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Sample records for activity guided isolation

  1. LC-MS Guided Isolation of Bioactive Principles from Iris hookeriana and Bioevaluation of Isolates for Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activities.

    PubMed

    Dar, B A; Lone, S H; Shah, W A; Bhat, K A

    2016-08-01

    The genus Iris is diverse both in the abundance of secondary metabolities as well as the biological activities. The rhizomes of Iris hookeriana exhibit significant anthelminthic activity against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Although Iris hookeriana has been a subject of the study of so many phytochemical studies, yet we report some constituents for the first time from this plant using a different isolation approach. This manuscript presents the isolation, antimicrobial and antioxidant evaluation of bioactive principles from Iris hookeriana. LC-MS guided isolation technique was applied for the separation of target constituents. The isolates were characterised by spectral techniques and subjected to antioxidant evaluation by DPPH assay. Four compounds; resveratrol, resveratroloside, junipeginin C and isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperidoside were isolated for the first time along with 3 known compounds viz piceid, irigenin and iridin from I. hookeriana using this approach. The antioxidant activity screening of the isolates revealed that all the 4 constituents isolated for the first time, have strong antioxidant potential with IC50 of 14.0 µg/ml (resveratroloside), 19.7 µg/ml (junipeginen C), 12.8 µg/ml (resveratrol) and 19.8 µg/ml (isorhamnetin-3-O-neohesperodoside). So it can be safely concluded that LC-MS guided isolation of chemical compounds from Iris hookeriana has furnished 4 antioxidant constituents. Thus Iris hookeriana can act as as a good source of wonder molecule resveratrol and its 2 glycosides, resveratrolside and piceid which upon hydrolysis can be converted into the parent drug resveratrol. PMID:27281447

  2. Activity-guided isolation of cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl constituents from Dumortiera hirsuta.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Masao; Ikeda, Risa; Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2013-01-01

    Activity-guided fractionation of the ether extract of Dumortiera hirsute (Japanese liverwort), using cytotoxicity testing with cultured HL 60 and KB cells, resulted in the isolation of a new cytotoxic bis-bibenzyl compound, along with the two known bis-bibenzyls: isomarchantin C and isoriccardin C. The structural determination of the new bis-bibenzyl through extensive NMR spectral data indicated a derivative of marchantin A, which has been isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha. The cytotoxicity of the bis-bibenzyls was evaluated by the MTT (3-(4,5-di-methylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay using cultured HL 60 and KB cells.

  3. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment. PMID:26754253

  4. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Two Flavonoids from Derris scandens with Topoisomerase II Poison Activity.

    PubMed

    Sangmalee, Suphattra; Laorpaksa, Areerat; Sritularak, Boonchoo; Sukrong, Suchada

    2016-01-01

    Derris scandens (ROXB.) BENTH. (Fabaceae) is used as an alternative treatment for cancer in Thai traditional medicine. Investigation of the topoisomerase II (Top2) poison of compounds isolated from this plant may reveal new drug leads for the treatment of cancer. Bioassay-guided isolation was performed on an extract of D. scandens stems using a yeast cell-based assay. A yeast strain expressing the top2-1 temperature-sensitive mutant was used to assay Top2 activity. At the permissive temperature of 25°C, yeast cells were highly sensitive to Top2 poison agents. At the semi-permissive temperature of 30°C, where enzyme activity was present but greatly diminished, cells displayed only marginal sensitivity. The bioassay-guided fractionation of the extract led to the isolation of two known isoflavones: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-diprenylisoflavone (1) and lupalbigenin (2). These two compounds also displayed cytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines, KB, MCF-7 and NCI-H187. In conclusion, Top2 poison agents from D. scandens are reported for the first time, substantiating the use of D. scandens in Thai traditional medicine for cancer treatment.

  5. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Compounds from Datura stramonium with TRAIL-Resistance Overcoming Activity.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Utpal K; Toume, Kazufumi; Ishikawa, Naoki; Arai, Midori A; Sadhu, Samir K; Ahmed, Firoj; Ishibashi, Masami

    2016-02-01

    TRAIL is a potent inducer of apoptosis in most cancer cells, but not in normal cells, and therefore has deserved intense interest as a promising agent for cancer therapy. In the search for bioactive natural products for overcoming TRAIL-resistance, we previously reported a number of active compounds. In our screening program on natural resources targeting overcoming TRAIL-resistance, activity-guided fractionation of the MeOH extract of Datura stramonium leaves led to the isolation of three alkaloids--scopolamine (1), trigonelline (2), and tyramine (3). Compounds 1, 2, and 3 exhibited TRAIL-resistance overcoming activity at 50, 150, and 100 µM, respectively in TRAIL-resistant AGS cells. PMID:27032197

  6. Activity-guided isolation of an antiandrogenic compound of Pygeum africanum.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Sonja; Papaioannou, Maria; Baniahmad, Aria; Matusch, Rudolf

    2006-05-01

    Inactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) through androgen ablation and treatment with antiandrogens is a major goal in the therapy for prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer. Bioactivity-directed fractionation of a selective dichloromethane extract from the stem bark of Pygeum africanum led to the isolation of the antiandrogenic compound atraric acid. Its activity was examined by an androgen receptor responsive reporter gene assay. For lead structure optimization we transformed the natural occurring compound atraric acid into its ethyl, N-propyl and N-butyl esters and their antiandrogenic activities were examined as well. In addition, benzoic acid was isolated. The structures of all compounds were determined and characterized by means of 1H- and 13C-NMR, HR-EI-mass, IR and UV spectroscopy.

  7. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of anti-platelet-active compounds from the root of Ashitaba (Angelica keiskei Koidz.).

    PubMed

    Son, Dong Ju; Park, Ye Oak; Yu, Chengguang; Lee, Sung Eun; Park, Young Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Platelet aggregation is fundamental to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes, including the induction of thrombosis and arteriosclerosis. Anti-platelet activity of a crude methanol extract and solvent fractions of Ashitaba roots (Angelica keiskei Koidz.) was evaluated using a turbidimetric method using washed rabbit platelets. We identified the anti-platelet activities of two chalcones, 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol, isolated from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of Ashitaba roots by using a bioassay-guided isolation method. 4-Hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol effectively inhibited platelet aggregation induced by collagen (IC50 of 41.9 and 35.9 μM, respectively), platelet-activating factor (IC50 of 46.1 and 42.3 μM, respectively) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (IC50 of 16.5 and 45.9 μM, respectively). These compounds did not inhibit thrombin-induced platelet aggregation (IC50 of>80 μM). The results suggest that the chalcones 4-hydroxyderricin and xanthoangelol may be potent anti-thrombotic components of A. keiskei Koidz.

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) skin by combination of chromatography techniques.

    PubMed

    Oldoni, Tatiane L C; Melo, Priscilla S; Massarioli, Adna P; Moreno, Ivani A M; Bezerra, Rosângela M N; Rosalen, Pedro L; da Silva, Gil V J; Nascimento, Andréa M; Alencar, Severino M

    2016-02-01

    Purification and bioassay-guided fractionation were employed to isolate proanthocyanidins with antioxidant activity from peanut skin (Arachis hypogaea Runner 886). The crude extract was prepared with acetone (60% v/v) and purified using chromatographic methods, including a semipreparative HPLC technique. As a result, two proanthocyanidins were isolated and identified using NMR, epicatechin-(2 β → O → 7, 4 β → 8)-catechin (proanthocyanidin A1) and epicatechin-(β → 2 O → 7, 4 β → 8)-epicatechin (proanthocyanidin A2). Despite the structural similarity, differences were observed in their antioxidant activity. Proanthocyanidin A1 proved to be more active, with EC50 value for DPPH radical scavenging of 18.25 μg/mL and reduction of Fe(3+)-TPTZ complex of 7.59 mmol/g, higher than that of synthetic antioxidant BHT. This compound evaluated by ABTS(+) was similar to that of natural quercetin. Therefore, peanut skin is an important source of bioactive compounds that may be used as a mild antioxidant for food preservation.

  9. Nutrition Activities Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The resource guide suggests activities to help special education students make appropriate choices about their nutritional habits. It is explained that the activities can be infused into other curriculum areas. The guide consists of five themes and includes performance objectives for each: foods eaten at school (planning a school lunch, keeping a…

  10. Valuing Families. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glashagel, Jerry; Glashagel, Char

    Developed as a resource for family life education, this activity guide can be used to lead experiential learning situations for intergenerational groups by a counselor, in a course, in a family organization like the YMCA, or in the home. The goals of this guide are to increase the self-esteem of each person and to strengthen the family as a human…

  11. Woodsy Owl Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This guide offers teachers and after-school group leaders 12 fun and engaging activities. Activities feature lessons on trees, water, wind, the earth, food, and waste. The activities are designed to help children aged 5-8 become more aware of the natural environment and fundamental conservation principles. Titles of children's books are embedded…

  12. ZOOMsci Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Meredith

    This activity guide is based on the Public Broadcasting System's (PBS) program "ZOOM." It is designed for educators with activities that are categorized into three themes: (1) Things That Go, which includes "Air" which explores air pressure, "Rubber Bands" which discovers the potential energy of rubber bands, "Baking Soda and Vinegar" which…

  13. Bioactivity-guided isolation of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids as active compounds in the anxiolytic and sedative effects of Tilia americana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Hernández, Eva; Rosas-Acevedo, Hortensia; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Martínez, Ana Laura; Moreno, Julia; González-Trujano, Ma Eva

    2007-09-01

    Tilia species have been used as anxiolytics for many years. In a previous study anxiolytic-like effects of a hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana inflorescences were observed in experimental models in mice. To get additional insights into the neuroactive actions of this particular Tilia species, in this study we report a bioactivity guided-fractionation of the extract and separation by column chromatographic methods to isolate three fatty acids and a triterpene identified as beta-sitosterol as major constituents. Our results revealed that the crude extract at 10 and 30 mg/kg I. P. and some pooled fractions at the same dosages potentiated sodium pentobarbital-induced sleeping time and caused a significant increase in the time spent at the open-arm sides in the plus-maze test. A reduction in the exploratory behavioral pattern manifested as ambulatory activity, as well as head dipping and rearing tests was also observed. Further fractionation and purification yielded four major fractions containing fatty acids and beta-sitosterol as the active compounds. A dose-response curve of beta-sitosterol in the range 1 to 30 mg/kg doses indicated that this compound produced an anxiolytic-like action from 1 to 10 mg/kg and a sedative response when the dose was increased to 30 mg/kg, these effects resemble those produced by diazepam (0.1 mg/kg). Our results suggest that hexane extract of Tilia americana var. mexicana produces depressant actions on the central nervous system, at least in part, because of the presence of beta-sitosterol and some fatty acids that remain to be identified.

  14. Bioactivity-guided Isolation of antiosteoporotic compounds from Ligustrum lucidum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qianfeng; Yang, Lijuan; Zhang, Guolin; Wang, Fei

    2013-07-01

    The fruits of Ligustrum lucidum (FLL) has long been used for the treatment of osteoporosis in China, but the antiosteoporotic compounds in FLL are still poorly understood. In this study, the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity-guided isolation of osteogenic components from FLL was carried out by using osteoblast-like UMR-106 cells. Eight compounds, namely tyrosol (1), tyrosyl acetate (2), hydroxytyrosol (3), salidroside (4), oleoside dimethyl ester (5), oleoside-7-ethyl-11-methyl ester (6), nuzhenide (7), and G13 (8), were isolated and identified. Further study showed that compounds 3, 4, 7, and 8 increased ALP activity in UMR-106 cells. Compounds 5, 6, and 7 promoted the proliferation of UMR-106 cells. The aqueous extract of FLL-activated ERα/β-mediated gene transcription, whereas the isolated compounds were inactive. All eight isolated compounds also exhibited antioxidative activity, with compounds 1, 2, and 3 being the most potent. These results indicate that the antiosteoporotic effect of FLL is derived from different compounds together with different mechanisms such as ER-dependent or independent pathways and antioxidative effects. Salidroside (4) and nuzhenide (7) warrant further investigation as new pharmaceutical tools for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:22893624

  15. UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation of prenylated xanthones and benzoylphloroglucinols from the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia and their migration-inhibitory activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Dan, Zheng; Ding, Zhi-Jie; Lao, Yuan-Zhi; Tan, Hong-Sheng; Xu, Hong-Xi

    2016-01-01

    A UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS-guided isolation strategy was employed to screen and track potentially new compounds from Garcinia oblongifolia. As a result, two new prenylated xanthones, oblongixanthones D and E (1–2), six new prenylated benzoylphloroglucinol derivatives, oblongifolins V–Z (3–7) and oblongifolin AA (8), as well as a known compound oblongifolin L (9), were isolated from the EtOAc-soluble fraction of an acetone extract of the leaves of Garcinia oblongifolia guided by UPLC-PDA-QTOFMS analysis. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopic analysis and mass spectrometry. Experimental and calculated ECD spectra were used to determine the absolute configurations. The results of wound healing and transwell migration assay showed that oblongixanthones D (1), E (2), and oblongifolin L (9) have the ability to inhibit cancer cell migration in lower cytotoxic concentrations. Western blotting results showed that these compounds exhibited an anti-metastasis effect mainly through downregulating RAF protein levels. In addition, 2 and 9 could inhibit phospho-MEK and phospho-ERK at downstream. Moreover, 1, 2, and 9 could inhibit snail protein level, suggesting that they could regulate the EMT pathway. PMID:27767059

  16. Target guided isolation, in-vitro antidiabetic, antioxidant activity and molecular docking studies of some flavonoids from Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. bark

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. is traditionally important plant and is reported to possess a variety of pharmacological actions. The present research exertion was undertaken to isolate and characterized the flavonoids from the extract of stem bark of Albizzia Lebbeck Benth. and to evaluate the efficacy of the isolated flavonoids on in-vitro models of type-II diabetes. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro experimentation inveterate by the molecular docking studies of the isolated flavonoids on α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Methods Isolation of the flavonoids from the methanolic extract of stem bark of A. Lebbeck Benth was executed by the Silica gel (Si) column chromatography to yield different fractions. These fractions were then subjected to purification to obtain three important flavonoids. The isolated flavonoids were then structurally elucidated with the assist of 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and Mass spectroscopy. In-vitro experimentation was performed with evaluation of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH inhibition capacity. Molecular docking study was performed with GLIDE docking software. Results Three flavonoids, (1) 5-deoxyflavone (geraldone), (2) luteolin and (3) Isookanin were isolated from the EtOAc fraction of the methanolic extract of Albizzia lebbeck Benth bark. (ALD). All the compounds revealed to inhibit the α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes in in-vitro investigation correlating to reduce the plasma glucose level. Molecular docking study radically corroborates the binding affinity and inhibition of α-glucosidase and α-amylase enzymes. Conclusion The present research exertion demonstrates the anti-diabetic and antioxidant activity of the important isolated flavonoids with inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase and DPPH which is further supported by molecular docking analysis. PMID:24886138

  17. Activity-guided isolation, identification and quantification of biologically active isomeric compounds from folk medicinal plant Desmodium adscendens using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector, mass spectrometry and multidimentional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zielińska-Pisklak, Monika A; Kaliszewska, Dorota; Stolarczyk, Magdalena; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude extract (60% ethanol) from the leaves of Desmodium adscendens (Sw.) DC. (Fabaceae) was observed in DPPH, xanthine/xanthine oxidase, lipid peroxydation and neutrophils burst tests. Further activity-guided fractionation on C18 column (water, 20% methanol, 50% methanol and 100% methanol) resulted in the separation of the fraction (50% methanol) with the highest antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis of biologically active fraction revealed the presence of two pairs of flavonoid isomers as the dominant constituents. Those compounds were isolated and purified by multi-step liquid column chromatography (Sephadex LH20). Their structures were elucidated by various spectroscopic techniques, including NMR, UV and MS. Based on 1D and 2D NMR spectra as well as ion fragmentation, flavonoids were identified as: isovitexin 2''-O-xyloside (1), vitexin 2''-O-xyloside (2), vitexin (3) and isovitexin (4). The hybrid HSQC-DEPT technique provided very fast determination of the glycosylation positions in aglycone and the type of glycosidic bond in the flavonoid isomers. This study provides novel information concerning identity of the major compounds present in the leaves of D. adscendens cultivated in Ghana, which broadens the knowledge about anti-inflammatory, antiallergic and antioxidant properties of their extracts. PMID:25240729

  18. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiatherosclerotic phytochemicals from Artocarpus altilis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Tongle; Lin, Lin; Pan, Yuanjiang; Zheng, Xiaoxiang

    2006-12-01

    The cytoprotective effects of various solvent extracts of Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg were evaluated. The cytoprotective effects were determined in human U937 cells incubated with oxidized LDL (OxLDL) using the 4-[3-(4-iodophenyl)-2-(4-nitrophenyl)-2H-5-tetrazolio]-1, 3-benzene disulfonate (WST-1) assay. The results demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract showed cytoprotective activities. To identify the main cytoprotective components, a bioassay guided isolation of the ethyl acetate extract afforded b-sitosterol (1) and six flavonoids (2-7). Their chemical structures were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence and comparison with literature data. Of these compounds, compound 6 was obtained from A. altilis for the first time. The cytoprotective effect offers good prospects for the medicinal applications of A. altilis.

  19. Induction of Angiogenesis in Zebrafish Embryos and Proliferation of Endothelial Cells by an Active Fraction Isolated from the Root of Astragalus membranaceus using Bioassay-guided Fractionation

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Patrick Kwok-Kin; Chan, Judy Yuet-Wa; Kwok, Hin-Fai; Cheng, Ling; Yu, Hua; Lau, Ching-Po; Leung, Ping-Chung; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Lau, Clara Bik-San

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the active fraction(s) from AR aqueous extract responsible for promoting angiogenesis using bioassay-guided fractionation. The angiogenic activity was screened by monitoring the increase of sprout number in sub-intestinal vessel (SIV) of the transgenic zebrafish embryos after they were treated with 0.06-0.25 mg/ml of AR aqueous extract or its fraction(s) for 96 h. Furthermore, the angiogenic effect was evaluated in treated zebrafish embryos by measuring the gene expression of angiogenic markers (VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1) using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and in human microvascular endothelial cell (HMEC-1) by measuring cell proliferation using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, 3H-thymidine uptake assay, and cell cycle analysis. A major active fraction (P1-1-1), which was identified as glycoproteins, was found to significantly stimulate sprout formation (2.03 ± 0.27) at 0.125 mg/ml (P < 0.001) and up-regulate the gene expression of VEGFA, KDR, and Flt-1 by 2.6-fold to 8.2-fold. Additionally, 0.031-0.125 mg/ml of P1-1-1 was demonstrated to significantly stimulate cell proliferation by increasing cell viability (from 180% to 205%), 3H-thymidine incorporation (from 126% to 133%) during DNA synthesis, and the shift of cell population to S phase of cell cycle. A major AR active fraction consisting of glycoproteins was identified, and shown to promote angiogenesis in zebrafish embryos and proliferation of endothelial cells in vitro. PMID:25379465

  20. Building Big with David Macaulay. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sammons, James; Sammons, Fran Lyons; Curtis, Paul

    This activity guide is designed for educators and features suggestions for possible activity paths for different amounts of available time and survival tips for activity leaders. Each activity is divided into two sections--educator ideas and activity handouts. Activity sections include: (1) Foundations; (2) Bridges; (3) Domes; (4) Skyscrapers; (5)…

  1. Space based astronomy: Teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor); Weiler, Edward; Morrow, Cherilyn; Bacon, Pamela M.; Thorne, Muriel; Blanchard, Paul A.; Howard, Sethane; Pengra, Patricia R.; Brown, Deborah A.; Winrich, Ralph

    1994-01-01

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy - astronomical observations made from outer space. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. Instead, it tells the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy related NASA spacecraft. This is followed by a collection of activities in four units: (1) the atmospheric filter; (2) the electromagnetic spectrum; (3) collecting electromagnetic radiation; and (4) down to Earth. A curriculum index identifies the curriculum areas each activity addresses. The guide concludes with a glossary, reference list, a NASA Resources list, and an evaluation card. It is designed for students in grades 5 through 8.

  2. Active nematocyst isolation via nudibranchs.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, Ami; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Loya, Yossi

    2009-01-01

    Cnidarian venoms are potentially valuable tools for biomedical research and drug development. They are contained within nematocysts, the stinging organelles of cnidarians. Several methods exist for the isolation of nematocysts from cnidarian tissues; most are tedious and target nematocysts from specific tissues. We have discovered that the isolated active nematocyst complement (cnidome) of several sea anemone (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) species is readily accessible. These nematocysts are isolated, concentrated, and released to the aqueous environment as a by-product of aeolid nudibranch Spurilla neapolitana cultures. S. neapolitana feed on venomous sea anemones laden with stinging nematocysts. The ingested stinging organelles of several sea anemone species are effectively excreted in the nudibranch feces. We succeeded in purifying the active organelles and inducing their discharge. Thus, our current study presents the attractive possibility of using nudibranchs to produce nematocysts for the investigation of novel marine compounds. PMID:19184220

  3. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  4. The Clifford Books: An Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foltz, Mary Jo

    This guide provides specific activities designed for use with the Clifford-the-Dog books to enhance students' personal development and enjoyment of literature. The general format for each activity includes the title of the Clifford book to be used, synopsis of the story, introduction to the book, and follow-up project. Activities are provided for…

  5. Phylogeny-guided isolation of ethyl tumonoate A from the marine cyanobacterium cf. Oscillatoria margaritifera.

    PubMed

    Engene, Niclas; Choi, Hyukjae; Esquenazi, Eduardo; Byrum, Tara; Villa, Francisco A; Cao, Zhengyu; Murray, Thomas F; Dorrestein, Pieter C; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H

    2011-08-26

    The evolutionary relationships of cyanobacteria, as inferred by their SSU (16S) rRNA genes, were used as predictors of their potential to produce varied secondary metabolites. The evolutionary relatedness in geographically distant cyanobacterial specimens was then used as a guide for the detection and isolation of new variations of predicted molecules. This phylogeny-guided isolation approach for new secondary metabolites was tested in its capacity to direct the search for specific classes of new natural products from Curaçao marine cyanobacteria. As a result, we discovered ethyl tumonoate A (1), a new tumonoic acid derivative with anti-inflammatory activity and inhibitory activity of calcium oscillations in neocortical neurons.

  6. Bio-guided Isolation of a New Sesterterpene from Serjania goniocarpa.

    PubMed

    Quintal-Novelo, Carlos; Torres-Tapia, Luis W; Moo-Puc, Rosa; Peraza-Sanchez, Sergio R

    2015-09-01

    Serjania goniocarpa is a plant used in Mayan traditional medicine as a remedy for the treatment of cancer-like symptoms. Bio-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of the leaves led to the isolation of an α- and β-amyrin mixture, palmitic acid, phytol and the new sesterterpene goniocarpic acid whose structure was elucidated by IR, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopic analyses. Goniocarpic acid exhibited cytotoxic and antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines. PMID:26594746

  7. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  8. Suited for Spacewalking: Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Manning, Cheryl A., Ed.

    Spacewalking has captured the imagination of generations of children and adults since science-fiction authors first placed their characters on the moon. This publication is an activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning…

  9. Selected Technology Lab Activities Implementation Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    These materials supplement state guides for junior high or middle school technology education programs. The materials show instructors how to implement 81 hours of new technology-related activities into existing programs. Introductory materials include a rationale, philosophy, and goals for technology education. Areas of instruction are as…

  10. Early Childhood: Activity Books and Resource Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Media and Materials for the Handicapped, Columbus, OH.

    Selected from the National Instructional Materials Information System (NIMIS)--a computer based on-line interactive retrieval system on special education materials--the bibliography covers 59 activity books and resource guides for developing skills at the early childhood level. Entries are presented in order of NIMIS accession number and include…

  11. Isolation of antibacterial compounds from Quercus dilatata L. through bioassay guided fractionation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Four medicinal plants (Chrozophora hierosolymitana Spreng, Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L., Ephedra gerardiana Wall. ex Stapf, and Quercus dilatata L.) used by indigenous healers to treat various infectious diseases were selected for the present study. The major objective of the present study was isolation and characterization of antimicrobial components from the crude plant extracts using bioassay guided fractionation. Methods Seven methanolic extracts of the four plants were screened to identify any antimicrobial agents present in them. The active crude plant extract was fractionated first by solvent partitioning and then by HPLC. Characterization of the active fractions was done by using spectrophotometer. Results All the seven methanolic extracts showed low antifungal activity, however, when these extracts were tested for antibacterial activity, significant activity was exhibited by two extracts. The extract of aerial parts of Q. dilatata was most active and therefore, was selected for further analysis. Initially fractionation was done by solvent-solvent partitioning and out of six partitioned fractions, ethanol fraction was selected on the basis of results of antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis. Further, fractionation was carried out by RP- HPLC and purified active subfractions were characterized by comparing their absorption spectra with that of the known natural products isolated from the plants of Quercus genus. Discussion and conclusion The results suggest that this is the first report of the isolated antibacterial compounds from this genus. PMID:22554280

  12. Bioassays guided isolation of compounds from Chaetomium globosum.

    PubMed

    Awad, N E; Kassem, H A; Hamed, M A; El-Naggar, M A A; El-Feky, A M M

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate different biological activities of the fungus Chaetomium globosum (family Chaetomiaceae). The evaluation was done through testing its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. C. globosum was isolated from the Cucumber soil (rhizosphere) and caused inhibition of the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani and Sclerotium rolfsii in the biculture test. Petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid culture of C. globosum showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity. C. globosum proved potent antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens. It also recorded significant antifungal activity against Candida albicans, F. solani, Fusarium oxysporum, R. solani and Pythium ultimum. It exerted cytotoxic effect on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Unsaponifiable and saponifiable matters of the petroleum ether extract showed the presence of hydrocarbons, sterols and fatty acids. The ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of prenisatin, chrysophanol, chrysazin, chaetoviridin A and B. The isolated secondary metabolites proved significant antioxidant and antimicrobial activity on B. subtilis, E. coli and R. solani. In conclusion, this fungus showed different biological activities. Further studies must be done to apply its use in the agricultural and medicinal field. PMID:24361402

  13. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  14. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  15. RNase One Gene Isolation, Expression, and Affinity Purification Models Research Experimental Progression and Culminates with Guided Inquiry-Based Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Cheryl P.

    2009-01-01

    This new biochemistry laboratory course moves through a progression of experiments that generates a platform for guided inquiry-based experiments. RNase One gene is isolated from prokaryotic genomic DNA, expressed as a tagged protein, affinity purified, and tested for activity and substrate specificity. Student pairs present detailed explanations…

  16. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of antifungal compounds from ginger.

    PubMed

    Ficker, C; Smith, M L; Akpagana, K; Gbeassor, M; Zhang, J; Durst, T; Assabgui, R; Arnason, J T

    2003-09-01

    A bioassay-guided isolation of antifungal compounds from an African land race of ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, led to the identification of [6], [8] and [10]-gingerols and [6]-gingerdiol as the main antifungal principles. The compounds were active against 13 human pathogens at concentrations of <1 mg/mL. The gingerol content of the African land race was at least 3 x higher than that of typical commercial cultivars of ginger. Therefore, ginger extracts standardized on the basis of the identified compounds, could be considered as antifungal agents for practical therapy. PMID:13680820

  17. Bioactivity-guided isolation of anti-inflammation flavonoids from the stems of Millettia dielsiana Harms.

    PubMed

    Ye, Haoyu; Wu, Wenshuang; Liu, Zhuowei; Xie, Caifeng; Tang, Minghai; Li, Shucai; Yang, Jianhong; Tang, Huan; Chen, Kai; Long, Chaofeng; Peng, Aihua; Wei, Yuquam; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-06-01

    Bioactivity-guided isolation of the EtOAc extract of the stems of Millettia dielsiana Harms yielded two new isoflavones together with nine known ones. Their structures were elucidated by analysis of the spectroscopic data including 2D NMR. All of the isolates were evaluated for their potential to inhibit the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide and TNF-α in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Among the tested compounds, Millesianin C (1) had the most potent anti-inflammatory effect decreasing NO production similar to that of dexamethasone and decreasing TNF-α secretion better than that of dexamethasone. Their structure-activity relationship was also analyzed. PMID:24641946

  18. Cerebral angiography as a guide for therapy in isolated central nervous system vasculitis

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, R.L.; Martino, C.R.; Weinert, D.M.; Hueftle, M.; Kammer, G.M.

    1987-04-24

    The authors present a case of isolated central nervous system vasculitis documented by cerebral arteriography in which remission, using a treatment regimen of prednisone and cyclophosphamide, was guided by serial arteriography during a 15-month period.

  19. Education & Recycling: Educator's Waste Management Resource and Activity Guide 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Conservation. Sacramento. Div. of Recycling.

    This activity guide for grades K-12 reinforces the concepts of recycling, reducing, and reusing through a series of youth-oriented activities. The guide incorporates a video-based activity, multiple session classroom activities, and activities requiring group participation and student conducted research. Constructivist learning theory was…

  20. Extracellular enzymatic activities of Bipolaris sorokiniana isolates.

    PubMed

    Geimba, Mercedes P; Brandelli, Adriano

    2002-01-01

    Several enzymatic activities were investigated in six isolates of the fungus Bipolaris sorokiniana, originating from different areas of Brazil. Among the glycosidases studied, beta-glucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, beta-xylosidase, cellobiohydrolase, and chitobiohydrolase were the major activities. In some isolates, beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, and alpha-mannosidase activities were also present. Polysaccharide-hydrolyzing enzymes, such as pectin lyase and carboxymethyl cellulase were detected in significant amounts, and their activities were variable among the different isolates. Other enzymes, namely phosphatases, proteinases and phenol oxidase, were also examined, showing variable amounts depending on the isolate. The pH dependence of all enzymes tested was investigated. Endoproteinase, carboxymethyl cellulase, and phenoloxidase had maximum activity in the pH range of 6-8, whilst all other enzymes showed maximum activity at pH 4-6.

  1. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Sesquiterpene Coumarins from Ferula narthex Bioss: A New Anticancer Agent

    PubMed Central

    Alam, Mahboob; Khan, Ajmal; Wadood, Abdul; Khan, Ayesha; Bashir, Shumaila; Aman, Akhtar; Jan, Abdul Khaliq; Rauf, Abdur; Ahmad, Bashir; Khan, Abdur Rahman; Farooq, Umar

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of cancer management with chemotherapy (anticancer drugs) is to kill the neoplastic (cancerous) cell instead of a normal healthy cell. The bioassay-guided isolation of two new sesquiterpene coumarins (compounds 1 and 2) have been carried out from Ferula narthex collected from Chitral, locally known as “Raw.” Anticancer activity of crude and all fractions have been carried out to prevent carcinogenesis by using MTT assay. The n-hexane fraction showed good activity with an IC50 value of 5.434 ± 0.249 μg/mL, followed by crude MeFn extract 7.317 ± 0.535 μg/mL, and CHCl3 fraction 9.613 ± 0.548 μg/mL. Compounds 1 and 2 were isolated from chloroform fraction. Among tested pure compounds, compound 1 showed good anticancer activity with IC50 value of 14.074 ± 0.414 μg/mL. PASS (Prediction of Activity Spectra) analysis of the compound 1 was carried out, in order to predicts their binding probability with anti-cancer target. As a results the compound 1 showed binding probability with human histone acetyltransferase with Pa (probability to be active) value of 0.303. The compound 1 was docked against human histone acetyltransferase (anti-cancer drug target) by using molecular docking simulations. Molecular docking results showed that compound 1 accommodate well in the anti-cancer drug target. Moreover the activity support cancer chemo preventive activity of different compounds isolated from the genus Ferula, in accordance with the previously reported anticancer activities of the genus. PMID:26909039

  2. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Structural Modification of the Anti-TB Resorcinols from Ardisia gigantifolia.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yi-Fu; Song, Xun; Qiu, Ming-Hua; Luo, Shi-Hong; Wang, Bao-Jie; Van Hung, Nguyen; Cuong, Nguyen M; Soejarto, Djaja Doel; Fong, Harry H S; Franzblau, Scott G; Li, Sheng-Hong; He, Zhen-Dan; Zhang, Hong-Jie

    2016-08-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a highly contagious disease mainly caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Antitubercular (anti-TB) bioassay-guided isolation of the CHCl3 extract of the leaves and stems of the medicinal plant Ardisia gigantifolia led to the isolation of two anti-TB 5-alkylresorcinols, 5-(8Z-heptadecenyl) resorcinol (1) and 5-(8Z-pentadecenyl) resorcinol (2). We further synthesized 15 derivatives based on these two natural products. These compounds (natural and synthetic) were evaluated for their anti-TB activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37 RV . Resorcinols 1 and 2 exhibited anti-TB activity with MIC values at 34.4 and 79.2 μm in MABA assay, respectively, and 91.7 and 168.3 μm in LORA assay, respectively. Among these derivatives, compound 8 was found to show improved anti-TB activity than its synthetic precursor (2) with MIC values at 42.0 μm in MABA assay and 100.2 μm in LORA assay. The active compounds should be regarded as new hits for further study as a novel class of anti-TB agents. The distinct structure-activity correlations of the parent compound were elucidated based on these derivatives.

