa cortex rich in turmerones and their respective liposomal formulations in order to evaluate growth inhibition and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). In addition, cellular alterations of treated promastigotes were investigated under transmission and scanning electron microscopies. LipoRHIC and LipoRHIWC presented lower MIC, 5.5 and 12.5 μg/mL, when compared to nonencapsulated fractions (125 and 250 μg/mL), respectively, and to ar-turmerone (50 μg/mL). Parasite growth inhibition was demonstrated to be dose-dependent. Important morphological changes as rounded body and presence of several roles on plasmatic membrane could be seen on L. amazonensis promastigotes after treatment with subinhibitory concentration (2.75 μg/mL) of the most active LipoRHIC. In that sense, the hexane fraction from the turmeric cortex of Curcuma longa incorporated in liposomal formulation (LipoRHIC) could represent good strategy for the development of new antileishmanial agent. PMID:25045693

  4. Analgesic and antiinflammatory activities of the ethyl acetate fraction of Bidens pilosa (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Fotso, Aurélien Fotso; Longo, Frida; Djomeni, Paul Désiré Dzeufiet; Kouam, Siméon Fogue; Spiteller, Michael; Dongmo, Alain Bertrand; Savineau, J P

    2014-04-01

    Bidens pilosa is an Asteraceae widely used in traditional medicine for the treatment of various ailments including pain and inflammation. The present work was undertaken to assess the analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) extract of leaves of Bidens pilosa at the gradual doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg in mice and rats, respectively. The analgesic properties of Bidens pilosa were investigated using the acetic acid writhing, hot plate, capsaicin and formalin-induced pain models. This was followed by a study of the antiinflammatory properties using carrageenan, dextran, histamine and serotonin to induce acute inflammation in rat hind paw. The extract provided a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in pain induced by all four models of nociception. It also presented significant (p < 0.05) antiinflammatory activity in all four models of acute inflammation. These results show that the ethyl acetate fraction of methylene chloride/methanol (1:1) of Bidens pilosa has both analgesic and antiinflammatory properties. The qualitative analysis of the fraction by the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint revealed the presence of two flavonoids, namely quercetin and iso-okanin, known to have antiinflammatory and antinociceptive properties, which could be responsible for the analgesic and antiinflammatory effects observed. PMID:24242914

  5. Investigating organic molecules responsible of auxin-like activity of humic acid fraction extracted from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Scaglia, Barbara; Nunes, Ramom Rachide; Rezende, Maria Olímpia Oliveira; Tambone, Fulvia; Adani, Fabrizio

    2016-08-15

    This work studied the auxin-like activity of humic acids (HA) obtained from vermicomposts produced using leather wastes plus cattle dung at different maturation stages (fresh, stable and mature). Bioassays were performed by testing HA concentrations in the range of 100-6000mgcarbonL(-1). (13)C CPMAS-NMR and GC-MS instrumental methods were used to assess the effect of biological processes and starting organic mixtures on HA composition. Not all HAs showed IAA-like activity and in general, IAA-like activity increased with the length of the vermicomposting process. The presence of leather wastes was not necessary to produce the auxin-like activity of HA, since HA extracted from a mix of cattle manure and sawdust, where no leather waste was added, showed IAA-like activity as well. CPMAS (13)CNMR revealed that HAs were similar independently of the mix used and that the humification process involved the increasing concentration of pre-existing alkali soluble fractions in the biomass. GC/MS allowed the identification of the molecules involved in IAA-like effects: carboxylic acids and amino acids. The concentration of active molecules, rather than their simple presence in HA, determined the bio-stimulating effect, and a good linear regression between auxin-like activity and active stimulating molecules concentration was found (R(2)=-0.85; p<0.01, n=6). PMID:27100009

  6. Antinociceptive Activity of the Chloroform Fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (Fabaceae) in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mota, Vanine Gomes; de Carvalho, Fabíola Lélis; de Morais, Liana Clébia Soares Lima; Bhattacharyya, Jnanabrata; de Almeida, Reinaldo Nóbrega; de Alencar, Jacicarlos Lima

    2011-01-01

    Acute treatment with the chloroform fraction of Dioclea virgata (Rich.) Amshoff (CFDv) in mice produced decreased ambulation and sedation in the behavioral pharmacological screening. Doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg CFDv decreased latency of sleep onset in the test of sleeping time potentiation. In the open field, animals treated with CFDv reduced ambulation and rearing (250 mg/kg), as well as defecation (125; 250 mg/kg). Regarding the antinociceptive activity, CFDv (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) increased latency to first writhing and decreased the number of writhings induced by acetic acid. In the formalin test, CFDv (250 mg/kg) decreased paw licking time in the first and second phases indicating antinociceptive activity that can be mediated both peripherally and at the central level. CFDv did not affect motor coordination until 120 minutes after treatment. CFDv shows psychopharmacological effects suggestive of CNS-depressant drugs with promising antinociceptive activity. PMID:21776190

  7. Guarana powder polysaccharides: characterisation and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of a pectic fraction.

    PubMed

    Dalonso, Nicole; Petkowicz, Carmen Lúcia de Oliveira

    2012-10-15

    Guarana is a fruit from the Amazon whose seeds are used to produce guarana powder. Guarana powder is consumed by the population mainly for its stimulant activity. It has been shown that guarana seeds contain low-molar-mass compounds; however, no data have been reported concerning the polysaccharides. In this work, the polysaccharides present in guarana powder were investigated. A pectic fraction and a xylan were isolated and characterised. Antioxidant activity tests were performed with a methanolic extract and the pectic fraction at concentrations of 0.1-10 mg/ml. The methanolic extract exhibited a strong capacity for scavenging DPPH radicals (90.9% at 10 mg/ml). At the same concentration, the polysaccharide showed a DPPH(·)-scavenging activity of 68.4%. At a higher concentration, the methanolic extract and the polysaccharide exhibited similar hydroxyl radical-scavenging effects (~70%). The results suggest that the polysaccharides present in guarana can contribute to the possible biological effects of guarana powder. PMID:23442624

  8. Fractionation, physicochemical property and immunological activity of polysaccharides from Cassia obtusifolia.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Yin, Junyi; Nie, Shaoping; Wan, Yiqun; Xie, Mingyong

    2016-10-01

    The seeds of Cassia obtusifolia are widely used as a drink in Asia and an additive in food industry. Considerable amounts of water-soluble polysaccharides were found in the whole seeds, while conflicting results on structure characteristics have been reported, and few studies have been reported on physicochemical properties and immunomodulatory activities. In the present study, gradient ethanol precipitation was applied to fractionate the water-soluble polysaccharide (CP), and two sub-fractions CP-30 (30% ethanol precipitate) and CP-40 (40% ethanol precipitate) were obtained. Different rheological properties for CP-30 and CP-40 were found, indicating the differences in structure characteristics between CP-30 and CP-40. Chemical properties, including molecular weight, monosaccharide composition, and glycosidic linkage were investigated. Compared with CP-30, CP-40 had lower molecular weight and higher content of xylose. The immunomodulatory effects of CP, CP-30 and CP-40 were assessed. All of them were found to possess significant immunomodulation activities, while varied effects of them on macrophage functions were observed. The aim of the present study was to develop a simple and efficient method to purify cassia polysaccharides, and investigate their physicochemical properties and biological activities, which was meaningful for their potential use in food industry and folk medicine. PMID:27177462

  9. Comparative study of antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of Momordica charantia flesh and pulp fractions.

    PubMed

    Ghous, Tahseen; Aziz, Nouman; Mehmood, Zahid; Andleeb, Saiqa

    2015-07-01

    Momordica charantia is commonly used as a vegetable and folk medicine in most parts of South Asia. This study aims to determine and compare the antioxidant, metal chelating and antiglycation activities of aqueous extracts of M. charantia fruit flesh (MCF) and fruit pulp (MCP) fractions. Our results show that MCP has pronounced DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging potential compared to MCF. In the antiglycation assay both fractions illustrated considerable inhibitory activities against the formation of AGEs induced by glucose with an efficacy of 75 and 67% with 150 μl of MCP and MCF extracts respectively, almost equal to 0.3mM amino guanidine. Results for metal catalysed protein fragmentation and autoxidative and glycoxidation assays demonstrate that MCF and MCP inhibited metal catalysed protein fragmentation. The percentage of relative standard deviation for three replicate measurements of 150 μl of MCF and MCP was < 3.0% for antiglycation. The antioxidant assays with regression values of MCP (0.981 and 0.991) and MCF (0.967 and 0.999) were also recorded. We conclude that both extracts possess high antioxidant and antiglycation activities and are equally good sources of antioxidant and antiglycating agents. PMID:26142512

  10. Antibacterial activities of the extracts, fractions and compounds from Dioscorea bulbifera

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dioscorea bulbifera is an African medicinal plant used to treat microbial infections. In the present study, the methanol extract, fractions (DBB1 and DBB2) and six compounds isolated from the bulbils of D. bulbifera, namely bafoudiosbulbins A (1), B (2), C (3), F (4), G (5) and 2,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyphenanthrene (6), were tested for their antimicrobial activities against Mycobacteria and Gram-negative bacteria involving multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes expressing active efflux pumps. Methods The microplate alamar blue assay (MABA) and the broth microdilution methods were used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the above samples. Results The results of the MIC determinations indicated that when tested alone, the crude extract, fractions DBB1 and DBB2 as well as compounds 2 to 5 were able to prevent the growth of all the fifteen studied microorganisms, within the concentration range of 8 to 256 μg/mL. The lowest MIC value for the methanol extract and fractions (16 μg/mL) was obtained with DBB1 and DBB2 on E, coli AG100A and DBB2 on Mycobacterium tuberculosis MTCS2. The lowest value for individual compounds (8 μg/mL) was recorded with compound 3 on M. smegmatis and M. tuberculosis ATCC and MTCS2 strains respectively. The activity of the samples on many MDR bacteria such as Enterobacter aerogenes EA289, CM64, Klebsiella pneumoniae KP63 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA124 was better than that of chloramphenicol. When tested in the presence of the efflux pump inhibitor against MDR Gram-negative bacteria, the activity of most of the samples increased. MBC values not greater than 512 μg/mL were recorded on all studied microorganisms with fraction DBB2 and compounds 2 to 5. Conclusions The overall results of the present investigation provided evidence that the crude extract D. bulbifera as well as some of the compounds and mostly compounds 3 could be considered as potential antimicrobial

  11. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  12. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy. PMID:25635250

  13. Efficacy and safety of image-guided interstitial single fraction high-dose-rate brachytherapy in the management of metastatic malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Bretschneider, Tina; Mohnike, Konrad; Hass, Peter; Seidensticker, Ricarda; Göppner, Daniela; Dudeck, Oliver; Streitparth, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) guided brachytherapy provides high tumor control rates in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal liver metastases. In contrast to thermal ablation methods such as radiofrequency ablation (RFA), much less restrictions apply with respect to tumor location or size. In this study, we determined the efficacy and safety of CT- or MRI-guided brachytherapy in metastatic melanoma. Material and methods Fifty-two metastases of malignant melanoma in 14 patients were included in this retrospective study. Local tumor control and safety were evaluated as primary and secondary endpoints. Furthermore, we evaluated overall survival and progression free survival. Tumor locations were liver (n = 31), lung (n = 15), adrenal (n = 3), lymph nodes (n = 2), and kidney (n = 1). Treatment planning was performed using three-dimensional CT or MRI data acquired after percutaneous applicator positioning under CT or open MRI guidance. Subsequently, single fraction high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy was applied using a 192Iridium source. Clinical and cross-sectional follow-up were performed every 3 months post intervention. Results The median diameter of treated lesions was 1.5 cm (range: 0.7-10 cm). Doses between 15 and 20 Gy were applied (median dose: 19.9 Gy). The mean irradiation time ranged between 7-45 minutes. After treatment, there was one patient with a cholangitis. After a median follow up of five months, the median local tumor control was 90%. The median overall survival of the patients was 8 months. The median progression free survival of the patients was 6 months. Conclusions Image-guided HDR brachytherapy is a safe and effective treatment procedure in metastatic malignant melanoma. PMID:26034497