  3. Office Reprographics. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with office reprographics. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives, suggestions…

  4. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Antiproliferative Triterpenoids from Euonymus alatus Twigs.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Rae; Eom, Hee Jeong; Lee, Seoung Rak; Choi, Sang Un; Kang, Ki Sung; Lee, Kang Ro; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Euonymus alatus (Celastraceae) has been used as an anticancer agent in Korean traditional medicine. However, the potential bioactive contributors to the anticancer effects have not been thoroughly studied. Our screening test revealed that the MeOH extract of E. alatus twigs exhibited significant cytotoxicity against A549, SK-OV-3, and SK-MEL-2 cell lines. A bioassay-guided separation of the MeOH extract of E. alatus twigs resulted in the isolation and identification of 14 triterpenes as main phytochemicals. The structures of the compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic evidence as lupeol (1), betulin (2), 3β,28,30-lup-20(29)-ene triol (3), lupenone (4), betulone (5), 28,30-dihydroxy-3-oxolup-20(29)-ene (6), messagenin (7), glut-5-en-3β-ol (8), maslinic acid (9), hederagenin (10), 3-oxo-11α-methoxyolean-12-ene (11), 3β-hydroxy-1-oxo-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (12), ursolic acid (13), and 2a-hydroxy- ursolic acid (14). Of these compounds, 3, 6-8, and 10-14 were isolated for the first time from this plant. All isolated triterpenoids had consistent antiproliferative activities against A549, SK-OV-3, SK-MEL-2, and HCT-15 cell lines. Compounds 2, 5, and 7 showed significant cytotoxicity against all four cell lines tested, with IC50 values of 3.26-8.61 µM. PMID:26749829

  5. Have a Bearable Summer-Read: An Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary, Ed.

    Designed to help librarians plan a summer reading program around the theme of bears called "have a bearable summer," this activity guide presents many activities and organizational suggestions. The first section of the guide deals with publicity and public relations, while the second section covers story time activities. The third section presents…

  6. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  7. Isolated polypeptide having arabinofuranosidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Foreman, Pamela; Van Solingen, Pieter; Goedegebuur, Frits; Ward, Michael

    2010-02-23

    Described herein are novel gene sequences isolated from Trichoderma reesei. Two genes encoding proteins comprising a cellulose binding domain, one encoding an arabionfuranosidase and one encoding an acetylxylanesterase are described. The sequences, CIP1 and CIP2, contain a cellulose binding domain. These proteins are especially useful in the textile and detergent industry and in pulp and paper industry. TABLE-US-00001 cip1 cDNA sequence (SEQ ID NO: 1) GACTAGTTCA TAATACAGTA GTTGAGTTCA TAGCAACTTC 50 ACTCTCTAGC TGAACAAATT ATCTGCGCAA ACATGGTTCG CCGGACTGCT 100 CTGCTGGCCC TTGGGGCTCT CTCAACGCTC TCTATGGCCC AAATCTCAGA 150 CGACTTCGAG TCGGGCTGGG ATCAGACTAA ATGGCCCATT TCGGCACCAG 200 ACTGTAACCA GGGCGGCACC GTCAGCCTCG ACACCACAGT AGCCCACAGC 250 GGCAGCAACT CCATGAAGGT CGTTGGTGGC CCCAATGGCT ACTGTGGACA 300 CATCTTCTTC GGCACTACCC AGGTGCCAAC TGGGGATGTA TATGTCAGAG 350 CTTGGATTCG GCTTCAGACT GCTCTCGGCA GCAACCACGT CACATTCATC 400 ATCATGCCAG ACACCGCTCA GGGAGGGAAG CACCTCCGAA TTGGTGGCCA 450 AAGCCAAGTT CTCGACTACA ACCGCGAGTC CGACGATGCC ACTCTTCCGG 500 ACCTGTCTCC CAACGGCATT GCCTCCACCG TCACTCTGCC TACCGGCGCG 550 TTCCAGTGCT TCGAGTACCA CCTGGGCACT GACGGAACCA TCGAGACGTG 600 GCTCAACGGC AGCCTCATCC CGGGCATGAC CGTGGGCCCT GGCGTCGACA 650 ATCCAAACGA CGCTGGCTGG ACGAGGGCCA GCTATATTCC GGAGATCACC 700 GGTGTCAACT TTGGCTGGGA GGCCTACAGC GGAGACGTCA ACACCGTCTG 750 GTTCGACGAC ATCTCGATTG CGTCGACCCG CGTGGGATGC GGCCCCGGCA 800 GCCCCGGCGG TCCTGGAAGC TCGACGACTG GGCGTAGCAG CACCTCGGGC 850 CCGACGAGCA CTTCGAGGCC AAGCACCACC ATTCCGCCAC CGACTTCCAG 900 GACAACGACC GCCACGGGTC CGACTCAGAC ACACTATGGC CAGTGCGGAG 1000 GGATTGGTTA CAGCGGGCCT ACGGTCTGCG CGAGCGGCAC GACCTGCCAG 1050 GTCCTGAACC CATACTACTC CCAGTGCTTA TAAGGGGATG AGCATGGAGT 1100 GAAGTGAAGT GAAGTGGAGA GAGTTGAAGT GGCATTGCGC TCGGCTGGGT 1150 AGATAAAAGT CAGCAGCTAT GAATACTCTA TGTGATGCTC ATTGGCGTGT 1200 ACGTTTTAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAA 1250 AAAAAAAAAA AAAAAAAAAG GGGGCGGCCG C 1271

  8. Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Neuroprotective Compounds from Uncaria rhynchophylla against Beta-Amyloid-Induced Neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Yan-Fang; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Mao, Qing-Qiu; Hu, Zhen; Zhao, Ming; Che, Chun-Tao; Ip, Siu-Po

    2012-01-01

    Uncaria rhynchophylla is a component herb of many Chinese herbal formulae for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. Previous study in our laboratory has demonstrated that an ethanol extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla ameliorated cognitive deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease induced by D-galactose. However, the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla responsible for the anti-Alzheimer's disease activity have not been identified. This study aims to identify the active ingredients of Uncaria rhynchophylla by a bioassay-guided fractionation approach and explore the acting mechanism of these active ingredients by using a well-established cellular model of Alzheimer's disease, beta-amyloid- (Aβ-) induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells. The results showed that six alkaloids, namely, corynoxine, corynoxine B, corynoxeine, isorhynchophylline, isocorynoxeine, and rhynchophylline were isolated from the extract of Uncaria rhynchophylla. Among them, rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline significantly decreased Aβ-induced cell death, intracellular calcium overloading, and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in PC12 cells. These results suggest that rhynchophylline and isorhynchophylline are the major active ingredients responsible for the protective action of Uncaria rhynchophylla against Aβ-induced neuronal toxicity, and their neuroprotective effect may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting intracellular calcium overloading and tau protein hyperphosphorylation. PMID:22778778

  9. Aircraft: United States Air Force Child Care Program Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boggs, Juanita; Brant, Linda

    General information about United States' aircraft is provided in this program activity guide for teachers and caregivers in Air Force preschools and day care centers. The guide includes basic information for teachers and caregivers, basic understandings, suggested teaching methods and group activities, vocabulary, ideas for interest centers, and…

  10. A Guided Inquiry Activity for Teaching Ligand Field Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brian J.; Graham, Kate J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper will describe a guided inquiry activity for teaching ligand field theory. Previous research suggests the guided inquiry approach is highly effective for student learning. This activity familiarizes students with the key concepts of molecular orbital theory applied to coordination complexes. Students will learn to identify factors that…

  11. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiplasmodial constituents from Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker.

    PubMed

    Boniface, Pone Kamdem; Verma, Surjeet; Shukla, Aparna; Cheema, Harveer Singh; Srivastava, Santosh Kumar; Khan, Feroz; Darokar, Mahendra Pandurang; Pal, Anirban

    2015-02-01

    Conyza sumatrensis (Retz.) E.H. Walker (Cs) leaves are used for traditional treatment of malaria in Cameroon. However, the antimalarial activity of the leaf constituents of this plant is still unexplored. The aim of our investigation was to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of some bioactive constituents from Cs leaves. Compounds were isolated from Cs leaves and structurally elucidated using extensive spectroscopic analysis. The in vitro antiplasmodial activity of the extracts and pure compounds were evaluated on chloroquine-sensitive strain (NF54) of Plasmodium falciparum. The in vivo assay was done by administering seven doses of extracts in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei K173 through oral route. Cytotoxicity of pure compounds on murine macrophage cells was performed through [3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide] (MTT) test. Hemolysis and lactate dehydrogenase assays were also carried out using standard procedures. The in silico prediction of bioactive constituents was performed through Autodock Vina. Polarity-based extracts from Cs were found to be active against P. falciparum (NF54) and P. berghei (K173) in vitro and in vivo respectively. Further, bioactivity-guided isolation of n-hexane fraction yielded three compounds, (1), (2) and (3) with IC50 of 34, 17.9 and 18μg/ml, respectively, while the ethyl acetate fraction afforded the fourth compound with an IC50 of 25μg/ml, indicating anti-malarial potential of Cs through PfLDH interaction without compromising normal cell growth. This study reports for the first time, the antiplasmodial activity of bioactive constituents from Cs and confirms its traditional use.

  12. Actively Controlled Magnetic Vibration-Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinky, Carlos M.; Logsdon, Kirk A.; Wbomski, Joseph F.; Brown, Gerald V.

    1993-01-01

    Prototype magnetic suspension system with active control isolates object from vibrations in all six degrees of freedom at frequencies as low as 0.01 Hz. Designed specifically to protect instruments aboard spacecraft by suppressing vibrations to microgravity levels; basic control approach used for such terrestrial uses as suppression of shocks and other vibrations in trucks and railroad cars.

  13. A clinician's guide to recurrent isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the empirical and clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners. During episodes of sleep paralysis, the sufferer awakens to rapid eye movement sleep-based atonia combined with conscious awareness. This is usually a frightening event often accompanied by vivid, waking dreams (ie, hallucinations). When sleep paralysis occurs independently of narcolepsy and other medical conditions, it is termed "isolated" sleep paralysis. Although the more specific diagnostic syndrome of "recurrent isolated sleep paralysis" is a recognized sleep-wake disorder, it is not widely known to nonsleep specialists. This is likely due to the unusual nature of the condition, patient reluctance to disclose episodes for fear of embarrassment, and a lack of training during medical residencies and graduate education. In fact, a growing literature base has accrued on the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical impact of this condition, and a number of assessment instruments are currently available in both self-report and interview formats. After discussing these and providing suggestions for accurate diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and patient selection, the available treatment options are discussed. These consist of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions which, although promising, require more empirical support and larger, well-controlled trials.

  14. A clinician's guide to recurrent isolated sleep paralysis.

    PubMed

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the empirical and clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners. During episodes of sleep paralysis, the sufferer awakens to rapid eye movement sleep-based atonia combined with conscious awareness. This is usually a frightening event often accompanied by vivid, waking dreams (ie, hallucinations). When sleep paralysis occurs independently of narcolepsy and other medical conditions, it is termed "isolated" sleep paralysis. Although the more specific diagnostic syndrome of "recurrent isolated sleep paralysis" is a recognized sleep-wake disorder, it is not widely known to nonsleep specialists. This is likely due to the unusual nature of the condition, patient reluctance to disclose episodes for fear of embarrassment, and a lack of training during medical residencies and graduate education. In fact, a growing literature base has accrued on the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical impact of this condition, and a number of assessment instruments are currently available in both self-report and interview formats. After discussing these and providing suggestions for accurate diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and patient selection, the available treatment options are discussed. These consist of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions which, although promising, require more empirical support and larger, well-controlled trials. PMID:27486325

  15. Space-Based Astronomy: A Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help grade 5-8 students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outside the Earth's atmosphere. The guide begins with a survey of astronomy-related spacecraft that the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has sent into…

  16. Economics and Entrepreneurship: Student Activities. Master Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Economic Education, New York, NY.

    Correlated to the Economics and Entrepreneurship Teaching Strategies Master Curriculum Guide, this book features 66 student activities, case studies, comprehension quizzes, and lessons related to economic concepts. Designed for high school students of economics, social studies, and business education, this curriculum guide combines study of basic…

  17. Student Activity Guide for "Business in an Information Economy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graf, David; And Others

    The 20 chapters of this student activity guide provide study guides (key terms and concepts reviews), projects, cases for analyses, and self-assessment exercises for business and career education classes. Topics covered include the following: business winners (entrepreneurship); growth of the U.S. economy, the basics of economics, comparing…

  18. Essential Laboratory Activities Guide. Secondary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duval County Schools, Jacksonville, FL.

    This teacher's guide was developed for use in junior and senior high schools in Duval County, Jacksonville, Florida, for the purpose of identifying those secondary science laboratory experiences which are essential to the development of science content knowledge and competency in handling science laboratory equipment and consumables. The guide…

  19. Rockets: Physical Science Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R., Ed.

    Rockets have evolved from simple tubes filled with black powder into mighty vehicles capable of launching a spacecraft out into the galaxy. The guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac…

  20. Career Pathways Skill-Building Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Community Coll. of Rhode Island, Warwick.

    In an effort to relate academic skills with workplace skills and facilitate the transition from school to work, the Community College of Rhode Island developed a skill-based instructional model targeted at 9th through 12th graders and consisting of 6 instructional areas, or strands, and 31 related skills. This guide provides suggested activities…

  1. A clinician’s guide to recurrent isolated sleep paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Sharpless, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the empirical and clinical literature on sleep paralysis most relevant to practitioners. During episodes of sleep paralysis, the sufferer awakens to rapid eye movement sleep-based atonia combined with conscious awareness. This is usually a frightening event often accompanied by vivid, waking dreams (ie, hallucinations). When sleep paralysis occurs independently of narcolepsy and other medical conditions, it is termed “isolated” sleep paralysis. Although the more specific diagnostic syndrome of “recurrent isolated sleep paralysis” is a recognized sleep–wake disorder, it is not widely known to nonsleep specialists. This is likely due to the unusual nature of the condition, patient reluctance to disclose episodes for fear of embarrassment, and a lack of training during medical residencies and graduate education. In fact, a growing literature base has accrued on the prevalence, risk factors, and clinical impact of this condition, and a number of assessment instruments are currently available in both self-report and interview formats. After discussing these and providing suggestions for accurate diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and patient selection, the available treatment options are discussed. These consist of both pharmacological and psychotherapeutic interventions which, although promising, require more empirical support and larger, well-controlled trials. PMID:27486325

  2. Active seat isolation for hybrid electric vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, Donald J.; Malowicki, Mark; Buckley, Stephen J.; Naganathan, Ganapathy

    1999-07-01

    A feasibility study in the use of induced strain actuators for active seal isolation is described. The focus of the work is the isolation of lightweight automotive seats for hybrid-electric vehicles. The feasibility study is based on a numerical analysis of a three-degree-of-freedom vibration model of the seat. Mass and inertia properties are based on measurements from a powered seat that is found in current model year automobiles. Tradeoffs between vertical acceleration of the seat, actuator stroke requirements, and isolation frequency are determined through numerical analysis of the vibration model. Root mean square accelerations and actuator strokes are computed using power spectral densities that model broadband excitation and road excitation that is filtered by the vehicle suspension. Numerical results using the road excitation indicate that factors of two to three reduction in vertical acceleration are achieved when the active isolation frequency is reduced to approximately 1 Hz with damping factors on the order of 10 to 30 percent critical. More significant reductions are achieved in the case of broadband floor excitation. Root mean square actuator strokes for both case are int he range of 0.4 to 50 mm. Root mean square accelerations in the vertical direction are consistent with the levels found in standard comfort curves.

  3. Anticonvulsant properties and bio-guided isolation of palmitone from leaves of Annona diversifolia.

    PubMed

    González-Trujano, M E; Navarrete, A; Reyes, B; Cedillo-Portugal, E; Hong, E

    2001-03-01

    The activity-guided fractionation of the ethanol extract of leaves of Annona diversifolia Saff., led to the isolation of palmitone (16-hentriacontanone) as the only anticonvulsant active compound. This aliphatic ketone was highly effective to diminish pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced clonic-tonic seizures and toxicity. Also, it produced a prolongation of the latency for onset of seizures and a reduction of the death rate produced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and bicuculline (BIC). However, it was inactive to inhibit the kainic acid (KA)- and strychnine (STC)-induced seizures. Palmitone did not produce motor incoordination and loss of righting reflex which are used as signs of neurological impairment. Palmitone (ED50 = 1.85 mg/kg) proved to be a more potent antiepileptic drug against the PTZ-induced seizures than etosuximide (ED50 = 59.6 mg/kg), sodium valproate (ED50 = 63 mg/kg), and carbamazepine (ED50 > 300 mg/kg) and it was only four-fold less potent than diazepam (ED50 = 0.48 mg/kg). The pharmacological profile of palmitone suggests that this compound could be acting on the GABAergic inhibitory system. PMID:11301859

  4. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antioxidant triterpenoids from Betula platyphylla var. japonica bark.

    PubMed

    Eom, Hee Jeong; Kang, Hee Rae; Kim, Ho Kyong; Jung, Eun Bee; Park, Hyun Bong; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-06-01

    The bark of Betula platyphylla var. japonica (Betulaceae) has been used to treat pneumonia, choloplania, nephritis, and chronic bronchitis. This study aimed to investigate the bioactive chemical constituents of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica. A bioassay-guided fractionation and chemical investigation of the bark of B. platyphylla var. japonica resulted in the isolation and identification of a new lupane-type triterpene, 27-hydroxybetunolic acid (1), along with 18 known triterpenoids (2-19). The structure of the new compound (1) was elucidated on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data analysis as well as HR-ESIMS. Among the known compounds, chilianthin B (17), chilianthin C (18), and chilianthin A (19) were triterpene-lignan esters, which are rarely found in nature. Compounds 4, 6, 7, 17, 18, and 19 showed significant antioxidant activities with IC50 values in the range 4.48-43.02μM in a DPPH radical-scavenging assay. However, no compound showed significant inhibition of acetylcholine esterase (AChE). Unfortunately, the new compound (1) exhibited no significance in both biological activities. This study strongly suggests that B. platyphylla var. japonica bark is a potential source of natural antioxidants for use in pharmaceuticals and functional foods. PMID:27060627

  5. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented environmental guide is the result of cooperative efforts of high school teachers, students, scientists, and technicians. The activities are divided into four chapters: Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: an introduction; questions…

  6. Guide to good practices for line and training manager activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this guide is to provide direction for line and training managers in carrying out their responsibilities for training and qualifying personnel and to verify that existing training activities are effective.

  7. Active Inertial Vibration Isolators And Dampers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, Darren; Blackburn, John; Smith, Dennis

    1994-01-01

    Report describes development of active inertial vibration isolators and dampers in which actuators electromagnet coils moving linearly within permanent magnetic fields in housings, somewhat as though massive, low-frequency voice coils in loudspeakers. Discusses principle of operation, electrical and mechanical considerations in design of actuators, characteristics of accelerometers, and frequency responses of control systems. Describes design and performance of one- and three-degree-of-freedom vibration-suppressing system based on concept.

  8. Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Walter W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The lessons and activities in this guide will engage your students in the excitement of space life science investigations after the Neurolab Spacelab mission. It is the authors' goal that the information in this guide will inspire both you and your students to become interested and active participants in this space mission. Few experiences can compare with the excitement and thrill of watching a Shuttle launch. This guide provides an opportunity for you and your students to go one step further by conducting the experiments on Earth that are relevent to the research conducted in space.

  9. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Three - Conversion of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the third goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus on understanding conservation processes, efficiencies, socioeconomic costs, and personal decision-making. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities,…

  10. Agricultural Science Lab Activities. Instructor Guide. Volume 27, Number 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Gregory W.; And Others

    This instructor guide contains 20 laboratory activities for grades 9-10 Agricultural Science I-II classes. The activities are cross-referenced to Missouri Core Competencies and Key Skills. The activities are organized into the following areas: introductory (microscope use); animal nutrition (absorption of nutrients, bacteria and disease, enzyme…

  11. Wee Recyclers. An Activity Guide for Ages 3-5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison.

    Recycling and reusing are skills that can be developed in early child care programs. This activity guide is intended to help teach children (ages 3-5) about recycling using simple, hands-on activities. Teacher-directed activities involve setting up a recycling center, sorting recyclable items, landfills, litter, a recycling alphabet, and ways that…

  12. Intentional Development: A Model to Guide Lifelong Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey M.

    2009-01-01

    Framed in the context of researching influences on physical activity and actually working with individuals and groups seeking to initiate, increase or maintain physical activity, the purpose of this review is to present the model of Intentional Development as a multi-theoretical approach to guide research and applied work in physical activity.…

  13. Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

  14. Teacher's Activity Guide to Coastal Awareness. Marine Bulletin No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This teacher's guide was prepared for use with "Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book," as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. Contained are instructions on the use of the Activity Book, page-by-page, with glossaries, activity ideas, resources, places to visit, and notes…

  15. Do You Read Me? Service Supplement: Reading Development Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall, Elizabeth L.; Chenoweth, Roberta

    This activity guide is one of four supplements to be used with "Do You Read Me? Prevocational-Vocational Reading Development Activities" (ED 210 454). Each supplement deals with a different occupational category. Games, puzzles, and other activities are offered to aid in developing the word recognition, vocabulary, and comprehension skills of…

  16. Bioactivity-guided isolation of laevicarpin, an antitrypanosomal and anticryptococcal lactam from Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae).

    PubMed

    da Silva A Maciel, Dayany; Freitas, Viviane P; Conserva, Geanne A Alves; Alexandre, Tatiana R; Purisco, Sonia U; Tempone, Andre G; Melhem, Márcia Souza C; Kato, Massuo J; Guimarães, Elsie F; Lago, João Henrique G

    2016-06-01

    Crude CH2Cl2 extract from leaves of Piper laevicarpu (Piperaceae) displayed antitrypanosomal activity against trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi (Y strain) and antimicrobial potential against Cryptococcus gattii (strain-type WM 178). Bioactivity-guided fractionation of crude extract afforded one new natural bioactive lactam derivative, named laevicarpin. The structure of isolated compound, which displayed a very rare ring system, was elucidated based on NMR, IR and MS spectral analysis. Using MTT assay, the trypomastigotes of T. cruzi demonstrated susceptibility to laevicarpin displaying IC50 value of 14.7μg/mL (49.6μM), about 10-fold more potent than the standard drug benznidazole. The mammalian cytotoxicity of laevicarpin was verified against murine fibroblasts (NCTC cells) and demonstrated a CC50 value of 100.3μg/mL (337.7μM-SI=7). When tested against Cryptococcus gattii, laevicarpin showed an IC50 value of 2.3μg/mL (7.9μM) and a MIC value of 7.4μg/mL (25μM). Based in the obtained results, laevicarpin could be used as a scaffold for future drug design studies against the Chagas disease and anti-cryptococosis agents. PMID:27083380

  17. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Constituents of Piper sarmentosum Using a Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 μM. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 μM and 2.87 ± 0.26 μM, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  18. Guide to good practices for control area activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control Area Activities, Chapter III of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered for controlling the activities in control areas. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Control Area Activities is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for maintaining a formal environment in operational control areas to promote safe and efficient operations.

  19. Developing specialized guided worksheets for active learning in physics lectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujarittham, T.; Emarat, N.; Arayathanitkul, K.; Sharma, M. D.; Johnston, I.; Tanamatayarat, J.

    2016-03-01

    As universities attempt to integrate active learning into their lectures, a range of strategies is emerging. Amongst the strategies is pre-prepared worksheets which students work through, facilitated by the lecturer. Despite the fact that worksheets have not yet been the subject of much research activity, there are instances of their use. Once such instance is by a pair of physics lecturers at Mahidol University, Thailand. The worksheets, called guided worksheets as they provide structure for students to take notes as the content in the lectures progresses, are prepared by the lecturers and have been in use since 2004. Evaluations showed that the guided worksheets met their intent but there were issues around certain topics which students found challenging. Concerted effort lead to the development of research based specialized guided worksheets for those topics that had issues. These specialized guided worksheets requiring substantially more interactions and student problem solving in line with active learning strategies, have been in use since 2012. This paper aims to describe the design of the specialized guided worksheets for the topic of electric field, and its evaluation. Pre- and post-tests were implemented over 2 years. The first was with guided worksheets with 260 students in 2011, and the second included specialized guided worksheets with 163 students in 2012. Gains on student understanding were higher in 2012 and students who were interviewed indicated that they found the specialized guided worksheets helpful for learning. The results indicate that the specialized guided worksheets made a difference in topics that students find challenging.

  20. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section One - Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the first goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication focus primarily on the availability of resources, forms of energy, natural laws, and socioeconomic considerations. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These…

  1. Evaluating Metacognitive Scaffolding in Guided Invention Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roll, Ido; Holmes, Natasha G.; Day, James; Bonn, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Invention and Productive Failure activities ask students to generate methods that capture the important properties of some given data (e.g., uncertainty) before being taught the expert solution. Invention and Productive Failure activities are a class of scientific inquiry activities in that students create, implement, and evaluate mathematical…

  2. Isolation of anticancer constituents from flos genkwa (Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc.) through bioassay-guided procedures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Flos Genkwa (yuanhua in Chinese), the dried flower buds of Daphne genkwa Sieb.et Zucc. (Thymelaeaceae), is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb mainly used for diuretic, antitussive, expectorant, and anticancer effects. However, systematic and comprehensive studies on Flos Genkwa and its bioactivity are limited. Results After confirmation of the anti-tumor activity, the 95% ethanolic extract was subjected to successive solvent partitioning to petroleum ether, dichloromethane, n-butanol, and water soluble fractions. Each fraction was tested using the same biological activity model, and the dichloromethane fraction had the highest activity. The dichloromethane fraction was subjected to further chromatographic separation for the isolation of compounds 1–13. Among the 13 compounds, the diterpene esters (compounds 10–13) showed anticancer activity, whereas the flavonoids, lignanoids, and peptides showed moderate activity. Compound 13 was a new daphnane diterpenoid, which was named genkwanin VIII. The preliminary antitumor mechanism of yuanhuacine was studied by protein expression and cell cycle analysis in MCF-7 cancer cells. Conclusion The present investigation tends to support the traditional use of Flos Genkwa for treating cancer. Through bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation techniques, the CH2Cl2 fraction was determined as the active fraction of the flower buds of D. genkwa, and the anti-tumor activity was ascribable to the compounds 10–13. PMID:24059652

  3. Off to Adventure: 24 Guided Activities for K-3 Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knothe, Carol; Lang, Karen; Lange, Pauline; Most, JoAnn; Palmer, Terry; Sorte, Joanne

    This book contains 24 guided environmental education activities for K-3 children that offer young children opportunities to explore and learn about their world in a positive environment. The activities encourage the children to gain confidence and develop a positive self-image; develop important life skills; learn about science, literature, and…

  4. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  5. Kanienkehaka Tiontenientenstakwa [Mohawk Guide Book]. Activities and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Catherine; And Others

    This collection of activities and games is a supplement to "The Language Guide for Elementary Mohawk." These activities and games provide additional classroom practice for the topical language components in the companion book. The vocabulary encompasses names, singular commands, colors, numbers, foods, animals, clothing, household, money, seasons,…

  6. Illinois State Bar Association Law Day Activities Guide. 2001 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Bar Association, Springfield.

    These law-related lessons and activities can facilitate participation in a Law Day program. Following an introduction, this activities guide is divided into these sections: "Tips for Teachers" ("What Can a Lawyer Add to the Classroom?"; "So You Have Been Asked to Speak to Kids about the Law"; "A Checklist for Lawyers and Judges in the Classroom");…

  7. Growing Together with the Treetures. Activity Guide. Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnell, Bobbi; Blau, Judith H.; Hinrichs, Jennifer Judd

    This activity guide is designed to be used with the Growing Together program. Tree-related activities are correlated to the Benchmarks for Scientific Literacy, the recommended standards for mathematics, science, and technology suggested by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). The Treature Educational Program is dedicated…

  8. Wise Water Ways. Teaching Guide. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crites, Alice; And Others

    To increase student's awareness of the need to conserve water and ways they can become personally involved in developing water-saving habits, a water conservation education program was established. The program described contains a series of activities to be presented in the form of discussions, games, and puzzles. Each activity involves the…

  9. Activity Guide for Career Education. Intermediate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Festus School District R-6, MO.

    The suggestions for learning activities in career education at the intermediate level (Grades 4-5) are presented with the aim of establishing career awareness related to four occupational clusters: marketing and distribution, construction, communication and media, and hospitality-recreation. The activities are presented under the headings of four…

  10. Reduced residual conduction gaps and favourable outcome in contact force-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Taihei; Kimura, Masaomi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Shingo; Owada, Shingen; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Sasaki, Kenichi; Ishida, Yuji; Kinjo, Takahiko; Okumura, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Aims Although contact force (CF)-guided circumferential pulmonary vein isolation (CPVI) for paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) is useful, AF recurrence at long-term follow-up still remains to be resolved. The purpose of this study was to assess safety and efficacy of CF-guided CPVI and to compare residual conduction gaps during CPVI and long-term outcome between the conventional (non-CF-guided) and the CF-guided CPVI. Methods and results We studied the 50 consecutive PAF patients undergoing CPVI by a ThermoCool EZ Steer catheter (conventional group, mean age 61 ± 10 years) and the other 50 consecutive PAF patients by a ThermoCool SmartTouch catheter (CF group, 65 ± 11 years). The procedure parameters and residual conduction gaps during CPVI, and long-term outcome for 12 months were compared between the two groups. Circumferential pulmonary vein isolation was successfully accomplished without any major complications in both groups. Total procedure and total fluoroscopy times were both significantly shorter in the CF group than in the conventional group (160 ± 30 vs. 245 ± 61 min, P < 0.001, and 17 ± 8 vs. 54 ± 27 min, P < 0.001, respectively). Total number of residual conduction gaps was significantly less in the CF group than in the conventional group (2.7 ± 1.7 vs. 6.3 ± 2.7, P < 0.05). The AF recurrence-free rates after CPVI during 12-month follow-up were 96% (48/50) in the CF group and 82% (41/50) in the conventional group (P = 0.02 by log rank test). Multivariate Cox regression analysis further supported this finding. Conclusion Contact force-guided CPVI is safe and more effective in reducing not only the procedure time but also the AF recurrence than the conventional CPVI, possibly due to reduced residual conduction gaps during CPVI procedure. PMID:26346921

  11. Suited for spacewalking: A teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Manning, Cheryl A. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This publication is an activity guide for teachers on spacesuits and spacewalking. It uses the intensive interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for hands-on-opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The guide concludes with a brief glossary as well as references and resources.

  12. On Campus Activity Guide. Environmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinellas County School Board, Clearwater, FL.

    Descriptions of about 100 secondary-level activities that can be done on the school grounds are presented. Among the lessons included are a study of life in sidewalk cracks, methods of estimating animal populations, soil testing, constructing and using triangulation instruments to map the school area, and creative writing exercises. Although most…

  13. Ripples: A Big Sweep Elementary Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgess, Carla B., Ed.

    Littering is a careless act indicating lack of respect for the environment, other people, and wildlife. Through education people can learn the consequences of littering and how to stop doing it. This book, designed for elementary children, presents a collection of 16 activities, ideas and resources concerning litter in the aquatic and marine…

  14. Active isolation of vibrations with adaptive structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.; Wagstaff, P. R.

    1991-01-01

    Vibration transmission in structures is controlled by means of a technique which employs distributed arrays of piezoelectric transducers bonded to the supporting structure. Distributed PVDF piezoelectric strips are employed as error sensors, and a two-channel feedforward adaptive LMS algorithm is used for minimizing error signals and thereby controlling the structure. A harmonic force input excites a thick plate, and a receiving plate is configured with three pairs of piezoelectric actuators. Modal analyses are performed to determine the resonant frequencies of the system, and a scanning laser vibrometer is used to study the shape of the response of the receiving plate during excitation with and without the control algorithm. Efficient active isolation of the vibrations is achieved with modal suppression, and good control is noted in the on-resonance cases in which increased numbers of PVDF sensors and piezoelectric actuators are employed.

  15. Idiopathic Isolated Omental Panniculitis Confirmed by Percutaneous CT-Guided Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Eun Jung

    2009-01-01

    The preoperative diagnosis of intraabdominal panniculitis is difficult due to its rarity. However, the increased use of abdominal computed tomography (CT) for a variety of indications has increased the diagnosis of intraabdominal panniculitis, including omental panniculitis. The characteristic CT features of intraabdominal panniculitis are increased attenuation of the adipose tissue, the fat-ring sign, a tumoral pseudocapsule, soft-tissue nodules, and a left-sided orientation of mass maximum transverse diameter. Recognition of these features is valuable in the diagnosis of panniculitis, and hence percutaneous CT-guided biopsy to determine their presence may prevent unwarranted surgery. We report the case of a 61-year-old man found to have an idiopathic isolated omental panniculitis that was diagnosed by abdominal CT and percutaneous CT-guided biopsy. PMID:20431769

  16. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 7-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    An attempt to add substance to history, the curriculum guide for grades 7-8 presents in 12 culture guides information on American Indians for teachers to use as supplement materials to social studies texts. Each culture guide is accompanied with a teacher guide offering activities or discussion/quiz questions. Topics of culture guides encompass…

  17. Survey of Active Vibration Isolation Systems for Microgravity Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Whorton, Mark S.

    2000-01-01

    In view of the utility of space vehicles as orbiting science laboratories, the need for vibration isolation systems for acceleration-sensitive experiments has gained increasing visibility. To date, three active microgravity vibration isolation systems have successfully been demonstrated in flight. A tutorial discussion of the microgravity vibration isolation problem, including a description of the acceleration environment of the International Space Station and attenuation requirements, as well as a comparison or the dynamics of passive isolation, active rack-level isolation, and active payload-level isolation is provided. The flight test results of the three demonstrated systems: suppression of transient accelerations by levitation, the microgravity vibration isolation mount, and the active rack isolation system are surveyed.

  18. Atmospheric Detectives. Atlas 2 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC. Educational Affairs Div.

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Mission to Planet Earth, ATLAS 2 will help develop a thorough picture of the Sun's output, its interaction with the atmosphere, and the well-being of Earth's middle atmosphere. This middle school level guide probes the connection between the activities of scientists and the observable…

  19. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  20. Nutrition Activities Guide for Students in Special Education: Citywide Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Special Education.

    The guide is designed to provide special education students with nutrition education in terms of daily living skills. Activities are organized according to five themes: what we eat (awareness of the physical and sensory characteristics of food, identification of food eaten at various meals); how we eat (identification of cutlery, manners, use of…

  1. A Curriculum Activities Guide to In-Depth Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This guide is the fourth in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It utilizes a three-level activity approach: awareness, transitional, and operational. The intent is to provide investigations that will motivate students to pursue in-depth studies, thus encouraging them to generate…

  2. Sports Medicine. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course designed for students investigating the activities within the sports medicine department or considering any of the areas of kinesiology as a career. The material is designed for individualized study and is competency based with educational outcomes stated for…

  3. Activated Sludge. Instructor's Guide. Biological Treatment Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Owen K.

    This instructor's guide contains the materials needed to teach a seven-lesson unit on activated sludge. These materials include an overview of the unit, lesson plans, lecture outlines (keyed to slides designed for use with the lessons), student worksheets for each of the seven lessons (with answers), and two copies of a final quiz (with and…

  4. Ecosystem Matters: Activity and Resource Guide for Environmental Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Mary; And Others

    An ecological approach involved making conscious decisions which result in actions that responsibly contribute to the long-term stewardship of natural resources. This activity and resource guide was designed for use by both educators and resource managers to supplement existing courses and programs concerning ecological matters. These…

  5. [Ute Unit with History, Suggested Activities, and Teachers' Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, CO.

    This curriculum unit for fourth grade students, developed by the Montelores Studies Center, Cortez, Colorado, which is funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III, presents a history of the Ute Indians, suggested activities for students, and a teachers' guide. The history section outlines the historical development of the Ute…

  6. Energy Conservation Activity Guide, Grades 9-12. Bulletin 1602.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Mollie; And Others

    As an interdisciplinary, non-sequential teaching guide, this publication was developed to increase awareness and understanding of the energy situation and to encourage individuals to become energy conservationists. Sections provide background information for the teacher followed by a variety of student activities using different subject areas for…

  7. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  8. Curriculum Activities Guide for Natural History Exhibits, Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Wildlife Museum, Tucson, AZ.

    A natural history museum is a building where animals, plants, minerals, and other things in nature are kept and exhibited for study. This document is a curriculum guide to provide a variety of activities for educators and their students to use not only when visiting the International Wildlife Museum (Tuscon, Arizona), but also with natural history…

  9. Teacher's Resource Guide on Acidic Precipitation with Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Lloyd H.

    The purpose of this teacher's resource guide is to help science teachers incorporate the topic of acidic precipitation into their curricula. A survey of recent junior high school science textbooks found a maximum of one paragraph devoted to the subject; in addition, none of these books had any related laboratory activities. It was on the basis of…

  10. Activity Guide for Nutrition Education, Grades K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chula Vista City School District, CA.

    This activity guide for foods and nutrition education at the primary level is divided into two sections: lesson plans and resource materials. Five concepts are outlined in the lesson plan: food choices, factors influencing choices, consumer competencies, food related careers, and food protection. Each lesson plan provides information on…

  11. Made in USA: Project Ethnic Heritage: Activity and Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    The teaching guide suggests a variety of discussion and activity strategies relating to ethnicity for secondary and continuing education students. Objectives include helping people understand the nature and significance of their own heritage as well as that of each ethnic group, and encouraging participants to realize and deal with the impact…

  12. Heat dissipation guides activation in signaling proteins

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Jeffrey K.; Shukla, Diwakar; Pande, Vijay S.