  14. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  15. Agriculture--Floriculture. Kit No. 104. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Tommy

    Designed for use in a secondary agricultural education class, this activity kit on floriculture consists of an instructor's manual and a student learning guide. The instructor's manual contains this information: duration, goals, a list of instructional objectives, the vocational clusters to which this activity is related, activity implementation…

  16. Antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract, fractions and compounds from Ficus polita Vahl. (Moraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many plants of the family Moraceae are used in the treatment of infectious diseases. Ficus polita Vahl., an edible plant belonging to this family is used traditionally in case of dyspepsia, infectious diseases, abdominal pains and diarrhea. The present work was designed to assess the antimicrobial activity of the methanol extract from the roots of F. polita (FPR), as well as that of its fractions (FPR1-5) and two of the eight isolated compounds, namely euphol-3-O-cinnamate (1) and (E)-3,5,4'-trihydroxy-stilbene-3,5-O-β-D-diglucopyranoside (8). Methods The liquid microdilution assay was used in the determination of the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and the minimal microbicidal concentration (MMC), against seven bacterial and one fungal species. Results The results of the MIC determination showed that the crude extract, fractions FPR1, FPR2 and compound 8 were able to prevent the growth of the eight tested microorganisms. Other samples showed selective activity. The lowest MIC value of 64 μg/ml for the crude extract was recorded on 50% of the studied microbial species. The corresponding value for fractions of 32 μg/ml was obtained on Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans ATCC strains. The MIC values recorded with compound 8 on the resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01 strain was equal to that of chloramphenicol used as reference antibiotic. Conclusion The obtained results highlighted the interesting antimicrobial potency of F. polita as well as that of compound 8, and provided scientific basis for the traditional use of this taxon in the treatment of microbial infections. PMID:21269424

  17. Anti-inflammatory activity of AP-SF, a ginsenoside-enriched fraction, from Korean ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kwang-Soo; Hong, Yong Deog; Kim, Yong; Sung, Nak Yoon; Yang, Sungjae; Lee, Kyoung Min; Park, Joo Yong; Park, Jun Seong; Rho, Ho Sik; Shin, Song Seok; Cho, Jae Youl

    2014-01-01

    Background Korean ginseng is an ethnopharmacologically valuable herbal plant with various biological properties including anticancer, antiatherosclerosis, antidiabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities. Since there is currently no drug or therapeutic remedy derived from Korean ginseng, we developed a ginsenoside-enriched fraction (AP-SF) for prevention of various inflammatory symptoms. Methods The anti-inflammatory efficacy of AP-SF was tested under in vitro inflammatory conditions including nitric oxide (NO) production and inflammatory gene expression. The molecular events of inflammatory responses were explored by immunoblot analysis. Results AP-SF led to a significant suppression of NO production compared with a conventional Korean ginseng saponin fraction, induced by both lipopolysaccharide and zymosan A. Interestingly, AP-SF strongly downregulated the mRNA levels of genes for inducible NO synthase, tumor necrosis factor-α, and cyclooxygenase) without affecting cell viability. In agreement with these observations, AP-SF blocked the nuclear translocation of c-Jun at 2 h and also reduced phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and TAK-1, all of which are important for c-Jun translocation. Conclusion Our results suggest that AP-SF inhibits activation of c-Jun-dependent inflammatory events. Thus, AP-SF may be useful as a novel anti-inflammatory remedy. PMID:26045689

  18. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant Activities of Three Polysaccharide Fractions from Pine Cones

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Ren-Bo; Yang, Xin; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Hai-Tian; Lu, Wei-Hong; Cui, Jie; Cheng, Cui-Lin; Zou, Pan; Huang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Pu; Li, Wen-Jing; Hu, Xing-Long

    2012-01-01

    The traditional method of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for monosaccharide component analysis with pretreatment of acetylation is described with slight modifications and verified in detail in this paper. It was then successfully applied to the quantitative analysis of component monosaccharides in polysaccharides extracted from the pine cones. The results demonstrated that the three pine cone polysaccharides all consisted of ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios. According to the recovery experiment, the described method was proved accurate and practical for the analysis of pine cone polysaccharides, meeting the need in the field of chemical analysis of Pinus plants. Furthermore; the chemical characteristics, such as neutral sugar, uronic acids, amino acids, molecular weights, and antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides were investigated by chemical and instrumental methods. The results showed that the chemical compositions of the polysaccharides differed from each other, especially in the content of neutral sugar and uronic acid. In the antioxidant assays, the polysaccharide fractions exhibited effective scavenging activities on ABTS radical and hydroxyl radical, with their antioxidant capabilities decreasing in the order of PKP > PAP > PSP. Therefore, although the polysaccharide fractions had little effect on superoxide radical scavenging, they still have potential to be developed as natural antioxidant agents in functional foods or medicine. PMID:23203063

  19. Use of narrow-band spectra to estimate the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1990-01-01

    A novel approach is proposed for using high-spectral resolution imagers to estimate the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation adsorbed, f(apar), by vegetated land surfaces. In comparison to approaches using broad-band vegetation indices, the proposed method appears to be relatively insensitive to the reflectance of nonphotosynthetically active material beneath the canopy, such as leaf litter or soil. The method is based on a relationship between the second derivative of the reflectance vs wavelength function for terrestrial vegetation and f(apar). The relationship can be defined by the second derivatives in either of two windows, one in the visible region centered at 0.69 micron, another in the near-infrared region centered at 0.74 micron.

  20. Fractional vesamicol receptor occupancy and acetylcholine active transport inhibition in synaptic vesicles.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, R; Rogers, G A; Fehlmann, C; Parsons, S M

    1989-09-01

    Vesamicol [(-)-(trans)-2-(4-phenylpiperidino)cyclohexanol] receptor binding and inhibition of acetylcholine (AcCh) active transport by cholinergic synaptic vesicles that were isolated from Torpedo electric organ were studied for 23 vesamicol enantiomers, analogues, and other drugs. Use of trace [3H]vesamicol and [14C]AcCh allowed simultaneous determination of the concentrations of enantiomer, analogue, or drug required to half-saturate the vesamicol receptor (Ki) and to half-inhibit transport (IC50), respectively. Throughout a wide range of potencies for different compounds, the Ki/IC50 ratios varied from 1.5 to 24. Compounds representative of the diverse structures studied, namely deoxyvesamicol, chloroquine, and levorphanol, were competitive inhibitors of vesamicol binding. It is concluded that many drugs can bind to the vesamicol receptor and binding to only a small fraction of the receptors can result in AcCh active transport inhibition. Possible mechanisms for this effect are discussed. PMID:2550778

  1. TU-F-BRF-09: Feasibility Study of Spatial and Temporal Fractionation Using a Table-Top Image-Guided MRT System

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, L; Inscoe, C; Yuan, H; Burk, L; Ger, R; Chtcheprov, P; Lu, J; Chang, S; Zhou, O

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Microbeam radiation therapy is a promising experimental radiotherapy method for cancer treatment. Synchrotron studies have shown that MRT can preferentially ablate tumors while mostly preserving the surrounding normal tissues. Our purpose is to develop a compact microbeam irradiator that can be accessible for laboratory research on MRT's therapeutic mechanism, with the ultimate goal of translating this technique for clinical applications. Utilizing a carbon nanotube field emission X-ray source array, our lab has developed a first of its kind table-top microbeam irradiator. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of increasing the total dose to the tumor region using spatial and temporal fractionation. Methods: MRI and CT scans were acquired and registered to locate both the target region and the landmark in the treatment coordinate space. A crossbeam treatment configuration was planned to achieve the desired dosage and tumor coverage. One array of 300 μm-thick microbeams was delivered to the target on the first day. Another array, perpendicular to the first one, was delivered the next day targeting the same region. The feasibility of this image-guided MRT procedure was evaluated using a phantom. Gafchromic EBT2 film was employed to characterize the targeting accuracy and the delivered tumor dose. Results: The preliminary phantom study showed that a cross-pattern of microbeam arrays was successfully delivered with sub-millimeter targeting accuracy. The delivered dose in the target region was doubled. The fraction of tumor volume that received the peak dose was increased. Conclusion: Temporal fractionation of crosspatterned microbeams can be delivered to the same target region. The feasibility of this procedure was investigated with a phantom study. Once implemented, this procedure has the potential of increasing the tumor control effect of MRT and of achieving better normal tissue recovery.

  2. Triterpenoids and Polysaccharide Fractions of Ganoderma tsugae Exert Different Effects on Antiallergic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Miaw-Ling; Hsieh, Chia-Chien; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2015-01-01

    This study was to investigate antiallergic effects of triterpenoids (Gt-TRE) and polysaccharide (Gt-PS) extracts from Ganoderma tsugae, using mast cell line RBL-2H3, T cell line EL4, primary T cells, and transfected RAW264.7 macrophage cells. The results showed that histamine secreted from activated RBL-2H3 mast cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Interleukin- (IL-) 4 secreted from activated EL4 cells was significantly suppressed by Gt-TRE but not Gt-PS. Further primary CD4+ T cells cultures also confirmed that Gt-TRE (5 ~ 50 µg/mL) significantly suppressed Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5 secretions but had no effect on Th1 cytokines IL-2 and interferon (IFN)-γ. Gt-PS did not affect IL-4 and IL-5 secretions until higher doses (400, 500 µg/mL) and significantly suppressed IFNγ secretions but enhanced IL-2 at these high doses. The reporter gene assay indicated that Gt-TRE inhibited but Gt-PS enhanced the transcriptional activity of NF-κB in activated transfected RAW264.7 cells and transfected EL4 cells. IL-4 secreted by this transfected EL-4 cells was also significantly decreased by Gt-TRE but not by Gt-PS, suggesting that these two fractions may exert different effects on NF-κB related cytokines expression. These data suggested that triterpenoids fraction of Ganoderma tsugae might be the main constituents to alleviate allergic asthma. PMID:25960757

  3. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  4. Antiproliferative and Apoptosis-Inducing Activities of 4-Isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol Isolated from Butanol Fraction of Cordyceps bassiana

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Hye; Sung, Gi-Ho; Kim, Han Gyung; Park, Jae Gwang; Baek, Kwang-Soo; Yoon, Deok Hyo; Lee, Sang Yeol; Kang, Hyojeung; Song, Changsik; Cho, Jae Han; Lee, Kang-Hyo; Kim, Tae Woong

    2015-01-01

    The Cordyceps species have been widely used for treating various cancer diseases. Although the Cordyceps species have been widely known as an alternative anticancer remedy, which compounds are responsible for their anticancer activity is not fully understood. In this study, therefore, we examined the anticancer activity of 5 isolated compounds derived from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. For this purpose, several cancer cell lines such as C6 glioma, MDA-MB-231, and A549 cells were employed and details of anticancer mechanism were further investigated. Of 5 compounds isolated by activity-guided fractionation from BF of Cb-EE, KTH-13, and 4-isopropyl-2,6-bis(1-phenylethyl)phenol, Cb-BF was found to be the most potent antiproliferative inhibitor of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cell growth. KTH-13 treatment increased DNA laddering, upregulated the level of Annexin V positive cells, and altered morphological changes of C6 glioma and MDA-MB-231 cells. In addition, KTH-13 increased the levels of caspase 3, caspase 7, and caspase 9 cleaved forms as well as the protein level of Bax but not Bcl-2. It was also found that the phosphorylation of AKT and p85/PI3K was also clearly reduced by KTH-13 exposure. Therefore, our results suggest KTH-13 can act as a potent antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing component from Cordyceps bassiana, contributing to the anticancer activity of this mushroom. PMID:25918546

  5. Activity-Guided Isolation of Bioactive Constituents with Antinociceptive Activity from Muntingia calabura L. Leaves Using the Formalin Test

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad Yusof, Mohd. Izwan; Salleh, Mohd. Zaki; Lay Kek, Teh; Ahmat, Norizan; Nik Azmin, Nik Fatini

    2013-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of Muntingia calabura L. (MEMC) and to isolate and identify the bioactive compound(s) responsible for the observed antinociceptive activity. The MEMC and its partitions (petroleum ether (PEP), ethyl acetate (EAP), and aqueous (AQP) partitions), in the dose range of 100, 500, and 1000 mg/kg, were tested using the formalin-induced nociceptive test. The PEP, which exerted the most effective activity in the respective early and late phase, was further subjected to the fractionation procedures and yielded seven fractions (labelled A to G). These fractions were tested, at the dose of 300 mg/kg, together with distilled water or 10% DMSO (negative controls); morphine and aspirin (positive controls) for potential antinociceptive activity. Of all fractions, Fraction D showed the most significant antinociceptive activity, which is considered as equieffective to morphine or aspirin in the early or late phase, respectively. Further isolation and identification processes on fraction D led to the identification of three known and one new compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-3,7,8-trimethoxyflavone (1), 3,7-dimethoxy-5-hydroyflavone (2), 2′,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxychalcone (3), and calaburone (4). At the dose of 50 mg/kg, compound 3 exhibited the highest percentage of antinociceptive activity in both phases of the formalin test. In conclusion, the antinociceptive activity of MEMC involved, partly, the synergistic activation of the flavonoid types of compounds. PMID:24348716

  6. Prolactin kinase activity in bovine anterior pituitary sub-cellular fractions.

    PubMed

    Wicks, J R; Brooks, C L

    1999-01-25

    Bovine anterior pituitary cells phosphorylate prolactin (PRL). We describe the phosphorylation of endogenous and exogenous bPRL in highly enriched subcellular fractions of bovine anterior pituitary using [gamma-32P]-ATP. 32P-labeling of endogenous and exogenous bPRL occurred in all subcellular membrane fractions, but most significantly in the fraction enriched for secretory granules. Zn2+ (0.8 mM), Cu2+ (0.8 mM), and Mn2+ (9.8 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation by 268, 214, and 154%, respectively, relative to basal phosphorylation with no added cations. Neither Mg2+ (10 mM) nor Ca2+ (0.9 mM) increased bPRL phosphorylation above basal levels. Phosphorylation was dependent on the concentration of Zn2+ with an apparent Km of 570 microM. bPRL phosphorylation occurred over a wide pH range of 5.9-8.3, with the greatest activity at pH of 6.7 or greater. Phosphorylation of bPRL was time-dependent. The apparent Kms of the bPRL kinase for exogenous bPRL and ATP were 15.3 and 267 microM, respectively. bPRL incorporation of 32P was unaffected by the presence of calcium and calmodulin, cAMP, phosphotidylserine and diolein, or spermine. From these results we conclude that in vitro phosphorylation of bPRL occurs under physiological conditions that would be found in pituitary cells. PMID:10195699

  7. Phytotoxic Activity and Chemical Composition of Aqueous Volatile Fractions from Eucalyptus Species

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  8. Phytotoxic activity and chemical composition of aqueous volatile fractions from Eucalyptus species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinbiao; An, Min; Wu, Hanwen; Liu, De Li; Stanton, Rex

    2014-01-01

    The essential oils from four Eucalyptus species (E. spathulata, E. salubris, E. brockwayii and E. dundasii) have been previously confirmed to have stronger inhibitory effects on germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade (Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav.). The aqueous volatile fractions (AVFs) were the water soluble volatile fractions produced together with the essential oils (water insoluble fractions) during the steam distillation process. The aim of this study was to further assess the phytotoxicity of AVFs from the four Eucalyptus species and their chemical composition. The fresh leaves of the four Eucalyptus species were used for the extraction of AVFs. The AVFs were tested for their phytotoxic effects on the perennial weed, silverleaf nightshade under laboratory conditions. The chemical compositions of the AVFs were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Our results showed that the AVFs had strong inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade. The inhibition index increased with the increasing concentrations of AVFs. The inhibitory effects of the AVFs varied between different Eucalyptus species. The AVF from E. salubris demonstrated the highest inhibitory activity on the weed tested, with complete inhibition on germination and seedling growth at a concentration of 75%. The GC-MS analysis revealed that 1,8-cineole, isopentyl isovalerate, isomenthol, pinocarvone, trans-pinocarveol, alpha-terpineol and globulol were the main compounds in the AVFs. These results indicated that all AVFs tested had differential inhibition on the germination and seedling growth of silverleaf nightshade, which could be due to the joint effects of compounds present in the AVFs as these compounds were present in different quantities and ratio between Eucalyptus species. PMID:24681490

  9. Characterization and Cytotoxicity Studies of the Rare 21:4 n-7 Acid and Other Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids from the Marine Opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius, Isolated Using Bioassay Guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Vasskog, Terje; Andersen, Jeanette H.; Hansen, Espen; Svenson, Johan

    2012-01-01

    The marine opisthobranch Scaphander lignarius has been analyzed in the systematic search for novel bioactive compounds in Arctic marine organisms using bioassay guided fractionation. A number of highly cytotoxic fractions were shown to contain mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Selected PUFAs were isolated and identified using both liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). It was shown that the opisthobranch contained unusual PUFAs such as several ω3 fatty acids and the ω7 heneicosa-5,8,11,14-tetraenoic acid (21:4 n-7) not isolated before. The organism was shown to be a very rich source of PUFAs and the activity of the isolated compounds against a range of human cancer cell lines (melanoma, colon carcinoma and breast carcinoma) is further reported. The ω7 PUFA was significantly more cytotoxic in comparison with reference ω6 arachidonic and ω3 eicosapentaenoic acid. A noteworthy non-selective cytotoxicity against normal lung fibroblasts was also established. The paper contains isolation protocols in addition to cytotoxicity data of the isolated compounds. The potential of marine mollusks as a source for rare PUFAs is also discussed. PMID:23342390

  10. Structure Guided Optimization, in Vitro Activity, and in Vivo Activity of Pan-PIM Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Han, Wooseok; Lan, Jiong; Nishiguchi, Gisele; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Lindval, Mika; Atallah, Gordana; Ding, Yu; Mathur, Michelle; McBride, Chris; Beans, Elizabeth L; Muller, Kristine; Tamez, Victoriano; Zhang, Yanchen; Huh, Kay; Feucht, Paul; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Holash, Jocelyn; Castillo, Joseph; Langowski, John; Wang, Yingyun; Chen, Min Y; Garcia, Pablo D

    2013-12-12

    Proviral insertion of Moloney virus (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinases are serine/threonine kinases that normally function in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. As high expression of PIM1, 2, and 3 is frequently observed in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and myeloid leukemias, there is interest in determining whether selective PIM inhibition can improve outcomes of these human cancers. Herein, we describe our efforts toward this goal. The structure guided optimization of a singleton high throughput screening hit in which the potency against all three PIM isoforms was increased >10,000-fold to yield compounds with pan PIM K is < 10 pM, nanomolar cellular potency, and in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia Pim-dependent tumor model is described. PMID:24900629

  11. Fractionation of protein hydrolysates of fish and chicken using membrane ultrafiltration: investigation of antioxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Centenaro, Graciela Salete; Salas-Mellado, Myriam; Pires, Carla; Batista, Irineu; Nunes, Maria L; Prentice, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    In this work, chicken and fish peptides were obtained using the proteolytic enzymes α-Chymotrypsin and Flavourzyme. The muscle was hydrolyzed for 4 h, and the resulting peptides were evaluated. Hydrolysates were produced from Argentine croaker (Umbrina canosai) with a degree of hydrolysis (DH) of 25.9 and 27.6% and from chicken (Gallus domesticus) with DH of 17.8 and 20.6% for Flavourzyme and α-Chymotrypsin, respectively. Membrane ultrafiltration was used to separate fish and chicken hydrolysates from Flavourzyme and α-Chymotrypsin based on molecular weight cutoff of >1,000, <1,000 and >500, and <500 Da, to produce fractions (F1,000, F1,000-500, and F500) with antioxidant activity. Fish hydrolysates produced with Flavourzyme (FHF) and α-Chymotrypsin showed 60.8 and 50.9% of peptides with a molecular weight of <3 kDa in its composition, respectively. To chicken hydrolysates produced with Flavourzyme and α-Chymotrypsin (CHC) was observed 83 and 92.4% of peptides with a molecular weight of <3 kDa. The fraction that showed, in general, higher antioxidant potential was F1,000 from FHF. When added 40 mg/mL of FHF and CHC, 93 and 80% of lipid oxidation in ground beef homogenates was inhibited, respectively. The composition of amino acids indicated higher amino acids hydrophobic content and amino acids containing sulfuric residues for FHF, which showed antioxidant potential. PMID:24449375

  12. Isolation and prebiotic activity of water-soluble polysaccharides fractions from the bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox).

    PubMed

    He, Shudong; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hanju; Wang, Junhui; Cao, Xiaodong; Ye, Yongkang

    2016-10-20

    The water-soluble polysaccharides from bamboo shoots (Phyllostachys praecox) (WBP) were isolated, and the characterizations as well as prebiotic activities were investigated. The yield of WBP was 7.58±0.31% under optimal hot-water extraction conditions. Two fractions, i.e., WBP-1 and WBP-2 with molecular weight of 83.50kDa and 80.08kDa, respectively, were purified by chromatography. Both the polysaccharides fractions were identified as heteropolysaccharides-protein complexes composed of 15 kinds of common amino acids in protein part and rhamnose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose in different molar ratios in polysaccharide part. The existence of α- and β-glycosidic linkages between the sugar units was confirmed by FTIR and NMR spectra. Compared with the blank control and the reference of FOS, WBP-1 and WBP-2 significantly increased the numbers of Bifidobacterium adolescentis and Bifidobacterium bifidum (P<0.05), which contributed to the production of organic acids, suggesting that the polysaccharides have potential prebiotic properties. PMID:27474570

  13. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... aerobic activities include things like brisk walking, running, dancing, swimming, and playing basketball. Also include strengthening activities ... the ones you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using ...

  14. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  15. Creative Environmental Education Activities for Children. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority (Land Between the Lakes), Golden Pond, KY.

    Twenty-seven activities have been compiled to assist teachers in incorporating environmental methods and techniques into their preschool curricula. These activities are designed to complement the classroom curriculum and heighten participant awareness and appreciation of environmental resources and relationships. Each activity includes: (1)…

  16. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: a comparative study with four different fractions.

    PubMed

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-11

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14±2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases. PMID:24892537

  17. Towards further understanding on the antioxidative activities of Prunus persica fruit: A comparative study with four different fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhingra, Naveen; Sharma, Rajesh; Kar, Anand

    2014-11-01

    In the present study we have evaluated the antioxidant activities of different fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous fractions) of Prunus persica fruit. For extraction simple warring blender method was employed and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were correlated with different antioxidant activities (total antioxidant, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), H2O2 scavenging, superoxide radical scavenging, iron chelating and their reducing power properties). Different in vitro antioxidant studies showed that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions had the maximum activities that were well correlated with total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Maximum yield (25.14 ± 2.2%) was obtained in its aqueous fraction. Both ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions showed significant inhibitory effects on different antioxidant activities. A significantly high correlation coefficient existed between total antioxidant activities and with total phenolic as well as total flavonoid contents. It appears that ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions of P. persica may serve as new potential sources of natural antioxidants and could be of therapeutic use in treating several diseases.

  18. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results. PMID:20067867

  19. Aeronautics: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide, developed for students in grades 2-4, discusses the field of aeronautics. It begins with education standards and skill matrices for the classroom activities, a description of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aeronautics mission, and a brief history of aeronautics. Activities are written for the…

  20. The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; McLean, Bernice R.

    This educators guide discusses the brain and contains activities on neuroscience. Activities include: (1) "The Space Life Sciences"; (2) "Space Neuroscience: A Special Area within the Space Life Sciences"; (3) "Space Life Sciences Research"; (4) "Neurolab: A Special Space Mission to Study the Nervous System"; (5) "The Nervous System"; (6)…

  1. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  2. A Guide to Staff Development Activities, Using a Florida Conference as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Lester E., Jr., Ed.; Ciccone, Russell A., Ed.