    2015-01-01

    Life is fundamentally a nonequilibrium phenomenon. At the expense of dissipated energy, living things perform irreversible processes that allow them to propagate and reproduce. Within cells, evolution has designed nanoscale machines to do meaningful work with energy harnessed from a continuous flux of heat and particles. As dictated by the Second Law of Thermodynamics and its fluctuation theorem corollaries, irreversibility in nonequilibrium processes can be quantified in terms of how much entropy such dynamics produce. In this work, we seek to address a fundamental question linking biology and nonequilibrium physics: can the evolved dissipative pathways that facilitate biomolecular function be identified by their extent of entropy production in general relaxation processes? We here synthesize massive molecular dynamics simulations, Markov state models (MSMs), and nonequilibrium statistical mechanical theory to probe dissipation in two key classes of signaling proteins: kinases and G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs). Applying machinery from large deviation theory, we use MSMs constructed from protein simulations to generate dynamics conforming to positive levels of entropy production. We note the emergence of an array of peaks in the dynamical response (transient analogs of phase transitions) that draw the proteins between distinct levels of dissipation, and we see that the binding of ATP and agonist molecules modifies the observed dissipative landscapes. Overall, we find that dissipation is tightly coupled to activation in these signaling systems: dominant entropy-producing trajectories become localized near important barriers along known biological activation pathways. We go on to classify an array of equilibrium and nonequilibrium molecular switches that harmonize to promote functional dynamics. PMID:26240354

  13. Isolation of Mammalian Oogonial Stem Cells by Antibody-Based Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorting.

    PubMed

    Navaroli, Deanna M; Tilly, Jonathan L; Woods, Dori C

    2016-01-01

    The ability to isolate and subsequently culture mitotically active female germ cells from adult ovaries, referred to as either oogonial stem cells (OSCs) or adult female germline stem cells (aFGSCs), has provided a robust system to study female germ cell development under multiple experimental conditions, and in many species. Flow cytometry or fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is an integral part of many isolation and characterization protocols. Here, we provide methodological details for antibody-based flow cytometric isolation of OSCs using antibodies specific for external epitopes of the proteins Ddx4 or Ifitm3, alone or in combination with the use of fluorescent reporter mice. Beginning with sample preparation, we provide point-by-point instructions to guide researchers on how to isolate OSCs using flow cytometry. PMID:27557587

  14. Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Antioxidant Evaluation of Flavonoid Compound from Aerial Parts of Lippia nodiflora L.

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, A.; Srinivasan, P.

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to identify the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free-radical scavenging constituents from methanol extract of L. nodiflora using bioassay-guided fractionation. The ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) revealed a strong antioxidant activity, compared to other fractions through in vitro DPPH radical-scavenging assay. The repeated fractionation of active EAF by silica gel column chromatography yielded a compound with strong antioxidant potential. The isolated bioactive compound was determined as 2-(3, 4-dimethoxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (5-hydroxy-3′, 4′, 7-trimethoxyflavone), by comparing spectral data (UV, IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and MS) with literature reports. The isolated compound demonstrated an excellent antioxidant activity through all antioxidant assays and also significantly inhibited lipid peroxidation at a concentration of 50 μg/mL. The results obtained suggested that extracts from L. nodiflora or its derived phytocompound can be used potentially as a bioactive source of natural antioxidants by contributing beneficial health effects. PMID:24967379

  15. Ute Unit: Study Guide and Follow Up Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Conejos School District, Capulin, CO.

    The study guide and follow-up activities were designed primarily to give students a feeling of Ute life in the San Luis Valley in Colorado. The unit begins with six Southern Ute stories about the wolf and coyote, the race between the skunk and the coyote, the frog and the eagle, why the frog croaks, the bear (Que Ye Qat), and the two Indian…

  16. A "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. D.; Beech, G. S.; Rao, N. N. S.; Rupert, J. K.; Kim, Y. K.

    2001-01-01

    Many microgravity space science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (International Standard Payload Rack (ISPR)) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires: (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop a state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  17. A "Kanes's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hampton, R. David; Beech, Geoffrey

    1999-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an appropriate isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller. ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. This paper presents one response to the second, in a state-space framework intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. The authors use "Kane's Dynamics" to develop an state-space, analytical (algebraic) set of linearized equations of motion for ARIS.

  18. Activity of faropenem against resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Moland, E S; Chartrand, S A; Thomson, K S

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro study of the activity of 9 agents against 181 US pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified imipenem and faropenem as the most active agents. Overall, faropenem was the most potent oral agent inhibiting 98% of isolates at 1 microg/mL. PMID:11687320

  19. Workshop Physics Activity Guide, Module 4: Electricity and Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laws, Priscilla W.

    2004-05-01

    The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is a set of student workbooks designed to serve as the foundation for a two-semester calculus-based introductory physics course. It consists of 28 units that interweave text materials with activities that include prediction, qualitative observation, explanation, equation derivation, mathematical modeling, quantitative experiments, and problem solving. Students use a powerful set of computer tools to record, display, and analyze data, as well as to develop mathematical models of physical phenomena. The design of many of the activities is based on the outcomes of physics education research. The Workshop Physics Activity Guide is supported by an Instructor's Website that: (1) describes the history and philosophy of the Workshop Physics Project; (2) provides advice on how to integrate the Guide into a variety of educational settings; (3) provides information on computer tools (hardware and software) and apparatus; and (4) includes suggested homework assignments for each unit. Log on to the Workshop Physics Project website at http://physics.dickinson.edu/ Workshop Physics is a component of the Physics Suite--a collection of materials created by a group of educational reformers known as the Activity Based Physics Group. The Physics Suite contains a broad array of curricular materials that are based on physics education research, including:

      Understanding Physics, by Cummings, Laws, Redish and Cooney (an introductory textbook based on the best-selling text by Halliday/Resnick/Walker) RealTime Physics Laboratory Modules Physics by Inquiry (intended for use in a workshop setting) Interactive Lecture Demonstration Tutorials in Introductory Physics Activity Based Tutorials (designed primarily for use in recitations)

    • Anti-diabetic activity of active fractions of Stereospermum tetragonum DC and isolation of active principles

      PubMed Central

      Bino Kingsley, Renjit; Mishra, Manisha; Brindha, Pemaiah; Subramoniam, Appian

      2013-01-01

      Objectives To identify the active principles, determine the anti-diabetes activity of fraction of Stereospermum tetragonum root. Materials and Methods The efficacy was evaluated in streptozotocin induced type 2 diabetic rats and the anti-hyperglycemic activity was studied by glucose tolerance test. The major active compounds were isolated by solvent fractionation and chromatographic techniques and characterized with spectral data. Results The active fraction of S. tetragonum showed presence of anti-diabetes mellitus activity in type-2 diabetic rats. It did not significantly influence insulin release from cultured islets. Two active principles (active at 2 mg/kg dose) were isolated and characterized with spectral data. One of them was identified as an iridoid type glycoside and the other one was a lapachol like compound (derivative of naphthoquinone). Conclusions Two active principles from the anti-diabetes fraction of S. tetragonum root were isolated and identified as an iridoid glycoside and a naphthoquinone derivative. PMID:24023445

  1. Bioassay-Guided Chromatographic Isolation and Identification of Antibacterial Compounds from Artemisia annua L. That Inhibit Clostridium perfringens Growth.

    PubMed

    Ivarsen, Elise; Fretté, Xavier C; Christensen, Kathrine B; Christensen, Lars P; Engberg, Ricarda M; Grevsen, Kai; Kjaer, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium perfringens is the causative agent of necrotic enteritis leading to significant losses in the poultry industry. Dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts of aerial parts of Artemisia annua (Asteraceae) exhibited activity against C. perfringens with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of 185 and 270 μg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the extracts gave several active fractions (MIC between 75 and 600 μg/mL). Investigations of the most active fractions resulted in the isolation and characterization of the polyacetylene ponticaepoxide (MIC between 100 and 200 μg/mL) and (+)-threo-(5E)-trideca-1,5-dien-7,9,11-triyne-3,4-diol (MIC between 400 and 800 μg/mL), the flavonols chrysosplenol D (MIC between 200 and 400 μg/mL) and casticin (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL), and 2,4-dihydroxy-6-methoxyacetophenone (slight inhibition at 800 μg/mL). Also, the coumarin scopoletin and the sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin were isolated from active fractions but showed no inhibition of C. perfringens growth at 800 and 2000 μg/mL, respectively. Fractions containing essential oil components with camphor constituting >60% did not show inhibition of C. perfringens up to 1600 μg/mL. Extracts and some active fractions showed higher antibacterial effect than individual bioactive compounds, suggesting that synergistic effects may underlie the observed antibacterial effect. The present study adds new valuable information on the antibacterial effect of A. annua against C. perfringens. PMID:25902977

  2. Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Swietenia macrophylla leaves.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Darah; Lee, Chong Chai; Sheh-Hong, Lim

    2014-02-01

    The endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of Swietenia macrophylla of different ages were examined for antimicrobial activity. The agar plug diffusion assay was used for primary screening, followed by the disc diffusion method. A total of 461 filamentous endophytic fungi were isolated and cultured to examine their antimicrobial properties. In the primary screen, 315 isolates (68.3%) exhibited activity against at least one of the test pathogenic microorganisms. The percentage of isolates exhibiting antimicrobial activity increased with leaf age. Endophytic fungal assemblages, as well as those isolates exhibiting antimicrobial properties appeared to increase with leaf age. The main antimicrobial compounds were produced extracellularly by the endophytic fungi. The results suggest that healthy leaves at older stages of growth can be a potential source for the isolation of endophytic fungi with antimicrobial properties.

  3. Microgravity: a Teacher's Guide with Activities, Secondary Level

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L. (Editor); Wargo, Michael J. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication is a teacher's guide that focuses on microgravity for the secondary level student. The introduction answers the question 'What is microgravity?', as well as describing gravity and creating microgravity. Following the introduction is a microgravity primer which covers such topics as the fluid state, combustion science, materials science, biotechnology, as well as microgravity and space flight. Seven different activities are described in the activities section and are written by authors prominent in the field. The concluding sections of the book include a glossary, microgravity references, and NASA educational resources.

  4. Bioactivity-guided isolation of new antiproliferative compounds from Juniperus foetidissima Willd.

    PubMed

    Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmood; Suleimani Dehkordi, Ibrahim; Ghanadian, Mustafa; Shokrollahi, Ardeshir; Aghaei, Mahmoud; Syed Majid, Ayatollahi; Choudhary, M Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Based on a literature survey on cytotoxic medicinal plants, Juniper species were identified as interesting source of antitumor compounds. Using bioassay-guided fractionation against Caov-4 cancer cells on acetone extract of leaves and branchlets of Juniperus foetidissima led to the isolation of a new 3H-benzofuaran-2-one: 4-methyl-3-methoxy-3H-benzofuaran-2-one (1), a new sesquiterpene: 4,9(α)-dihydroxy-nardosin-6-en (2) and an already known labdane-type diterpene: 15-hydroxy-8(17),13(E)-labdadiene-19-carboxilic acid (3). Compounds 1-3 exhibited cytotoxic effects, with moderate cytotoxicity against the EJ-138 bladder and CAOV-4 ovary cancer cell lines.

  5. Bioactivity guided isolation of antifungal compounds from the liverwort Bazzania trilobata (L.) S.F. Gray.

    PubMed

    Scher, Jochen M; Speakman, John-Bryan; Zapp, Josef; Becker, Hans

    2004-09-01

    A dichloromethane and a methanol extract of the liverwort Bazzania trilobata showed antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Phythophthora infestans, Pyricularia oryzae and Septoria tritici. Bioautography on thin-layer chromatograms was used to isolate six antifungal sesquiterpenes: 5- and 7-hydroxycalamenene, drimenol, drimenal, viridiflorol, gymnomitrol and three bisbibenzyls: 6 ',8'-dichloroisoplagiochin C, isoplagiochin D and 6'-chloroisoplagiochin D. Furthermore we report the isolation of gymnomitr-8(12)-en-4-one and the new coumarin 7,8-dihydroxycoumarin-7-O-beta-D-glucuronide. Their structures have been elucidated based on extensive NMR spectral evidence. PMID:15451321

  6. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  7. Being Active at Child Care. Facilitator's Guide [and Videotape]. Active Me, Healthy Me.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenhagen, Kathryn A.

    Noting that childhood obesity is a growing concern for parents, educators, and health care providers, this guide and videotape, "Being Active at Child Care," is from a three-part series, "Active Me, Healthy Me," exploring ways to keep children active while in child care settings. The 13-minute videotape demonstrates in both a child care center and…

  8. Bioassay-guided isolation of antibacterial constituents from Diospyros lotus roots.

    PubMed

    Rauf, Abdur; Uddin, Ghias; Khan, Haroon; Arfan, Mohammad; Siddiqui, Bina S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the extract/fractions and compounds of Diospyros lotus against various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria strain. The results showed marked susceptibility of extract and its fractions against test pathogens. Among them, chloroform fraction was most dominant and effective against all tested bacteria. The chloroform fraction was subjected to column chromatography which led to the isolation of lupeol (1), 7-methyljuglone (2), β-sitosterol (3), stigmasterol (4), betulinic acid (5), diospyrin (6) and 8-hydroxyisodiospyrin (7). Among the isolated compounds, betulinic acid (5) showed significant activity against most of the tested pathogen. In conclusion, our study validated the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of infectious diseases which was also strongly supported by the isolated compound, betulinic acid (5).

  9. A novel, variable angle guide grid for neuronal activity studies

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Thomas; Ide, David; Liu, Ning; Turchi, Janita

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Surgically implanted chambers with removable grids are routinely used for studying patterns of neuronal activity in primate brains; however, accessing target tissues is significantly constrained by standard grid designs. Typically, grids are configured with a series of guide holes drilled vertically, parallel to the walls of the chamber, thus targeted sites are limited to those in line vertically with one of the guide holes. Methods: By using the three-dimensional modeling software, a novel grid was designed to reach the targeted sites far beyond the standard reach of the chamber. The grid was fabricated using conventional machining techniques and three-dimensional printing. Results: A pilot study involving microinjection of the magnetic resonance (MR) contrast agent gadolinium into the discrete regions of interest (ROIs) in the temporal cortex of an awake, behaving monkey demonstrated the effectiveness of this new design of the guide grid. Using multiple different angles of approach, we were readily able to access 10 injection sites, which were up to 5 mm outside the traditional, orthogonal reach of the chamber. PMID:22319479

  10. Antipoliovirus Activity of the Organic Extract of Eupatorium buniifolium: Isolation of Euparin as an Active Compound

    PubMed Central

    Visintini Jaime, María Florencia; Campos, Rodolfo H.; Martino, Virginia S.; Cavallaro, Lucía V.; Muschietti, Liliana V.

    2013-01-01

    The antiviral activity of the organic extract (OE) of Eupatorium buniifolium against poliovirus type 1 was determined by in vitro assays with an effective concentration 50 (EC50) of 23.3 ± 3.3 µg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the OE allowed the isolation of an active principle that was identified by spectroscopic methods (1H- and 13C-NMR, EI-MS, UV, and IR spectroscopy) as the benzofuran euparin. The plaque reduction assay in Vero cells was used to assess the antiviral activity of euparin against poliovirus types 1, 2, and 3 with EC50 values of 0.47, 0.12, and 0.15 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, this compound showed high selectivity indexes of 284.9, 1068, and 854.7, respectively. In order to identify the mechanism by which euparin exerts its antiviral activity, the virucidal effect, the pretreatment of Vero cells, and the time of action on one viral replication cycle were evaluated. Results obtained demonstrated that euparin exerts its effect during the early events of the replication cycle, from the virus adsorption to cells up to the first twenty minutes after infection. This is the first report on the presence of euparin in E. buniifolium and its antiviral activity. PMID:23956770

  11. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This educator's guide features activities for science, mathematics, and technology education. The activities in this curriculum guide were developed based on the hands-on approach. The guide starts with introductory information and is followed by five units: (1) "The Atmospheric Filter"; (2) "The Electromagnetic Spectrum"; (3) "Collecting…

  12. HPLC-Guided Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Phenylpropanoid and Phenolic Constituents of Nutmeg Kernel (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sharon; Wang, Thomas; Belski, Martin; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2016-04-01

    Many studies on the biological activities of nutmeg continue to appear in the literature. The most common targets include GIT, CNS, oxidative stress and inflammation. However, results obtained from most studies are often inconsistent due to the variability of utilized samples, lack of standardized nutmeg products or insufficient amounts of pure compounds for comprehensive follow-up investigation. To address the consistency and supply issue we utilized available technology to develop a reproducible procedure for preparation of specific extracts and isolation of the major phenolic constituents present in nutmeg kemel. A well-defined and reproducible sequence of extraction, fractionation and chromatographic purification was adopted and was guided by HPLC fingerprinting. Spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify each compound. Thirteen compounds were isolated in a pure form and identified as: elemicin (1), isoelemicin (2), myristicin (4), surinamensin (5), malabaricone C (6), 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l- acetoxy-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propyl ester (7), methoxylicarin A (8), licarin A (9), malabaricone B (10), licarin C (11), 5'-methoxylicarin B (12), licarin B (13), and 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l-methyl-5-methoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzofuran (3, a new compound). With repeated isolation runs, these pure compounds can be prepared in quantities sufficient for biological evaluation as needed. The availability of purified compounds will also allow the development of specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical procedures for pharmacokinetic studies and for quality control of nutmeg products. Both aspects are essential for nutmeg-focused drug discovery. The same approach can also be adapted to other medicinal plants of potential interest.

  13. HPLC-Guided Isolation, Purification and Characterization of Phenylpropanoid and Phenolic Constituents of Nutmeg Kernel (Myristica fragrans).

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sharon; Wang, Thomas; Belski, Martin; Abourashed, Ehab A

    2016-04-01

    Many studies on the biological activities of nutmeg continue to appear in the literature. The most common targets include GIT, CNS, oxidative stress and inflammation. However, results obtained from most studies are often inconsistent due to the variability of utilized samples, lack of standardized nutmeg products or insufficient amounts of pure compounds for comprehensive follow-up investigation. To address the consistency and supply issue we utilized available technology to develop a reproducible procedure for preparation of specific extracts and isolation of the major phenolic constituents present in nutmeg kemel. A well-defined and reproducible sequence of extraction, fractionation and chromatographic purification was adopted and was guided by HPLC fingerprinting. Spectroscopic methods, mainly NMR, and mass spectrometry were utilized to identify each compound. Thirteen compounds were isolated in a pure form and identified as: elemicin (1), isoelemicin (2), myristicin (4), surinamensin (5), malabaricone C (6), 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l- acetoxy-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-propyl ester (7), methoxylicarin A (8), licarin A (9), malabaricone B (10), licarin C (11), 5'-methoxylicarin B (12), licarin B (13), and 2-(3'-allyl-2',6'-dimethoxy-phenyloxy)-l-methyl-5-methoxy-1,2-dihydrobenzofuran (3, a new compound). With repeated isolation runs, these pure compounds can be prepared in quantities sufficient for biological evaluation as needed. The availability of purified compounds will also allow the development of specific, accurate, and sensitive analytical procedures for pharmacokinetic studies and for quality control of nutmeg products. Both aspects are essential for nutmeg-focused drug discovery. The same approach can also be adapted to other medicinal plants of potential interest. PMID:27396199

  14. Antifungal activity of Bacillus sp. isolated from compost.

    PubMed

    Czaczyk, K; Stachowiak, B; Trojanowska, K; Gulewicz, K

    2000-01-01

    Four strains of Bacillus isolated from lupine compost exhibited an antifungal activity against six plant fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Trichothecium roseum, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum). It was significantly influenced by the composition of the cultivation media.

  15. Bioassay-guided isolation of dehydrocostus lactone from Saussurea lappa: A new targeted cytosolic thioredoxin reductase anticancer agent.

    PubMed

    Yang, Meili; Zhang, Junmin; Li, Ya; Han, Xiao; Gao, Kun; Fang, Jianguo

    2016-10-01

    In a screen for mammalian thioredoxin reductases inhibitors, an MeOH extract from the roots of Saussurea lappa C.B. Clarke (Compositae) inhibited the activity of cytosolic thioredoxin reductase (TrxR1). Bioassay-guided separation of the extract led to the isolation of a new TrxR1 inhibitor, dehydrocostus lactone (DHC), a guaiane-type sesquiterpene. The content of DHC in the extract was determined to be 0.4%. DHC inhibited human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells with an IC50 of ∼12.00 μM but displayed less cytotoxicity to human immortalized normal liver cells L02. We observed that DHC killed HeLa cells through induction of apoptosis. DHC inhibited the activity of TrxR1 in HeLa cells, which elicited an accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells and a collapse of the intracellular redox equilibrium and eventually induced apoptosis of HeLa cells. PMID:27545438

  16. Active optics, adaptive optics, and laser guide stars.

    PubMed

    Hubin, N; Noethe, L

    1993-11-26

    Optical astronomy is crucial to our understanding of the universe, but the capabilities of ground-based telescopes are severely limited by the effects of telescope errors and of the atmosphere on the passage of light. Recently, it has become possible to construct inbuilt corrective devices that can compensate for both types of degradations as observations are conducted. For full use of the newly emerged class of 8-meter telescopes, such active corrective capabilities, known as active and adaptive optics, are essential. Some physical limitations in the adaptive optics field can be overcome by artificially created reference stars, called laser guide stars. These new technologies have lately been applied with success to some medium and very large telescopes. PMID:17736819

  17. Active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery.

    PubMed

    Yen, P-L; Davies, B L

    2010-01-01

    The concept of active constraint control for image-guided robotic surgery is introduced, together with its benefits and a short outline of its history. The clinical use of active constraint control in orthopaedic surgery is discussed, together with the outcomes of a clinical trial for unicondylar knee replacement surgery. The evolution of the robotic design from large costly structures towards simpler, more cost-effective systems is also presented, leading to the design of the Acrobot 'Sculptor' system. A new approach to the achievement of robotic total knee replacement is also presented, in which a high-speed rotary cutter is used to slice through the bone to achieve a speedy resection. The control concept is presented, together with the results of trials on animal bones and a cadaver, showing that it is possible to remove large quantities of bone both quickly and accurately.

  18. Closed-Loop and Activity-Guided Optogenetic Control

    PubMed Central

    Grosenick, Logan; Marshel, James H.; Deisseroth, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Advances in optical manipulation and observation of neural activity have set the stage for widespread implementation of closed-loop and activity-guided optical control of neural circuit dynamics. Closing the loop optogenetically (i.e., basing optogenetic stimulation on simultaneously observed dynamics in a principled way) is a powerful strategy for causal investigation of neural circuitry. In particular, observing and feeding back the effects of circuit interventions on physiologically relevant timescales is valuable for directly testing whether inferred models of dynamics, connectivity, and causation are accurate in vivo. Here we highlight technical and theoretical foundations as well as recent advances and opportunities in this area, and we review in detail the known caveats and limitations of optogenetic experimentation in the context of addressing these challenges with closed-loop optogenetic control in behaving animals. PMID:25856490

  19. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis supports Dehalococcoides mccartyi reductive dechlorination activity

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Jun; Im, Jeongdae; Yang, Yi; Löffler, Frank E.

    2013-01-01

    Dehalococcoides mccartyi strains are corrinoid-auxotrophic Bacteria and axenic cultures that require vitamin B12 (CN-Cbl) to conserve energy via organohalide respiration. Cultures of D. mccartyi strains BAV1, GT and FL2 grown with limiting amounts of 1 µg l−1 CN-Cbl quickly depleted CN-Cbl, and reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated ethenes was incomplete leading to vinyl chloride (VC) accumulation. In contrast, the same cultures amended with 25 µg l−1 CN-Cbl exhibited up to 2.3-fold higher dechlorination rates, 2.8–9.1-fold increased growth yields, and completely consumed growth-supporting chlorinated ethenes. To explore whether known cobamide-producing microbes supply Dehalococcoides with the required corrinoid cofactor, co-culture experiments were performed with the methanogen Methanosarcina barkeri strain Fusaro and two acetogens, Sporomusa ovata and Sporomusa sp. strain KB-1, as Dehalococcoides partner populations. During growth with H2/CO2, M. barkeri axenic cultures produced 4.2 ± 0.1 µg l−1 extracellular cobamide (factor III), whereas the Sporomusa cultures produced phenolyl- and p-cresolyl-cobamides. Neither factor III nor the phenolic cobamides supported Dehalococcoides reductive dechlorination activity suggesting that M. barkeri and the Sporomusa sp. cannot fulfil Dehalococcoides' nutritional requirements. Dehalococcoides dechlorination activity and growth occurred in M. barkeri and Sporomusa sp. co-cultures amended with 10 µM 5′,6′-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB), indicating that a cobalamin is a preferred corrinoid cofactor of strains BAV1, GT and FL2 when grown with chlorinated ethenes as electron acceptors. Even though the methanogen and acetogen populations tested did not produce cobalamin, the addition of DMB enabled guided biosynthesis and generated a cobalamin that supported Dehalococcoides' activity and growth. Guided cobalamin biosynthesis may offer opportunities to sustain and enhance Dehalococcoides activity in contaminated

  20. In vitro activity of voriconazole against Mexican oral yeast isolates.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Vargas, Luis Octavio; Eraso, Elena; Carrillo-Muñoz, Alfonso Javier; Aguirre, José Manuel; Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Quindós, Guillermo

    2010-05-01

    Oral candidiasis is the most prevalent complication in HIV-infected and AIDS patients. Topical antifungal treatment is useful for the initial episodes of oral candidiasis, but most patients suffer more than one episode and fluconazole or itraconazole can help in the management, and voriconazole may represent a useful alternative agent for the treatment of recalcitrant oral and oesophageal candidiasis. The aim of this research was to study the in vitro activity of voriconazole and fluconazole against Mexican oral isolates of clinically relevant yeast. The in vitro susceptibility of 187 oral yeast isolates from HIV-infected and healthy Mexicans was determined for fluconazole and voriconazole by the M44-A disc diffusion method. At 24 h, fluconazole was active against 179 of 187 isolates (95.7 %). Moreover, a 100% susceptibility to voriconazole was observed. Voriconazole and fluconazole are highly active in vitro against oral yeast isolates. This study provides baseline data on susceptibilities to both antifungal agents in Mexico.

  1. Antagonistic Activity of Lactobacillus Isolates against Salmonella typhi In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Daim, Amira; Hassouna, Nadia; Hafez, Mohamed; Ashor, Mohamed Seif Aldeen; Aboulwafa, Mohammad M.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Enteric fever is a global health problem, and rapidly developing resistance to various drugs makes the situation more alarming. The potential use of Lactobacillus to control typhoid fever represents a promising approach, as it may exert protective actions through various mechanisms. Methods. In this study, the probiotic potential and antagonistic activities of 32 Lactobacillus isolates against Salmonella typhi were evaluated. The antimicrobial activity of cell free supernatants of Lactobacillus isolates, interference of Lactobacillus isolates with the Salmonella adherence and invasion, cytoprotective effect of Lactobacillus isolates, and possibility of concurrent use of tested Lactobacillus isolates and antibiotics were evaluated by testing their susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents, and their oxygen tolerance was also examined. Results. The results revealed that twelve Lactobacillus isolates could protect against Salmonella typhi infection through interference with both its growth and its virulence properties, such as adherence, invasion, and cytotoxicity. These Lactobacillus isolates exhibited MIC values for ciprofloxacin higher than those of Salmonella typhi and oxygen tolerance and were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum. Conclusion. The tested Lactobacillus plantarum isolates can be introduced as potential novel candidates that have to be subjected for in vivo and application studies for treatment and control of typhoid fever. PMID:24191248

  2. A novel self-guided approach to alpha activity training.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Geert J M; Denissen, Ad J M; Jäger, Mark; Vernon, David; Dekker, Marian K J; Mihajlović, Vojkan; Sitskoorn, Margriet M

    2012-03-01

    Fifty healthy participants took part in a double-blind placebo-controlled study in which they were either given auditory alpha activity (8-12Hz) training (N=18), random beta training (N=12), or no training at all (N=20). A novel wireless electrode system was used for training without instructions, involving water-based electrodes mounted in an audio headset. Training was applied approximately at central electrodes. Post-training measurement using a conventional full-cap EEG system revealed a 10% increase in alpha activity at posterior sites compared to pre-training levels, when using the conventional index of alpha activity and a non-linear regression fit intended to model individual alpha frequency. This statistically significant increase was present only in the group that received the alpha training, and remained evident at a 3 month follow-up session, especially under eyes open conditions where an additional 10% increase was found. In an exit interview, approximately twice as many participants in the alpha training group (53%) mentioned that the training was relaxing, compared to those in either the beta (20%) or no training (21%) control groups. Behavioural measures of stress and relaxation were indicative of effects of alpha activity training but failed to reach statistical significance. These results are discussed in terms of a lack of statistical power. Overall, results suggest that self-guided alpha activity training using this novel system is feasible and represents a step forward in the ease of instrumental conditioning of brain rhythms.

  3. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    PubMed

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  4. Perylenequinones: Isolation, Synthesis, and Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Mulrooey, Carol A.; O'Brien, Erin M.; Morgan, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    The perylenequinones are a novel class of natural products characterized by pentacyclic conjugated chromophore giving rise to photoactivity. Potentially useful light-activated biological activity, targeting protein kinase C (PKC), has been identified for several of the natural products. Recently discovered new members of this class of compound, as well as several related phenanthroperylenequinones, are reviewed. Natural product modifications that improve biological profiles, and avenues for the total synthesis of analogs, which are not available from the natural product series, are outlined. An overview of structure/function relationships is provided. PMID:24039544

  5. LC-MS-Guided Isolation of Penicilfuranone A: A New Antifibrotic Furancarboxylic Acid from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. sh18.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Guang; Li, Ao; Yan, Bing-Chao; Niu, Shu-Bin; Tang, Jian-Wei; Li, Xiao-Nian; Du, Xue; Challis, Gregory L; Che, Yongsheng; Sun, Han-Dong; Pu, Jian-Xin

    2016-01-22

    Penicilfuranone A (1), a novel furancarboxylic acid, and its proposed biosynthetic precursor, gregatin A (2), were isolated from the cultures of the fungus Penicillium sp. sh18 endophytic to the stems of Isodon eriocalyx var. laxiflora guided by HPLC-MS. X-ray crystallography was applied to the structure determination of furancarboxylic acid for the first time, allowing unambiguous assignment of 1. Penicilfuranone A displays a significant antifibrotic effect in activated hepatic stellate cells via negative regulation of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)/Smad signaling. PMID:26677752

  6. Math Skills for Business. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This training package, one in a series of instructional modules consisting of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet, deals with math skills for business. Included in the instructor's guide are general directions for implementing the presentation; a detailed guide for teaching the lesson that includes performance objectives,…

  7. Task Rotation: Strategies for Differentiating Activities and Assessments by Learning Style. A Strategic Teacher PLC Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silver, Harvey; Moirao, Daniel; Jackson, Joyce

    2011-01-01

    One of the hardest jobs in teaching is to differentiate learning activities and assessments to your students' learning styles. But you and your colleagues can learn how to do this together when each of you has this guide to the Task Rotation strategy from our ultimate guide to teaching strategies, "The Strategic Teacher". Use the guide in your…

  8. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (Taro)

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X. Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, that has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung colonizing ability as well as spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic ER, PR and Her-2/neu negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphologic changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable to stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kD contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins; 12 kD storage protein, tarin and lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, post-translational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing a compound(s) derived from taro, that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  9. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis.

  10. Antimetastatic activity isolated from Colocasia esculenta (taro).

    PubMed

    Kundu, Namita; Campbell, Patricia; Hampton, Brian; Lin, Chen-Yong; Ma, Xinrong; Ambulos, Nicholas; Zhao, X Frank; Goloubeva, Olga; Holt, Dawn; Fulton, Amy M

    2012-02-01

    Breast cancer mortality is primarily due to the occurrence of metastatic disease. We have identified a novel potential therapeutic agent derived from an edible root of the plant Colocasia esculenta, commonly known as taro, which has demonstrable activity in a preclinical model of metastatic breast cancer and that should have minimal toxicity. We have shown for the first time that a water-soluble extract of taro (TE) potently inhibits lung-colonizing ability and spontaneous metastasis from mammary gland-implanted tumors, in a murine model of highly metastatic estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and Her-2/neu-negative breast cancer. TE modestly inhibits the proliferation of some, but not all, breast and prostate cancer cell lines. Morphological changes including cell rounding were observed. Tumor cell migration was completely blocked by TE. TE treatment also inhibited prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis and downregulated cyclooxygenase 1 and 2 mRNA expression. We purified the active compound(s) to near homogeneity with antimetastatic activity comparable with stock TE. The active compound with a native size of approximately 25 kDa contains two fragments of nearly equal size. The N-terminal amino acid sequencing of both fragments reveals that the active compound is highly related to three taro proteins: 12-kDa storage protein, tarin and taro lectin. All are similar in terms of amino acid sequence, posttranslational processing and all contain a carbohydrate-binding domain. This is the first report describing compound(s) derived from taro that potently and specifically inhibits tumor metastasis. PMID:21934603

  11. Active Laser Guide Star refocusing system for EAGLE instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Vives, Sébastien; Chardin, Elodie; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Gimenez, Jean Luc; Mazzanti, Silvio; Vola, Pascal; Cuby, Jean Gabriel

    We detail the study of a laser guide star (LGS) refocusing system based on an variable curvature mirror (VCM) of high dynamic, in the frame of the EAGLE instrument for the E-ELT. From the top level requirements, an on axis optical design based on an active component is optimised to ensure maximal performance in terms of encircled energy. The refocusing is operated by the VCM, which shape varies with the distance of the sodium layer to the telescope. The VCM system concept is based on an embedded metrology. We detail the finite element analysis (FEA) of the VCM, allowing an optimization of the thickness profile to get an optical quality better than λ/5 RMS at each curvature. Mechanical design and manufacturing of prototypes are also presented.

  12. Active transmission isolation/rotor loads measurement system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenigsberg, I. J.; Defelice, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    Modifications were incorporated into a helicopter active transmission isolation system to provide the capability of utilizing the system as a rotor force measuring device. These included; (1) isolator redesign to improve operation and minimize friction, (2) installation of pressure transducers in each isolator, and (3) load cells in series with each torque restraint link. Full scale vibration tests performed during this study on a CH-53A helicopter airframe verified that these modifications do not degrade the systems wide band isolation characteristics. Bench tests performed on each isolator unit indicated that steady and transient loads can be measured to within 1 percent of applied load. Individual isolator vibratory load measurement accuracy was determined to be 4 percent. Load measurement accuracy was found to be independent of variations in all basic isolator operating characteristics. Full scale system load calibration tests on the CH-53A airframe established the feasibility of simultaneously providing wide band vibration isolation and accurate measurement of rotor loads. Principal rotor loads (lift, propulsive force, and torque) were measured to within 2 percent of applied load.