    Staff development activities are the subject of a resource guide directed at educators of migrant children. One county participating in the Florida Migratory Child Compensatory Program was selected to serve as a model. Planning for activities should be individually-based, problem-oriented, goal-directed, time-factored, and participant-controlled.…

  3. Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Furlong, Lisa

    This guide includes hundreds of hands-on, engaging activities designed to meet the unique needs of after-school programs, camps, and recreation centers. The activities teach the skills of creative conflict resolution to school-age children through games, cooperative team challenges, drama, crafts, music, and cooking. It includes easy-to-implement…

  4. Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

    This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

  5. Planetary Geology: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide discusses planetary geology. Exercises are grouped into five units: (1) introduction to geologic processes; (2) impact cratering activities; (3) planetary atmospheres; (4) planetary surfaces; and (5) geologic mapping. Suggested introductory exercises are noted at the beginning of each exercise. Each activity includes an…

  6. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Electric Power Generation and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    This guide was developed by teachers involved in a workshop on "Electric Power Generation and the Environment." Activity topics are: (1) Energy and the Consumer; (2) Energy and Water Pollution; and (3) Energy and Air Pollution. Within these topics, the activities are classified as awareness level, transitional level, or operational level. Each…

  7. Rockets: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Grades K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shearer, Deborah A.; Vogt, Gregory L.

    This guide contains activities that emphasize hands-on involvement, prediction, data collection and interpretation, teamwork, and problem solving. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. Following the background sections are a series of activities that demonstrate the basic…

  8. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  9. An Activities Supplement to the Curriculum Guide for Speech Communication--Grades 8-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieb-Brilhart, Barbara, Comp.

    This curriculum activities supplement is the result of a graduate seminar at the University of Nebraska (Omaha), held in 1972. It is an addition to "A Curriculum Guide for Speech Communication--Grades 8-12," developed in 1971 (ED 066 776). The activities are structured according to the contract system, whereby each student selects his own projects…

  10. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  11. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  12. Curriculum Resources for Environmental Progress, Vol. 1: Curriculum Outline and Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalamazoo Nature Center, Inc., MI.

    This publication is the first volume of curriculum resources published by the Kalamazoo Nature Center. It contains directions for using the curriculum activities guide and suggests ways of implementing the activities in the classroom. Also included is an outline of the material that could be covered in an environmental education program, with…

  13. Green Thumbs: A Kid's Activity Guide to Indoor and Outdoor Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie

    This guide contains indoor and outdoor gardening activities for children. The activities teach children how plants live and grow; how the weather, temperature, and seasons affect all living things; how living things come out of seeds and soil; how the birds, earthworms, bees, and toads help in the garden; and how the whole environment works…

  14. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  15. Antioxidant and relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala jacquem

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The current work is an attempt to know about additional chemical profile of Artemisia macrocephala. Antioxidant activity is performed as the plant is reported to contain flavonoids, which have antioxidant activity in general. Relaxant activity of fractions of crude methanol extract is performed to know in which fraction(s) the relaxant constituents concentrate as we have already reported that its crude methanol has relaxant activity. Antispasmodic activity of essential oil is also performed as the plant is rich with essential oil. Methods Phytochemical profile of the plant is performed. Free radical scavenging activity was performed using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH). Relaxation activity tests of fractions and essential oil of Artemisia macrocephala were performed on sections of rabbits’ jejunum. Calcium chloride curves were constructed to investigate the mode of action of plant extracts and its essential oil. Results We detected carbohydrates, flavonoids and saponins in A. macrocephala. At concentration 0.005 mg/ml, free radical scavenging activity of ethyl acetate fraction was 121.5 ± 2.02% of ascorbic acid. n- hexane fraction relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.74 ± 0.04 mg/ml. Essential oil relaxed spontaneous activity with EC50 0.8 ± 0.034 mg/ml. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions relaxed both spontaneous and KCl-induced contractions suggesting its possible mode through calcium channels. Constructing calcium chloride curves, the test fractions showed a right shift in the EC50. Essential oil at concentration 0.1 mg/ml produced right shift with EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.08 ± 0.08 vs. control with EC50 -2.47 ± 0.07. The curve resembled the curves of verapamil, which caused a right shift at 0.1 μM, with EC50 -1.7 ±0.07 vs. control EC50 (log [Ca++]M) -2.45 ± 0.06. Conclusions Crude methanol and its fractions (ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol) are rich sources of antioxidant constituents. The relaxing constituents following

  16. Data in support of antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.).

    PubMed

    Matsumura, Yoko; Ito, Toshihiro; Yano, Hisakazu; Kita, Eiji; Mikasa, Keiichi; Okada, Masatoshi; Furutani, Azusa; Murono, Yuka; Shibata, Mitsuru; Nishii, Yasue; Kayano, Shin-Ichi

    2016-09-01

    This data article is related to the research article entitled, "Antioxidant potential in non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon (Diospyros kaki Thunb.)" (Matsumura et al., 2016) [1]. We investigated antioxidant activities of the non-extractable fraction of dried persimmon fruits in vitro and in vivo. We evaluated both extracted fraction and non-extractable fraction, and reported that non-extractable fraction may possess significantly antioxidant potential in vivo on the basis of the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). We showed our experimental raw data about antioxidant capacity of dried persimmon, plasma triglycerides (TG) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and this data article might contribute to evaluate real antioxidant capacity of other fruits and vegetables. PMID:27547805

  17. Measurement of Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide as a Marker of Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ikonomi, Erkanda; Rothstein, Robin D.; Ehrlich, Adam C.; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Definitive diagnosis of IBD requires endoscopic and pathologic confirmation. These tools are also used to classify disease activity. Our aim was to determine if the fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) could be utilized to screen for IBD and assess for disease activity. Methods We matched weighted IBD cases and controls from the 2009–2010 NHANES dataset. All subjects underwent measurement of FeNO using standardized techniques. We assessed for potential confounders for FeNO measurement including age, height, and asthma. For IBD subjects, we used the presence of diarrhea, fatigue, and weight loss as a proxy for IBD activity. Laboratory parameters examined to estimate disease activity included anemia (≤ 10 g/dl), iron deficiency (ferritin ≤ 20 ng/ml), hypoalbuminemia (≤ 3.2 g/dl), and CRP (≥ 1.1 mg/dl). Results The weighted sample represented 199,414,901 subjects. The weighted prevalence of IBD was 2,084,895 (1.0%). IBD subjects had nearly the same FeNO level as those without IBD (17.0 ± 16.2 vs. 16.7 ± 14.5 ppb). The odds of a FeNO > 25 ppb was half (OR=0.501; 95% CI 0.497–0.504) for subjects with IBD compared to those without IBD after controlling for confounders. The AUROC curve for FeNO was 0.47 (0.35–0.59). FeNO levels were not higher in patients with laboratory values suggestive of active disease. FeNO levels were higher in IBD patients with diarrhea, rectal urgency, and fatigue but were lower in those with unintentional weight loss. Conclusion Measurement of FeNO does not appear to be useful to screen for IBD or assess disease activity. PMID:27398403

  18. A Guide to Microsoft Active Directory (AD) Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, J

    2002-04-29

    The goal of this paper is to facilitate the design process for those DOE sites that are currently engaged in designing their Active Directory (AD) network. It is a roadmap to enable analysis of the complicated design tradeoffs associated with Active Directory Design. By providing discussion of Active Directory design elements which are permanent and costly to change once deployed, the hope is to minimize the risks of sponsoring failed designs, or joining existing infrastructures not suitable to programmatic needs. Specifically, most Active Directory structures will fall under one of three common designs: Single Domain, Single Forest with Multiple Domains, or Multiple Forests. Each has benefits and concerns, depending on programmatic and organizational structures. The comparison of these three approaches will facilitate almost any Active Directory design effort. Finally, this paper describes some best practices to consider when designing Active Directory based on three years of research and experience.

  19. A hitchhiker's guide to assessing young people's physical activity: Deciding what method to use.

    PubMed

    Dollman, James; Okely, Anthony D; Hardy, Louise; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hills, Andrew P

    2009-09-01

    Researchers and practitioners interested in assessing physical activity in children are often faced with the dilemma of what instrument to use. While there is a plethora of physical activity instruments to choose from, there is currently no guide regarding the suitability of common assessment instruments. The purpose of this paper is to provide a user's guide for selecting physical activity assessment instruments appropriate for use with children and adolescents. While recommendations regarding specific instruments are not provided, the guide offers information about key attributes and considerations for the use of eight physical activity assessment approaches: heart rate monitoring; accelerometry; pedometry; direct observation; self-report; parent report; teacher report; and diaries/logs. Attributes of instruments and other factors to be considered in the selection of assessment instruments include: population (age); sample size; respondent burden; method/delivery mode; assessment time frame; physical activity information required (data output); data management; measurement error; cost (instrument and administration) and other limitations. A decision flow chart has been developed to assist researchers and practitioners to select an appropriate method of assessing physical activity. Five real-life scenarios are presented to illustrate this process in light of key instrument attributes. It is important that researchers, practitioners and policy makers understand the strengths and limitations of different methods of assessing physical activity, and are guided on selection of the most appropriate instrument/s to suit their needs. PMID:19038579

  20. Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Nahas, Ely

    2014-01-01

    Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture = maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. PMID:25477932

  1. Humic fractions of forest, pasture and maize crop soils resulting from microbial activity

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Rose Luiza Moraes; Nahas, Ely

    2014-01-01

    Humic substances result from the degradation of biopolymers of organic residues in the soil due to microbial activity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of three different ecosystems: forest, pasture and maize crop on the formation of soil humic substances relating to their biological and chemical attributes. Microbial biomass carbon (MBC), microbial respiratory activity, nitrification potential, total organic carbon, soluble carbon, humic and fulvic acid fractions and the rate and degree of humification were determined. Organic carbon and soluble carbon contents decreased in the order: forest > pasture > maize; humic and fulvic acids decreased in the order forest > pasture=maize. The MBC and respiratory activity were not influenced by the ecosystems; however, the nitrification potential was higher in the forest than in other soils. The rate and degree of humification were higher in maize soil indicating greater humification of organic matter in this system. All attributes studied decreased significantly with increasing soil depth, with the exception of the rate and degree of humification. Significant and positive correlations were found between humic and fulvic acids contents with MBC, microbial respiration and nitrification potential, suggesting the microbial influence on the differential formation of humic substances of the different ecosystems. PMID:25477932

  2. Estimation of the dermal carcinogenic activity of petroleum fractions using a modified Ames assay.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, G R; Deitch, R A; Schreiner, C A; Mehlman, M A; Mackerer, C R

    1984-10-01

    The Ames Salmonella/microsomal activation mutagenesis assay has been adapted to improve sensitivity to complex hydrocarbon mixtures produced by the refining of petroleum. Extraction of oil samples with dimethyl sulfoxide produces aqueous-compatible solutions that more easily interact with the tester bacteria. These extracts, therefore, produce higher revertant values than do equivalent volumes of oil delivered neat or dissolved in organic solvent. Parallel increases in the liver microsomal S-9 concentration further improve the sensitivity of the assay, allowing detection of mutagenicity in otherwise inactive samples. The effect of increased microsomal fraction from rodent liver is apparently attributable to the higher levels of activating enzymes rather than to the concomitant increase in the overall hydrophobicity of the test system. The modified assay has been used to rank thirteen petroleum-derived oils and a corn oil control for relative mutagenic activity. This ranking closely correlates (r = 0.97) with potency rankings of the same samples previously determined from dermal carcinogenicity bioassays. PMID:6401126

  3. Effect of Maitake (Grifola frondosa) D-Fraction on the activation of NK cells in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Kodama, Noriko; Komuta, Kiyoshi; Nanba, Hiroaki

    2003-01-01

    Maitake D-Fraction, extracted from maitake mushroom, has been reported to exert its antitumor effect in tumor-bearing mice by enhancing the immune system through activation of macrophages, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. In a previous study, the combination of immunotherapy with the maitake D-Fraction and chemotherapy suggested that the D-Fraction may have the potential to decrease the size of lung, liver, and breast tumors in cancer patients. In the present study, we administered maitake D-Fraction to cancer patients without anticancer drugs, and at the same time NK cell activity was monitored to investigate whether the activity is closely related with disease progression. The numbers of CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells in the peripheral blood were measured in 10 patients, and NK cell activity was assessed using K-562 cells as target cells. Serum soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) levels in three patients and the expression of tumor markers in four patients were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The slight changes observed in the CD4(+) and CD8(+) cell numbers were independent of disease severity or stage as well as serum sIL-2R levels. In contrast, maitake D-Fraction hindered metastatic progress, lessened the expression of tumor markers, and increased NK cell activity in all patients examined. Thus maitake D-Fraction appears to repress cancer progression and primarily exerts its effect through stimulation of NK activity. In addition, we conclude that measurement of NK cell activity may be a useful clinical parameter in monitoring disease progression during and following immunotherapy with maitake D-Fraction. PMID:14977447

  4. Antibacterial and antispasmodic activities of a dichloromethane fraction of an ethanol extract of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum

    PubMed Central

    N’Guessan, Benoit Banga; Dosso, Kassim; Gnangoran, Boua Narcisse; Amoateng, Patrick; Asiedu-Gyekye, Isaac Julius; Yapo, Angoue Paul

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study presents the antispasmodic and antibacterial properties of an ethanol extract and fractions the of stem bark of Piliostigma reticulatum. Materials and Methods: The antispasmodic effects of the extract and its fractions were performed on isolated rabbit duodenum. The antibacterial properties were determined as minimal inhibitory and bactericidal concentration of the extract and fractions of P. reticulatum on susceptible and resistant strains of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella dysenteriae and Salmonella tiphymurium. Results: The ethanol extract of P. reticulatum and fractions (except for heptane) produced concentration-dependent relaxant effects on isolated duodenum preparations. The IC50 of the extract and dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol and aqueous fractions are 0.88452, 0.2453, 0.2909, 0.3946 and 0.3231 mg/ml respectively. The extract was found to significantly antagonize acetylcholine-induced contraction. The susceptible strains E. coli and V. cholerae were the most inhibited by the dichloromethane fraction at 60 mg/mL, as shown by their diameter of inhibition of 13.2 ± 0.76 and 13.3 ± 0.67 mm respectively. Conversely, the dichloromethane fraction, the most active antibacterial fraction, did not inhibit the resistant strains S. dysenteriae and S. tiphymurium. Conclusion: The results showed that P. reticulatum stem bark possesses spasmolytic and antibacterial properties and this may contribute to its traditional medicinal use for the treatment of diarrhea. PMID:25883517

  5. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  6. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  7. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  8. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  9. Conservation II. Science Activities in Energy. [Student's and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to the conservation of energy. Eleven student activities using art, economics, arithmetic, and other skills and disciplines help teachers directly involve students in exploring scientific questions and making…

  10. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Solid Waste and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It is divided into three activity levels: awareness, transitional, and operational. The activity sequence is designed to motivate students toward a concern for environmental quality, take action related to particular…

  11. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  12. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Population and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the second in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It is divided into three activity levels: awareness, transitional, and operational. The activity sequence is designed to motivate students toward a concern for environmental quality, take action related to particular…

  13. Characterization and bioassay for larvicidal activity of Anacardium occidentale (cashew) shell waste fractions against dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rosalinda C; Garbo, Alicia G; Walde, Rikkamae Zinca Marie L

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies regarding the harmful effects of synthetic larvicides initiated the need to investigate for unconventional measures that are environmentally safe and target-specific against Aedes aegypti larvae. Thus, the main objectives of the study are to evaluate the larvicidal toxicity of the solvent fractions of Anacardium occidentale shell wastes against the third and fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti and to compare the results with the commercial larvicide product. The shell wastes were extracted with 95% EtOH followed by polarity-based fractionation. The fractions were tested for larvicidal activity according to the World Health Organization bioassay method. These were then characterized by quantitative thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) fingerprinting. The hexane fraction gave the strongest activity among the fractions with an LC50 of 4.01 mg/L and LC90 of 11.29 mg/L highly comparable to the commercial larvicide, which exhibited an LC50 of 1.71 mg/L and LC90 of 8.41 mg/L. The dichloromethane fraction exhibited 9.70 mg/L LC50 and 18.44 mg/L LC90. The remarkable toxicity effects exhibited by these fractions indicate their potential to provide core structures from which sustainable and environmentally safe plant-based larvicidal agents can be synthesized. PMID:26099240

  14. Renin-Angiotensin Activation and Oxidative Stress in Early Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Negi, Smita I.; Jeong, Euy-Myoung; Shukrullah, Irfan; Veleder, Emir; Jones, Dean P.; Fan, Tai-Hwang M.; Varadarajan, Sudhahar; Danilov, Sergei M.; Fukai, Tohru; Dudley, Samuel C.

    2015-01-01

    Animal models have suggested a role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation and subsequent cardiac oxidation in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Nevertheless, RAS blockade has failed to show efficacy in treatment of HFpEF. We evaluated the role of RAS activation and subsequent systemic oxidation in HFpEF. Oxidative stress markers were compared in 50 subjects with and without early HFpEF. Derivatives of reactive oxidative metabolites (DROMs), F2-isoprostanes (IsoPs), and ratios of oxidized to reduced glutathione (Eh GSH) and cysteine (Eh CyS) were measured. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) levels and activity were measured. On univariate analysis, HFpEF was associated with male sex (p = 0.04), higher body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.003), less oxidized Eh CyS (p = 0.001), lower DROMs (p = 0.02), and lower IsoP (p = 0.03). Higher BMI (OR: 1.3; 95% CI: 1.1–1.6) and less oxidized Eh CyS (OR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1–1.4) maintained associations with HFpEF on multivariate analysis. Though ACE levels were higher in early HFpEF (OR: 1.09; 95% CI: 1.01–1.05), ACE activity was similar to that in controls. HFpEF is not associated with significant systemic RAS activation or oxidative stress. This may explain the failure of RAS inhibitors to alter outcomes in HFpEF. PMID:26504834

  15. Short fungal fractions of β-1,3 glucans affect platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Vancraeyneste, Hélène; Charlet, Rogatien; Guerardel, Yann; Choteau, Laura; Bauters, Anne; Tardivel, Meryem; François, Nadine; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Soloviev, Dmitry; Poulain, Daniel; Sendid, Boualem; Jawhara, Samir

    2016-09-01

    Platelets are capable of binding, aggregating, and internalizing microorganisms, which enhances the elimination of pathogens from the blood. The yeast Candida albicans is a pathobiont causing life-threatening invasive infections. Its cell wall contains β-1,3 glucans that are known to trigger a wide range of host cell activities and to circulate during infection. We studied the effect of β-1,3 glucan fractions (BGFs) consisting of diglucosides (Glc2), tetraglucosides (Glc4), and pentaglucosides (Glc5) on human platelets, their mechanisms of action, and their possible impact on host defenses. The effect of BGFs on the coagulation process was determined by measuring thrombin generation. Platelets pretreated with BGFs were analyzed in terms of activation, receptor expression, aggregation, and adhesion to neutrophils and to C. albicans The results show that BGFs affected the endogenous thrombin potential in a concentration-dependent manner. For platelet activation, BGFs at a low concentration (2 μmol/l) reduced ATP release and prevented the phosphorylation of protein kinase C. BGFs diminished the expression of P-selectin and the activation of αIIbβ3 BGFs decreased platelet aggregation and the interaction between thrombin-stimulated platelets and neutrophils, fibrinogen, and C. albicans GLc5 decreased ATP release and TGF-β1 production in response to TLR4 upregulation in thrombin-stimulated platelets, but TLR4 blockage abolished the effect of BGFs on platelets. This study provides evidence that fungal pentaglucosides modulate platelet activity mediated via TLR4 stimulation and reduce platelet-neutrophil interaction. PMID:27288438

  16. Exploring the Moon: A teacher's guide with activities for Earth and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Martel, Linda M. V.; Bays, Brooks G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This guide contains educational materials designed for use in upper elementary through high schools with the Lunar Sample Disk. A set of thirty-six 35-mm slides complements the activities in this guidebook. The book contains: (1) information on the Lunar Sample Disk; (2) a curriculum content matrix; (3) a teacher's guide; (4) moon ABC's fact sheet; (5) rock ABC's fact sheet; (6) progress in Lunar Science chart; (7) seventeen activities; (8) a resource section for each unit; (9) a glossary; and (10) a list of NASA educational resources.

  17. Defining the Active Fraction of Daptomycin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) Using a Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Garonzik, Samira M.; Lenhard, Justin R.; Forrest, Alan; Holden, Patricia N.; Bulitta, Jϋrgen B.; Tsuji, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to study the pharmacodynamics of daptomycin in the presence of varying concentrations of human serum (HS) in vitro to quantify the fraction of daptomycin that is ‘active’. Time kill experiments were performed with daptomycin (0 to 256 mg/L) against two MRSA strains at log-phase growth, in the presence of HS (0%, 10%, 30%, 50%, 70%) combined with Mueller-Hinton broth. Daptomycin ≥ 2 mg/L achieved 99.9% kill within 8 h at all HS concentrations; early killing activity was slightly attenuated at higher HS concentrations. After 1 h, bacterial reduction of USA300 upon exposure to daptomycin 4 mg/L ranged from -3.1 to -0.5 log10CFU/mL in the presence of 0% to 70% HS, respectively. Bactericidal activity was achieved against both strains at daptomycin ≥ 4 mg/L for all fractions of HS exposure. A mechanism-based mathematical model (MBM) was developed to estimate the active daptomycin fraction at each %HS, comprising 3 bacterial subpopulations differing in daptomycin susceptibility. Time-kill data were fit with this MBM with excellent precision (r2 >0.95). The active fraction of daptomycin was estimated to range from 34.6% to 25.2% at HS fractions of 10% to 70%, respectively. Despite the reported low unbound fraction of daptomycin, the impact of protein binding on the activity of daptomycin was modest. The active fraction approach can be utilized to design in vitro experiments and to optimize therapeutic regimens of daptomycin in humans. PMID:27284923

  18. An active lighting module with natural light guiding system and solid state source for indoor illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-An; Chen, Yi-Yung; Whang, Allen Jong-Woei

    2009-08-01

    Recently, many researches focus on healthy lighting with sunlight. A Natural Light Guiding System includes collecting, transmitting, and lighting parts. In general, the lighting module of the Natural Light Guiding System only uses scattering element, such as diffuser, to achieve uniform illumination. With the passive lighting module, the application of the Natural Light Guiding System is limited because sunlight is dynamic source. When the sunlight is weak at morning, at evening, or on cloudy day, the illumination system is fail. In this paper, we provide an active lighting module that includes the lighting part of Natural Light Guiding System, LED auxiliary sources, optical elements, and optical detector. We use optical simulation tool to design and simulate the efficiency of the active module. The optical element can redistribute the sunlight only, LED light only, or sunlight with LED light to achieve uniform illumination. With the feedback of the detector, the active lighting module will adjust the intensity of LED to provide a steady illumination. Moreover, the module could replace the backlight module of LCD TV when the house has Natural Light Guiding System for saving energy and higher performance of image.

  19. Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Calories Burned per Hour Hiking Light gardening/yard work Dancing Golf (walking and carrying clubs) ... Bicycling (less than 10 mph) Downhill skiing Dancing Gardening Golf (on foot) Hiking (flat ground) Horseback riding ...