  13. Cultural Isolation and Cultural Integration: A Communicative Language Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, John

    2002-01-01

    Provides a theoretical grounding to an activity that follows a communicative language teaching approach to teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. The activity, cultural isolation and cultural integration, motivates learners to relate their experiences and feelings in regard to diverse cultures. (Author/VWL)

  14. Microgravity: Teacher's guide with activities for physical science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.; Rosenberg, Carla B. (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    This guide is an educational tool for teachers of grades 5 through 12. It is an introduction to microgravity and its application to spaceborne laboratory experiments. Specific payloads and missions are mentioned with limited detail, including Spacelab, the International Microgravity Laboratory, and the United States Microgravity Laboratory. Activities for students demonstrate chemistry, mathematics, and physics applications of microgravity. Activity objectives include: modeling how satellites orbit Earth; demonstrating that free fall eliminates the local effects of gravity; measuring the acceleration environments created by different motions; using a plasma sheet to observe acceleration forces that are experienced on board a space vehicle; demonstrating how mass can be measured in microgravity; feeling how inertia affects acceleration; observing the gravity-driven fluid flow that is caused by differences in solution density; studying surface tension and the fluid flows caused by differences in surface tension; illustrating the effects of gravity on the burning rate of candles; observing candle flame properties in free fall; measuring the contact angle of a fluid; illustrating the effects of gravity and surface tension on fiber pulling; observing crystal growth phenomena in a 1-g environment; investigating temperature effects on crystal growth; and observing crystal nucleation and growth rate during directional solidification. Each activity includes a background section, procedure, and follow-up questions.

  15. Popullution or Conservival: A Guide to Activities and Strategies in Environmental Education, Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Phyllis; And Others

    This teaching guide contains a variety of environmental education activities divided by grade level. A general objective is stated, followed by as many as 25 related activities. Each activity is short, and many are followed by discussion questions. This guide should prepare students for critical appraisal and responsible decision-making in…

  16. Directed enzyme evolution guided by multidimensional analysis of substrate-activity space.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Anna-Karin; Emrén, Lars O; Bardsley, William G; Mannervik, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    The directed evolution of protein function frequently involves identification of mutants with improved properties from a population of variants obtained by mutagenesis. The selection of clones to parent the subsequent generation is crucial to the continued creation of superior progeny. In the present study, multivariate analysis guided the evolution of human glutathione transferase (GST) T1-1 to 65-fold enhanced alkyltransferase activity. Six alternative substrates monitored the substrate-activity space that characterized a mutant library of enzymes, obtained by recombination of DNA and heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. A subset of mutants was identified by their proximity in the targeted region of six-dimensional factor space. DNA from these mutants was recombined to create a new generation of GST variants from which an improved enzyme was isolated. The multidimensional cluster analysis is applicable to quantitative properties in any population of molecules undergoing evolution and can guide the tailoring of proteins, nucleic acids and other chemical structures to novel and improved functions.

  17. Characterization of the cellulolytic activity of a bacillus isolate

    SciTech Connect

    Robson, L.M.; Chambliss, G.H.

    1984-05-01

    A group I Bacillus strain, DLG, was isolated and characterized as being most closely related to Bacillus subtilis. When grown on any of a variety of sugars, the culture supernatant of this isolate was found to process cellulolytic activity, as demonstrated by degradation of trinitrophenyl-carboxymethyl cellulose. Growth in medium containing cellobiose or glucose resulted in the greatest production of cellulolytic activity. The cellulolytic activity was not produced until the stationary phase of growth, and the addition of glucose or cellobiose to a culture in this phase had no apparent effect on enzyme production. Fractionation of the culture supernatant showed that the molecular weight of the enzymatic activity was less than 100,000. Maximum cellulolytic activity in assays was observed at pH 4.8 and at 58 degrees C, although maximum thermal stability of the activity was observed only up to 45 to 50 degrees C. Neither glucose nor cellobiose inhibited enzymatic activity. Kinetic experiments suggested that more than one enzyme was acting upon trinitrophenyl-carboxymethyl cellulose. Exocellular protein produced by this Bacillus isolate showed roughly one-fifth the cellulolytic activity displayed by Trichoderma reesei C30 on noncrystalline cellulosic substrates. In contrast to T. reesei cellulase, the Bacillus enzymatic activity showed no ability to degrade crystalline forms of cellulose, nor was cellobiase activity detectable. 32 references.

  18. Antioxidant activity of isoflavones and biflavones isolated from Godoya antioquiensis.

    PubMed

    Benedek, Birgit; Weniger, Bernard; Parejo, Irene; Bastida, Jaume; Arango, Gabriel Jaime; Lobstein, Annelise; Codina, Caries

    2006-01-01

    Two biflavones, ochnaflavone (1) and 2",3"-dihydroochnaflavone (2), and two isoflavones, 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3',5'-dimethoxyisoflavone (piscigenin) (3) and 5,4'-dihydroxy-7,3',5'-trimethoxyisoflavone (4), a new natural compound, were isolated from the leaves of Godoya antioquiensis (Ochnaceae). Their structures were determined on the basis of spectral data and by comparison with data reported in the literature. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity using the NBT (nitrobluetetrazolium)/hypoxanthine superoxide and the .OH/luminol chemiluminescence methods. The isolated isoflavones were found to exhibit a strong hydroxyl radical scavenging activity and a moderate inhibition of the superoxide anion, whereas the two biflavones were inactive in the superoxide anion assay and showed a low hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.

  19. Energy and Man's Environment Activity Guide: An Interdisciplinary Teacher's Guide to Energy and Environmental Activities, Section Six - Future Sources of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, John, Ed.

    This publication presents the activities pertaining to the sixth goal of this activity guide series. The activities in this publication relate principally to the more advanced technologies and the implications of their development. These materials are appropriate for middle school and junior high school students. These activities, organized by…

  20. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of bioactive compound from aerial parts of Luffa acutangula against lung cancer cell line NCI-H460.

    PubMed

    Vanajothi, Ramar; Srinivasan, Pappu

    2015-01-01

    Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) is widely used as a traditional medicine in India and was reported to possess various pharmacological activities including its anti-proliferative effects. In this study, the bioactive compound of ethanolic extract of L. acutangula (LA) was isolated using bioassay-guided approach. Five major fractions were collected and evaluated for their anti-proliferative activity against non-small cell lung cancer cells (NCI-H460). Among the test fractions, the fraction LA/FII effectively decreased the growth of cancer cells with IC50 values of 10 µg/ml concentration. Furthermore, it significantly increased intracellular reactive oxygen species and decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential. The apoptogenic activity of fraction LA/FII was confirmed by cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing and formation of apoptotic bodies. A single bioactive compound was isolated from the active faction, LA/FII and subsequently identified as 1,8 dihydroxy-4-methylanthracene 9,10-dione (compound 1) by comparing its spectral data [Ultraviolet (UV), Infrared (IR), Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and Electrospray Ionization-Mass Spectroscopy (ESI-MS)] with literature values. This is the first report on the isolation of compound 1 from this plant.

  1. Beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, L; Langlois, B E; Dawson, K A

    1992-01-01

    Research has shown that various percentages of fecal Escherichia coli isolates obtained from healthy subjects may be beta-glucuronidase negative. The ability to detect beta-glucuronidase activity among fecal E. coli isolates from healthy subjects may be affected by assay conditions. A study was conducted in which agar and broth media containing 4-methylumbelliferyl-beta-D-glucuronide (MUG) were used to examine beta-glucuronidase activities of fecal isolates from healthy swine. Rectal swabs were plated on MacConkey agar plus 100 mg of MUG per liter (MAC-MUG) and incubated at 35 degrees C for 24 h. Each of 986 isolates picked from MAC-MUG was inoculated into duplicate tubes of lauryl tryptose broth plus 50 mg of MUG per liter (LT-MUG). One set of tubes was incubated at 35 degrees C and the other set of tubes was incubated at 44.5 degrees C. Gas production and hydrolysis of MUG, indicated by fluorescence when observed with UV light with a wavelength of 360 nm, were determined after incubation for 24 and 48 h. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive at 44.5 degrees C than at 35 degrees C after 24 h of incubation in LT-MUG. A higher percentage (P less than 0.01) of isolates was MUG positive after 48 h than after 24 h of incubation at both 35 and 44.5 degrees C. A lower percentage of isolates (P less than 0.05) was observed to be MUG positive on MAC-MUG agar compared with their MUG reactions in LT-MUG at 35 and 44.5 degrees C. Approximately 89% of the isolates identified were beta-glucuronidase-positive E. coli. The largest proportion of MUG-positive E. coli was detected with LT-MUG at 35 degrees C after 48 h of incubation. PMID:1500519

  2. Candida albicans isolates from a Malaysian hospital exhibit more potent phospholipase and haemolysin activities than non-albicans Candida isolates.

    PubMed

    Chin, V K; Foong, K J; Maha, A; Rusliza, B; Norhafizah, M; Ng, K P; Chong, P P

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at determining the phospholipase and haemolysin activity of Candida isolates in Malaysia. A total of 37 Candida clinical isolates representing seven species, Candida albicans (12), Candida tropicalis (8), Candida glabrata (4), Candida parapsilosis (1), Candida krusei (4), Candida orthopsilosis (1) and Candida rugosa (7) were tested. In vitro phospholipase activity was determined by using egg yolk plate assay whereas in vitro haemolysin activity was tested by using blood plate assay on sheep blood Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA) enriched with glucose. Phospholipase activity was detected in 75% (9 out of 12) of the C. albicans isolates. Among the 25 non- C. albicans Candida isolates, phospholipase activity was detected in only 24% of these isolates. The phospholipase activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.002). Haemolysin activity was detected in 100% of the C. albicans, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, and C. orthopsilosis isolates while 75% of the C. krusei isolates and 12.3% of the C. rugosa isolates showed haemolysin activity. The haemolytic activity of C. albicans was significantly higher than that of the non- C. albicans Candida isolates (P=0.0001).The findings in this study indicate that C. albicans isolates in Malaysia may possess greater virulence potential than the non-albicans species.

  3. Columbus and the Age of Discovery. Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    This seven part teacher's guide is designed to accompany the Public Broadcasting System (PBS) television series, "Columbus and the Age of Discovery," and also may be used without viewing the programs. The guide features seven units that reflect the themes of the television series. The units are: (1) "Columbus's World"; (2) "An Idea Takes Shape";…

  4. Internet Activities Using Scientific Data. A Self-Guided Exploration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froseth, Stan; Poppe, Barbara

    This guide is intended for the secondary school teacher (especially math or science) or the student who wants to access and learn about scientific data on the Internet. It is organized as a self-guided exploration. Nine exercises enable the user to access and analyze on-line information from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration…

  5. Bioactivity-guided fractionation for the butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of furanocoumarins from Angelica archangelica L. roots and fruits.

    PubMed

    Wszelaki, Natalia; Paradowska, Katarzyna; Jamróz, Marta K; Granica, Sebastian; Kiss, Anna K

    2011-09-14

    Isolation and identification of the inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), obtained from the extracts of roots and fruits of Angelica archangelica L., are reported. Our results confirmed the weak inhibitory effect of Angelica roots on acetylcholinesterase activity. BChE inhibition was much more pronounced at a concentration of 100 μg/mL for hexane extracts and attained a higher rate than 50%. The TLC bioautography guided fractionation and spectroscopic analysis led to the isolation and identification of imperatorin from the fruit's hexane extract and of heraclenol-2'-O-angelate from the root's hexane extract. Both compounds showed significant BChE inhibition activity with IC(50) = 14.4 ± 3.2 μM and IC(50) = 7.5 ± 1.8 μM, respectively. Only C8-substituted and C5-unsubstituted furanocoumarins were active, which could supply information about the initial structures of specific BChE inhibitors. PMID:21786787

  6. Active Rack Isolation System Program and Technical Status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bushnell, Glenn; Fialho, Ian; Allen, James; Quraishi, Naveed

    2000-01-01

    The Boeing Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) is one of the means used to isolate acceleration-sensitive scientific experiments from structurally transmitted disturbances aboard the International Space Station. The presentation provides an overview of ARIS and technical issues associated with the development of the active control system. An overview of ARIS analytical models is presented along with recent isolation performance predictions made using these models. Issues associated with commanding and capturing ARIS data are discussed and possible future options based on the ARIS ISS Characterization Experiment (ICE) Payload On-orbit Processor (POP) are outlined. An overview of the ARIS-ICE experiment scheduled to fly on ISS Flight 6A is presented. The presentation concludes with a discussion of recent- developmental work that includes passive rack damping, umbilical redesigns and advanced multivariable control design methods.

  7. Homesteading: The Free Land Idea. An Activity Guide for Teachers Grades 4 through 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamberson, Wesley; Lange, L. S.; Sutter, Jason; Sutter, Gail

    This curriculum/activity guide is designed for use by teachers and other educators who live within trip distance of Homestead National Monument of America in Nebraska. However, some activities in the guide are designed for the classroom, and some are more effective if they are conducted outdoors; but many can be completed at school. The activity…

  8. Printing & Publishing from the Classroom to Careers. An Activity Guide for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulen, Robert

    This activity guide was developed in Oregon using the theme of the 150th anniversary of the Oregon Trail to help teachers conduct classroom activities that make use of the skills involved in printing and publishing. It was written by a classroom teacher and designed and published by the printing industry. The guide has the following six purposes:…

  9. Experiments on active precision isolation with a smart conical adapter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Li, H. Y.; Chen, Z. B.; Tzou, H. S.

    2016-07-01

    Based on a conical shell adaptor, an active vibration isolator for vibration control of precision payload is designed and tested in this study. Flexible piezoelectric sensors and actuators are bonded on the adaptor surface for active vibration monitoring and control. The mathematical model of a piezoelectric laminated conical shell is derived and then optimal design of the actuators is performed for the first axial vibration mode of the isolation system. A scaled conical adaptor is manufactured with four MFC actuators laminating on its outer surface. Active vibration isolation efficiency is then evaluated on a vibration shaker. The control model is built in Matlab/Simulink and programmed into the dSPACE control board. Experimental results show that, the proposed active isolator is effective in vibration suppression of payloads with the negative velocity feedback control. In contrast, the amplitude responses increase with positive feedback control. Furthermore, the amplitude responses increases when time delay is added into the control signals, and gets the maximum when the delay is close to one quarter of one cycle time.

  10. Antioxidant activity of isolated ellagitannins from red raspberries and cloudberries.

    PubMed

    Kähkönen, Marja; Kylli, Petri; Ollilainen, Velimatti; Salminen, Juha-Pekka; Heinonen, Marina

    2012-02-01

    Ellagitannins from red raspberries (Rubus idaeus) and cloudberries (Rubus chamaemorus) were isolated by using column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The berry phenolic isolates consisted of 80% (cloudberry) and of 60% (raspberry) of ellagitannins, with raspberries also containing anthocyanins. The main ellagitannins of both raspberries and cloudberries were identified by ESI-MS to consist of the dimeric sanguiin H-6 and the trimeric lambertianin C. Monomeric ellagitannins such as casuarictin in raspberries and pedunculagin in cloudberries were also found. The antioxidant activity of the berry phenolic isolate, ellagitannin isolate (mixture), ellagitannin main fraction (dimer and trimer), and ellagic acid was studied in bulk and emulsified methyl linoleate, in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro, and the radical scavenging activity was studied in the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test. Cloudberry and red raspberry ellagitannins were highly effective as radical scavengers. Berry ellagitannins also showed significant antioxidant activity toward oxidation of both human LDL and methyl linoleate emulsions. However, only weak or moderate antioxidant activity was exhibited by ellagitannins toward oxidation of bulk oil. Thus, ellagitannins contribute significantly to the antioxidant capacity of cloudberries and red raspberries in lipoprotein and lipid emulsion environments, the latter being more relevant for food applications.

  11. Glyceollin I, A Novel Antiestrogenic Phytoalexin Isolated from Activated Soy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyceollins, a group of novel phytoalexins isolated from activated soy, have recently been demonstrated to be a novel antiestrogen which bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and inhibit estrogen-induced tumor progression. Our previous publications have focused specifically on inhibition of tumor form...

  12. Xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata with activity against erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A

    2004-07-01

    1,7-Dimethoxy-2-hydroxy-xanthone and 1,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-xanthone isolated from Securidaca longependunculata were tested for their activity on rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro. Only the former relaxed the corpus cavernosum by 63% at 1.8 x 10(-5) mg/ml. PMID:15261388

  13. Metabolic activities of Lactobacillus spp. strains isolated from kefir.

    PubMed

    Yüksekdag, Zehra Nur; Beyath, Yavuz; Aslim, Belma

    2004-06-01

    A total of 21 strains of Lactobacillus species were isolated from Turkish kefir samples, in order to select the most suitable strains according to their metabolic activities including probiotic properties. As a result of the identification tests, 21 Lactobacillus isolates were identified as L. acidophilus (4%), L. helveticus (9%), L. brevis (9%), L. bulgaricus (14%), L. plantarum (14%), L. casei (19%) and L. lactis (28%). The amount of produced lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, proteolytic activity, and acetaldehyde productions of Lactobacillus spp. were determined. Different amounts of lactic acid were produced by strains studies; however, lactic acid levels were 1.7-11.4 mg/mL. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide. L. bulgaricus Z14L strain showed no proteolytic activity, L. casei Z6L strain produced the maximum amount (0.16 mg/mL) of proteolytic activity. Acetaldehyde concentration produced in Lactobacillus strains ranged between 0.88-3.52 microg/mL.

  14. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of propolis-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Giovanni Gontijo; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; de Moura, Fabiana; Salgado, Mírian; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely known for its medicinal properties. In this work, fungi present on propolis samples were isolated, identified and tested for the production of antimicrobial metabolites. Twenty-two fungal isolates were obtained, some of which were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Fusarium merismoides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Pestalotiopsis palustris, Tetracoccosporium paxianum and Trichoderma koningii. These fungi were grown in liquid media to obtain crude extracts that were evaluated for their antibiotic activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and Cladosporium cladosporioides and A. flavus. The most active extract was obtained from L. theobromae (minimum inhibitory concentration = 64 μg/mL against Listeria monocitogenes). Some extracts showed to be more active than the positive control in the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and L. monocitogenes. Therefore, propolis is a promising source of fungi, which produces active agents against relevant food poisoning bacteria and crop-associated fungi.

  15. Bioassay-guided isolation, identification and molecular ligand-target insight of lipoxygenase inhibitors from leaves of Anisomeles malabarica R.Br.

    PubMed Central

    Sudha, A.; Srinivasan, P.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Anisomeles malabarica R. Br. (Lamiaceae) is extensively used in traditional medicine in major parts of India for several medicinal purposes, including their use in rheumatism. Materials and Methods: The air-dried leaves of A. malabarica were extracted with ethanol, defatted with n-hexane and then successively partitioned into chloroform and n-butanol fractions. Bioassay-guided fractionation and purification of chloroform fraction from A. malabarica lead to the isolation of lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors. The structures of isolated compounds were elucidated by ultraviolet, infrared, 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), 13C NMR and mass spectrometry spectroscopic techniques and assessed further by in vitro soybean lipoxygenase (sLOX) assay. In addition, the enzyme type inhibition was evaluated through molecular docking technique as a part of computational study. Results: The bioactive compounds 3, 4 dihydroxy benzoic acid (1) and 4’, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone (2) were isolated from chloroform fraction of A. malabarica, whose bioactivity was observed to be dose-dependent compared to n-butanol fraction. Among the compounds, 3, 4 dihydroxy benzoic acid showed significant sLOX inhibitory activity with 74.04% ±2.6% followed by 4’, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone (34.68% ±1.9%). The computational analysis of compounds showed their molecular interaction with important amino acid residues and nonheme iron atom in the catalytic site of LOX by enlightening their potential binding mode at molecular level. Conclusions: The LOX inhibitory constituents were identified from A. malabarica by means of bioassay-guided fractionation process. The results derived from in vitro and computational experiments confirm the potential of the isolated compounds and provide additional evidence for its traditional use in inflammatory disorders. PMID:25298680

  16. [Biologically Active Peptides Isolated from Dill Anethum graveolens L].

    PubMed

    Kulikova, O G; Maltsev, D I; Ilyina, A P; Burdina, A V; Yamskova, V P; Yamskov, I A

    2015-01-01

    Peptide mixtures with molecular weights of 1000-2000 Da and in vivo membrano-trophic activity against mouse hepatocyte culture at very low concentrations were isolated from dill Anethum graveolens L. leaves. It has been found that plant peptides in aqueous solution formed larger nanosized particles of approximately 90 nm with a secondary structure mainly composed of β-structures and random coil structures. We demonstrated that peptides isolated from A. graveolens in vitro at an ultra-low dosage affected the size of the area of pigmented cells of amphibian liver, which are analogous to Kupffer cells of the mammalian liver, using roller organotypic newt liver culture models. PMID:26204780

  17. Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 μM without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound. PMID:22104600

  18. Fermentation, Isolation, Structure, and antidiabetic activity of NFAT-133 produced by Streptomyces strain PM0324667.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni-Almeida, Asha A; Brahma, Manoja K; Padmanabhan, Prabhu; Mishra, Prabhu D; Parab, Rajashri R; Gaikwad, Nitin V; Thakkar, Chandni S; Tokdar, Pradipta; Ranadive, Prafull V; Nair, Amrutha S; Damre, Anagha A; Bahirat, Umakant A; Deshmukh, Nitin J; Doshi, Lalit S; Dixit, Amol V; George, Saji D; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Nemmani, Kumar Vs; Mahajan, Girish B

    2011-11-21

    Type-2 diabetes is mediated by defects in either insulin secretion or insulin action. In an effort to identify extracts that may stimulate glucose uptake, similar to insulin, a high throughput-screening assay for measuring glucose uptake in skeletal muscle cells was established. During the screening studies to discover novel antidiabetic compounds from microbial resources a Streptomyces strain PM0324667 (MTCC 5543, the Strain accession number at Institute of Microbial Technology, Chandigarh, India), an isolate from arid soil was identified which expressed a secondary metabolite that induced glucose uptake in L6 skeletal muscle cells. By employing bioactivity guided fractionation techniques, a tri-substituted simple aromatic compound with anti-diabetic potential was isolated. It was characterized based on MS and 2D NMR spectral data and identified as NFAT-133 which is a known immunosuppressive agent that inhibits NFAT-dependent transcription in vitro. Our investigations revealed the antidiabetic potential of NFAT-133. The compound induced glucose uptake in differentiated L6 myotubes with an EC50 of 6.3 ± 1.8 μM without activating the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Further, NFAT-133 was also efficacious in vivo in diabetic animals and reduced systemic glucose levels. Thus it is a potential lead compound which can be considered for development as a therapeutic for the treatment of type-2 diabetes. We have reported herewith the isolation of the producer microbe, fermentation, purification, in vitro, and in vivo antidiabetic activity of the compound.

  19. Antibacterial activity of extracts from plants of central Argentina--isolation of an active principle from Achyrocline satureioides.

    PubMed

    Joray, Mariana B; del Rollán, María R; Ruiz, Gustavo M; Palacios, Sara M; Carpinella, María C

    2011-01-01

    The great increase in bacterial infections is fueling interest in the search for antibacterial products of plant origin. Extracts obtained from 51 native and naturalized plants from central Argentina were therefore evaluated for their IN VITRO inhibitory activity on pathogenic bacteria with the aim of selecting the most active ones as new sources of effective antibiotics. The susceptibility of reference and clinical strains of Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis, and Staphylococcus aureus was determined. Extracts from Achyrocline satureioides, Flourensia oolepis, Lepechinia floribunda, and Lithrea molleoides were the most potent, with MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.006 to 2 and 0.012 to 10 mg/mL, respectively, on both gram-positive and negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity-guided isolation of A. satureioides ethanol extract showed 23-methyl-6-O-desmethylauricepyrone (1) to be the most active compound. This compound showed inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria with MIC and MBC values of 0.002 and 0.008 mg/mL, respectively, while on gram-negative strains, the MIC and MBC were 0.062-0.250 and 0.062-0.500 mg/mL, respectively. The strong antibacterial activity shown by the four plant extracts or the compound isolated from A. satureioides suggests that they could become part of the arsenal of antibacterial drugs currently used.

  20. Antimicrobial activity of Calotropis procera Ait. (Asclepiadaceae) and isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the active constituents.

    PubMed

    Nenaah, Gomah

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and flavonoids of Calotropis procera growing wild in Saudi Arabia was evaluated using the agar well-diffusion method. A bioassay-guided fractionation of the crude flavonoid fraction (Cf3) of MeOH extract which showed the highest antimicrobial activity led to the isolation of four flavonoid glycosides as the bioactive constituents. Structure of compounds have been elucidated using physical and spectroscopic methods including (UV, IR, (1)H, (13)C-NMR, DEPT, 2D (1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY). Compounds were found to be the 3-O-rutinosides of quercetin, kaempferol and isorhamnetin, besides the flavonoid 5-hydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyflavone-4'-O-β-glucopyranoside. Most of the isolated extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the test microorganisms, where the crude flavonoid fraction was the most active, diameter of inhibition zones ranged between 15.5 and 28.5 mm against the tested bacterial strains, while reached 30 mm against the fungal Candida albicans. The minimal inhibitory concentrations varied from 0.04 to 0.32 mg/ml against all of the tested microorganisms in case of the crude flavonoid fraction. Quercetin-3-O-rutinoside showed superior activity over the remainder flavonoids. The Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) were more susceptible than the Gram-negative (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella enteritidis) and the yeast species were more susceptible than the filamentous fungi. The study recommend the use of such natural products as antimicrobial biorationals.

  1. [Isolation of Actinomycetes synthesizing proteases with thrombolytic activity].

    PubMed

    Lysenko, S V; Salivonik, S M

    1988-01-01

    Proteases with the thrombolytic activity were studied in 212 strains of actinomycetes isolated from different soils of the Soviet Union. The cultures belonged to the genera Micromonospora, Nocardia and Streptomyces. Proteases were synthesized by 41% of the studied actinomycetes and some of their strains completely dissolved in vitro artificially obtained blood thrombi within 120-240 min. In the Streptomyces genus, more active strains were found in the groups Flavus, Fradia and Globisporus. The groups Olivaceus, Violaceus and Viridis had less active strains. PMID:3062331

  2. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I.; Abdel Bar, Fatma M.; El-Mahdy, Areej M.; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1–V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  3. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; El-Mahdy, Areej M; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1-V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  4. Quorum Sensing Inhibiting Activity of Streptomyces coelicoflavus Isolated from Soil.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Ramadan; Shaaban, Mona I; Abdel Bar, Fatma M; El-Mahdy, Areej M; Shokralla, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) systems communicate bacterial population and stimulate microbial pathogenesis through signaling molecules. Inhibition of QS signals potentially suppresses microbial infections. Antimicrobial properties of Streptomyces have been extensively studied, however, less is known about quorum sensing inhibitory (QSI) activities of Streptomyces. This study explored the QSI potential of Streptomyces isolated from soil. Sixty-five bacterial isolates were purified from soil samples with morphological characteristics of Streptomyces. The three isolates: S6, S12, and S17, exhibited QSI effect by screening with the reporter, Chromobacterium violaceum. Isolate S17 was identified as Streptomyces coelicoflavus by sequencing of the hypervariable regions (V1-V6) of 16S rRNA and was assigned gene bank number KJ855087. The QSI effect of the cell-free supernatant of isolate S17 was not abolished by proteinase K indicating the non-enzymatic activity of QSI components of S17. Three major compounds were isolated and identified, using spectroscopic techniques (1D, 2D NMR, and Mass spectrometry), as behenic acid (docosanoic acid), borrelidin, and 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid. 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid inhibited QS and related virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 including; elastase, protease, and pyocyanin without affecting Pseudomonas viability. At the molecular level, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid suppressed the expression of QS genes (lasI, lasR, lasA, lasB, rhlI, rhlR, pqsA, and pqsR). Moreover, QSI activity of S17 was assessed under different growth conditions and ISP2 medium supplemented with glucose 0.4% w/v and adjusted at pH 7, showed the highest QSI action. In conclusion, 1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid, one of the major metabolites of Streptomyces isolate S17, inhibited QS and virulence determinants of P. aeruginosa PAO1. The findings of the study open the scope to exploit the in vivo efficacy of this active molecule as anti-pathogenic and anti

  5. Azoreductase activity of anaerobic bacteria isolated from human intestinal microflora.

    PubMed Central

    Rafii, F; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1990-01-01

    A plate assay was developed for the detection of anaerobic bacteria that produce azoreductases. With this plate assay, 10 strains of anaerobic bacteria capable of reducing azo dyes were isolated from human feces and identified as Eubacterium hadrum (2 strains), Eubacterium spp. (2 species), Clostridium clostridiiforme, a Butyrivibrio sp., a Bacteroides sp., Clostridium paraputrificum, Clostridium nexile, and a Clostridium sp. The average rate of reduction of Direct Blue 15 dye (a dimethoxybenzidine-based dye) in these strains ranged from 16 to 135 nmol of dye per min per mg of protein. The enzymes were inactivated by oxygen. In seven isolates, a flavin compound (riboflavin, flavin adenine dinucleotide, or flavin mononucleotide) was required for azoreductase activity. In the other three isolates and in Clostridium perfringens, no added flavin was required for activity. Nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis showed that each bacterium expressed only one azoreductase isozyme. At least three types of azoreductase enzyme were produced by the different isolates. All of the azoreductases were produced constitutively and released extracellularly. Images PMID:2202258

  6. How High Is It? An Educator's Guide with Activities Focused on Scale Models of Distances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Carla B.; Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    This guide focuses on scale models of distances. Activities also incorporate mathematics but can be used in science and technology grades 5-8 classes. The content of the book is divided into three sections: (1) Introductory Activities; (2) Core Activities; and (3) Activity/Assessment. Activities include: (1) KWL Chart; (2) Ball and String…

  7. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Environment Studies with Students with Special Education Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tully, Randolph R., Jr., Ed.

    Developed by teachers, the curriculum guide provides information on environmental studies activities for use with handicapped students. Activities are divided into three areas: awareness level activities (aesthetics, cemeteries, water, soil, air, noise, and miscellaneous activities); transition level activities (playgrounds, cemeteries, wildlife,…

  8. Mosquito larvicidal activity of isolated compounds from the rhizome of Zingiber officinale.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha; Venkatesan, P; Geetha, Kannappan; Bagavan, A

    2008-08-01

    The larvicidal activity of a petroleum ether extract of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) was evaluated against Aedes aegypti L. and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera). Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 4-gingerol (1), (6)-dehydrogingerdione (2) and (6)-dihydrogingerdione (3); the latter has not previously been reported from Z. officinale. The structures were established from infrared (IR), ultraviolet (UV), (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C-NMR and mass spectral data. Following a 24 h exposure, compounds 1-3 exhibited larvicidal activities against fourth instar larvae of A. aegypti (LC(50) 4.25, 9.80, 18.20 ppm) and C. quinquefasciatus (LC50 5.52, 7.66, 27.24 ppm), respectively. The results show that the most effective compound was 4-gingerol. PMID:18618523

  9. Ultrasonography Guided Excision of Isolated Cysticercosis of the Temporalis Muscle Causing Intractable Headache: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vivek; Bhavana, Kranti; Kumar, Prem; Kumar, Subhash

    2016-09-01

    Cysticercosis cellulosae is a systemic parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of pork tapeworm, Taenia solium which involve humans as either a definitive or secondary hosts. The central nervous system is the most important primary site of involvement. Cases of cysticercosis presenting as an isolated muscle mass is an extremely rare entity and demands documentation. We report an extremely unusual case of isolated cysticercosis of the temporalis muscle causing intractable headache which presented a diagnostic challenge. The condition was surgically treated by ultrasonography guided excision of the cysticercosis swelling in the temporalis muscle. We also emphasize on the role of proper imaging modalities in the diagnosis and treatment of such unique cases. PMID:27508147

  10. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    PubMed

    Merabishvili, Maia; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Kropinski, Andrew M; Mast, Jan; De Vos, Daniel; Verbeken, Gilbert; Noben, Jean-Paul; Lavigne, Rob; Vaneechoutte, Mario; Pirnay, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively), high burst size (125 and 145, respectively), stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  11. Experiments on active isolation using distributed PVDF error sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lefebvre, S.; Guigou, C.; Fuller, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    A control system based on a two-channel narrow-band LMS algorithm is used to isolate periodic vibration at low frequencies on a structure composed of a rigid top plate mounted on a flexible receiving plate. The control performance of distributed PVDF error sensors and accelerometer point sensors is compared. For both sensors, high levels of global reduction, up to 32 dB, have been obtained. It is found that, by driving the PVDF strip output voltage to zero, the controller may force the structure to vibrate so that the integration of the strain under the length of the PVDF strip is zero. This ability of the PVDF sensors to act as spatial filters is especially relevant in active control of sound radiation. It is concluded that the PVDF sensors are flexible, nonfragile, and inexpensive and can be used as strain sensors for active control applications of vibration isolation and sound radiation.

  12. Only One Ocean: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Strang, Craig

    This guide was designed by the Marine Activities, Resources & Education (MARE) Program through the Great Explorations in Math and Science (GEMS) ongoing curriculum development program for middle school students. This GEMS guide addresses the concepts of the interconnectedness of the ocean basins, respect for organisms, oceanography, physical…

  13. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Watershed Investigations and Environmental Studies, Volume 6. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gail, Peter A.; And Others

    This curriculum activities guide provides the teacher with a model for a comprehensive program in watershed studies. With increased concern over water pollution, a study of the watershed is important to complete an understanding of water drainage problems. This guide includes a rationale for the study of watersheds and develops methods of…

  14. That's Not Fair! A Teacher's Guide to Activism with Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelo, Ann; Davidson, Fran

    Noting that young children have a natural sense of what is and is not fair, this guide is intended to help teachers develop an anti-bias curriculum using children's sense of fairness to guide them toward social activism. The book provides stories of children's experiences as activists, coupled with first-person accounts of teachers' experiences…

  15. The mysterious atmosphere of the Earth. ATLAS: Instruction guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This teacher's guide presents lesson plans addressing various aspects of atmospheric physics and chemistry; the interactions between land, air, and sea; air pollution; and the mechanisms of climate change. The science concepts in this guide have been designed to complement the middle school curriculum. However, many activities can be used with younger or older students.

  16. The American Indian Social Studies Curriculum Activity Guide, Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stutzman, Esther

    Designed to provide supplementary information on American Indians for the teaching of American history, the activity guide for grades 9-12 offers background knowledge and suggested discussion topics for students. Contents of the guide include: a historical timeline outlining major events from 15,000 B.C. to the present; Hollywood's influence on…

  17. Readings and Activities for Character Education: A Resource Guide for Teachers and Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Diane L.

    This resource guide, for teachers and students in the upper elementary and middle school grades, has been developed in response to the nationwide interest in asking schools to play an active role in preparing students to become informed and responsible citizens. The guide is divided into seven sections, one for each character trait: Caring, Civic…

  18. New Iridoid Glycosides with Antidepressant Activity Isolated from Cyperus rotundus.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhong-Liu; Yin, Wen-Qing; Yang, Ya-Mei; He, Chun-Hong; Li, Xiao-Na; Zhou, Cui-Ping; Guo, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Based on bioactive screening results, two new iridoid glycosides, named rotunduside G (1) and rotunduside H (2), were isolated from the rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus, together with four known ones, negundoside (3), nishindaside (4), isooleuropein (5) and neonuezhenide (6). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods and from literature values. In mice models of despair, 1 and 2 showed significant antidepressant activity. PMID:26726748

  19. A World of Six Billion Wall Chart and Activity Guide: Thought Provoking Activities on Population, Resources, and Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zero Population Growth, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Population issues are interconnected to many of the most pressing concerns of today, nine of which are addressed on the front of the wallchart included in this guide. The activities in this guide allow students to explore these topics in order to better understand the significance of our current demographic milestone for society and the…

  20. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control. PMID:26137678

  1. [Isolation and antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes from vermicompost].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue-jun; Yan, Shuang-lin; Min, Chang-li; Yang, Yan

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, actinomycetes were isolated from vermicompost by tablet coating method. Antimicrobial activities of actinomycetes were measured by the agar block method. Strains with high activity were identified based on morphology and biochemical characteristics, as well as 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. The results showed that 26 strains of actinomycetes were isolated, 16 of them had antimicrobial activities to the test strains which accounts for 61.54% of all strains. Among the 16 strains, the strain QYF12 and QYF22 had higher antimicrobial activity to Micrococcus luteus, with a formed inhibition zone of 27 mm and 31 mm, respectively. While the strain QYF26 had higher antimicrobial activity to Bacillus subtilis, and the inhibition zone diameter was 21 mm. Based on the identification of strains with high activity, the strain QYF12 was identified as Streptomyces chartreusis, the strain QYF22 was S. ossamyceticus and the strain QYF26 was S. gancidicus. This study provided a theoretical basis for further separate antibacterial product used for biological control.

  2. Integration of Microfractionation, qNMR and zebrafish screening for the in vivo bioassay-guided isolation and quantitative bioactivity analysis of natural products.

    PubMed

    Bohni, Nadine; Cordero-Maldonado, María Lorena; Maes, Jan; Siverio-Mota, Dany; Marcourt, Laurence; Munck, Sebastian; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R; Moshi, Mainen J; Esguerra, Camila V; de Witte, Peter A M; Crawford, Alexander D; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are an attractive source of chemical diversity for small-molecule drug discovery. Several challenges nevertheless persist with respect to NP discovery, including the time and effort required for bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive NPs, and the limited biomedical relevance to date of in vitro bioassays used in this context. With regard to bioassays, zebrafish have recently emerged as an effective model system for chemical biology, allowing in vivo high-content screens that are compatible with microgram amounts of compound. For the deconvolution of the complex extracts into their individual constituents, recent progress has been achieved on several fronts as analytical techniques now enable the rapid microfractionation of extracts, and microflow NMR methods have developed to the point of allowing the identification of microgram amounts of NPs. Here we combine advanced analytical methods with high-content screening in zebrafish to create an integrated platform for microgram-scale, in vivo NP discovery. We use this platform for the bioassay-guided fractionation of an East African medicinal plant, Rhynchosia viscosa, resulting in the identification of both known and novel isoflavone derivatives with anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Quantitative microflow NMR is used both to determine the structure of bioactive compounds and to quantify them for direct dose-response experiments at the microgram scale. The key advantages of this approach are (1) the microgram scale at which both biological and analytical experiments can be performed, (2) the speed and the rationality of the bioassay-guided fractionation - generic for NP extracts of diverse origin - that requires only limited sample-specific optimization and (3) the use of microflow NMR for quantification, enabling the identification and dose-response experiments with only tens of micrograms of each compound. This study demonstrates that a complete in vivo bioassay-guided

  3. Integration of Microfractionation, qNMR and Zebrafish Screening for the In Vivo Bioassay-Guided Isolation and Quantitative Bioactivity Analysis of Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Jan; Siverio-Mota, Dany; Marcourt, Laurence; Munck, Sebastian; Kamuhabwa, Appolinary R.; Moshi, Mainen J.; Esguerra, Camila V.; de Witte, Peter A. M.; Crawford, Alexander D.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc

    2013-01-01

    Natural products (NPs) are an attractive source of chemical diversity for small-molecule drug discovery. Several challenges nevertheless persist with respect to NP discovery, including the time and effort required for bioassay-guided isolation of bioactive NPs, and the limited biomedical relevance to date of in vitro bioassays used in this context. With regard to bioassays, zebrafish have recently emerged as an effective model system for chemical biology, allowing in vivo high-content screens that are compatible with microgram amounts of compound. For the deconvolution of the complex extracts into their individual constituents, recent progress has been achieved on several fronts as analytical techniques now enable the rapid microfractionation of extracts, and microflow NMR methods have developed to the point of allowing the identification of microgram amounts of NPs. Here we combine advanced analytical methods with high-content screening in zebrafish to create an integrated platform for microgram-scale, in vivo NP discovery. We use this platform for the bioassay-guided fractionation of an East African medicinal plant, Rhynchosia viscosa, resulting in the identification of both known and novel isoflavone derivatives with anti-angiogenic and anti-inflammatory activity. Quantitative microflow NMR is used both to determine the structure of bioactive compounds and to quantify them for direct dose-response experiments at the microgram scale. The key advantages of this approach are (1) the microgram scale at which both biological and analytical experiments can be performed, (2) the speed and the rationality of the bioassay-guided fractionation – generic for NP extracts of diverse origin – that requires only limited sample-specific optimization and (3) the use of microflow NMR for quantification, enabling the identification and dose-response experiments with only tens of micrograms of each compound. This study demonstrates that a complete in vivo bioassay-guided

  4. Isolation and activity of two antibacterial biflavonoids from leaf extracts of Garcinia livingstonei (Clusiaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaikabo, Adamu A; Samuel, Babatunde B; Eloff, Jacobus N

    2009-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of the acetone extract of Garcinia livingstonei leaves was studied using bioautography and by determining the minimum antibacterial concentration against four nosocomial pathogens. Bioautograms showed that two compounds were mainly responsible for the antibacterial activity. These were isolated by a combination of solvent-solvent fractionation and bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation and were characterized by 1H NMR, 13C NMR and 2D NMR spectroscopy as amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone. The antibacterial activity of the isolated compounds was determined against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Three of the tested organisms were sensitive to both compounds with MIC values ranging from 8-100 microg/mL. P. aeruginosa was resistant with MICs > 100 microg/mL. The safety of the two compounds was assessed with a tetrazolium based colorimetric assay (MTT assay) using Vero monkey kidney cells. The compounds had low toxicity against the cell line with cytotoxic concentrations to 50% of the cells (LD50) of 386 microg/mL and > 600 microg/mL for amentoflavone and 4"-methoxy amentoflavone, respectively. Berberine, the positive control had a CC50 of 170 microg/mL. 4"-Methoxy amentoflavone was more active and much less toxic than amentoflavone.

  5. Do government brochures affect physical activity cognition? A pilot study of Canada's physical activity guide to healthy active living.

    PubMed

    Kliman, Aviva M; Rhodes, Ryan

    2008-08-01

    Health Canada has published national physical activity (PA) guidelines, which are included in their 26-page Physical Activity Guide to Healthy Active Living (CPAG). To date, the use of CPAG as a motivational instrument for PA promotion has not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to determine whether reading CPAG 1) increased motivational antecedents to engage in regular PA, and 2) increased regular PA intention and behaviour over 1 month. Participants included 130 randomly sampled Canadian adults (18 years or older) who were randomly mailed pack ages consisting of either 1) a questionnaire and a copy of CPAG, or 2) a questionnaire. Questionnaire items pertained to participants' sociodemographics, previous PA behaviours (Godin Leisure-Time Questionnaire) and PA motivation (theory of planned behaviour). Participants were then sent a follow-up questionnaire pertaining to their PA behaviours throughout the previous month. Results revealed significant interactions between the guide condition and previous activity status on instrumental behavioural beliefs about strength activities and subjective norms about endurance activities (p < 0.05), but all other factors were not significantly different. It was concluded that among previously inactive people, receiving this guide may change some informational/motivational constructs, but key motivational antecedents (affective attitude, perceived behavioural control) and outcomes (intention, behaviour) seem unaffected. PMID:18825580

  6. Morphometry and distribution of isolated caves as a guide for phreatic and confined paleohydrological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frumkin, Amos; Fischhendler, Itay

    2005-04-01

    Isolated caves are a special cave type common in most karst terrains, formed by prolonged slow water flow where aggressivity is locally boosted. The morphometry and distribution of isolated caves are used here to reconstruct the paleohydrology of a karstic mountain range. Within a homogenous karstic rock sequence, two main types of isolated caves are distinguished, and each is associated with a special hydrogeologic setting: maze caves form by rising water in the confined zone of the aquifer, under the Mt. Scopus Group (Israel) confinement, while chamber caves are formed in phreatic conditions, apparently by lateral flow mixing with a vadose input from above.

  7. Speech Activities in the Elementary School, MSA Curriculum Guide 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Deldee M., Ed.; Ratliffe, Sharon A., Ed.

    A revised edition of the 1968 Michigan Speech Association (MSA) curriculum guide (ED 026 392), this volume is intended to provide the elementary school student with instruction in listening and speaking. Units on listening, conversation, nonverbal communication, discussion, informal drama, reading aloud, story telling, giving talks, and speech…

  8. A Guide for Perceptual-Motor Training Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Euclid - Lyndhurst City Schools, Lyndhurst, OH.

    This document has been prepared as part of a kindergarten perceptual-training program of the South Euclid-Lyndhurst City School District near Cleveland, Ohio. The guide contains information on training and procedures related to perceptual-motor learning. This information is structured primarily into 150 lesson plans, devised as 30-minute sessions…

  9. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    This guide is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. This book addresses such concerns of life science teachers as the environmental soundness of methods and…

  10. Earth's Mysterious Atmosphere: Atlas 1 Teacher's Guide with Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essex Corp., Huntsville, AL.

    This atmospheric studies teacher's guide for use with middle school students blends lessons in chemistry, physics, and the life, earth, and space sciences in an attempt to accomplish the following: to nurture students' natural curiosity and excitement about science, mathematics, and technology; to encourage career exploration in science,…

  11. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities. Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L., Ed.; Wargo, Michael J., Ed.

    A microgravity environment is one that will impart to an object a net acceleration that is small compared with that produced by Earth at its surface. In practice, such acceleration will range from about one percent of Earth's gravitational acceleration to better than one part in a million. this teacher's guide presents an introduction to…

  12. Immunomodulatory Activity of Oenothein B Isolated from Epilobium angustifolium1

    PubMed Central

    Schepetkin, Igor A.; Kirpotina, Liliya N.; Jakiw, Larissa; Khlebnikov, Andrei I.; Blaskovich, Christie L.; Jutila, Mark A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    Epilobium angustifolium has been traditionally used to treat of a number of diseases; however, not much is known regarding its effect on innate immune cells. Here, we report that extracts of E. angustifolium activated functional responses in neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages. Activity-guided fractionation, followed by mass spectroscopy and NMR analysis, resulted in the identification of oenothein B as the primary component responsible for phagocyte activation. Oenothein B, a dimeric hydrolysable tannin, dose-dependently induced a number of phagocyte functions in vitro, including intracellular Ca2+ flux, production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), chemotaxis, nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation, and proinflammatory cytokine production. Furthermore, oenothein B was active in vivo, inducing keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) production and neutrophil recruitment to the peritoneum after intraperitoneal administration. Biological activity required the full oenothein B structure, as substructures of oenothein B (pyrocatechol, gallic acid, pyrogallol, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid) were all inactive. The ability of oenothein B to modulate phagocyte functions in vitro and in vivo suggests that this compound is responsible for at least part of the therapeutic properties of E. angustifolium extracts. PMID:19846877

  13. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of flavonoids isolated from Stevia satureiifolia var. satureiifolia.

    PubMed

    Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines

    2016-10-01

    Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50  value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50  value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL.

  14. Trypanocidal and leishmanicidal activities of flavonoids isolated from Stevia satureiifolia var. satureiifolia.

    PubMed

    Beer, María Florencia; Frank, Fernanda Maria; Germán Elso, Orlando; Ernesto Bivona, Augusto; Cerny, Natacha; Giberti, Gustavo; Luis Malchiodi, Emilio; Susana Martino, Virginia; Alonso, María Rosario; Patricia Sülsen, Valeria; Cazorla, Silvia Ines

    2016-10-01

    Context Chagas' disease and leishmaniasis produce significant disability and mortality with great social and economic impact. The genus Stevia (Asteraceae) is a potential source of antiprotozoal compounds. Objective Aerial parts of four Stevia species were screened on Trypanosoma cruzi. Stevia satureiifolia (Lam.) Sch. Bip. var. satureiifolia (Asteraceae) dichloromethane extract was selected for a bioassay-guided fractionation in order to isolate its active compounds. Additionally, the antileishmanial activity and the cytotoxicity of these compounds on mammalian cells were assessed. Materials and methods The dichloromethane extract was fractionated by column chromatography. The isolated compounds were evaluated using concentrations of 0-100 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and on Leishmania braziliensis promastigotes for 72 h, on trypomastigotes and amastigotes of T. cruzi for 24 h and 120 h, respectively. The compounds' cytotoxicity (12.5-500 μg/mL) was assessed on Vero cells by the MTT assay. The structure elucidation of each compound was performed by spectroscopic methods and HPLC analysis. Results The dichloromethane extracts of Stevia species showed significant activity on T. cruzi epimastigotes. The flavonoids eupatorin (1.3%), cirsimaritin (1.9%) and 5-desmethylsinensetin (1.5%) were isolated from S. satureiifolia var. satureiifolia extract. Eupatorin and 5-desmethylsinensetin showed IC50 values of 0.2 and 0.4 μg/mL on T. cruzi epimastigotes and 61.8 and 75.1 μg/mL on trypomastigotes, respectively. The flavonoid 5-desmethylsinensetin showed moderate activity against T. cruzi amastigotes (IC50  value = 78.7 μg/mL) and was the most active compound on L. braziliensis promastigotes (IC50  value = 37.0 μg/mL). Neither of the flavonoids showed cytotoxicity on Vero cells, up to a concentration of 500 μg/mL. PMID:26983579

  15. Growth characteristics and enzyme activity in Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis isolates.

    PubMed

    Symonds, E Pearl; Trott, Darren J; Bird, Philip S; Mills, Paul

    2008-09-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a member of the phylum Chytridiomycota and the causative organism chytridiomycosis, a disease of amphibians associated with global population declines and mass mortality events. The organism targets keratin-forming epithelium in adult and larval amphibians, which suggests that keratinolytic activity may be required to infect amphibian hosts. To investigate this hypothesis, we tested 10 isolates of B. dendrobatidis for their ability to grow on a range of keratin-supplemented agars and measured keratolytic enzyme activity using a commercially available kit (bioMerieux API ZYM). The most dense and fastest growth of isolates were recorded on tryptone agar, followed by growth on frog skin agar and the slowest growth recorded on feather meal and boiled snake skin agar. Growth patterns were distinctive for each nutrient source. All 10 isolates were strongly positive for a range of proteolytic enzymes which may be keratinolytic, including trypsin and chymotrypsin. These findings support the predilection of B. dendrobatidis for amphibian skin. PMID:18568420

  16. Sensor fusion methods for high performance active vibration isolation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collette, C.; Matichard, F.

    2015-04-01

    Sensor noise often limits the performance of active vibration isolation systems. Inertial sensors used in such systems can be selected through a wide variety of instrument noise and size characteristics. However, the most sensitive instruments are often the biggest and the heaviest. Consequently, high-performance active isolators sometimes embed many tens of kilograms in instrumentation. The weight and size of instrumentation can add unwanted constraint on the design. It tends to lower the structures natural frequencies and reduces the collocation between sensors and actuators. Both effects tend to reduce feedback control performance and stability. This paper discusses sensor fusion techniques that can be used in order to increase the control bandwidth (and/or the stability). For this, the low noise inertial instrument signal dominates the fusion at low frequency to provide vibration isolation. Other types of sensors (relative motion, smaller but noisier inertial, or force sensors) are used at higher frequencies to increase stability. Several sensor fusion configurations are studied. The paper shows the improvement that can be expected for several case studies including a rigid equipment, a flexible equipment, and a flexible equipment mounted on a flexible support structure.

  17. Proinflammatory activity of an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Lins, Kézia O A L; Vale, Mariana L; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2013-01-30

    Alginates are unbranched polymers of polysaccharide presented as the structural components of marine brown algae. The proinflammatory activity of SVHV, an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare, was investigated using models of paw edema, mast cells degranulation and neutrophil migration in vivo. SVHV induced a dose dependent paw edema, with a peak at 2 h, associated with an increased myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Pharmacological modulators, remarkably dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited the edema. SVHV (1.0 mg) also led to a significant induction of neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity of rats. This neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by peritoneal resident macrophages depletion, but was not affected by the depletion of mast cells. Our data suggest that SVHV has proinflammatory activity dependent of the activation of resident cells, being the macrophages the main cells involved. PMID:23218314

  18. Rivers at Risk: An Activity Based Study Guide for the Colorado River Basin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samples, Bob, Ed.

    This activity guide is intended to increase student awareness and understanding about the Colorado River Basin. Each activity includes objectives, procedures, materials list, related activities, questions for students, and related information. The activities are varied to appeal to a wide range of learning styles and modalities and are…

  19. Parents and Reading: A Guide to Home Activities for Children. Centering On.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Pearl

    Reading activities designed for parents to use with preschool through high school age children are provided in this guide. Activities for children below the junior high level predominate. Jean Piaget's child development theories are briefly outlined. Suggested reading activities, language activities, and children's books are listed for use with…

  20. Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic activities of anaerobic gut fungi isolated from wild and domestic ruminants.

    PubMed

    Paul, Shyam S; Kamra, Devki N; Sastry, Vadali R B

    2010-08-01

    Fermentative characteristics and fibrolytic enzyme activities of anaerobic gut fungi from wild (17 isolates) and domestic ruminants (15 isolates) were examined. In a medium containing 0.5% wheat straw and 0.02% cellobiose as energy source, activities of carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), avicelase, xylanase, acetyl esterase and protease produced by the fungal isolates were investigated. Average activity of CMCase (17.4 vs. 8.25 mIU ml(-1)), acetyl esterase (134 vs. 57 mIU ml(-1)) and protease (4400 vs. 1683 mIU ml(-1)) were significantly higher in isolates from wild ruminants than those from domestic ruminants. Xylanase and avicelase activities were comparable. When compared irrespective of source, fungal isolates having monocentric growth pattern produced more fibrolytic enzymes than isolates having polycentric growth pattern. CMCase, xylanase, avicelase activities were highest in Neocallimastix isolates. Acetyl esterase activity was highest in Piromyces and Neocallimastix isolates. Protease activity was highest in Piromyces isolates followed closely by Neocallimastix isolates. Between isolates from wild and domestic ruminants few differences were observed in pattern of carbohydrate utilisation and end products of fermentation. Inter-strain differences in the end product formation were apparent. All of the isolates produced acetate, lactate and formate; only a few isolates produced succinate. For isolation of superior fibrolytic isolates of anaerobic fungi, greater emphasis should be given to the screening of enzyme activities of isolates of genera Neocallimastix and Piromyces.

  1. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies: Activities. Appendices, Volume 1 and Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T.; And Others

    This activity oriented guide is divided into four sections dealing with the Hydrologic Cycle; Human Activities; Ecological Perspectives; and Social and Political Factors. Each activity contains seven parts: (1) an introduction; (2) questions about the activity; (3) necessary equipment; (4) procedures; (5) results obtained by using the study; (6)…

  2. Isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of propolis-associated fungi.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Giovanni Gontijo; Pfenning, Ludwig Heinrich; de Moura, Fabiana; Salgado, Mírian; Takahashi, Jacqueline Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a natural product widely known for its medicinal properties. In this work, fungi present on propolis samples were isolated, identified and tested for the production of antimicrobial metabolites. Twenty-two fungal isolates were obtained, some of which were identified as Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Bipolaris hawaiiensis, Fusarium merismoides, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium crustosum, Penicillium janthinellum, Penicillium purpurogenum, Pestalotiopsis palustris, Tetracoccosporium paxianum and Trichoderma koningii. These fungi were grown in liquid media to obtain crude extracts that were evaluated for their antibiotic activity against pathogenic bacteria, yeast and Cladosporium cladosporioides and A. flavus. The most active extract was obtained from L. theobromae (minimum inhibitory concentration = 64 μg/mL against Listeria monocitogenes). Some extracts showed to be more active than the positive control in the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and L. monocitogenes. Therefore, propolis is a promising source of fungi, which produces active agents against relevant food poisoning bacteria and crop-associated fungi. PMID:23439233

  3. Antimicrobial Activity of Monoramnholipids Produced by Bacterial Strains Isolated from the Ross Sea (Antarctica) †

    PubMed Central

    Tedesco, Pietro; Maida, Isabel; Palma Esposito, Fortunato; Tortorella, Emiliana; Subko, Karolina; Ezeofor, Chidinma Christiana; Zhang, Ying; Tabudravu, Jioji; Jaspars, Marcel; Fani, Renato; de Pascale, Donatella

    2016-01-01

    Microorganisms living in extreme environments represent a huge reservoir of novel antimicrobial compounds and possibly of novel chemical families. Antarctica is one of the most extraordinary places on Earth and exhibits many distinctive features. Antarctic microorganisms are well known producers of valuable secondary metabolites. Specifically, several Antarctic strains have been reported to inhibit opportunistic human pathogens strains belonging to Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc). Herein, we applied a biodiscovery pipeline for the identification of anti-Bcc compounds. Antarctic sub-sea sediments were collected from the Ross Sea, and used to isolate 25 microorganisms, which were phylogenetically affiliated to three bacterial genera (Psychrobacter, Arthrobacter, and Pseudomonas) via sequencing and analysis of 16S rRNA genes. They were then subjected to a primary cell-based screening to determine their bioactivity against Bcc strains. Positive isolates were used to produce crude extracts from microbial spent culture media, to perform the secondary screening. Strain Pseudomonas BNT1 was then selected for bioassay-guided purification employing SPE and HPLC. Finally, LC-MS and NMR structurally resolved the purified bioactive compounds. With this strategy, we achieved the isolation of three rhamnolipids, two of which were new, endowed with high (MIC < 1 μg/mL) and unreported antimicrobial activity against Bcc strains. PMID:27128927

  4. Isolation of bioactive phytoconstituent from Alpinia galanga L. with anti-hyperlipidemic activity.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Deepa; Sharma, Brajesh K; Patil, U K

    2013-12-01

    The present study was undertaken to explore the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic extract of rhizomes of Alpinia galanga L. and its chloroform fraction in Triton-induced hyperlipidemic rats. Bioactivity guided fractionation was followed by chromatographic studies. Flash chromatography was done for the most active fraction resulting in the isolation of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural. Animals were administered with i.p. injection of Triton WR 1339 at dose of 400 mg/kg body weight. After 24 hr of Triton administration, the ethanolic extract and its fraction were administered orally at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight in rats. The treatment was continued for 5 days with a view to see the effect on lipid profile. Serum samples were subjected to biochemical analysis. The study dose dependently inhibited the total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) level, and significantly increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of tannins, coumarins, flavanoids, sterols, and glycosides. Phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction of A. galanga L. resulted in the isolation of 5-(hydroxymethyl) furfural. UV λmax was found to be 276 nm for the isolated component. Acute treatment caused a stimulatory effect on the HDL level and inhibition in TC and TG elevation induced by triton.

  5. Antispasmodic activity of beta-damascenone and E-phytol isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae.

    PubMed

    Pongprayoon, U; Baeckström, P; Jacobsson, U; Lindström, M; Bohlin, L

    1992-02-01

    The crude extract (IPA) of the plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. has previously been shown to antagonize smooth muscle contractions induced by several agonists via a non-specific mechanism. Bioassay-guided fractionation of IPA resulted in isolation of the antispasmodically acting isoprenoids beta-damascenone and E-phytol. Their antispasmodic potencies were found to be in the same range as that of papaverine, a general spasmolytic agent. This effect was suggested to play a role in the previously observed anti-inflammatory activity of IPA by interfering with the contraction of endothelial cells. Severe vascular contraction has been shown to be involved in the dermatitis caused by toxic jellyfishes. It is possible that beta-damascenone and E-phytol, by interfering with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, are partly responsible for the previously reported effectiveness of IPA in the treatment of such dermatitis.

  6. New antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of falcarindiol isolated in Crithmum maritimum L. leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Meot-Duros, Laetitia; Cérantola, Stéphane; Talarmin, Hélène; Le Meur, Christophe; Le Floch, Gaëtan; Magné, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a chloroformic extract obtained from Crithmum maritimum leaves led to the chemical isolation of falcarindiol, a polyacetylene widely distributed within the Apiaceae family. Structure of this compound was confirmed by NMR and activity was tracked using a screening microplate bioassay. Falcarindiol strongly inhibited the growth of Micrococcus luteus and Bacillus cereus, with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 50 microg ml(-1). Moreover, this compound showed cytotoxicity against IEC-6 cells with an IC50 value of 20 microM after 48 h of exposition. These results suggest that Crithmum maritimum could be potentially used in food manufactures and cosmetology as preservative agents and biopesticides, or in medicine as new antibiotics, confirming the interest in studying halophytic species as sources of bioactive compounds.

  7. Antispasmodic activity of beta-damascenone and E-phytol isolated from Ipomoea pes-caprae.

    PubMed

    Pongprayoon, U; Baeckström, P; Jacobsson, U; Lindström, M; Bohlin, L

    1992-02-01

    The crude extract (IPA) of the plant Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br. has previously been shown to antagonize smooth muscle contractions induced by several agonists via a non-specific mechanism. Bioassay-guided fractionation of IPA resulted in isolation of the antispasmodically acting isoprenoids beta-damascenone and E-phytol. Their antispasmodic potencies were found to be in the same range as that of papaverine, a general spasmolytic agent. This effect was suggested to play a role in the previously observed anti-inflammatory activity of IPA by interfering with the contraction of endothelial cells. Severe vascular contraction has been shown to be involved in the dermatitis caused by toxic jellyfishes. It is possible that beta-damascenone and E-phytol, by interfering with the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, are partly responsible for the previously reported effectiveness of IPA in the treatment of such dermatitis. PMID:1620738

  8. Isolation of α-Amylase Inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata Using a High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Target Guided by Centrifugal Ultrafiltration with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yin; Xiao, Aiping; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method target guided by centrifugal ultrafiltration with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CU-LC-MS) was proposed. This method was used to analyze α-amylase inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata extract. According to previous screening with CU-LC-MS, two screened potential α-amylase inhibitors was successfully isolated from Kadsura longipedunculata extract using HSCCC under the optimized experimental conditions. The isolated two target compounds (with purities of 92.3% and 94.6%) were, respectively, identified as quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) based on the MS, UV, and ¹H-NMR spectrometry data. To verify the inhibition of screened compounds, the inhibitory activities of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) on α-amylase were tested, and it demonstrated that the experimental IC50 values of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) were 28.8 and 12.5 μmol/L. These results proved that the hyphenated technique using CU-LC-MS and HSCCC was a rapid, competent, and reproductive method to screen and separate potential active compounds, like enzyme inhibitors from the extract of herbal medicines.

  9. Preparative isolation and purification of seven main antioxidants from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. (Du-zhong) leaves using HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC experiment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xingping; Huang, Qiong; Zhou, Boting; Gong, Zhicheng; Liu, Zhaoqian; Shi, Shuyun

    2013-08-15

    Seven antioxidants were purified from Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. leaves using HSCCC guided by DPPH-HPLC experiment. HSCCC was successfully used to separate target antioxidants by three runs with different solvent systems after D101 column chromatography fractionation. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:2:3, v/v/v) was selected as the optimum solvent system to purify geniposidic acid. Ethyl acetate-ethanol-water (4:1:5, v/v/v) was used to isolate caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid and ferulic acid. While three flavonoids, quercetin-3-O-sambubioside, rutin and isoquercitrin were purified by petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (1:5:1:5, v/v/v/v). The structures were identified by MS and NMR. Antioxidant activities were assessed, and compounds 2-7 showed strong antioxidant activities. This is the first report about separation of antioxidants from E. ulmoides leaves by HSCCC. The results indicated that the combinative methods using DPPH-HPLC and HSCCC could be widely applied for screening and isolation of antioxidants from complex extracts.

  10. Isolation of α-Amylase Inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata Using a High-Speed Counter-Current Chromatography Target Guided by Centrifugal Ultrafiltration with LC-MS.

    PubMed

    Cen, Yin; Xiao, Aiping; Chen, Xiaoqing; Liu, Liangliang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC) separation method target guided by centrifugal ultrafiltration with high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (CU-LC-MS) was proposed. This method was used to analyze α-amylase inhibitors from Kadsura longipedunculata extract. According to previous screening with CU-LC-MS, two screened potential α-amylase inhibitors was successfully isolated from Kadsura longipedunculata extract using HSCCC under the optimized experimental conditions. The isolated two target compounds (with purities of 92.3% and 94.6%) were, respectively, identified as quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) based on the MS, UV, and ¹H-NMR spectrometry data. To verify the inhibition of screened compounds, the inhibitory activities of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) on α-amylase were tested, and it demonstrated that the experimental IC50 values of quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside (1) and protocatechuic acid (2) were 28.8 and 12.5 μmol/L. These results proved that the hyphenated technique using CU-LC-MS and HSCCC was a rapid, competent, and reproductive method to screen and separate potential active compounds, like enzyme inhibitors from the extract of herbal medicines. PMID:27617987

  11. Isolation and pharmacological activity of phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Sahpaz, Sevser; Garbacki, Nancy; Tits, Monique; Bailleul, Francois

    2002-03-01

    The isolation and identification of major phenylpropanoid esters from Marrubium vulgare: (+) (E)-caffeoyl-L-malic acid 1, acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, ballotetroside 5, as well as their anti-inflammatory activity are reported for the first time. We evaluated the inhibitory effects of these five compounds on cyclooxygenase (Cox) catalysed prostaglandin biosynthesis activity. Only the glycosidic phenylpropanoid esters showed an inhibitory activity towards the Cox-2 enzyme and three of them: acteoside 2, forsythoside B 3, arenarioside 4, exhibited higher inhibitory potencies on Cox-2 than on Cox-1. These results are of interest, as Cox-2 is mainly associated with inflammation and the Cox-1 inhibition with adverse side effects often observed with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The occurrence of these phenylpropanoid esters could also explain some other pharmacological properties of M. vulgare.

  12. Fragrant volatile sesquiterpenoids isolated from the essential oil of Laggera pterodonta by using olfactory-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Long; Li, Zhi-Jian; Zhang, Hong-Xia; Du, Zhi-Zhi

    2014-09-01

    Chemical composition of the essential oil from Laggera pterodonta (Compositae) was inverstigated. GC/MS Analyses led to the identification of 68 components, representing more than 96% of the total oil. By focusing on the woody note fraction of the essential oil, one new bisabolane-type sesquiterpenoid, bisabola-2,7(14),11-trien-10-ol (1), together with ten known compounds, bisabolol oxide B (2), ylangenol (3), copaborneol (4), guai-11-en-10-ol (5), spathulenol (6), aromadendran-10-ol (7), caryophyllenol (8), 5α,7α-eudesm-11(13)-en-4α-ol (9), γ-costic acid (10), and eudesma-4(15),11(13)-diene-12,5β-olide (11), were isolated by using olfactory-guided fractionation. The structures of the eleven compounds were determined by NMR and MS analyses. All the volatile compounds reported here were isolated for the first time from this plant. On the basis of preliminary odor assessment, the odor of the woody-note fractions of the essential oil was assumed to be due to these isolated sesquiterpenoids. PMID:25238080

  13. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim. PMID:18062653

  14. Biological activity of phenylpropionic acid isolated from a terrestrial Streptomycetes.

    PubMed

    Narayana, Kolla J P; Prabhakar, Peddikotla; Vijayalakshmi, Muvva; Venkateswarlu, Yenamandra; Krishna, Palakodety S J

    2007-01-01

    The strain ANU 6277 was isolated from laterite soil and identified as Streptomyces sp. closely related to Streptomyces albidoflavus cluster by 16S rRNA analysis. The cultural, morphological and physiological characters of the strain were recorded. The strain exhibited resistance to chloramphenicol, penicillin and streptomycin. It had the ability to produce enzymes such as amylase and chitinase. A bioactive compound was isolated from the strain at stationary phase of culture and identified as 3-phenylpropionic acid (3-PPA) by FT-IR, EI-MS, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectral studies. It exhibited antimicrobial activity against different bacteria like Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. flourescens, Staphylococcus aureus and some fungi including Aspergillus flavus, A. niger, Candida albicans, Fusarium oxysporum, F. udum and Penicillium citrinum. The antifungal activity of 3-PPA of the strain was evaluated in in vivo and in vitro conditions against Fusarium udum causing wilt disease in pigeon pea. The compound 3-PPA is an effective antifungal agent when compared to tricyclozole (fungicide) to control wilt caused by F. udum, but it exhibited less antifungal activity than carbendazim.

  15. Isolation of osteogenic cells from the trauma-activated periosteum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hsiao; Bullock, John

    1987-12-01

    Closed, greenstick type fractures were created in adult male white New Zealand rabbits. After a waiting period of 5 days the developing callous and bone approximately 1 cm to each side of the callous was harvested and cell cultures established. Biochemical assays for total protein, alkaline phosphatase activity and glycosamino-glycan content were performed on spent media collected at each change and upon the cells after their termination, in an attempt to more fully characterize the osteoblast population. Since little is known about bone forming cells isolated from this source it is important to establish baseline data so as to be able to relate reactions of these cells to altered environmental conditions.

  16. Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System on Parabolic Flights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Wenbo; Pletser, Vladimir; Yang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    The Microgravity Active Vibration Isolation System (MAIS) aims at reducing on-orbit vibrations, providing a better controlled lower gravity environment for microgravity physical science experiments. The MAIS will be launched on Tianzhou-1, the first cargo ship of the China Manned Space Program. The principle of the MAIS is to suspend with electro-magnetic actuators a scientific payload, isolating it from the vibrating stator. The MAIS's vibration isolation capability is frequency-dependent and a decrease of vibration of about 40dB can be attained. The MAIS can accommodate 20kg of scientific payload or sample unit, and provide 30W of power and 1Mbps of data transmission. The MAIS is developed to support microgravity scientific experiments on manned platforms in low earth orbit, in order to meet the scientific requirements for fluid physics, materials science, and fundamental physics investigations, which usually need a very quiet environment, increasing their chances of success and their scientific outcomes. The results of scientific experiments and technology tests obtained with the MAIS will be used to improve future space based research. As the suspension force acting on the payload is very small, the MAIS can only be operative and tested in a weightless environment. The 'Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.' (DLR, German Aerospace Centre) granted a flight opportunity to the MAIS experiment to be tested during its 27th parabolic flight campaign of September 2015 performed on the A310 ZERO-G aircraft managed by the French company Novespace, a subsidiary of the 'Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales' (CNES, French Space Agency). The experiment results confirmed that the 6 degrees of freedom motion control technique was effective, and that the vibration isolation performance fulfilled perfectly the expectations based on theoretical analyses and simulations. This paper will present the design of the MAIS and the experiment results obtained during the

  17. Enhancing isolation of antenna arrays by simultaneously blocking and guiding magnetic field lines using magnetic metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhaotang; Wang, Jiafu; Qu, Shaobo; Zhang, Jieqiu; Ma, Hua; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Anxue

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we propose to enhance the isolation of antenna arrays by manipulating the near-field magnetic coupling between adjacent antennas using magnetic metamaterials (MMs). Due to the artificially designed negative or large permeability, MMs can concentrate or block the magnetic field lines where they are located, which allows us to tune the near-field magnetic coupling strengths between antennas. MMs can play a two-fold role in enhancing antenna isolation. On one hand, the magnetic fields can be blocked in gaps between adjacent antennas using MMs with negative permeability; on the other hand, the magnetic fields can be pulled towards the borders of the antenna array using MMs with large permeability. As an example, we demonstrated a four-element patch antenna array with split-ring resonators (SRR) integrated in the substrate. The measured results show that the isolation can be enhanced by more than 10 dB with the integration of SRRs, even if the gap between antennas is only about 0.082λ. This work provides an effective alternative to the design of high-isolation antenna arrays.