  20. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  1. A High Fraction of Double-peaked Narrow Emission Lines in Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, Yang; Liu, Xin

    2016-08-01

    One percent of redshift z ˜ 0.1 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) show velocity splitting of a few hundred km s-1 in the narrow emission lines in spatially integrated spectra. Such line profiles have been found to arise from the bulk motion of ionized gas clouds associated with galactic-scale outflows, merging pairs of galaxies each harboring a supermassive black hole (SMBH), and/or galactic-scale disk rotation. It remains unclear, however, how the frequency of narrow-line velocity splitting may depend on AGN luminosity. Here we study the correlation between the fraction of Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked narrow emission lines and AGN luminosity as indicated by [O III]λ5007 emission-line luminosity L[O III]. We combine the sample of Liu et al. (2010a) at z ˜ 0.1 with a new sample of 178 Type 2 AGNs with double-peaked [O III] emission lines at z ˜ 0.5. We select the new sample from a parent sample of 2089 Type 2 AGNs from the SDSS-III/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey. We find a statistically significant (˜4.2σ) correlation between L[O III] and the fraction of objects that exhibit double-peaked narrow emission lines among all Type 2 AGNs, corrected for selection bias and incompleteness due to [O III] line width, equivalent width, splitting velocity, and/or equivalent width ratio between the two velocity components. Our result suggests that galactic-scale outflows and/or merging pairs of SMBHs are more prevalent in more powerful AGNs, although spatially resolved follow up observations are needed to resolve the origin(s) for the narrow-line velocity splitting for individual AGNs.

  2. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm-2 increases from ˜0.2 to ˜0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042-44 erg s-1 range, but fobs becomes small (˜0.4) above a luminosity (˜1045 erg s-1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (˜0.2-0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm-2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  3. Characterization of polysaccharide fractions in mulberry fruit and assessment of their antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun; You, Li-Jun; Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Fu, Xiong; Liu, Rui Hai; Li, Chao

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize and investigate the polysaccharide fractions of mulberry fruit, and their antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities. Mulberry fruit polysaccharides (MFP) were extracted by using hot water as the solvent and fractioned by using a DEAE-Sepharose fast-flow column. In total four eluents of water (MFP-1), 0.1 M NaCl (MFP-2), 0.2 M NaCl (MFP-3) and 0.3 M NaCl (MFP-4) were fractionated. Arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose and mannose were the main components present in MFP-1, while MFP-2 and MFP-3 were composed of arabinose and galactose, and MFP-4 of arabinose, galactose and glucose. High-performance gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) analysis indicated a narrower molecular weight distribution in the MFP-1 fraction. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) exhibited a smooth surface for MFP-1 and MFP-3 fractions, whereas MFP-2 and MFP-4 have pore openings and flocculent fibers on a smooth surface. Tertiary structure analyses indicated that none of the fractions had a triple-helical conformation. On the whole, MFP-3 and MFP-4 showed better antioxidant activity and inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α-glucosidase compared to MFP-1 and MFP-2. These results show significant potential for the antioxidant and hypoglycemic activities of MFP-3 and MFP-4 indicating the need for their further exploration as potential antidiabetic agents. PMID:26569512

  4. Comparative Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Peptide Fractions Obtained by Ultrafiltration of Egg Yolk Protein Enzymatic Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Chay Pak Ting, Bertrand P.; Mine, Yoshinori; Juneja, Lekh R.; Okubo, Tsutomu; Gauthier, Sylvie F.; Pouliot, Yves

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the antioxidant activity of two distinct hydrolysates and their peptide fractions prepared by ultrafiltration (UF) using membranes with molecular weight cut-off of 5 and 1 kDa. The hydrolysates were a delipidated egg yolk protein concentrate (EYP) intensively hydrolyzed with a combination of two bacterial proteases, and a phosphoproteins (PPP) extract partially hydrolyzed with trypsin. Antioxidant activity, as determined by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay, was low for EYP and PPP hydrolysates with values of 613.1 and 489.2 μM TE·g−1 protein, respectively. UF-fractionation of EYP hydrolysate increased slightly the antioxidant activity in permeate fractions (720.5–867.8 μM TE·g−1 protein). However, ORAC values were increased by more than 3-fold in UF-fractions prepared from PPP hydrolysate, which were enriched in peptides with molecular weight lower than 5 kDa. These UF-fractions were characterized by their lower N/P atomic ratio and higher phosphorus content compared to the same UF-fractions obtained from EYP-TH. They also contained high amounts of His, Met, Leu, and Phe, which are recognized as antioxidant amino acids, but also high content in Lys and Arg which both represent target amino acids of trypsin used for the hydrolysis of PPP. PMID:24957729

  5. No first ionization potential fractionation in the active stars AR Piscium and AY Ceti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanz-Forcada, J.; Affer, L.; Micela, G.

    2009-10-01

    Context: The comparison of coronal and photospheric abundances in cool stars is an essential question to resolve. In the Sun an enhancement of the elements with low first ionization potential (FIP) is observed in the corona with respect to the photosphere. Stars with high levels of activity seem to show a depletion of elements with low FIP when compared to solar standard values; however, the few cases of active stars in which photospheric values are available for comparison lead to confusing results, and an enlargement of the sample is mandatory for solving this longstanding problem. Aims: We calculate in this paper the photospheric and coronal abundances of two well known active binary systems, AR Psc and AY Cet, to get further insight into the complications of coronal abundances. Methods: Coronal abundances of 9 elements were calculated by means of the reconstruction of a detailed emission measure distribution, using a line-based method that considers the lines from different elements separately. Photospheric abundances of 8 elements were calculated using high-resolution optical spectra of the stars. Results: The results once again show a lack of any FIP-related effect in the coronal abundances of the stars. The presence of metal abundance depletion (MAD) or inverse FIP effects in some stars could stem from a mistaken comparison to solar photospheric values or from a deficient calculation of photospheric abundances in fast-rotating stars. Conclusions: The lack of FIP fractionation seems to confirm that Alfvén waves combined with pondermotive forces are dominant in the corona of active stars. Tables 2 and 3 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  6. Flourensia cernua: Hexane Extracts a Very Active Mycobactericidal Fraction from an Inactive Leaf Decoction against Pansensitive and Panresistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Molina-Salinas, Gloria María; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; González-Hernández, Silvia; Torres de la Cruz, Víctor Manuel; Martínez-Rodríguez, Herminia Guadalupe; Said-Fernández, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    The efficacy of decoction in extracting mycobactericidal compounds from Flourensia cernua (Hojasé) leaves and fractionation with solvents having ascending polarity was compared with that of (i) ethanol extraction by still maceration, extraction with a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration, followed by fractionation with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol; (ii) sequential extraction with n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol, by still maceration, using a Soxhlet device, shake-assisted maceration, or ultrasound-assisted maceration. The in vitro mycobactericidal activity of each preparation was measured against drug-sensitive (SMtb) and drug-resistant (RMtb) Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. The results of which were expressed as absolute mycobactericidal activity (AMA). These data were normalized to the ΣAMA of the decoction fraction set. Although decoction was inactive, the anti-RMtb normalized ΣAMA (NAMA) of its fractions was comparable with the anti-RMtb NAMA of the still maceration extracts and significantly higher than the anti-SMtb and anti-RMtb NAMAs of every other ethanol extract and serial extract and fraction. Hexane extracted, from decoction, material having 55.17% and 92.62% of antituberculosis activity against SMtb and RMtb, respectively. Although the mycobactericidal activity of decoction is undetectable; its efficacy in extracting F. cernua active metabolites against M. tuberculosis is substantially greater than almost all pharmacognostic methods. PMID:21584254

  7. Characterization and mesenteric lymph node cells-mediated immunomodulatory activity of litchi pulp polysaccharide fractions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Fei; Zhang, Ruifen; Liu, Yang; Xiao, Juan; Su, Dongxiao; Yi, Yang; Wang, Guangjin; Wei, Zhencheng; Zhang, Mingwei

    2016-11-01

    Three water-soluble hetero-polysaccharides, designated LP1-3, were isolated from litchi pulp. Their structures, solution properties and immunomodulatory activities were evaluated. LP1 contained (1→4,6)-β-d-Glc and (1→4)-α-l-Gal, while LP2 contained (1→3)-α-l-Ara and (l→2)-β-d-Gal, and LP3 contained α-l-Ara and (l→4)-β-Rha. Their molecular weights ranged from 105,880 to 986,470g/mol. LP1 had a spherical conformation with hyper-branched structure and LP2 was semi-flexible chain, while the polysaccharide chains of LP3 were cross linked to form network-like conformation in solution. In addition, all fractions strongly stimulated mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation, IFN-γ and IL-6 secretion in the dose range of 25-100μg/mL compared with untreated control group (p<0.05). LP1 exhibited the strongest stimulation of mesenteric lymph node cell proliferation and cytokine secretion, which may be attributed to its unique chemical structure and chain conformation. This is the first report on the solution properties and intestinal immunity activities of polysaccharides from litchi pulp. PMID:27516297

  8. Nuclear Fractionation Reveals Thousands of Chromatin-Tethered Noncoding RNAs Adjacent to Active Genes.

    PubMed

    Werner, Michael S; Ruthenburg, Alexander J

    2015-08-18

    A number of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been reported to regulate transcription via recruitment of chromatin modifiers or bridging distal enhancer elements to gene promoters. However, the generality of these modes of regulation and the mechanisms of chromatin attachment for thousands of unstudied human lncRNAs remain unclear. To address these questions, we performed stringent nuclear fractionation coupled to RNA sequencing. We provide genome-wide identification of human chromatin-associated lncRNAs and demonstrate tethering of RNA to chromatin by RNAPII is a pervasive mechanism of attachment. We also uncovered thousands of chromatin-enriched RNAs (cheRNAs) that share molecular properties with known lncRNAs. Although distinct from eRNAs derived from active prototypical enhancers, the production of cheRNAs is strongly correlated with the expression of neighboring protein-coding genes. This work provides an updated framework for nuclear RNA organization that includes a large chromatin-associated transcript population correlated with active genes and may prove useful in de novo enhancer annotation. PMID:26257179

  9. Fractional flow reserve-guided percutaneous coronary intervention for an intermediate stenosis complicated by a coronary-to-pulmonary artery fistula.

    PubMed

    Ito, Tsuyoshi; Murai, Shunsuke; Fujita, Hiroshi; Tani, Tomomitsu; Ohte, Nobuyuki

    2016-05-01

    A 65-year-old man was referred to our hospital following repetitive chest pain. Invasive coronary angiography showed an intermediate stenosis of the proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD), and a coronary fistula originating distal to the stenosis draining into the main pulmonary artery. To evaluate the functional abnormality arising from the stenosis and coronary steal due to the fistula, fractional flow reserve (FFR) was measured using a pressure wire with pullback recording. The FFR value was 0.74 at the distal LAD, 0.78 distal to the fistula, 0.81 proximal to the fistula (distal to the stenosis), and abruptly increased to 1.0 proximal to the stenosis. Based on these FFR results, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed to the stenosis. After stent placement, the FFR value improved to 0.87 at the distal LAD, and no abrupt pressure gradient was observed beyond the fistula and the stent. FFR-guided intervention with pullback pressure recording could be a useful and practical method to apply in cases with coronary stenosis complicated by coronary fistula in the same vessel. PMID:25643760

  10. A bioaccessible fraction of parboiled germinated brown rice exhibits a higher anti-inflammatory activity than that of brown rice.

    PubMed

    Tuntipopipat, Siriporn; Muangnoi, Chawanphat; Thiyajai, Parunya; Srichamnong, Warangkana; Charoenkiatkul, Somsri; Praengam, Kemika

    2015-05-01

    Parboiled germinated brown rice (PGBR) has been suggested as a functional food because it is relatively rich in a number of nutrients and health promoting compounds. Here we compared the bioaccessibility of several of the bioactive compounds in cooked PGBR and brown rice (BR) by simulating oral, gastric and small intestinal digestion. The uptake and retention of bioactive compounds from a bioaccessible fraction also was determined using Caco-2 human intestinal cells. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed with Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. PGBR had a higher content of GABA, γ-oryzanol, γ-tocotrienol, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid than BR. The amounts of these compounds transferred to the aqueous fraction during digestion and the quantities accumulated by Caco-2 cells were proportional to those in cooked PGBR and BR. The anti-inflammatory activity of the bioaccessible fraction from digested BR and PGBR was then assessed for Caco-2 cells that were activated with H2O2 + IL-1β. Pre-treatment of the cells with the bioaccessible fractions from PGBR and BR suppressed the secretion of IL-8 and MCP-1 and the ROS content in activated cells. Inhibitory activities were attenuated to a greater extent after cells had been pre-exposed to the bioaccessible fraction from digested PGBR compared to BR. These results suggest that digested PGBR contains and delivers greater amounts of compounds with anti-inflammatory activity to absorptive epithelial cells than digested BR. PMID:25811291

  11. Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer Anne

    This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching

  12. An Art Activity Guide for Teachers of Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burst, Judy; And Others

    This manual presents 48 visual art activities developed for severely disabled elementary and secondary school students. Brief explanations are presented for several handicapping conditions (cerebral palsy, Down's Syndrome, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and communication handicaps), and information is given for positioning of students and…

  13. Using Guided, Corpus-Aided Discovery to Generate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, educators have proposed a variety of active learning pedagogical approaches that focus on encouraging students to discover for themselves the principles and solutions that will engage them in learning and enhance their educational outcomes. Among these approaches are problem-based, inquiry-based, experiential, and discovery…

  14. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which, whenever possible, live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. By careful selection and modification of the chapter questions, activities, and…

  15. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using your manual ... activities a couple of days a week: • Heavy gardening (digging,shoveling) • Lifting weights • Push-ups on the ...

  16. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  17. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  18. Screening and appraisal for immunological adjuvant-active fractions from Platycodon grandiflorum total saponins.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Ke; Chen, Liqing; Sun, Hongxiang; Du, Jing; Shi, Minghua

    2012-02-01

    In this study, the total saponins from the root of Platycodon grandiflorum (PGS(t)) was subjected to D101 macroreticular resin column chromatography to afford four fractions (PGS₃₀, PGS₅₀, PGS₇₅ and PGS₉₅). PGS(t) and its four fractions were evaluated and compared for the haemolytic activities and adjuvant potentials on the specific cellular and humoral immune responses of ICR mice against recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). PGS(t), PGS₃₀, PGS₅₀, PGS₇₅, and PGS₇₅ showed a slight haemolytic effect, with their concentration inducing 50% of the maximum haemolysis (HD₅₀) being 16.13 ± 0.81, >200, 17.53 ± 0.24, 20.16 ± 0.76, 76.31 ± 2.20 μg/mL against 0.5% rabbit red blood cell, respectively. PGS(t), PGS₅₀, and PGS₇₅ significantly not only enhanced the Con A-, lipopolysaccharide-, and HBsAg-induced splenocyte proliferation, but promoted the killing activities of natural killer (NK) cells from splenocytes in HBsAg-immunized mice (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). HBsAg-specific IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibody levels in serum were also significantly enhanced by PGS(t), PGS₅₀, and PGS₇₅ compared with HBsAg control group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, or P < 0.001). Moreover, the adjuvant effects of PGS₅₀ and PGS₇₅ on the cellular immune responses and HBsAg-specific IgG2a and IgG2b antibody responses were more significant than those of Alum, PGS₃₀, and PGS₉₅. The results indicated that PGS₅₀ and PGS₇₅ could improve both cellular and humoral immune responses, and elicit a balanced Th1/Th2 response to HBsAg in mice, and that PGS₇₅ may be developed as an ideal candidate adjuvant for hepatitis B vaccine. PMID:21682667

  19. Anti-herpes virus activities of bioactive fraction and isolated pure constituent of Mallotus peltatus: an ethnomedicine from Andaman Islands

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Viral infections, particularly the infections caused by herpes simplex virus (HSV), represent one of the most serious public health concerns globally because of their devastating impact. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiviral potential of methanolic crude extract of an ethnomedicine Mallotus peltatus, its active fraction and pure compound, against HSV-1 F and HSV-2 G. Result The cytotoxicity (CC50, the concentration of 50% cellular toxicity), antiviral effective concentration (EC50, the concentration required to achieve 50% protection against virus-induced cytopathic effect), plaque reduction and the selectivity index (SI, the ratio of CC50 and EC50) was determined. Results showed that the crude methanolic extract of M. peltatus possessed weak anti-HSV activity. In contrast, the active fraction A and isolated ursolic acid from fraction A exhibited potent antiherpesvirus activity against both HSV-1 (EC50 = 7.8 and 5.5 μg/ml; SI = 22.3 and 20) and HSV-2 (EC50 = 8.2 and 5.8 μg/ml, and SI = 21.2 and 18.97). The fraction A and isolated ursolic acid (10 μg/ml) inhibited plaque formation of HSV-1 and HSV-2 at more than 80% levels, with a dose dependent antiviral activity, compared to acyclovir. The time response study revealed that the anti-HSV activity of fraction A and isolated ursolic acid is highest at 2–5 h post-infection. Moreover, the time kinetics study by indirect immunofluorescence assay showed a characteristic pattern of small foci of single fluorescent cells in fraction A- treated virus infected cells at 2 h and 4 h post-infection, suggesting drug inhibited viral dissemination. Further, the PCR study with infected cell cultures treated with fraction A and isolated ursolic acid at various time intervals, failed to show amplification at 48–72 h, like acyclovir treated HSV-infected cells. Moreover, fraction A or isolated ursolic acid showed no interaction in combination with acyclovir. Conclusion

  20. Comparison of antioxidant and antiproliferative activity between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and fraction PII separated by column chromatography.

    PubMed

    Jing, Siqun; Chai, Wenjie; Guo, Gai; Zhang, Xiaoming; Dai, Jun; Yan, Liang-Jun

    2016-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects on cancer cells between Kunlun Chrysanthemum flowers polysaccharides (KCCP) and its fraction PII that were separated by Biologic low pressure (LP) chromatography system followed by DEAE cellulose column chromatography. Results of in vitro experiments showed that the reducing power and the scavenging capacity of KCCP towards hydroxyl radicals (OH) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals increased in a concentration dependent manner and were stronger than that of fraction PII. Results of the antiproliferative effect of KCCP and fraction PII on cervical cancer HeLa cells, esophagus cancer Eca109 cells, and mouse ascites hepatomas H22 cells indicated that both KCCP and its fraction PII possessed inhibitory activity on all the tested cancer cells at a dose- and time-dependent manner, with KCCP showing higher inhibitory activity than that of fraction PII. The present study demonstrates that KCCP and its fraction PII have antioxidant properties that may help fight cancers. PMID:26809376

  1. Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide discusses rockets and includes activities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focus on Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain…

  2. T & I--Small Appliance Repair. Kit No. 30. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ken

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on small appliance repair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  3. Living with a Star: An Educator Guide with Activities in Sun-Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator guide is designed to provide references and resource materials to K-12 educators about the connection between the sun and the earth. Chapters include: (1) "Common Questions and Answers"; (2) "Sun-Earth Connection Missions"; (3) "Website Resources"; (4) "NASA CORE Materials"; (5) "Activities"; (6) "NASA Educator Workshop Resources";…

  4. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide explains microgravity, provides information on the history of microgravity, the domains of microgravity research and introduces classroom activities. Among the contents are the following: (1) "First, What Is Gravity?"; (2) "What Is Microgravity?"; (3) "Creating Microgravity"; (4) "The Microgravity Environment of Orbiting…

  5. Partners against Hate Program Activity Guide: Helping Children Resist Bias and Hate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotorson, Michael

    This guide provides parents, educators, and other adults with tools and strategies to engage in constructive discussions and activities about the causes and effects of prejudice and bias-motivated behavior and to intervene when needed with children who engage in such behavior. Though it targets elementary school, much of the material is relevant…

  6. Health Occupations--Operating Room Technician. Kit No. 63. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the operating room technician are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  7. An Activity Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park. Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Neil, Comp.

    Everglades National Park is recognized as one of the most threatened National Parks in the country. Human and technological intervention has affected the park's water resources, fauna and flora through the introduction of foreign species. This curriculum-based activity guide is intended for intermediate grade students. It has been designed from a…

  8. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  9. Health Occupations--Nursing Assistant, Wheelchair. Kit No. 58. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Annie T.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the nursing assistant--assisting patients in using the wheelchair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven…

  10. Health Occupations--Practical Nurse. Kit No. 45. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on practical nursing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  11. T & I--Masonry. Kit No. 10. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poston, Paul

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on masonry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  12. T & I--Cosmetology, Skin Care. Kit No. 77. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Carolyn

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on skin care are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (cosmetology). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  13. Office Occupations--Business Communications. Kit No. 20. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on business communications are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  14. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  15. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  16. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  17. CHAD USER’S GUIDE: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) User Guide offers a short tutorial about CHAD Access; background on the CHAD Databases; background on individual studies in CHAD; and information about using CHAD data, caveats, known problems, notes, and database design and develop...

  18. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  19. Home Economics--Child Care Services. Kit No. 24. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on child care services are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of home economics. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  20. A Teacher's Activities Guide for Chinese New Year - Gung Hei Fat Choy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonoma County Superintendent of Schools, Santa Rosa, CA.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide information and activities on the Chinese New Year and on aspects of the culture and heritage of the Chinese-American. Background material is given on the history of Chinese immigration to America, the lunar calendar, the Chinese cycle of years, the Chinese zodiac, the philosophical concept of yin and…

  1. Suited for Spacewalking. Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical and Life Science. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of spacewalking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of…

  2. Office Occupations--General Clerical. Kit No. 12. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on general clerical work are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  3. T & I--Gas Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on gas welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  4. T & I--Plumbing. Kit No. 67. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on plumbing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  5. T & I--Electricity. Power. Kit No. 52. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on electrical power are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  6. Comet Kohoutek, 1973-1974, A Teachers' Guide with Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robert D.

    This teacher's guide provides background information, curriculum source materials, and suggested class activities for class discussion and study. Information related to the discovery of the comet is presented as well as photographic and schematic pictures showing the sky through which the comet travels. Historical data regarding comets of the past…

  7. T & I--Painting and Decorating. Kit No. 5. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on painting and decorating are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  8. T & I--Brick Masonry II. Kit No. 80. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Lloyd

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on brick masonry II are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  9. Health Occupations--Dental Assistant. Kit No. 62. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on a dental assistant are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  10. Cosmetology. Kit No. 3. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Thelma

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cosmetology are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  11. Laser active imaging-guided anti-tank missile system small-scale integration design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Mingliang; Shan, Xiangqian; Qu, Zhou

    2010-10-01

    At present, the domestic and international third-generation anti-tank missiles, laser-guided missiles are mostly divided into active laser-guided and laser semi-active guidance, this guidance system, there are vulnerable to electronic interference, can not be fully realized after launching deficiencies. Article based on this, an in-depth understanding of imaging-guided laser-active working principle, based on the pairs of third-generation anti-tank missile guidance system, boldly proposed to improve the anti-tank missiles, laser-active small-scale integration of imaging guidance system design, the main purpose is to improve a certain type of The optical target missile, TV angle measurement, laser-guided instruction transmission means, so that anti-tank missiles to achieve forward-looking, the next obstacle avoidance TV and multi-functional integration of the entire after launching smart missiles, and in theory be able to study the new antitank missiles play a certain reference.

  12. Agriculture--Agricultural Sales and Service. Kit No. 21. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caines, Royce

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural sales and service are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  13. Using Activity Theory and its Principle of Contradictions to Guide Research in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how activity theory (AT) and its principle of contradictions may be relied on to guide research in educational technology. The paper begins with a theoretical overview of AT and of its principle of contradictions. It follows with a synthesis of studies that have used AT as a lens to study information and communication…

  14. Earth Science Activities: A Guide to Effective Elementary School Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Yasso, Warren E.