  18. Disparity in Physical Activity among Urban Youth: An Ecologically Guided Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenhart, Clare M.; Patterson, Freda; Brown, Michael D.; O'Brien, Matthew J.; Nelson, Deborah B.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Insufficient physical activity among urban youth increases risk of chronic disease.Purpose:This study assessed reported physical activity to determine when disparities in participation emerge and what ecologically guided factors are linked with high activity. Methods:We administered a cross-sectional survey to a diverse sample of 321…

  19. Mosquito larvicidal activity of oleic and linoleic acids isolated from Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad.

    PubMed

    Rahuman, A Abdul; Venkatesan, P; Gopalakrishnan, Geetha

    2008-11-01

    In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as larvicides. The larvicidal activity of crude acetone, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, and petroleum ether extracts of the leaf of Centella asiatica Linn., Datura metal Linn., Mukia scabrella Arn., Toddalia asiatica (Linn.) Lam, extracts of whole plant of Citrullus colocynthis (Linn.) Schrad, and Sphaeranthus indicus Linn. were assayed for their toxicity against the early fourth instar larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in whole plant petroleum ether extract of C. colocynthis. In the present study, bioassay-guided fractionation of petroleum ether extract led to the separation and identification of fatty acids; oleic acid and linoleic acid were isolated and identified as mosquito larvicidal compounds. Oleic and Linoleic acids were quite potent against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti L. (LC50 8.80, 18.20 and LC90 35.39, 96.33 ppm), Anopheles stephensi Liston (LC50 9.79, 11.49 and LC90 37.42, 47.35 ppm), and Culex quinquefasciatus Say (LC50 7.66, 27.24 and LC90 30.71, 70.38 ppm). The structure was elucidated from infrared, ultraviolet, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance, 13C-NMR, and mass spectral data. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported isolated compounds from C. colocynthis.

  20. Biofilm-forming activity of bacteria isolated from toilet bowl biofilms and the bactericidal activity of disinfectants against the isolates.

    PubMed

    Mori, Miho; Gomi, Mitsuhiro; Matsumune, Norihiko; Niizeki, Kazuma; Sakagami, Yoshikazu

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the sanitary conditions of toilets, the bacterial counts of the toilet bowl biofilms in 5 Kansai area and 11 Kansai and Kanto area homes in Japan were measured in winter and summer seasons, respectively. Isolates (128 strains) were identified by analyzing 16S ribosomal RNA sequences. The number of colonies and bacterial species from biofilms sampled in winter tended to be higher and lower, respectively, than those in summer. Moreover, the composition of bacterial communities in summer and winter samples differed considerably. In summer samples, biofilms in Kansai and Kanto areas were dominated by Blastomonas sp. and Mycobacterium sp., respectively. Methylobacterium sp. was detected in all toilet bowl biofilms except for one sample. Methylobacterium sp. constituted the major presence in biofilms along with Brevundimonas sp., Sphingomonas sp., and/or Pseudomonas sp. The composition ratio of the sum of their genera was 88.0 from 42.9% of the total bacterial flora. The biofilm formation abilities of 128 isolates were investigated, and results suggested that Methylobacterium sp. and Sphingomonas sp. were involved in biofilm formation in toilet bowls. The biofilm formation of a mixed bacteria system that included bacteria with the highest biofilm-forming ability in a winter sample was greater than mixture without such bacteria. This result suggests that isolates possessing a high biofilm-forming activity are involved in the biofilm formation in the actual toilet bowl. A bactericidal test against 25 strains indicated that the bactericidal activities of didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) tended to be higher than those of polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB) and N-benzyl-N,N-dimethyldodecylammonium chloride (ADBAC). In particular, DDAC showed high bactericidal activity against approximately 90% of tested strains under the 5 h treatment.

  1. Antiproliferative activity of xanthones isolated from Artocarpus obtusus.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Rahmani, Mawardi; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah; Yahayu, Maizatulakmal; Oktima, Winda; Ali, Abd Manaf; Go, Rusea

    2012-01-01

    An investigation of the chemical constituents in Artocarpus obtusus species led to the isolation of three new xanthones, pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1), dihydroartoindonesianin C (2), and pyranocycloartobiloxanthone B (3). The compounds were subjected to antiproliferative assay against human promyelocytic leukemia (HL60), human chronic myeloid leukemia (K562), and human estrogen receptor (ER+) positive breast cancer (MCF7) cell lines. Pyranocycloartobiloxanthone A (1) consistently showed strong cytotoxic activity against the three cell lines compared to the other two with IC(50) values of 0.5, 2.0 and 5.0 μg/mL, respectively. Compound (1) was also observed to exert antiproliferative activity and apoptotic promoter towards HL60 and MCF7 cell lines at respective IC(50) values. The compound (1) was not toxic towards normal cell lines human nontumorigenic breast cell line (MCF10A) and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with IC(50) values of more than 30 μg/mL.

  2. Antileishmanial Activity of Compounds Isolated from Sassafras albidum.

    PubMed

    Pulivarthi, Divya; Steinberg, Kelly Marie; Monzote, Lianet; Piñón, Abel; Setzer, William N

    2015-07-01

    Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by Leishmania parasitic protozoa, which currently lacks efficient treatment. Natural products have shown promise as a potential source for antiprotozoal drugs. This work focuses on the antileishmanial potential of Sassafras albidum (Lauraceae) bark extract. The crude bark extract of S. albidum showed excellent antileishmanial activity with an IC50 value less than 12.5 μg/mL against promastigotes of L. amazonensis. The chloroform stem bark extract of S. albidum was subjected to preparative column chromatography. Five compounds were isolated, purified by recrystallization, and identified as sesamin, spinescin, β-sitosterol, hexatriacontanal, and 1-triacontanol. Antileishmanial and cytotoxic screening were performed on these compounds. Sesamin exhibited the best activity against L. amazonensis with an IC50 of 15.8 μg/mL and was not cytotoxic to mouse macrophage cells (CC50 > 100 μg/mL).

  3. Energy Storage. Teachers Guide. Science Activities in Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Mary Lynn, Ed.

    Included in this science activities energy package for students in grades 4-10 are 12 activities related to energy storage. Each activity is outlined on the front and back of a single sheet and is introduced by a key question. Most of the activities can be completed in the classroom with materials readily available in any community. Among the…

  4. Bioassay-guided isolation of antiplasmodial anacardic acids derivatives from the whole plants of Viola websteri Hemsl.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Jae; Park, Won-Hwan; Moon, Hyung-In

    2009-01-01

    The petroleum ether extract of Viola websteri Hemsl. (Violaceae) was investigated for its activity against chloroquine-sensitive strains of Plasmodium falciparum using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay method. The main antiplasmodial principles, 6-(8'Z-pentadecenyl)-salicylic acid (1) and 6-(8'Z, 11'Z, 14'Z-heptadecatrienyl)-salicylic acid (2), have been isolated from V. websteri for the first time. This is the first report on the antiplasmodial activity of the compounds from V. websteri.

  5. Structure Guided Optimization, in Vitro Activity, and in Vivo Activity of Pan-PIM Kinase Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Burger, Matthew T; Han, Wooseok; Lan, Jiong; Nishiguchi, Gisele; Bellamacina, Cornelia; Lindval, Mika; Atallah, Gordana; Ding, Yu; Mathur, Michelle; McBride, Chris; Beans, Elizabeth L; Muller, Kristine; Tamez, Victoriano; Zhang, Yanchen; Huh, Kay; Feucht, Paul; Zavorotinskaya, Tatiana; Dai, Yumin; Holash, Jocelyn; Castillo, Joseph; Langowski, John; Wang, Yingyun; Chen, Min Y; Garcia, Pablo D

    2013-12-12

    Proviral insertion of Moloney virus (PIM) 1, 2, and 3 kinases are serine/threonine kinases that normally function in survival and proliferation of hematopoietic cells. As high expression of PIM1, 2, and 3 is frequently observed in many human malignancies, including multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkins lymphoma, and myeloid leukemias, there is interest in determining whether selective PIM inhibition can improve outcomes of these human cancers. Herein, we describe our efforts toward this goal. The structure guided optimization of a singleton high throughput screening hit in which the potency against all three PIM isoforms was increased >10,000-fold to yield compounds with pan PIM K is < 10 pM, nanomolar cellular potency, and in vivo activity in an acute myeloid leukemia Pim-dependent tumor model is described. PMID:24900629

  6. Anti-adipogenic activities of Alnus incana and Populus balsamifera bark extracts, part II: bioassay-guided identification of actives salicortin and oregonin.

    PubMed

    Martineau, Louis C; Muhammad, Asim; Saleem, Ammar; Hervé, Jessica; Harris, Cory S; Arnason, John T; Haddad, Pierre S

    2010-10-01

    Among modern day metabolic diseases, obesity has reached epidemic proportions worldwide and novel therapeutic support strategies are urgently needed. Adipocytes are interesting targets in this context. Using ethnobotanical and bioassay screening techniques, we have identified two Boreal Forest plants used by the James Bay Cree that potently inhibit adipogenesis, namely ALNUS INCANA ssp. RUGOSA (Speckled Alder) and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA (Balsam Poplar). The mode of action of this inhibitory activity was reported in a companion paper. The current study report the results of a classical bioassay-guided fractionation approach aimed at identifying the active principles responsible for the inhibition of adipogenesis, as measured using triglyceride accumulation in the 3T3-L1 adipocyte model cell line. The glycosides oregonin and salicortin were isolated and identified as the respective active principles for ALNUS INCANA and POPULUS BALSAMIFERA. These compounds thus offer promise as novel agents to mitigate the incidence or the progression of obesity.

  7. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role. PMID:19165747

  8. Bioassay-guided fractionation of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L.) using an in vitro measure of GABA transaminase activity.

    PubMed

    Awad, Rosalie; Muhammad, Asim; Durst, Tony; Trudeau, Vance L; Arnason, John T

    2009-08-01

    A novel pharmacological mechanism of action for the anxiolytic botanical Melissa officinalis L. (lemon balm) is reported. The methanol extract was identified as a potent in vitro inhibitor of rat brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T), an enzyme target in the therapy of anxiety, epilepsy and related neurological disorders. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification and isolation of rosmarinic acid (RA) and the triterpenoids, ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) as active principles. Phytochemical characterization of the crude extract determined RA as the major compound responsible for activity (40% inhibition at 100 microg/mL) since it represented approximately 1.5% of the dry mass of the leaves. Synergistic effects may also play a role.

  9. Creative Environmental Education Activities for Children. Environmental Education Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee Valley Authority (Land Between the Lakes), Golden Pond, KY.

    Twenty-seven activities have been compiled to assist teachers in incorporating environmental methods and techniques into their preschool curricula. These activities are designed to complement the classroom curriculum and heighten participant awareness and appreciation of environmental resources and relationships. Each activity includes: (1)…

  10. Antioxidative activities of aroma extracts isolated from natural plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, K G; Mitchell, A; Shibamoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Natural leaves and flowers containing numerous aroma chemicals are widely used in aromatherapy since ancient times. In addition to their pleasant smells, aroma chemicals might have some beneficial health effects. Aroma extracts, isolated from coffee beans, soybeans, and mung beans by steam distillation under mild conditions (55 degrees C and 85 mm Hg) were examined for their antioxidative activities. The inhibitory effect of these extracts toward hexanal/hexanoic acid conversion was measured in the testing solution over prolonged time periods. The inhibitory effects of these extracts toward malonaldehyde formation from lipids oxidized by Fenton's reagent were also measured. The antioxidative activity of these extracts, in particular coffee bean extract, was consistent with that of BHT or alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). Soybeans and mung beans extract contained maltol, which inhibits hexanal oxidation significantly. Eugenol, which is one of the major constituents of mung bean extract, exhibited potent antioxidative activity in an aldehyde/carboxylic acid assay. Antioxidants such as eugenol and maltol may play an important role in the pharmaceutical activities of natural plant extracts used for aromatherapy. PMID:11237179

  11. Space-Based Astronomy: An Educator Guide with Activities for Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    2001-01-01

    If you go to the country, far from city lights, you can see about 3,000 stars on a clear night. If your eyes were bigger, you could see many more stars. With a pair of binoculars, an optical device that effectively enlarges the pupil of your eye by about 30 times, the number of stars you can see increases to the tens of thousands. With a medium-sized telescope with a light-collecting mirror 30 centimeters in diameter, you can see hundreds of thousands of stars. With a large observatory telescope, millions of stars become visible. This curriculum guide uses hands-on activities to help students and teachers understand the significance of space-based astronomy--astronomical observations made from outer space. It is not intended to serve as a curriculum. Instead, teachers should select activities from this guide that support and extend existing study. The guide contains few of the traditional activities found in many astronomy guides such as constellation studies, lunar phases, and planetary orbits. It tells, rather, the story of why it is important to observe celestial objects from outer space and how to study the entire electromagnetic spectrum. Teachers are encouraged to adapt these activities for the particular needs of their students. When selected activities from this guide are used in conjunction with traditional astronomy curricula, students benefit from a more complete experience.

  12. Rhodomycin analogues from Streptomyces purpurascens: isolation, characterization and biological activities.

    PubMed

    Holkar, Sunita; Begde, Deovrat; Nashikkar, Nandita; Kadam, Tukaram; Upadhyay, Avinash

    2013-12-01

    During a screening program for bioactive natural products, a potential Streptomyces sp was isolated from soil. On the basis of biochemical, cultural, physiological and 16S rRNA gene analysis, it was identified as Streptomyces purpurascens. The isolate was grown in liquid medium and the crude antibiotic complex was obtained by ethyl acetate extraction. Seven purified fractions were obtained by preparative Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Acid hydrolysis of each fraction and subsequent TLC led to the identification of aglycones and sugars indicating these compounds to be Rhodomycin and its analogues. The identity of these compounds was established on the basis of UV-visible and FT-IR spectra and comparison with published data. The compounds were active against Gram-positive bacteria. Compound E, identified as Rhodomycin B, was found to be the most potent compound with an MIC of 2 μg/ml against Bacillus subtilis. Compounds A and F identified as α2-Rhodomycin II and Obelmycin respectively, and Compound E exhibited an IC50 of 8.8 μg/ml against HeLa cell line but no cytotoxicity was found against L929.

  13. Isolation of Cytoplasmic Pituitary Granules with Gonadotropic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Marshall W.; McShan, W. H.; Ris, Hans

    1960-01-01

    A fraction isolated from the anterior pituitary glands of rats castrate for 8 weeks contained essentially a single cytoplasmic constituent with which the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity was associated. The glands were homogenized in an 0.25 M sucrose + 7.3 per cent polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) solution and fractionated by differential centrifugation to give a heterogeneous small granule fraction which contained almost all the gonadotropic hormone activity. The active supernatant containing this small granule fraction was separated into layers by isopycnic gradient centrifugation on a continuous 6 to 45 per cent sucrose + 17.5 per cent "diodrast" + 5 x 10-4 M "versene" gradient at 100,000 g for 2 hours. Three layers were obtained and the pellet from the active bottom layer was sectioned, examined with the electron microscope, and found to contain 200 mµ granules, mitochondria, ergastoplasm, and other cellular debris. This layer was fractionated further by isopycnic and differential centrifugation to obtain a pellet which contained the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity. Because of the heterogeneity of this fraction, due to the contamination of the 200 mµ granules with mitochondria and other cellular debris, the active layer and the resuspended active pellet, obtained by centrifuging this layer first at 17,000 g then diluting the supernatant and centrifuging at 30,000 g for 1 hour, were filtered through Millipore HA paper with a pore size of 0.45 µ. The cytoplasmic material containing the gonadotropic hormone activity passed through the filter paper and this activity was recovered in the pellets obtained by centrifuging at 100,000 g for 1 hour. These active pellets consisted almost entirely of 200 mµ granules with a minimum amount of contamination, and they contained the major portion of the gonadotropic hormone activity with practically none remaining in the supernatant fraction. These results are discussed in view of their

  14. Adventures in Peacemaking: A Conflict Resolution Activity Guide for School-Age Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, William J.; Furlong, Lisa

    This guide includes hundreds of hands-on, engaging activities designed to meet the unique needs of after-school programs, camps, and recreation centers. The activities teach the skills of creative conflict resolution to school-age children through games, cooperative team challenges, drama, crafts, music, and cooking. It includes easy-to-implement…

  15. Recycle Alaska: Reduce, Reuse, Recycle. Activities Handbook, Teacher's Guide, and Student Worksheets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Recycling is a very important aspect of conserving the environment for future generations. This guide addresses the topic of litter prevention for the Alaskan environment and contains 42 activities. Activity topics covered include Natural Cycles, Human Interruption of Natural Cycles, Reduce, Reuse, Recycle and Recycled Classroom. Grade level,…

  16. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  17. Project CRAFT: Culturally Responsive and Family Focused Training: A Learning Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Deborah; Chan, Sam; Brekken, Linda; Lynch, Eleanor W.; Valverde, Aracelly

    This learning activities guide was developed as part of Project CRAFT (Culturally Responsive and Family Focused Training), an effort to train service providers in California in ways of working with young children (particularly those with disabilities) and their families from diverse cultural backgrounds. The learning activities are intended to be…

  18. Planetary Geology: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Physical and Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide discusses planetary geology. Exercises are grouped into five units: (1) introduction to geologic processes; (2) impact cratering activities; (3) planetary atmospheres; (4) planetary surfaces; and (5) geologic mapping. Suggested introductory exercises are noted at the beginning of each exercise. Each activity includes an…

  19. A Guide to Staff Development Activities, Using a Florida Conference as a Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuttle, Lester E., Jr., Ed.; Ciccone, Russell A., Ed.

    Staff development activities are the subject of a resource guide directed at educators of migrant children. One county participating in the Florida Migratory Child Compensatory Program was selected to serve as a model. Planning for activities should be individually-based, problem-oriented, goal-directed, time-factored, and participant-controlled.…

  20. Ocean Currents: Marine Science Activities for Grades 5-8. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halversen, Catherine; Beals, Kevin; Strang, Craig

    This teacher's guide attempts to answer questions such as: What causes ocean currents? What impact do they have on Earth's environment? and How have they influenced human history? Seven innovative activities are provided in which students can gain fascinating insights into the earth as the ocean planet. Activities focus on how wind, temperature,…

  1. Aeronautics: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator's guide, developed for students in grades 2-4, discusses the field of aeronautics. It begins with education standards and skill matrices for the classroom activities, a description of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aeronautics mission, and a brief history of aeronautics. Activities are written for the…

  2. The Brain in Space: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Neuroscience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLeish, Marlene Y.; McLean, Bernice R.

    This educators guide discusses the brain and contains activities on neuroscience. Activities include: (1) "The Space Life Sciences"; (2) "Space Neuroscience: A Special Area within the Space Life Sciences"; (3) "Space Life Sciences Research"; (4) "Neurolab: A Special Space Mission to Study the Nervous System"; (5) "The Nervous System"; (6)…

  3. Green Thumbs: A Kid's Activity Guide to Indoor and Outdoor Gardening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Laurie

    This guide contains indoor and outdoor gardening activities for children. The activities teach children how plants live and grow; how the weather, temperature, and seasons affect all living things; how living things come out of seeds and soil; how the birds, earthworms, bees, and toads help in the garden; and how the whole environment works…

  4. All "Trashed" Out: An Activity Guide to Solid Waste Management for Grades K-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Springfield. Center for Solid Waste Management and Research, Springfield.

    This activity guide, specifically designed for Illinois classrooms but adaptable for other states, seeks to encourage primary students to make their own personal statement and responses to the environment through increased awareness of reducing, reusing, recycling, and composting of solid waste materials. The activities incorporate environmental…

  5. The Universal House: Energy, Shelter & The California Indian. Activity Guide, 4th/5th Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Energy Extension Service, Sacramento.

    This activity guide links energy awareness with resource management and traditional California Indian cultures for the 3rd-6th grade span. The materials combine cooperative, hands-on activities with background information and learning extensions. The interdisciplinary lessons are built upon themes, concepts, and learning processes outlined in…

  6. Antimalarial activity of nepodin isolated from Rumex crispus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keyong Ho; Rhee, Ki-Hyeong

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to define the antimalarial activity of Rumex crispus. To identify an active compound that is isolated from R. crispus, bioassay-based chromatographic fractionation and purification is carried out from 70 % ethanol extract of R. crispus; then, an active compound, nepodin, is identified by spectroscopic analysis. Anitmalarial activity is measured by PfNDH2 assay, cytotoxicity, and animal test. From NADH:quinone oxidoreductase enzyme (PfNDAH2) assay, nepodin exhibited significant IC50 values that were 0.74 ± 0.07 and 0.79 ± 0.06 μg/ml against P. falciparum chloroquine-sensitive (3D7) and P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant (S20), respectively. Nepodin showed a potential selective inhibition (SI index: ratio of 50 % cytotoxic concentration to 50 % effective anti-plasmodial concentration) of 161.6 and 151.4 against P. falciparum 3D7 and P. falciparum S20. In the animal test, all groups of nepodin treatment of 10, 50, and 250 mg/kg were active with a parasitemia suppression of 97.1 ± 3.3, 99.1 ± 3.7, and 99.1 ± 2.6 %, respectively. The survival time with nepodin treatment was increased by 14.6 ± 2.5, 16.2 ± 1.5, and 19.8 ± 1.7 days at each dose, respectively. This study newly identified the plant R. crispus containing nepodin, which is a potential antimalarial compound. It exhibited the inhibitory activity of PfNDH2 and prolonged the survival time on the group of nepodin treatment; moreover, it inhibited the parasitemia in the animal test.

  7. A Guide to Microsoft Active Directory (AD) Design

    SciTech Connect

    Dias, J

    2002-04-29

    The goal of this paper is to facilitate the design process for those DOE sites that are currently engaged in designing their Active Directory (AD) network. It is a roadmap to enable analysis of the complicated design tradeoffs associated with Active Directory Design. By providing discussion of Active Directory design elements which are permanent and costly to change once deployed, the hope is to minimize the risks of sponsoring failed designs, or joining existing infrastructures not suitable to programmatic needs. Specifically, most Active Directory structures will fall under one of three common designs: Single Domain, Single Forest with Multiple Domains, or Multiple Forests. Each has benefits and concerns, depending on programmatic and organizational structures. The comparison of these three approaches will facilitate almost any Active Directory design effort. Finally, this paper describes some best practices to consider when designing Active Directory based on three years of research and experience.

  8. The Effectiveness of WhatsApp Mobile Learning Activities Guided by Activity Theory on Students' Knowledge Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barhoumi, Chokri

    2015-01-01

    This research paper explores the effectiveness of using mobile technologies to support a blended learning course titled Scientific Research Methods in Information Science. Specifically, it discusses the effects of WhatsApp mobile learning activities guided by activity theory on students' knowledge Management (KM). During the 2014 academic year,…

  9. Immunocontraceptive activity guided fractionation and characterization of active constituents of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Garg, S; Talwar, G P; Upadhyay, S N

    1998-04-01

    A novel approach for immunocontraception by intervention of local cell mediated immunity in the reproductive system by using single intrauterine application of neem oil has been described earlier. The reversible block in fertility was reported to last for 107-180 days in female Wistar rats (Upadhyay et al., 1990. Antifertility effects of neem oil by single intrauterine administration: A novel method of contraception. Proceedings Of The Royal Society Of London B 242, 175-180) and 7-11 months in monkeys (Upadhyay et al., 1994. Long term contraceptive effects of intrauterine neem treatment (IUNT) in bonnet monkeys: An alternative to intrauterine contraceptive devices. Contraception 49, 161-167). The present study, describes the identification and characterization of the biologically active fraction from neem seeds (Azadirachta indica A. Juss. Family Meliaceae), responsible for the above activity in adult female Wistar rats. Initial studies with the mechanically extracted oil and solvent extracts of neem seeds have revealed that the antifertility activity was present in constituents of low to intermediate polarity. A hexane extract of neem seeds was reported to be biologically active (Garg et al., 1994. Comparison of extraction procedures on the immunocontraceptive activity of neem seed extracts. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 22, 87-92). Subsequently, hexane extract was sequentially fractionated through the last active fraction using various separation techniques and tested for antifertility activity at each step. Preparative HPLC was used for isolating individual components of the active fraction in quantities, sufficient for characterization. An analytical HPLC method was developed for standardization of the fraction. The active fraction was identified to be a mixture of six components, which comprises of saturated, mono and di-unsaturated free fatty acids and their methyl esters. Dose response study was performed with the last active fractions. The antifertility

  10. Antimicrobial activities of phenethyl isothiocyanate isolated from horseradish.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hongxia; Wang, Chengzhang; Ye, Jianzhong; Zhou, Hao; Chen, Xijuan

    2012-01-01

    Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) was obtained from horseradish. The preparation procedure was as follows: the horseradish powder was hydrolysed in the water first, and then, after filtration, the residue was extracted by petroleum ether; finally, PEITC was isolated by silica gel column. The structure of PEITC was identified by IR, MS, ¹H-NMR and ¹³C-NMR chromatography methods. The inhibitory activities of PEITC against Gibberella zeae, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv . citri, Cytospora sp . and Phytophthora capsisi showed that PEITC had good inhibition effects. The EC₅₀ values of G. zeae, X. axonopodis pv . citri, Cytospora sp . and P. capsisi were 13.92, 1.20, 0.73 and 3.69 µg mL⁻¹, respectively. PMID:21815843

  11. Active vibration isolation of macro-micro motion stage disturbances using a floating stator platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lufan; Long, Zhili; Cai, Jiandong; Liu, Yang; Fang, Jiwen; Wang, Michael Yu

    2015-10-01

    Macro-micro motion stage is mainly applied in microelectronics manufacturing to realize a high-acceleration, high-speed and nano-positioning motion. The high acceleration and nano-positioning accuracy would be influenced by the vibration of the motion stage. In the paper, a concept of floating stage is introduced in the macro-micro motion for isolating vibration disturbances. The design model of the floating stage is established and its theoretical analyses including natural frequency, transient and frequency response analyses are investigated, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the floating stator platform as a vibration isolator for the macro-micro motion stage. Moreover, an optimal design of the floating stator is conducted and then verified by experiments. In order to characterize and quantify the performance of isolation obtained from the traditional fixed stator and the floating stator, the acceleration responses at different accelerations, speeds and displacements are measured in x, y and z directions. The theoretical and experimental analyses in time and frequency domains indicate that the floating stator platform is effective to actively isolate the vibration in the macro-micro motion stage. In macro-micro motion stage, high acceleration motion is provided by VCM. Vibration is induced from VCM, that is, VCM is a source system, the vibration response or force is felt by a receiver system. Generally, VCM is fixed on the base, which means that the base is the receiver system which absorbs or transfers the vibration. However, the vibration cannot completely disappear and the base vibration is inevitable. In the paper, a floated stator platform as isolation system is developed to decrease or isolate vibration between VCM and base. The floated stator platform consists of damper, stopper, floated lock, spring, limiter, sub base, etc. Unlike the traditional stator of VCM fixed on the base, the floated stator can be moved on the linear guide under vibration

  12. Anticancer activity of flavane gallates isolated from Plicosepalus curviflorus

    PubMed Central

    Fawzy, Ghada Ahmed; Al-Taweel, Areej Mohammad; Perveen, Shagufta

    2014-01-01

    Background: Previous investigation of the methanol extract of Plicosepalus curviflorus leaves led to the isolation of two new flavane gallates (1, 2), together with other compounds including quercetin (3). The stems of P. curviflorus are used traditionally for the treatment of cancer in Yemen. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the anticancer activity of the plant methanol extract as well as isolated compounds (1-3). Materials and Methods: The human cancer cell lines used were; MCF-7, HepG-2, HCT-116, Hep-2, HeLa and normal, Vero cell line using the Crystal Violet Staining method (CVS). Results: Quercetin (3) possessed the highest anticancer effect against all five cell lines (IC50 ranging from 3.6 to 16.2 μg/ml). It was followed by 2S, 3R-3, 3′, 4′, 5, 7-pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1), with IC50 ranging from 11.6 to 38.8 μg/ml. The weakest anticancer activity was given by 2S, 3R-3,3′,4′,5,5′,7-hexahydroxyflavane-3′,5-di-O-gallate (2) with IC50 ranging from 39.8 to above 50 μg/ml, compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug. Colon, liver and breast cell lines seemed to be more sensitive to the tested compounds than the cervical and laryngeal cell lines. Concerning the cytotoxic effect on Vero cell line, the pentahydroxyflavane-5-O-gallate (1) showed the highest IC50 ( 138.2 μg/ml), while quercetin exhibited the lowest IC50 to Vero cells (30.5 μg/ml), compared to vinblastine sulphate as reference drug (IC50: 39.7 μg/ml). Conclusion: The results suggest the possible use of compounds 1 and 3 as anticancer drugs especially against colon and liver cancers. PMID:25298669

  13. Argonaute2 cleaves the anti-guide strand of siRNA during RISC activation.

    PubMed

    Rand, Tim A; Petersen, Sean; Du, Fenghe; Wang, Xiaodong

    2005-11-18

    The mRNA-cleavage step of RNA interference is mediated by an endonuclease, Argonaute2 (Ago2), within the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Ago2 uses one strand of the small interfering (si) RNA duplex as a guide to find messenger RNAs containing complementary sequences and cleaves the phosphodiester backbone at a specific site measured from the guide strand's 5' end. Here, we show that both strands of siRNA get loaded onto Ago2 protein in Drosophila S2 cell extracts. The anti-guide strand behaves as a RISC substrate and is cleaved by Ago2. This cleavage event is important for the removal of the anti-guide strand from Ago2 protein and activation of RISC.

  14. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  15. Prostate segmentation with local binary patterns guided active appearance models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    2011-03-01

    Real-time fusion of Magnetic Resonance (MR) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images aid in the localization of malignant tissues in TRUS guided prostate biopsy. Registration performed on segmented contours of the prostate reduces computational complexity and improves the multimodal registration accuracy. However, accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images could be challenging in the presence of heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate gland, and other imaging artifacts like speckle noise, shadow regions and low Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR). In this work, we propose to enhance the texture features of the prostate region using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) for the propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the prior shape and texture information of the prostate from the training data. The estimated parameters are then modified with the prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve an optimal segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) value of 0.94+/-0.01 and a mean segmentation time of 0.68+/-0.02 seconds when validated with 70 TRUS images of 7 datasets in a leave-one-patient-out validation framework. Our method performs computationally efficient and accurate prostate segmentation in the presence of intensity heterogeneities and imaging artifacts.

  16. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All of us who live on Earth must recognize that we play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. We must solve this great atmospheric mystery if we are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  17. Texture Guided Active Appearance Model Propagation for Prostate Segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Soumya; Oliver, Arnau; Martí, Robert; Lladó, Xavier; Freixenet, Jordi; Vilanova, Joan C.; Meriaudeau, Fabrice

    Fusion of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and Trans Rectal Ultra Sound (TRUS) images during TRUS guided prostate biopsy improves localization of the malignant tissues. Segmented prostate in TRUS and MRI improve registration accuracy and reduce computational cost of the procedure. However, accurate segmentation of the prostate in TRUS images can be a challenging task due to low signal to noise ratio, heterogeneous intensity distribution inside the prostate, and imaging artifacts like speckle noise and shadow. We propose to use texture features from approximation coefficients of Haar wavelet transform for propagation of a shape and appearance based statistical model to segment the prostate in a multi-resolution framework. A parametric model of the propagating contour is derived from Principal Component Analysis of prior shape and texture informations of the prostate from the training data. The parameters are then modified with prior knowledge of the optimization space to achieve optimal prostate segmentation. The proposed method achieves a mean Dice Similarity Coefficient value of 0.95±0.01, and mean segmentation time of 0.72±0.05 seconds when validated on 25 TRUS images, grabbed from video sequences, in a leave-one-out validation framework. Our proposed model performs computationally efficient accurate prostate segmentation in presence of intensity heterogeneity and imaging artifacts.

  18. Earth's mysterious atmosphere. ATLAS 1: Teachers guide with activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    One of our mission's primary goals is to better understand the physics and chemistry of our atmosphere, the thin envelope of air that provides for human life and shields us from the harshness of space. The Space Shuttle Atlantis will carry the ATLAS 1 science instruments 296 km above Earth, so that they can look down into and through the various layers of the atmosphere. Five solar radiometers will precisely measure the amount of energy the Sun injects into Earth's environment. The chemistry at different altitudes will be measured very accurately by five other instruments called spectrometers. Much of our time in the cockpit of Atlantis will be devoted to two very exciting instruments that measure the auroras and the atmosphere's electrical characteristics. Finally, our ultraviolet telescope will probe the secrets of fascinating celestial objects. This Teacher's Guide is designed as a detective story to help you appreciate some of the many questions currently studied by scientists around the world. Many complex factors affect our atmosphere today, possibly even changing the course of global climate. All who live on Earth must recognize that they play an ever-growing role in causing some of these changes. People must solve this great atmospheric mystery if they are to understand all these changes and know what to do about them.