    The primary emphasis of this book is on new or revised earth science activities that promote concept development rather than mere verification of concepts learned by passive means. Chapter 2 describes philosophies, strategies, methods, and techniques to guide preservice and inservice teachers, school building administrators, and curriculum…

  15. Health Occupations--Respiration Therapy Technician. Kit No. 66. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on respiration therapy technician are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  16. Assisting in the Medical Laboratory. Instructor's Guide, Students' Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a hospital, clinic, or physician's office. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The course is intended for individualized study and is…

  17. Office Occupations--Clerical--Calculators. Kit No. 75. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ada

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the clerical use of calculators are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  18. Working in Pharmacies. Instructor's Guide. Student's Manual. Student Learning Activities. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; And Others

    This document combines three separately bound volumes, a student manual, an instructor's guide, and student learning activities designed for students who are either in beginning-level pharmacy technician courses or considering careers in pharmacy. The material is intended to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The…

  19. Cabinetmaking. Kit No. 13. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gull, Gaynell

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cabinetmaking are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  20. Activities for Learning about Conservation of Forest Resources: A Guide for Leaders of Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide is intended to support the leader of a youth group in increasing the awareness of members of the need for good forest conservation practices. Sections include: (1) science fundamentals; (2) making informative exhibits; (3) gaining community involvement; (4) Christmas activities; (5) games and crafts; and (6) a list of resources and…

  1. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  2. T & I, Power Mechanics. Kit No. 35. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on power mechanics are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  3. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution Equipment and Environmental Studies, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    The purpose of this guidebook is to present instructions for constructing low-cost instruments for environmental studies. The instruments discussed were either adopted or designed by students who were presented with the problem of producing low-cost environmental monitoring equipment. This book is a sequel to A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water…

  4. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  5. T & I--Auto Service Repair. Kit No. 14. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto service repair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  6. T & I--Graphics, Rubber Stamp. Kit No. 90. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on making a rubber stamp are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (graphics). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  7. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  8. T & I--Basic Electricity. Kit No. 4. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on basic electricity are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  9. T & I--Building Construction, Safety. Kit No. 1. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building construction safety are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  10. Developing Critical Thinking Skills through the Use of Guided Laboratory Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croner, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    In a study to evaluate an approach for improving the critical thinking skills of middle school science students, 60 students were given the assignment of completing three guided laboratory activities and writing a report for each. In writing their reports, students were expected to identify the manipulated variable, identify the responding…

  11. Assisting in Radiology/Imaging. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is designed for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This…

  12. Distributive Education--Shadow Box Display. Kit No. 72. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Louise

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on shadow box display are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  13. Health Occupations--Thermometer. Kit No. 2. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the oral thermometer are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  14. Optics: Light, Color, and Their Uses. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This educator's guide from discusses optics, light, color and their uses. Activities include: (1) "Reflection of Light with a Plane (Flat) Mirror--Trace a Star"; (2) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a 90-Degree Angle"; (3) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a Number of…

  15. A Networking Guide on Teenage Pregnancy & Parenting in Maryland. Local Activities and Contact People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Interdepartmental Committee on Teenage Pregnancy and Parenting in Maryland, Baltimore.

    This networking guide is intended to encourage public agencies and the private sector throughout Maryland to share information, concerns, and strategies with one another regarding teenage pregnancy and parenting. The first section, a summary of local-level activities regarding teenage pregnancy and parenting, emphasizes efforts undertaken in…

  16. Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA): More than Hearing and Better than Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, James Brian, II; Fornari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA) are podcast-delivered instruction designed to facilitate learning through all-body experiments. Instruction by MAGA has undergone preliminary testing in an introductory physics course at Central Michigan University. Topics are currently focused on mechanics and range from discovering the differences between…

  17. Medical Asepsis. Kit No. 302. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Gloria

    This instructor's manual and student learning guide comprise a module on medical asepsis for a secondary-level health occupations program. The six activities in the module cover medical asepsis terms; ways organisms spread; types of medical asepsis; aseptic equipment care; proper handwashing; and procedures for using masks, gloves, and gowns.…

  18. Suited for Spacewalking: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; George, Jane A. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Human Resources and Education Education Division Washington, DC Education Working Group NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas This publication is in the Public Domain and is not protected by copyright. Permission is not required for duplication.

  19. Agriculture--Forestry. Kit No. 31. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics, distributive…

  20. Bubble Festival: Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline; Willard, Carolyn

    This learning station guide adapts the Bubble Festival, an all-school event, for individual classrooms. It presents students with a variety of different challenges at learning stations set up around the classroom. The activities are student-centered and involve open-ended investigations. Also included are ways to extend students' experiences at…

  1. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  2. Distributive Education--Fashion Show. Kit No. 88. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion shows are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  3. T & I--Metalworking, Forging. Kit No. 55. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forging are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (metalworking). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  4. D.E.--Fashion Merchandising. Kit No. 43. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion merchandising are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  5. Human Development Program: Pre-School and Kindergarten Activity Guide, Revised 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold; Ball, Geraldine

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for preschool and kindergarten students. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists. Major objectives of this program are to help children assume responsibility and build self-confidence. After a brief…

  6. Folklife and the Federal Government. A Guide to Activities, Resources, Funds, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Linda C., Comp.

    The guide describes fifty-four diverse federal programs and activities which are potential sources of financial and other assistance to those interested in various aspects of folklife. Potential users are folk artists; folklorists; researchers in linguistics, anthropology, and ethnology; members of ethnic or regional groups involved in presenting…

  7. Office Occupations--Accounting, Payroll. Kit No. 64. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on payroll management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations (accounting). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  8. Self-Regulating Activity: Use of Metacognitive Guides in the Interpreting Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada, Maria Dolors; Arumi, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This research studies the development of metacognitive skills in students of consecutive interpreting from German into Spanish. The purpose is to discover which self-regulating processes appear after introducing a specific pedagogical action based on metacognitive guides. Our hypothesis is that self-regulating activity will increase as work with…

  9. For Spacious Skies Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, C. Whitney; Borden, Jack

    Despite the fact that the sky is the most dominant feature of our surroundings, it plays the role of an unseen background for may objects. It is the intent of this guide to bring about an awareness of the sky to young people. Topics for activities include: (1) "Sky Awareness"; (2) "Compass"; (3) "Hand Lens"; (4) "Prism"; (5) "Binoculars"; (6)…

  10. Let's Meet Famous Artists. A Creative Art Activity Book. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists and Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; And Others

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  11. Classic to Contemporary: Famous Artists and Activities. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists' Biographies and Enrichment/Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; Lewis-Spicer, Lisa

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  12. Accurate lacustrine and wetland sediment accumulation rates determined from 14c activity of bulk sediment fractions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the absence of identifiable macrofossils in lacustrine sediments, 14C dating must rely on pollen or bulk sediment fractions. Bulk sediment fractions are not generally preferred because they contain an unknown mixture of organic material of variable age, they may contain dead carbon such as ligni...

  13. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  14. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  15. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  16. Using activity-based costing to guide strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Dowless, R M

    1997-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is not widely used in the healthcare industry. Some healthcare provider organizations are considering ABC, however, because of its potential to improve resource management and thereby maximize efficiency. ABC supports better pricing practices through more accurate costing and can be used to identify underutilized resources as well as associated costs that can be reduced. ABC can be a useful tool for determining the cost of unused capacity and for making strategic management decisions that will reduce costs. PMID:10167847

  17. Polymer fraction of Aloe vera exhibits a protective activity on ethanol-induced gastric lesions.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Hong; Nam, Dong-Yoon; Son, Hyeong-U; Lee, Si-Rim; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Heo, Jin-Chul; Cha, Tae-Yang; Baek, Jin-Hong; Lee, Sang-Han

    2011-04-01

    For centuries, Aloe has been used as a herbal plant remedy against skin disorders, diabetes, and for its cardiac stimulatory activity. Here, we examined the gastroprotective effects of an Aloe vera polymer fraction (Avpf; molecular weight cut-off ≥50 kDa; 150 mg/kg body weight, p.o.) on an ethanol-induced gastric lesion mouse model. Mice pre-treated with Avpf had significantly fewer gastric lesions than their respective controls. To further examine the potential mechanism underlying this effect, we used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to examine nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)mRNA expression on tissues from gastric lesions. Our results revealed that the mRNA expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) were each reduced by ~50% in Avpf-treated mice vs. the controls, whereas, the mRNA expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase remained unchanged. MMP-9, an index for gastric lesions, also alleviated the ethanol-treated gastric ulceration during Avpf treatment. These findings collectively suggest that Avpf significantly protects the gastric mucosa against ethanol-induced gastric damage, at least in part, by decreasing mRNA expression levels of not only iNOS and nNOS, but also MMP-9. PMID:21286662

  18. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity.

    PubMed

    Krager, Kimberly J; Pineda, E Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J; Compadre, Cesar M; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  19. Tocotrienol-Rich Fraction from Rice Bran Demonstrates Potent Radiation Protection Activity

    PubMed Central

    Krager, Kimberly J.; Pineda, E. Nathalie; Kharade, Sujay V.; Kordsmeier, Mary; Howard, Luke; Breen, Philip J.; Compadre, Cesar M.; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Aykin-Burns, Nukhet

    2015-01-01

    The vitamin E analogs δ-tocotrienol (DT3) and γ-tocotrienol (GT3) have significant protective and mitigative capacity against the detrimental effects of ionizing radiation (IR). However, the expense of purification limits their potential use. This study examined the tocotrienol-rich fraction of rice bran (TRFRB) isolated from rice bran deodorizer distillate, a rice oil refinement waste product, to determine its protective effects against IR induced oxidative damage and H2O2. Several cell lines were treated with tocotrienols or TRFRB prior to or following exposure to H2O2 or IR. To determine the radioprotective capacity cells were analyzed for morphology, mitochondrial bioenergetics, clonogenic survival, glutathione oxidation, cell cycle, and migration rate. TRFRB displayed similar antioxidant activity compared to pure tocotrienols. Cells pretreated with TRFRB or DT3 exhibited preserved cell morphology and mitochondrial respiration when exposed to H2O2. Oxidized glutathione was decreased in TRFRB treated cells exposed to IR. TRFRB reversed mitochondrial uncoupling and protected cells migration rates following IR exposure. The protective antioxidant capacity of TRFRB treated cells against oxidative injury was similar to that of purified DT3. TRFRB effectively protects normal cells against IR induced injury suggesting that rice bran distillate may be an inexpensive and abundant alternate source. PMID:26425129

  20. Adjuvant effect of cranberry proanthocyanidin active fraction on antivirulent property of ciprofloxacin against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Vadekeetil, Anitha; Alexandar, V; Chhibber, Sanjay; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing inhibitors (QSIs) act as antivirulent agents since quorum sensing (QS) plays a vital role in regulating pathogenesis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, application of single QSI may not be effective as pathogen is vulnerable to successful mutations. In such conditions, combination of QSIs can be exploited as there can be synergistic or adjuvant action. In the present study, we evaluated the antivirulence efficacy of combination of Vaccinium macrocarpon proanthocyanidin active fraction (PAF) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) at their sub-MICs using standard methods followed by analysis of their mode of action on QS using TLC and molecular docking. There was significant improvement in action of CIP when it was combined with PAF in reducing the QS controlled virulence factors (p < 0.05), motilities and biofilm of P. aeruginosa. TLC profiles of QS signals [(Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL) and Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS)] indicated that CIP in combination with PAF, besides showing inhibitory action on production of AHLs, also modulated production and inactivation of PQS. Docking scores also supported the observation. We therefore hypothesize that PAF-CIP combination, having improved anti-virulence property; can be exploited as a potent drug pairing against P. aeruginosa. PMID:26620081