  19. Anticholinesterase activity of 7-methoxyflavones isolated from Kaempferia parviflora.

    PubMed

    Sawasdee, Pattara; Sabphon, Chalisa; Sitthiwongwanit, Duangporn; Kokpol, Udom

    2009-12-01

    The rhizome of Kaempferia parviflora or kra-chai-dum (in Thai) is used traditionally as a folk medicine. The preliminary cholinesterase inhibitory screening of this plant extract exhibited significant acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities. Thirteen known methoxyflavones (1-13) were isolated and their structures were completely elucidated based on NMR analysis and compared with literature reports. Minor compounds 12-13 were reported for the first time from this species. The cholinesterase inhibitory test results showed that the highest potential inhibitors toward AChE and BChE were 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (6) and 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7), respectively, with the percentage inhibitory activity varying over 43-85%. The structure-activity relationship study led to the conclusion that compounds bearing 5,7-dimethoxy groups and a free substituent at C-3 had a significant inhibitory effect at a concentration of 0.1 mg/mL, but those bearing a 5-hydroxyl group reduced the inhibitory potency. On the other hand, flavones bearing a 3'- or 5'-methoxy group did not influence the inhibitory effect. Interestingly, 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (7) exhibited strong selectivity for BChE over AChE which may be of great interest to modify as a treatment agent for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:19548291

  20. Antibacterial activity of Lactobacillus strains isolated from dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    Vignolo, G M; Suriani, F; Pesce de Ruiz Holgado, A; Oliver, G

    1993-10-01

    One hundred strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dry cured sausages were tested for antagonistic activity against a set of test strains. Nine of 52 strains of Lactobacillus casei and three of 48 strains of Lact. plantarun produced inhibition zones against the indicator species. The substance excreted by Lact. casei CRL 705 was active against Lact. plantarum, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and a wide range of Gram-negative bacteria. The activity of the antibacterial compound from Lact. casei CRL 705 was destroyed by papain, trypsin and pepsin, but was resistant to heat (100 degrees C for 20 min), lysozyme and catalase. The agent was produced during the growth cycle and when the concentrated and neutralized supernatant fluid was added to a fresh culture of sensitive cells it produced a rapid inactivation. A decrease in optical density (O.D.) over time, indicative of cell lysis, was also observed. These characteristics allowed us to identify the inhibitory compound as a bacteriocin which we termed Lactocin 705. PMID:8226391

  1. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Solid Waste and Environmental Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This book is the first in a series of four books emphasizing student-oriented problem solving related to environmental matters. It is divided into three activity levels: awareness, transitional, and operational. The activity sequence is designed to motivate students toward a concern for environmental quality, take action related to particular…

  2. Biomass I. Science Activities in Energy [and] Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Designed for science students in fourth, fifth, and sixth grades, the activities in this unit illustrate principles and problems related to biomass as a form of energy. (The word biomass is used to describe all solid material of animal or vegetable origin from which energy may be extracted.) Twelve student activities using art, economics,…

  3. Dual targets guided screening and isolation of Kukoamine B as a novel natural anti-sepsis agent from traditional Chinese herb Cortex lycii.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Xinchuan; Long, Yupeng; Cao, Hongwei; Wang, Ning; Lu, Yongling; Zhao, Kecen; Zhou, Hong; Zheng, Jiang

    2011-01-01

    Treating sepsis remains challenging at present. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and bacterial DNA/CpG DNA are important pathogenic molecules and drug targets for sepsis. It is thus a promising strategy to treat sepsis by discovering agents that neutralize LPS and CpG DNA simultaneously. In this study, we present evidences of the biosensor based screening and isolation of active anti-sepsis fractions and monomers from traditional Chinese herbs using dual targets (LPS and CpG DNA) guided drug discovery strategy. Firstly, LPS or CpG DNA was immobilized on surfaces of cuvettes in the biosensor to establish a screening platform. Then, Cortex lycii with both highest affinities was selected out from one hundred and fourteen traditional Chinese herbs. In subsequent experiments, chromatography was utilized and coupled with the biosensor to purify fractions with a higher affinity for LPS and CpG DNA. In line with affinity assay, these fractions were shown to neutralize LPS and CpG DNA and inhibit their activity in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, the contributing monomer Kukoamine B (KB) was purified. KB neutralized LPS and CpG DNA in vitro. It inhibited TLR4, TLR9 and MyD88 mRNA expressions up-regulated by LPS and CpG DNA, and also attenuated the LPS and CpG DNA elicited nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 protein in RAW264.7 cells. It also protected mice from lethal challenge of heat-killed E. coli, a mixture of LPS and CpG DNA. In conclusion, we presented a dual target guided discovery of a novel anti-sepsis agent KB from traditional Chinese herbs via combination of biosensor technology and chromatography methods. PMID:21073991

  4. Carbonic anhydrase activity in isolated chloroplasts of chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, G.; Togasaki, R.K. ); Marcus, Y. ); Moroney, J.V. )

    1989-04-01

    In a new assay of carbonic anhydrase, NaH{sup 14}CO{sub 3} solution at the bottom of a sealed vessel releases {sup 14}CO{sub 3} which diffuses to the top of the vessel to be assimilated by actively photosynthesizing Chlamydomonas cells. The assay is initiated by illuminating cells and stopped by turning the light off and killing the cells with acid. Enzyme activity was estimated from acid stable radioactivity above the uncatalyzed background level. With bovine carbonic anhydrase, 1.5 Wilbur Anderson Unit (WAU) can be consistantly measured at 5-6 fold above background. Sonicated whole cells of air adapted wild type (+)gave 741.1 {plus minus} 12.4 WAU/mg chl. Intact washed cells of mixotrophically grown wall-less mutant CWD(-) and a high CO2 requiring wall-less double mutant CIA-3/CW15 (-) gave 7.1 {plus minus} 1.9 and 2.8 {plus minus} 7.8 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplasts isolated from CWD and CIA-3/CW15 and subsequently disrupted gave 64.0 {plus minus} 14.7 and 2.8 {plus minus} 3.2 WAU/mg chl respectively. Chloroplast sonicate from another wall-less mutant CW15(-) gave activity comparable to CWD. Thus on a chlorophyll basis, enzyme activity in chloroplasts from mixotrophically grown cells is about 1/10th of the level found in air adapted wild type cells. CIA-3 seems to lack this activity.

  5. [Phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans isolates obtained from clinical specimens].

    PubMed

    Yenişehirli, Gülgün; Bulut, Yunus; Tunçoglu, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed to determine the phospholipase, proteinase and hemolytic activities of Candida albicans strains isolated from clinical specimens. A total of 147 C. albicans strains isolated from blood (n = 29), respiratory specimens (n = 44), urine (n = 52), pus (n = 17) and stool (n = 5) were included in the study. Proteinase and phospholipase activities were determined in 81% and 76% of C. albicans isolates, respectively. All C. albicans isolates revealed beta-hemolytic activity on Sabouraud dextrose agar supplemented with 7% fresh sheep blood and 3% glucose. Phospholipase and proteinase positivity were highest among the respiratory isolates. Proteinase activity of respiratory (93%) and blood (83%) isolates were statistically significantly higher than that of urine (77%; p = 0.032), pus (65%; p = 0.007) and stool isolates (60%; p = 0.026). While phospholipase activity showed statistically significant difference between respiratory (84%) and pus (53%) isolates (p = 0.014), no statistically significant difference was determined for blood (79%), urine (75%) and stool (80%) isolates (p > 0.05). Two blood isolates with 4+ proteinase activity and 3 urine isolates with 3+ proteinase activity were phospholipase negative. One urine isolate with 4+ phospholipase activity and 4 with 3+ phospholipase activity were proteinase negative. Phospholipase and proteinase negative 1 isolate from stool and 1 isolate from pus were found to have 4+ hemolytic activity. In conclusion, besides proteinase and phospholipase enzyme activities, hemolytic activity may play an important role for the C.albicans infections. The pathogenetic role of these virulence factors should be evaluated by further clinical studies.

  6. Your Guide to Physical Activity and Your Heart

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Calories Burned per Hour Hiking Light gardening/yard work Dancing Golf (walking and carrying clubs) ... Bicycling (less than 10 mph) Downhill skiing Dancing Gardening Golf (on foot) Hiking (flat ground) Horseback riding ...

  7. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity.

  8. Isolation of arginase inhibitors from the bioactivity-guided fractionation of Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaves and stems.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Lorena Ramos Freitas; Ramalho, Suelem Demuner; Burger, Marcela Carmen de Melo; Nebo, Liliane; Fernandes, João Batista; da Silva, Maria Fátima das Graças Fernandes; Iemma, Mônica Rosas da Costa; Corrêa, Caroindes Julia; de Souza, Dulce Helena Ferreira; Lima, Maria Inês Salgueiro; Vieira, Paulo Cezar

    2014-02-28

    Byrsonima coccolobifolia leaf and stem extracts were studied in the search for possible leishmanicidal compounds using arginase (ARG) from Leishmania amazonensis as a molecular target. Flavonoids 1b, 1e-1g, 2a, 2b, and 2d-2f showed significant inhibitory activity, with IC50 values ranging from 0.9 to 4.8 μM. The kinetics of the most active compounds were determined. Flavonoids 1e, 1f, 2a, 2b, and 2e were characterized as noncompetitive inhibitors of ARG with dissociation constants (Ki) ranging from 0.24 to 3.8 μM, demonstrating strong affinity. Structure-activity relationship studies revealed some similarities in the structural features of flavonoids related to ARG activity. PMID:24521209

  9. Exploring the Moon: A teacher's guide with activities for Earth and space sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey; Martel, Linda M. V.; Bays, Brooks G., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This guide contains educational materials designed for use in upper elementary through high schools with the Lunar Sample Disk. A set of thirty-six 35-mm slides complements the activities in this guidebook. The book contains: (1) information on the Lunar Sample Disk; (2) a curriculum content matrix; (3) a teacher's guide; (4) moon ABC's fact sheet; (5) rock ABC's fact sheet; (6) progress in Lunar Science chart; (7) seventeen activities; (8) a resource section for each unit; (9) a glossary; and (10) a list of NASA educational resources.

  10. Development of Light-Activated CRISPR Using Guide RNAs with Photocleavable Protectors.

    PubMed

    Jain, Piyush K; Ramanan, Vyas; Schepers, Arnout G; Dalvie, Nisha S; Panda, Apekshya; Fleming, Heather E; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2016-09-26

    The ability to remotely trigger CRISPR/Cas9 activity would enable new strategies to study cellular events with greater precision and complexity. In this work, we have developed a method to photocage the activity of the guide RNA called "CRISPR-plus" (CRISPR-precise light-mediated unveiling of sgRNAs). The photoactivation capability of our CRISPR-plus method is compatible with the simultaneous targeting of multiple DNA sequences and supports numerous modifications that can enable guide RNA labeling for use in imaging and mechanistic investigations. PMID:27554600

  11. Robotic Image-Guided Stereotactic Radiotherapy, for Isolated Recurrent Primary, Lymph Node or Metastatic Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Jereczek-Fossa, Barbara Alicja; Beltramo, Giancarlo; Fariselli, Laura; Fodor, Cristiana; Santoro, Luigi; Vavassori, Andrea; Zerini, Dario; Gherardi, Federica; Ascione, Carmen; Bossi-Zanetti, Isa; Mauro, Roberta; Bregantin, Achille; Bianchi, Livia Corinna; De Cobelli, Ottavio; Orecchia, Roberto

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the outcome of robotic CyberKnife (Accuray, Sunnyvale, CA)-based stereotactic radiotherapy (CBK-SRT) for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Between May 2007 and December 2009, 34 consecutive patients/38 lesions were treated (15 patients reirradiated for local recurrence [P], 4 patients reirradiated for anastomosis recurrence [A], 16 patients treated for single lymph node recurrence [LN], and 3 patients treated for single metastasis [M]). In all but 4 patients, [{sup 11}C]choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography was performed. CBK-SRT consisted of reirradiation and first radiotherapy in 27 and 11 lesions, respectively. The median CBK-SRT dose was 30 Gy in 4.5 fractions (P, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; A, 30 Gy in 5 fractions; LN, 33 Gy in 3 fractions; and M, 36 Gy in 3 fractions). In 18 patients (21 lesions) androgen deprivation was added to CBK-SRT (median duration, 16.6 months). Results: The median follow-up was 16.9 months. Acute toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event). Late toxicity included urinary events (3 Grade 1, 2 Grade 2, and 2 Grade 3 events) and rectal events (1 Grade 1 event and 1 Grade 2 event). Biochemical response was observed in 32 of 38 evaluable lesions. Prostate-specific antigen stabilization was seen for 4 lesions, and in 2 cases prostate-specific antigen progression was reported. The 30-month progression-free survival rate was 42.6%. Disease progression was observed for 14 lesions (5, 2, 5, and 2 in Groups P, A, LN, and M respectively). In only 3 cases, in-field progression was seen. At the time of analysis (May 2010), 19 patients are alive with no evidence of disease and 15 are alive with disease. Conclusions: CyberKnife-based stereotactic radiotherapy is a feasible approach for isolated recurrent primary, lymph node, or metastatic prostate cancer, offering excellent in-field tumor

  12. Inhibition of Human Prolyl Oligopeptidase Activity by the Cyclotide Psysol 2 Isolated from Psychotria solitudinum

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Cyclotides are head-to-tail cyclized peptides comprising a stabilizing cystine-knot motif. To date, they are well known for their diverse bioactivities such as anti-HIV and immunosuppressive properties. Yet little is known about specific molecular mechanisms, in particular the interaction of cyclotides with cellular protein targets. Native and synthetic cyclotide-like peptides from Momordica plants are potent and selective inhibitors of different serine-type proteinases such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, matriptase, and tryptase-beta. This study describes the bioactivity-guided isolation of a cyclotide from Psychotria solitudinum as an inhibitor of another serine-type protease, namely, the human prolyl oligopeptidase (POP). Analysis of the inhibitory potency of Psychotria extracts and subsequent fractionation by liquid chromatography yielded the isolated peptide psysol 2 (1), which exhibited an IC50 of 25 μM. In addition the prototypical cyclotide kalata B1 inhibited POP activity with an IC50 of 5.6 μM. The inhibitory activity appeared to be selective for POP, since neither psysol 2 nor kalata B1 were able to inhibit the proteolytic activity of trypsin or chymotrypsin. The enzyme POP is well known for its role in memory and learning processes, and it is currently being considered as a promising therapeutic target for the cognitive deficits associated with several psychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases, such as schizophrenia and Parkinson’s disease. In the context of discovery and development of POP inhibitors with beneficial ADME properties, cyclotides may be suitable starting points considering their stability in biological fluids and possible oral bioavailability. PMID:25894999

  13. Isolation, antimicrobial activities, and primary structures of hamster neutrophil defensins.

    PubMed Central

    Mak, P; Wójcik, K; Thogersen, I B; Dubin, A

    1996-01-01

    Hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) neutrophil granules contain at least four microbicidal peptides belonging to the defensin family. These compounds were purified from granule acid extracts by reverse-phase chromatography and termed HaNP-1 to -4 (hamster neutrophil peptide). HaNP-1 and HaNP-3 revealed the most bactericidal activity, with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 0.3 to 0.8 microg/ml for Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes strains. The HaNP-4 was always isolated in concentrations exceeding about 10 times the concentrations of other hamster peptides, but its antibacterial activity as well as that of HaNP-2 was relatively lower, probably as a result of conserved Arg residue substitutions. Other microorganisms were also tested, and generally, hamster defensins exhibited less potency against gram-negative bacteria. The amino acid sequence of hamster defensins showed a high percentage of identity to the sequence of mouse enteric defensins, reaching about 60% identical residues in the case of HaNP-3 and cryptdin 3. PMID:8890190

  14. Targeted Gene Activation Using RNA-Guided Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander; Woods, Wendy S; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) system and its adaptation for targeted manipulation of DNA in diverse species has revolutionized the field of genome engineering. In particular, the fusion of catalytically inactive Cas9 to any number of transcriptional activator domains has resulted in an array of easily customizable synthetic transcription factors that are capable of achieving robust, specific, and tunable activation of target gene expression within a wide variety of tissues and cells. This chapter describes key experimental design considerations, methods for plasmid construction, gene delivery protocols, and procedures for analysis of targeted gene activation in mammalian cell lines using CRISPR-Cas transcription factors. PMID:27662880

  15. Rapid Bioassay-Guided Isolation of Antibacterial Clerodane Type Diterpenoid from Dodonaea viscosa (L.) Jaeq.

    PubMed Central

    Khurram, Muhammad; Lawton, Linda A.; Edwards, Christine; Iriti, Marcello; Hameed, Abdul; Khan, Murad A.; Khan, Farman A.; ur Rahman, Shafiq

    2015-01-01

    Plant extracts are complex matrices and, although crude extracts are widely in use, purified compounds are pivotal in drug discovery. This study describes the application of automated preparative-HPLC combined with a rapid off-line bacterial bioassay, using reduction of a tetrazolium salt as an indicator of bacterial metabolism. This approach enabled the identification of fractions from Dodonaea viscosa that were active against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, which, ultimately, resulted in the identification of a clerodane type diterpenoid, 6β-hydroxy-15,16-epoxy-5β, 8β, 9β, 10α-cleroda-3, 13(16), 14-trien-18-oic acid, showing bacteriostatic activity (minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) = 64–128 µg/mL) against test bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on antibacterial activity of this metabolite from D. viscosa. PMID:26343638

  16. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antimicrobial coumarins from Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae) fruits by high-performance counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Walasek, Magdalena; Grzegorczyk, Agnieszka; Malm, Anna; Skalicka-Woźniak, Krystyna

    2015-11-01

    An efficient strategy, based on bioassay-guided fractionation, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and high-performance counter-current chromatography (HPCCC), was established to purify and evaluate the bioactive compounds from the dichloromethane extract of the fruits of Heracleum mantegazzianum Sommier & Levier (Apiaceae). The quaternary solvent system n-heptane-ethyl acetate-methanol-water (6:5:6:5 v/v) was used in the reversed phase mode. Using this method, in a single run, seven fractions were isolated, among them three were the pure furanocoumarins: pimpinellin, imperatorin, and phellopterin. In order to purify xanthotoxin a more polar system (1:1:1:1 v/v) was further applied. The antimicrobial activity of extract, chromatographic fractions, and single compounds were in the range of MIC = 0.03-1 mg mL(-1). Xanthotoxin may have priority as a compound of further interest based on its antimicrobial activity. For the first time, an extensive antimicrobial study was performed for pimpinellin and phellopterin.

  17. The Nature Specialist: A Complete Guide to Program and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Lenore Hendler

    This manual contains a collection of approaches and activities for nature specialists at residential or day camps. It is organized so that the novice may use it to maximize the effectiveness of a camp program. The book is full of descriptions of various field experiments in which children can participate. Comments in section 1, "Getting Started,"…

  18. Animals Alive! An Ecological Guide to Animal Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Dennis

    Animals Alive! is designed to help teachers develop an inquiry-oriented program for studying the animal kingdom in which, whenever possible, live animals are collected locally, studied, observed, and then released completely unharmed back into their natural habitats. By careful selection and modification of the chapter questions, activities, and…

  19. Activities for Teaching Positive Psychology: A Guide for Instructors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froh, Jeffrey J., Ed.; Parks, Acacia C., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Positive psychology is a rapidly expanding area of study that is of great interest to students at the graduate, undergraduate, and high school levels. But the field is so broad that teachers who want to cover all the bases when designing a positive psychology course may have difficulty locating and selecting materials. "Activities for Teaching…

  20. Boundary Breakers: A Team Building Guide for Student Activity Advisers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrader, John

    Boundary breakers, the modern term for "icebreakers," tear down barriers that sometimes form within student groups and organizations, and offer a low-risk way for group members to become better acquainted. This document is a "hands on" booklet that covers such boundary-breaking activities as "Send a Letter,""The Lap Game,""One-Minute Interview,"…

  1. Using Guided, Corpus-Aided Discovery to Generate Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Li-Shih

    2008-01-01

    Over the years, educators have proposed a variety of active learning pedagogical approaches that focus on encouraging students to discover for themselves the principles and solutions that will engage them in learning and enhance their educational outcomes. Among these approaches are problem-based, inquiry-based, experiential, and discovery…

  2. Be Active Your Way: A Guide for Adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... you will try): ❑ Biking slowly ❑ Canoeing ❑ Dancing ❑ General gardening (raking, trimming shrubs) ❑ Tennis (doubles) ❑ Using your manual ... activities a couple of days a week: • Heavy gardening (digging,shoveling) • Lifting weights • Push-ups on the ...

  3. An Art Activity Guide for Teachers of Severely Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burst, Judy; And Others

    This manual presents 48 visual art activities developed for severely disabled elementary and secondary school students. Brief explanations are presented for several handicapping conditions (cerebral palsy, Down's Syndrome, microcephaly, hydrocephaly, and communication handicaps), and information is given for positioning of students and…

  4. Measurement for Work. Teaching Guide and Sample Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Margo; Bolton, Chris

    This document is intended to help Australian technical and further education instructors in New South Wales (TAFE NSW) identify teaching principles and learning activities that they can use to help adult learners master the mathematics processes, knowledge, and skills needed to perform basic measurement tasks in today's workplace. The materials…

  5. Social competence and collaborative guided inquiry science activities: Experiences of students with learning disabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Jennifer Anne

    This thesis presents a qualitative investigation of the effects of social competence on the participation of students with learning disabilities (LD) in the science learning processes associated with collaborative, guided inquiry learning. An inclusive Grade 2 classroom provided the setting for the study. Detailed classroom observations were the primary source of data. In addition, the researcher conducted two interviews with the teacher, and collected samples of students' written work. The purpose of the research was to investigate: (a) How do teachers and peers mediate the participation of students with LD in collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, (b) What learning processes do students with LD participate in during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities, and (c) What components of social competence support and constrain the participation of students with LD during collaborative, guided inquiry science activities? The findings of the study suggest five key ideas for research and teaching in collaborative, guided inquiry science in inclusive classrooms. First, using a variety of collaborative learning formats (whole-class, small-group, and pairs) creates more opportunities for the successful participation of diverse students with LD. Second, creating an inclusive community where students feel accepted and valued may enhance the academic and social success of students with LD. Third, careful selection of partners for students with LD is important for a positive learning experience. Students with LD should be partnered with academically successful, socially competent peers; also, this study suggested that students with LD experience more success working collaboratively in pairs rather than in small groups. Fourth, a variety of strategies are needed to promote active participation and positive social interactions for students with and without LD during collaborative, guided inquiry learning. Fifth, adopting a general approach to teaching

  6. Isolation, screening, and molecular characterization of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma and their beneficial activities

    PubMed Central

    Kasa, Parameswari; Modugapalem, Hemalatha; Battini, Kishori

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The present study was conducted for isolation, screening, and identification of Azotobacter and Trichoderma from different soil samples. Methods: A total of 10 isolates of Azotobacter and Trichoderma were isolated from rhizospheric soils. The test isolates were biochemically characterized and screened in in-vitro conditions for their plant growth promoting properties. DNA polymorphism of isolates was studied using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA analysis. Results: A total of 41 bands were scored, out of which 35 bands were found to be 85.59% polymorphic in Azotobacter and in Trichoderma among total 37 bands scored of which 29 were found to be 78.37% polymorphic. The influence of isolated plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains on plant growth was studied using different parameters such as height of the plant, number of leaves, and number of branches, and bio-control activity was studied. Conclusion: The present results concluded that the multiple beneficial activities of PGPR traits increase the plant growth and bio-control activity. PMID:26283830

  7. Guided learning chemistry activities in the physical science (PSCI 1030) lab at Middle Tennessee State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farris, Barry

    2005-07-01

    Guided learning labs as alternatives to traditional style chemistry-related labs were tested in the course, Topics in Physical Science. Guided learning labs emphasized students' conceptual understanding of the science content and actively involved the instructor during the lab. The control group performed traditional lab exorcise while students who carried out the guided learning activities formed the treatment group. Both groups had similar demographic and academic backgrounds. This research compared student performances on the three labs: Density, Kinetic Theory and Chemical Reactions. Both groups completed pre-lab and post-lab quizzes and answered conceptual questions for each lab. Students also participated in a post-course quiz via email. Scores on all these assessments were compared using independent samples t tests. The treatment group outscored the control group on all summary assessments, and performed significantly better than the control group on the post-lab quizzes and conceptual questions for all three labs. Students in the treatment group demonstrated stronger Pearson's correlations between their ACT Mathematics, Science Reasoning and Reading Comprehension scores and their scores on the assessments. Student reactions to the guided learning style of lab were favorable. The implication is that guided learning labs improve conceptual understanding of chemistry concepts in a physical science lab course.

  8. Pyrrole Alkaloids with Potential Cancer Chemopreventive Activity Isolated from a Goji Berry-Contaminated Commercial Sample of African Mango

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of a commercial sample of African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) that was later shown to be contaminated with goji berry (Lycium sp.) led to the isolation of a new pyrrole alkaloid, methyl 2-[2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]propanoate, 1, along with seven known compounds, 2–8. The structures of the isolated compounds were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data. The new compound 1g showed hydroxyl radical-scavenging activity with an ED50 value of 16.7 μM, whereas 4-[formyl-5-(methoxymethyl)-1H-pyrrol-1-yl]butanoic acid (2) was active in both the hydroxyl radical-scavenging (ED50 11.9 μM) and quinone reductase-induction [CD (concentration required to double QR activity) 2.4 μM)] assays used. The isolated compounds were shown to be absent in a taxonomically authenticated African mango sample but present in three separate authentic samples of goji berry (Lycium barbarum) using LC-MS and 1H NMR fingerprinting analysis, including one sample that previously showed inhibitory activity in vivo in a rat esophageal cancer model induced with N-nitrosomethylbenzylamine. Additionally, microscopic features characteristic of goji berry were observed in the commercial African mango sample. PMID:24792835

  9. Agriculture--Forestry Seedlings. Kit No. 53. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Larkin V., Jr.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry seedlings are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  10. T & I--Auto Service Repair. Kit No. 14. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Phillip

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on auto service repair are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  11. Agriculture--Horticulture. Kit No. 36. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Claudia

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on horticulture are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focus on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  12. Suited for Spacewalking. Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical and Life Science. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.

    This activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of spacewalking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of…

  13. T & I--Gas Welding. Kit No. 68. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on gas welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the occupational cluster of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  14. T & I--Plumbing. Kit No. 67. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanford, Frank

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on plumbing are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  15. Assisting in Radiology/Imaging. Instructor's Guide, Student's Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is designed for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a radiology department or considering any of the imaging technologies as a career. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. This…

  16. T & I, Power Mechanics. Kit No. 35. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on power mechanics are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  17. Time Management. Office Occupations. Audiovisual Package. Instructor's Guide. Student Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    This instructor's guide and student activity packet (together with a slide/tape presentation not available here) comprise a module for the postsecondary office occupations education competency area of time management. Modules for other competency areas are available separately. The purpose stated for the module is to help students obtain basic…

  18. Earth Science Activities: A Guide to Effective Elementary School Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanis, Ira B.; Yasso, Warren E.

    The primary emphasis of this book is on new or revised earth science activities that promote concept development rather than mere verification of concepts learned by passive means. Chapter 2 describes philosophies, strategies, methods, and techniques to guide preservice and inservice teachers, school building administrators, and curriculum…

  19. Agriculture--Livestock Management. Kit No. 61. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamble, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on livestock management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  20. Suited for Spacewalking: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; George, Jane A. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Technology Education, Mathematics, and Science National Aeronautics and Space Administration Office of Human Resources and Education Education Division Washington, DC Education Working Group NASA Johnson Space Center Houston, Texas This publication is in the Public Domain and is not protected by copyright. Permission is not required for duplication.

  1. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  2. Folklife and the Federal Government. A Guide to Activities, Resources, Funds, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coe, Linda C., Comp.

    The guide describes fifty-four diverse federal programs and activities which are potential sources of financial and other assistance to those interested in various aspects of folklife. Potential users are folk artists; folklorists; researchers in linguistics, anthropology, and ethnology; members of ethnic or regional groups involved in presenting…

  3. Living with a Star: An Educator Guide with Activities in Sun-Earth Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educator guide is designed to provide references and resource materials to K-12 educators about the connection between the sun and the earth. Chapters include: (1) "Common Questions and Answers"; (2) "Sun-Earth Connection Missions"; (3) "Website Resources"; (4) "NASA CORE Materials"; (5) "Activities"; (6) "NASA Educator Workshop Resources";…

  4. A Teacher's Activities Guide for Chinese New Year - Gung Hei Fat Choy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonoma County Superintendent of Schools, Santa Rosa, CA.

    This teacher's guide is designed to provide information and activities on the Chinese New Year and on aspects of the culture and heritage of the Chinese-American. Background material is given on the history of Chinese immigration to America, the lunar calendar, the Chinese cycle of years, the Chinese zodiac, the philosophical concept of yin and…

  5. Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide discusses rockets and includes activities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with background information on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focus on Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain…

  6. Building Early Literacy and Language Skills: A Resource and Activity Guide for Preschool and Kindergarten.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Lucy Hart; Noble, Linda Attridge; Jepson, Stacia; van den Pol, Rick

    This book is a resource and activity guide for early childhood educators and care providers that helps to enhance the development of early and emerging literacy skills in young children. Its philosophy is based on the premise that both language and literacy development begin at birth and that educators and caretakers of young children have a…

  7. An Activity Guide for Teachers: Everglades National Park. Grades 4-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Jong, Neil, Comp.

    Everglades National Park is recognized as one of the most threatened National Parks in the country. Human and technological intervention has affected the park's water resources, fauna and flora through the introduction of foreign species. This curriculum-based activity guide is intended for intermediate grade students. It has been designed from a…

  8. A.C.T.I.V.E. Administrator's Guide: Organizational and Administrative Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vodola, Thomas M.

    Presented is the administrative guide for Project ACTIVE (All Children Totally Involved Exercising) designed to assist school districts or agencies in training educators to organize, conduct, and evaluate individualized-personalized physical education programs for handicapped students, prekindergarten through high school. Chapter I provides the…

  9. Assisting in the Medical Laboratory. Instructor's Guide, Students' Manual, and Student Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair, Helena J.

    The instructor's guide, the first of three documents in this package, is for a course to help students who are investigating the activities within a hospital, clinic, or physician's office. The material is designed to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The course is intended for individualized study and is…

  10. Office Occupations--Clerical--Calculators. Kit No. 75. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ada

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the clerical use of calculators are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  11. CHAD USER’S GUIDE: Extracting Human Activity Information from CHAD on the PC

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD) User Guide offers a short tutorial about CHAD Access; background on the CHAD Databases; background on individual studies in CHAD; and information about using CHAD data, caveats, known problems, notes, and database design and develop...

  12. Acid Rain: A Teacher's Guide. Activities for Grades 4 to 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    This guide on acid rain for elementary and secondary students is divided into three study areas: (1) What Causes Acid Rain; (2) What Problems Acid Rain Has Created; (3) How You and Your Students Can Help Combat Acid Rain. Each section presents background information and a series of lessons pertaining to the section topic. Activities include…

  13. Acid Rain. Activities for Grades 4 to 12. A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, David; Bryant, Jeannette

    This teacher's guide on acid rain is divided into three study areas to explain: (1) what causes acid rain; (2) what problems acid rain has created; and (3) what teachers and students can do to help combat acid rain. Instructions for activities within the study areas include suggested grade levels, objectives, materials needed, and directions for…

  14. T & I--Textiles, Cotton Boll. Kit No. 59. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buddin, David

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the cotton boll are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (textiles). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  15. Team Nutrition School Activity Planner. A How-To Guide for Team Nutrition Schools and Supporters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Food and Consumer Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    This "how-to" guide for Team Nutrition fairs and tasting activities helps Team Nutrition supporters and schools understand how to work together to improve the health and education of children. Team Nutrition is the implementation tool for the U.S. Department of Agriculture's School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Section 1 of the guide…

  16. Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA): More than Hearing and Better than Seeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, James Brian, II; Fornari, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Minds-On Audio-Guided Activities (MAGA) are podcast-delivered instruction designed to facilitate learning through all-body experiments. Instruction by MAGA has undergone preliminary testing in an introductory physics course at Central Michigan University. Topics are currently focused on mechanics and range from discovering the differences between…

  17. Health Occupations--Thermometer. Kit No. 2. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on the oral thermometer are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  18. T & I--Graphics, Rubber Stamp. Kit No. 90. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on making a rubber stamp are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (graphics). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  19. A Curriculum Guide for Industrial Arts Activities for Children with Emotional Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Michael J.; And Others

    The course guide contained in this document was developed to provide industrial arts instructors with some understanding of emotional disturbances and remedial objectives which can be stressed with mainstreamed emotionally disturbed children through industrial arts activities. Major discussion centers on (1) laws, legislation, and regulations…

  20. Medical Asepsis. Kit No. 302. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide. Health Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Gloria

    This instructor's manual and student learning guide comprise a module on medical asepsis for a secondary-level health occupations program. The six activities in the module cover medical asepsis terms; ways organisms spread; types of medical asepsis; aseptic equipment care; proper handwashing; and procedures for using masks, gloves, and gowns.…

  1. School Bus and School Pupil Activity Bus Inspection and Maintenance Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowash, Fred W.

    This publication deals with suggested maintenance standards that apply to vehicles used for pupil transportation in California and covers all the safety-related systems that are common to most buses. The guide has been prepared to help all school bus and school pupil activity bus operators set up an inspection and preventive maintenance program…

  2. Children Move to Learn: A Guide to Planning Gross Motor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Judy

    This guide for persons working with young children with gross motor delays is designed to be used in the assessment of gross motor abilities, the detection and identification of delays and the planning and implementation of appropriate Individual Activity Plans (IAP) for correcting the delays. Observation guidelines in the form of questions (Can…

  3. Rare & Endangered Species: Understanding Our Disappearing Plants and Animals. Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Gas Association, Arlington, VA. Educational Services.

    About 464 plants and animals found in the United States and its territories are listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service as threatened or endangered. Another 3900 are candidates for protection. The activities in this guide are designed to help teachers and students understand the issue of endangered species. It includes ideas for several…

  4. Partners against Hate Program Activity Guide: Helping Children Resist Bias and Hate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wotorson, Michael

    This guide provides parents, educators, and other adults with tools and strategies to engage in constructive discussions and activities about the causes and effects of prejudice and bias-motivated behavior and to intervene when needed with children who engage in such behavior. Though it targets elementary school, much of the material is relevant…

  5. Health Occupations--Respiration Therapy Technician. Kit No. 66. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on respiration therapy technician are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  6. Health Occupations--Dental Assistant. Kit No. 62. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Janette

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on a dental assistant are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of health occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  7. Distributive Education--Fashion Show. Kit No. 88. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, Brenda B.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on fashion shows are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of distributive education. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  8. For Spacious Skies Activity Guide. An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, C. Whitney; Borden, Jack

    Despite the fact that the sky is the most dominant feature of our surroundings, it plays the role of an unseen background for may objects. It is the intent of this guide to bring about an awareness of the sky to young people. Topics for activities include: (1) "Sky Awareness"; (2) "Compass"; (3) "Hand Lens"; (4) "Prism"; (5) "Binoculars"; (6)…

  9. Optics: Light, Color, and Their Uses. An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science and Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL. George C. Marshall Space Flight Center.

    This educator's guide from discusses optics, light, color and their uses. Activities include: (1) "Reflection of Light with a Plane (Flat) Mirror--Trace a Star"; (2) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a 90-Degree Angle"; (3) "Reflection of Light with Two Plane Mirrors--Double Mirrors Placed at a Number of…

  10. Cabinetmaking. Kit No. 13. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gull, Gaynell

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cabinetmaking are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  11. Working in Pharmacies. Instructor's Guide. Student's Manual. Student Learning Activities. Second Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driever, Carl W.; And Others

    This document combines three separately bound volumes, a student manual, an instructor's guide, and student learning activities designed for students who are either in beginning-level pharmacy technician courses or considering careers in pharmacy. The material is intended to relate training experience to information studied in the classroom. The…

  12. T & I--Arc Welding. Kit No. 86. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on arc welding are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  13. Office Occupations--Business Communications. Kit No. 20. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Creola S.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on business communications are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  14. Office Occupations--Accounting. Kit No. 8. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on accounting are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  15. T & I--Building Construction, Safety. Kit No. 1. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, John

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on building construction safety are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  16. Agriculture--Agricultural Mechanics, Electric Motors. Kit No. 56. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomar, William

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural mechanics (electric motors) are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings:…

  17. Exploring the Moon: A Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This educational guide concerns exploring the moon. Activities are divided into three units: Pre-Apollo, Learning from Apollo, and The Future. These correspond, at least roughly, to exercises that can be done before the Lunar Sample Disk (available from NASA) arrives to the school (Pre-Apollo), while it is there (Learning from Apollo), and after…

  18. Bubble Festival: Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline; Willard, Carolyn

    This learning station guide adapts the Bubble Festival, an all-school event, for individual classrooms. It presents students with a variety of different challenges at learning stations set up around the classroom. The activities are student-centered and involve open-ended investigations. Also included are ways to extend students' experiences at…

  19. Nature's for ME. Preschool Environmental and Recycling Activity Guide for Teachers and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Diana, Ed.

    Environmental attitudes and behaviors established during the preschool years provide the basis for a lifetime of responsible actions. Each activity in this guide is designed to stand alone and have been arranged by key experiences (classification, number concepts, representation, seriation, spatial relations, and time) and by environmental topics…

  20. Office Occupations--Accounting, Payroll. Kit No. 64. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Connie

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on payroll management are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of office occupations (accounting). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture,…

  1. Comet Kohoutek, 1973-1974, A Teachers' Guide with Student Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Robert D.

    This teacher's guide provides background information, curriculum source materials, and suggested class activities for class discussion and study. Information related to the discovery of the comet is presented as well as photographic and schematic pictures showing the sky through which the comet travels. Historical data regarding comets of the past…

  2. Agriculture--Forestry. Kit No. 31. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Lee

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forestry are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics, distributive…

  3. Cosmetology. Kit No. 3. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Thelma

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on cosmetology are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  4. Marketing Education Assessment Guide. Performance-Based Activities with Authentic Assessments Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Donna R.

    This guide presents performance-based authentic assessment ideas, samples, and suggestions to help marketing teachers and students respond to changes and pressures from outside the classroom. It contains 21 activities, each accompanied by a method of authentic assessment. In most cases, the authentic assessment method is a scoring device. The…

  5. Agriculture--Agricultural Sales and Service. Kit No. 21. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caines, Royce

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on agricultural sales and service are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of agriculture. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  6. SNAC: San Mateo Nutrition Activity Curriculum. "Swing Into Nutrition" (Parent/Community In-Service Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    San Mateo City Elementary School District, CA.

    This inservice guide for elementary school teachers provides a competency based nutrition course to be used to increase parent/community participation in nutrition education activities and to lead parents toward providing better nutrition for themselves and their children. The curriculum is presented in six lessons which cover the following…

  7. Microgravity: A Teacher's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology. Grades 5-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide explains microgravity, provides information on the history of microgravity, the domains of microgravity research and introduces classroom activities. Among the contents are the following: (1) "First, What Is Gravity?"; (2) "What Is Microgravity?"; (3) "Creating Microgravity"; (4) "The Microgravity Environment of Orbiting…

  8. T & I--Metalworking, Forging. Kit No. 55. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake, Robert J.

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on forging are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry (metalworking). (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home…

  9. Using activity-based costing to guide strategic decision making.

    PubMed

    Dowless, R M

    1997-06-01

    Activity-based costing (ABC) is not widely used in the healthcare industry. Some healthcare provider organizations are considering ABC, however, because of its potential to improve resource management and thereby maximize efficiency. ABC supports better pricing practices through more accurate costing and can be used to identify underutilized resources as well as associated costs that can be reduced. ABC can be a useful tool for determining the cost of unused capacity and for making strategic management decisions that will reduce costs. PMID:10167847

  10. Taspine: Bioactivity-Guided Isolation and Molecular Ligand–Target Insight of a Potent Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor from Magnolia x soulangiana

    PubMed Central

    Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Baier, Elisabeth; Ellmerer, Ernst P.; Langer, Thierry; Stuppner, Hermann

    2012-01-01

    A bioactivity-guided approach was taken to identify the acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC 3.1.1.7) inhibitory agent in a Magnolia x soulangiana extract using a microplate enzyme assay with Ellman’s reagent. This permitted the isolation of the alkaloids taspine (1) and (−)-asimilobine (2), which were detected for the first time in this species. Compound 1 showed a significantly higher effect on AChE than the positive control galanthamine and selectively inhibited the enzyme in a long-lasting and concentration-dependent fashion with an IC50 value of 0.33 ± 0.07 μM. Extensive molecular docking studies were performed with human and Torpedo californica-AChE employing Gold software to rationalize the binding interaction. The results suggested ligand 1 to bind in an alternative binding orientation when compared to galanthamine. While this is located in close vicinity to the catalytic amino acid triad, the 1–AChE complex was found to be stabilized by (i) sandwich-like π-stacking interactions between the planar aromatic ligand (1) and the Trp84 and Phe330 of the enzyme, (ii) an esteratic site anchoring with the amino side chain, and (iii) a hydrogen-bonding network. PMID:16989531

  11. 11beta-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 inhibiting constituents from Eriobotrya japonica revealed by bioactivity-guided isolation and computational approaches.

    PubMed

    Rollinger, Judith M; Kratschmar, Denise V; Schuster, Daniela; Pfisterer, Petra H; Gumy, Christel; Aubry, Evelyne M; Brandstötter, Sarah; Stuppner, Hermann; Wolber, Gerhard; Odermatt, Alex

    2010-02-15

    The inhibition of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11beta-HSD1), which catalyzes the conversion of inactive 11-ketoglucocorticoids to active 11beta-hydroxyglucocorticoids, emerged as promising strategy to treat symptoms of the metabolic syndrome, including obesity and type 2 diabetes. In this study the leaves of the anti-diabetic medicinal plant loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) were phytochemically investigated following hints from a pharmacophore-based virtual screening and a bioactivity-guided approach. Determination of the 11beta-HSD1 and 11beta-HSD2 inhibitory activities in cell lysates revealed triterpenes from the ursane type as selective, low micro-molar inhibitors of 11beta-HSD1, that is, corosolic acid (1), 3-epicorosolic acid methyl ester (4), 2-alpha hydroxy-3-oxo urs-12-en-28-oic acid (6), tormentic acid methyl ester (8), and ursolic acid (9). Importantly, a mixture of loquat constituents with moderate activities displayed a pronounced additive effect. By means of molecular modeling studies and the identification of the 11beta-HSD1-inhibiting 11-keto-ursolic acid (17) and 3-acetyl-11-keto-ursolic acid (18) a structure-activity relationship was deduced for this group of pentacyclic triterpenes. The mechanism of action elucidated in the present work together with the previously determined pharmacological activities provides these natural products with an astonishing multi-targeted anti-diabetic profile.

  12. Synergistic activity of chloroquine with fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant isolates of Candida species.

    PubMed

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Liu, Wei; Li, Ruoyu

    2015-02-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates.

  13. Synergistic Activity of Chloroquine with Fluconazole against Fluconazole-Resistant Isolates of Candida Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yali; Wan, Zhe; Li, Ruoyu

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro activity of chloroquine and the interactions of chloroquine combined with fluconazole against 37 Candida isolates were tested using the broth microdilution, disk diffusion, and Etest susceptibility tests. Synergistic effect was detected with 6 of 9 fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates, with Candida krusei ATCC 6258, and with all 12 fluconazole-resistant Candida tropicalis isolates. PMID:25512426

  14. Classic to Contemporary: Famous Artists and Activities. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists' Biographies and Enrichment/Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; Lewis-Spicer, Lisa

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  15. Let's Meet Famous Artists. A Creative Art Activity Book. A Teacher's Guide Featuring 19 Famous Artists and Art Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinghorn, Harriet; And Others

    By studying the lives, important achievements, and works of famous artists, students may come to understand what those artists hoped to communicate to the world. By participating in art activities that are related to these artists' styles, students practice skills of observing, analyzing, and creating. This instructional guide provides…

  16. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis.

    PubMed

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1-5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6-9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5-30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  17. Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Activity of Compounds Isolated from Flourensia oolepis

    PubMed Central

    Joray, Mariana Belén; Trucco, Lucas Daniel; González, María Laura; Napal, Georgina Natalia Díaz; Palacios, Sara María; Bocco, José Luis; Carpinella, María Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial and cytotoxic effects of metabolites isolated from an antibacterial extract of Flourensia oolepis were evaluated. Bioguided fractionation led to five flavonoids, identified as 2′,4′-dihydroxychalcone (1), isoliquiritigenin (2), pinocembrin (3), 7-hydroxyflavanone (4), and 7,4′-dihydroxy-3′-methoxyflavanone (5). Compound 1 showed the highest antibacterial effect, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 31 to 62 and 62 to 250 μg/mL, against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. On further assays, the cytotoxic effect of compounds 1–5 was determined by MTT assay on acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell lines including their multidrug resistant (MDR) phenotypes. Compound 1 induced a remarkable cytotoxic activity toward ALL cells (IC50 = 6.6–9.9 μM) and a lower effect against CML cells (IC50 = 27.5–30.0 μM). Flow cytometry was used to analyze cell cycle distribution and cell death by PI-labeled cells and by Annexin V/PI staining, respectively. Upon treatment, 1 induced cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase accompanied by a strong induction of apoptosis. These results describe for the first time the antibacterial metabolites of F. oolepis extract, with 1 being the most effective. This chalcone also emerges as a selective cytotoxic agent against sensitive and resistant leukemic cells, highlighting its potential as a lead compound. PMID:26819623

  18. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization.

  19. Using activity-based costing and theory of constraints to guide continuous improvement in managed care.

    PubMed

    Roybal, H; Baxendale, S J; Gupta, M

    1999-01-01

    Activity-based costing and the theory of constraints have been applied successfully in many manufacturing organizations. Recently, those concepts have been applied in service organizations. This article describes the application of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints in a managed care mental health and substance abuse organization. One of the unique aspects of this particular application was the integration of activity-based costing and the theory of constraints to guide process improvement efforts. This article describes the activity-based costing model and the application of the theory of constraint's focusing steps with an emphasis on unused capacities of activities in the organization. PMID:10350791

  20. Assessment of visiting activities for young children using the UNAWE Evaluation Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Akihiko

    2015-08-01

    When the target is young children and the activity type is play, the assessment of the activity is not easy. The table of domains of active learning shown in the EU Universe Awareness Programme Evaluation Guide is useful for the assessment; the Guide shows the four domains; motivation, scientific skills, universe knowledge, and intercultural attitudes, and many items of objectives in each domains. The Guide can be a basic format and the items can be modified so as to fit each activity. Taking my activity as an example, I will present an assessment using the Guide. The activity I will present is "Uchu no O-hanashi," a visiting activity which includeds slide show, story telling, and enjoying pictures on large sheets for children at nursery, kindergarten, preschool and other sites. In order to obtain the data, I have recorded the voice of children. The analysis method is a kind of qualitative one. I picked up "motivation" and "scientific skills" words from the record when they muttered about and asked each other what they felt, what they found, and what they got excited about. Among the items in the "scientific skills domain," looking at carefully, asking, exchanging opinions, interpreting or trying to interpret, and trying were frequently appeared. Other skills such as devising and confirming were not frequently appeared but they would sometimes appear later at home or at school after the activity. I also picked up the words of children obtaining scientific way of view and attitude through the activity. One example is "It seems that stars float in the sky and do not move. Do they really set like the Sun, our nearest star? I never saw stars set!" A boy was trying to make a new framework for his understanding. This kind of thinking will enrich his or her future "universe knowledge" and "intercultural attitudes."

  1. Guiding Catalytically Active Particles with Chemically Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, W. E.; Popescu, M. N.; Dietrich, S.; Tasinkevych, M.

    2016-07-01

    Catalytically active Janus particles suspended in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemiosmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemiosmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate "point-particle" approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemiosmotic flows can cause particles to either "dock" at the chemical step between the two materials or follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  2. Suited for spacewalking: Teacher's guide with activities for physical and life science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Manning, Cheryl A.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    1994-01-01

    Space walking has captured the imagination of generations of children and adults since science-fiction authors first placed their characters on the Moon. This publication is an activity guide for teachers interested in using the intense interest many children have in space exploration as a launching point for exciting hands-on learning opportunities. The guide begins with brief discussions of the space environment, the history of space walking, the Space Shuttle spacesuit, and working in space. These are followed by a series of activities that enable children to explore the space environment as well as the science and technology behind the functions of spacesuits. The activities are not rated for specific grade levels because they can be adapted for students of many ages. The chart on curriculum application at the back of the book is designed to help teachers incorporate activities into various subject areas.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a novel B cell activation gene

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, J.X.; Wilson, G.L.; Fox, C.H.; Kehrl, J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    Using subtractive cDNA cloning, the authors have isolated a series of cDNA clones that are differentially expressed between B and T lymphocytes. Whereas some of the isolated cDNA are from known B cell-specific genes, many of them represent previously uncharacterized genes. One of these unknown genes was denoted as BL34. Northern blot analysis performed with the BL34 cDNA revealed a 1.6-kb mRNA transcript that was present at low levels in RNA extracted from resting B lymphocytes, but whose expression was markedly increased in RNA prepared from mitogen-activated B cells. Similarly, RNA prepared from several B cell lines treated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) contained high levels of BL34 mRNA. In contrast, RNA from purified T cells treated with phytohemagglutinin and PMA had undetectable amounts of BL34 mRNA. In addition, high levels of BL34 mRNA were detected in RNA purified from PBMC of a patient with B cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. Southern blot analysis of human DNA from various tissues and cells lines demonstrated that BL34 is a single-copy gene without evidence of rearrangement. Two full length BL34 cDNA were sequenced, and an open reading frame of 588 bp was identified that was predicted to encode for a 196 amino acid protein. Searches of several protein data bases failed to find any homologous proteins. To directly analyze the expression of BL34 mRNA in lymphoid tissues in situ, hybridization studies with human tonsil tissue sections were performed. BL34 mRNA was detected in a portion of the cells in the germinal center region and adjacent to the mantle region. Further characterization of the BL34 gene and its protein should lead to insights to its role in B cell function and the consequences of its over-expression in acute lymphocytic leukemia. 26 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Constituents of Pongamia pinnata isolated in a screening for activity to overcome tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand-resistance.

    PubMed

    Minakawa, Tomohiro; Toume, Kazufumi; Ahmed, Firoj; Sadhu, Samir Kumar; Ohtsuki, Takashi; Arai, Midori A; Ishibashi, Masami

    2010-11-01

    In a search for natural products with activity to overcome tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL)-resistance, we performed the bioassay-guided fractionation of a semi mangrove, Pongamia pinnata, collected from Bangladesh, and isolated a new compound, (2S)-(2″,3″:7,8)-furanoflavanone (1), along with six known flavonoids (2-7). Two of the compounds significantly overcame TRAIL-resistance in human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cell lines. PMID:21048354

  5. Evaluation of the antiproliferative activity of the leaves from Arctium lappa by a bioassay-guided fractionation.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fabio Bahls; Yamamoto, Rafael Eidi; Zanoli, Karine; Nocchi, Samara Requena; Novello, Cláudio Roberto; Schuquel, Ivânia Teresinha Albrecht; Sakuragui, Cássia Mônica; Luftmann, Heinrich; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo

    2012-02-14

    Arctium lappa L. (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine around the World, and shows several kinds of biological activity, particularly in vitro antitumor activity in different cell lines. This study evaluated the antiproliferative activity of the crude extract, semipurified fractions, and isolated compounds from the leaves of A. lappa, through bioassay-guided testing in Caco-2 cells. The crude extract was obtained with a 50% hydroethanolic extract and then partitioned with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. The ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF) showed antiproliferative activity. This fraction was subjected to sequential column chromatography over silica gel to afford onopordopicrin (1), mixtures of 1 with dehydromelitensin-8-(4'-hydroxymethacrylate) (2), a mixture of 2 with dehydromelitensin (3), mixture of 1 with melitensin (4), dehydrovomifoliol (5), and loliolide (6). The compounds were identified by spectroscopic methods (NMR, MS) and comparison with literature data. This is the first description of compounds 2-5 from this species. The compounds tested in Caco-2 cells showed the following CC(50) (µg/mL) values: 1: 19.7 ± 3.4, 1 with 2: 24.6 ± 1.5, 2 with 3: 27 ± 11.7, 1 with 4: 42 ± 13.1, 6 30 ± 6.2; compound 5 showed no activity.

  6. Guiding catalytically active particles with chemically patterned surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uspal, William; Popescu, Mihail; Dietrich, Siegfried; Tasinkevych, Mykola

    Catalytically active Janus particles in solution create gradients in the chemical composition of the solution along their surfaces, as well as along any nearby container walls. The former leads to self-phoresis, while the latter gives rise to chemi-osmosis, providing an additional contribution to self-motility. Chemi-osmosis strongly depends on the molecular interactions between the diffusing chemical species and the wall. We show analytically, using an approximate ``point-particle'' approach, that by chemically patterning a planar substrate (e.g., by adsorbing two different materials) one can direct the motion of Janus particles: the induced chemi-osmotic flows can cause particles to either ``dock'' at a chemical step between the two materials, or to follow a chemical stripe. These theoretical predictions are confirmed by full numerical calculations. Generically, docking occurs for particles which tend to move away from their catalytic caps, while stripe-following occurs in the opposite case. Our analysis reveals the physical mechanisms governing this behavior.

  7. Activity Supplement for Puedo Leer: Teacher's Guide and Use of Charts. Program for Initial Reading in Spanish for Bilingual Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Sara

    This activity supplement is intended to accompany the Puedo Leer/I Can Read Teacher's Guide for initial reading in Spanish for bilingual children. The supplement, which consists of a teacher's guide and a set of charts on card stock, provides suggestions for a wide variety of pre-reading activities and approaches, which expand on the activities…

  8. Occlus-o-Guide® versus Andresen activator appliance: neuromuscular evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of the present study was to assess the muscular variations at the electromyography (EMG) level for the anterior temporalis muscles and masseter muscles during treatment with Occlus-o-Guide® and Andresen activator appliances. Methods Eighty-two patients (35 males and 47 females) aged between 8 and 12 years (mean age, 10.5 ± 0.8 years) participated in the study. Fifty patients underwent treatment with an Occlus-o-Guide® and 32 patients with an Andresen activator. All patients underwent EMG examination using a Freely EMG (De Gotzen, Legnano, Italy) and surface bipolar electrodes when the appliances were worn for the first time (T0), and after 6 months (T1) and after 12 months (T2) of appliance use. Results Statistical analysis showed that both at T0 and T2, the percent overlapping coefficient (POC) of the anterior temporalis muscles was not statistically different between the appliance groups. At T0, the POC of the masseter muscles was significantly lower for the Andresen appliance as compared to the Occlus-o-Guide® (p = 0.02), while at T2 this significance was lost. Conclusions At insertion of an appliance, all patients show neuromuscular balance that does not correspond to orthognathic occlusion. Both appliances work by creating muscular imbalance. With the appliances in situ, EMG responses were generally analogous for the Occlus-o-Guide® and the Andresen activator; however, the imbalance was greater and the recovery of the orthological muscular balance was slower in patients under treatment with the Andresen activator as compared to those with the Occlus-o-Guide®. PMID:24325935

  9. Halotolerant Ability and α-Amylase Activity of Some Saltwater Fungal Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Niknejad, Farhad; Moshfegh, Mahsa; Najafzadeh, Mohammad Javad; Houbraken, Jos; Rezaei, Shahla; Zarrini, Gholamreza; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Nafissi-Varcheh, Nastaran

    2013-01-01

    Four halotolerant fungal isolates originating from the saltwater Lake Urmia in Iran were selected during a screening program for salt resistance and α-amylase activity. The isolates were identified based on sequencing the ITS region and a part of the β-tubulin gene, as Penicillium chrysogenum (isolate U1; CBS 132820), Fusarium incarnatum (isolate U2; CBS 132821), and Penicillium polonicum (isolate U3; CBS 132822, and isolate U4; CBS 132823). The growth of these isolates was determined by measuring the colony diameter and mycelia dry weight in Sabouraud dextrose agar and yeast nitrogen base medium supplemented with NaCl, KCl, and LiCl. Isolate U4 showed a growth up in 15% NaCl and U1 was the only isolate that could grow in 20% KCl. None of the strains grew in a media containing LiCl. The salt supplemented medium did not increase the size of colony diameter in all isolates (p > 0.05). The ability of the selected isolates for amylase production was quantitatively tested and showed that P. polonicum isolate U4 was the most potent producer of amylase with a yield of 260.9 U/L after 60 h, whereas P. polonicum isolate U3 was the lowest one with a production level of 97.9 U/L after 48 h. P. polonicum isolate U4 could be a suitable candidate for production of amylase on an industrial scale after optimization. PMID:24250679

  10. Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov., isolated from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenghong; Deng, Shikai; Liu, Xin; Yao, Li; Shi, Chao; Jiang, Jin; Kwon, Soon-Wo; He, Jian; Li, Jiayou

    2016-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, short rod-shaped, non-endospore-forming, ivory-pigmented and non-motile bacterium, designated strain BUT-5T, was isolated from activated sludge of an herbicides-manufacturing wastewater treatment facility in Jiangsu Province, China. The major fatty acids (>5 % of total fatty acids) were C16 : 0, C18 : 1 2-OH and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c). The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone Q-10. The polar lipids profile of strain BUT-5T included diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and two unknown aminolipids. The DNA G+C content was 67.6 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that strain BUT-5T showed the highest sequence similarities to Roseomonas soli 5N26T (97.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), followed by Roseomonas lacus TH-G33T (97.3 %) and Roseomonas terrae DS-48T (97.1 %). Strain BUT-5T showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Roseomonas soli KACC 16376T (41 %), Roseomonas lacus KACC 11678T (46 %) and Roseomonas terrae KACC 12677T (42 %), respectively. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic properties, as well as chemotaxonomic data, strain BUT-5T represents a novel species of the genus Roseomonas, for which the name Roseomonas eburnea sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BUT-5T ( = CCTCC AB2013276T = KACC 17166T).

  11. In Vitro Antifungal Activities against Moulds Isolated from Dermatological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nizam, Tzar; Binting, Rabiatul Adawiyah AG.; Mohd Saari, Shafika; Kumar, Thivyananthini Vijaya; Muhammad, Marianayati; Satim, Hartini; Yusoff, Hamidah; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. Methods We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document. Results Most antifungal agents were active against the dermatophytes, except for terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum (geometric mean MIC, MICGM 3.17 μg/mL). The dematiaceous moulds were relatively susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles (MICGM 0.17–0.34 μg/mL), but not to terbinafine (MICGM 3.62 μg/mL). Septate hyaline moulds showed variable results between the relatively more susceptible Aspergillus spp. (MICGM 0.25–4 μg/mL) and the more resistant Fusarium spp. (MICGM 5.66–32 μg/mL). The zygomycetes were susceptible to amphotericin B (MICGM 0.5 μg/mL) and clotrimazole (MICGM 0.08 μg/mL), but not to other azoles (MICGM 2.52–4 μg/mL). Conclusion Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were the most effective antifungal agents against all moulds excepting Fusarium spp., while terbinafine was useful against dermatophytes (except T. rubrum) and Aspergillus spp. However, a larger study is required to draw more solid conclusions. PMID:27418867

  12. Isolation and synthesis of polyoxygenated dibenzofurans possessing biological activity.

    PubMed

    Love, Brian E

    2015-06-01

    Reports from the past ten years describing the isolation and/or synthesis of bioactive dibenzofurans possessing three or more oxygen-containing substituents are reviewed. Dibenzofuranoquinones are included in the review.

  13. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  14. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge.

    PubMed

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes--knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. PMID:26120139

  15. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS.

  16. MiDAS: the field guide to the microbes of activated sludge

    PubMed Central

    McIlroy, Simon Jon; Saunders, Aaron Marc; Albertsen, Mads; Nierychlo, Marta; McIlroy, Bianca; Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Karst, Søren Michael; Nielsen, Jeppe Lund; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2015-01-01

    The Microbial Database for Activated Sludge (MiDAS) field guide is a freely available online resource linking the identity of abundant and process critical microorganisms in activated sludge wastewater treatment systems to available data related to their functional importance. Phenotypic properties of some of these genera are described, but most are known only from sequence data. The MiDAS taxonomy is a manual curation of the SILVA taxonomy that proposes a name for all genus-level taxa observed to be abundant by large-scale 16 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing of full-scale activated sludge communities. The taxonomy can be used to classify unknown sequences, and the online MiDAS field guide links the identity to the available information about their morphology, diversity, physiology and distribution. The use of a common taxonomy across the field will provide a solid foundation for the study of microbial ecology of the activated sludge process and related treatment processes. The online MiDAS field guide is a collaborative workspace intended to facilitate a better understanding of the ecology of activated sludge and related treatment processes—knowledge that will be an invaluable resource for the optimal design and operation of these systems. Database URL: http://www.midasfieldguide.org PMID:26120139

  17. Influence of biologically active substances isolated from Galleria mellonella on neurons of Lymnaea stagnalis in culture.

    PubMed

    Spiridonov, N A; Kostenko, M A; Volkova, S P; Pogorelov, A G; Kondrashova, M N

    1984-01-01

    A procedure for isolating biologically active substances from Galleria mellonella using a culture of isolated giant neurons of mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis as a test-system is described. Fractions capable of activating neurites and inhibiting aggregation of neuronal cells within a range of concentrations from 1 to 30 micrograms/ml were isolated. The fractions obtained have in their chemical composition about 10.5% N, also contain P and S. They have a carbohydrate component. PMID:6146471

  18. Isolation and characterization of a thermophilic Bacillus sp. with protease activity isolated from hot spring of Tarabalo, Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Mrunmaya Kumar; Sahu, Mahesh Kumar; Tayung, Kumananda

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives Thermophilic bacteria are less studied but important group of microorganisms due to their ability to produce industrial enzymes. Materials and Methods In this study, thermophilic bacteria were isolated from hot spring of Tarabalo, India. A bacterium that could tolerate high temperatures was characterized by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene. The isolate was screened for protease and amylase activity. Phylogenetic affiliations and G+C content of the isolate was studied. Results The bacterium with the ability to tolerate high temperatures was identified as Bacillus sp. both by morphology, biochemistry and sequencing of its 16S rRNA gene. BLAST search analysis of the sequence showed maximum identity with Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (99% similarity). Strain exhibited considerable protease activity. Phylogenetic analysis of the isolate revealed close affiliation with thermophilic Bacillus species. The G+C content was found to be 54.7%. Conclusion The study confirmed that the isolated Bacillus sp. to be a true thermophile and could be a source of thermostable protease which can be exploited for pharmaceutical and industrials applications. PMID:23825735

  19. A MEMBRANE FILTER PROCEDURE FOR ASSAYING CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY IN HETEROTROPHIC BACTERIA ISOLATED FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxic activity assays of Gram-negative, heterotrophic bacteria are often laborious and time consuming. The objective of this study was to develop in situ procedures for testing potential cytotoxic activities of heterotrophic bacteria isolated from drinking water systems. Wate...

  20. Active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system for precision measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Kang; Li, Gang; Hu, Hua; Wang, Lijun

    2016-06-01

    Low-frequency vertical vibration isolation systems play important roles in precision measurements to reduce seismic and environmental vibration noise. Several types of active vibration isolation systems have been developed. However, few researches focus on how to optimize the test mass install position in order to improve the vibration transmissibility. An active low-frequency vertical vibration isolation system based on an earlier instrument, the Super Spring, is designed and implemented. The system, which is simple and compact, consists of two stages: a parallelogram-shaped linkage to ensure vertical motion, and a simple spring-mass system. The theoretical analysis of the vibration isolation system is presented, including terms erroneously ignored before. By carefully choosing the mechanical parameters according to the above analysis and using feedback control, the resonance frequency of the system is reduced from 2.3 to 0.03 Hz, a reduction by a factor of more than 75. The vibration isolation system is installed as an inertial reference in an absolute gravimeter, where it improved the scatter of the absolute gravity values by a factor of 5. The experimental results verifies the improved performance of the isolation system, making it particularly suitable for precision experiments. The improved vertical vibration isolation system can be used as a prototype for designing high-performance active vertical isolation systems. An improved theoretical model of this active vibration isolation system with beam-pivot configuration is proposed, providing fundamental guidelines for vibration isolator design and assembling.

  1. Isolation of nematicidal compounds from Tagetes patula L. yellow flowers: structure-activity relationship studies against cyst nematode Heterodera zeae infective stage larvae.

    PubMed

    Faizi, Shaheen; Fayyaz, Shahina; Bano, Samina; Iqbal, Erum Yawar; Lubna; Siddiqi, Humaira; Naz, Aneela

    2011-09-14

    Bioassay-guided isolation studies on the extracts of yellow flowers of Tagetes patula L. against the Heterodera zeae were carried out to identify phytochemicals lethal to this economically important cyst nematode. In vitro investigation of a polar extract and fractions showing activity led to the isolation of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids). In the nonpolar extract, a few fatty acids, their methyl esters, and thiophenes (including α-terthienyl) were detected. In studies of compounds obtained commercially, α-terthienyl and gallic and linoleic acids showed 100% mortality at concentrations of 0.125% after 24 h. Assessment of structure-activity relationships revealed that an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups in phenolic acids increased the activity; with fatty acids, activity depended on chain length and the number and position of double bonds. Crude extracts of the flowers of different colors also have promising activity. PMID:21780738

  2. Isolation and Characterization of Trichoderma spp. for Antagonistic Activity Against Root Rot and Foliar Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Krishna; Amaresan, N; Bhagat, S; Madhuri, K; Srivastava, R C

    2012-06-01

    Trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. Twelve isolates of Trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of South Andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. The sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. The isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., Sclerotium rolfsii, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and C. capsici. However, the isolates, TND1, TWN1, TWC1, TGD1 and TSD1 were most effective in percentage inhibition of mycelial growth of test pathogens. Significant chitinase and β-1,3-glucanase activities of all Trichoderma isolates has been recorded in growth medium. T. viride was found with highest chitinase whereas T. harzianum was recorded with highest β-1,3-glucanase activities. PMID:23729873

  3. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  4. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  5. In Vitro Activity of ASP2397 against Aspergillus Isolates with or without Acquired Azole Resistance Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Arendrup, Maiken Cavling; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel

    2015-11-09

    ASP2397 is a new compound with a novel and as-yet-unknown target different from that of licensed antifungal agents. It has activity against Aspergillus and Candida glabrata. We compared its in vitro activity against wild-type and azole-resistant A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates with that of amphotericin B, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole. Thirty-four isolates, including 4 wild-type A. fumigatus isolates, 24 A. fumigatus isolates with alterations in CYP51A TR/L98H (5 isolates), M220 (9 isolates), G54 (9 isolates), and HapE (1 isolate), and A. terreus isolates (2 wild-type isolates and 1 isolate with an M217I CYP51A alteration), were analyzed. EUCAST E.Def 9.2 and CLSI M38-A2 MIC susceptibility testing was performed. ASP2397 MIC50 values (in milligrams per liter, with MIC ranges in parentheses) determined by EUCAST and CLSI were 0.5 (0.25 to 1) and 0.25 (0.06 to 0.25) against A. fumigatus CYP51A wild-type isolates and were similarly 0.5 (0.125 to >4) and 0.125 (0.06 to >4) against azole-resistant A. fumigatus isolates, respectively. These values were comparable to those for amphotericin B, which were 0.25 (0.125 to 0.5) and 0.25 (0.125 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) and 0.25 (0.125 to 1) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms, respectively. In contrast, MICs for the azole compounds were elevated and highest for itraconazole: >4 (1 to >4) and 4 (0.5 to >4) against isolates with azole resistance mechanisms compared to 0.125 (0.125 to 0.25) and 0.125 (0.06 to 0.25) against wild-type isolates, respectively. ASP2397 was active against A. terreus CYP51A wild-type isolates (MIC 0.5 to 1), whereas MICs of both azole and ASP2397 were elevated for the mutant isolate. ASP2397 displayed in vitro activity against A. fumigatus and A. terreus isolates which was independent of the presence or absence of azole target gene resistance mutations in A. fumigatus. The findings are promising at a time when azole-resistant A. fumigatus

  6. Central nervous system activities of two diterpenes isolated from Aloysia virgata.

    PubMed

    Wasowski, Cristina; Marder, Mariel

    2011-03-15

    Using the guide of a competitive assay for the benzodiazepine binding site in the γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor (GABA(A)), two active diterpenes were isolated from the aerial parts of Aloysia virgata (Ruíz & Pavón) A.L. Jussieu var. platyphylla (Briquet) Moldenke. These compounds, identified as (16R)-16,17,18-trihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (1) and (16R)-16,17-dihydroxyphyllocladan-3-one (2) on the basis of spectral data, competitively inhibited the binding of [(3)H]-FNZ to the benzodiazepine binding site with K(i)±S.E.M. values of 56±19 μM and 111±13 μM, respectively. The behavioral actions of these diterpenes, intraperitoneally (i.p.) administered in mice, were examined in the plus-maze, holeboard, locomotor activity and light/dark tests. Compound 1 exhibited anxiolytic-like effects in mice evidenced by a significant increase of the parameters measured in the holeboard test (the number of head dips at 0.3 mg/kg and 3 mg/kg, the rears at 1 mg/kg and the time spent head-dipping at 3 mg/kg), in the plus-maze assay (the percentage of open arm entries at 1 mg/kg) and in the light/dark test (the time in light and the number of transitions at 1 mg/kg). Compound 2 augmented the number of rearings in the holeboard apparatus (at 0.3 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg) and the locomotor activity (at 1 mg/kg). These results reveal the presence of neuroactive compounds in Aloysia virgata. PMID:21036579

  7. The stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence guided ablation of melanin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Zhenhua; Gu, Zetong; DiMarzio, Charles

    2015-02-01

    Previous research has shown that the stepwise multi-photon activation fluorescence (SMPAF) of melanin, activated and excited by a continuous-wave (CW) mode near infrared (NIR) laser, is a low-cost and reliable method for detecting melanin. We have developed a device utilizing the melanin SMPAF to guide the ablation of melanin with a 975 nm CW laser. This method provides the ability of targeting individual melanin particles with micrometer resolution, and enables localized melanin ablation to be performed without collateral damage. Compared to the traditional selective photothermolysis, which uses pulsed lasers for melanin ablation, this method demonstrates higher precision and lower cost. Therefore, the SMPAF guided selective ablation of melanin is a promising tool of melanin ablation for both medical and cosmetic purposes.

  8. Isolation and neuroprotective activities of acylated iridoids from Valeriana jatamansi.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-Qing; Gao, Jie; Gui, Liping

    2012-07-01

    Three new iridoids, jatairidoids A-C (1-3, resp.), have been isolated from the roots of Valeriana jatamansi (V. wallichii). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESI-MS, HR-ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR). Compounds 1 and 2 are C(3)-epimers. The three compounds were evaluated for their neuroprotective effects against MPP(+)-induced neuronal cell death in human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. All the isolates exhibited moderate neuroprotective effects.

  9. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba. PMID:22017108

  10. Characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis soil isolates from Cuba, with insecticidal activity against mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    González, Aileen; Díaz, Raúl; Díaz, Manuel; Borrero, Yainais; Bruzón, Rosa Y; Carreras, Bertha; Gato, René

    2011-09-01

    Chemical insecticides may be toxic and cause environmental degradation. Consequently, biological control for insects represents an alternative with low ecological impact. In this work, three soil isolates (A21, A51 and C17) from different regions of the Cuban archipelago were identified, characterized and evaluated against Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus. The new isolates were compared with reference IPS82 strain and two strains isolated from biolarvicides Bactivec and Bactoculicida, respectively. The differentiation was done by morphological, biochemical, bioassays activity and molecular methods (SDS-PAGE, plasmid profile and random amplified polymorphic analysis). All isolates were identified as Bacillus thuringiensis. The A21, A51 and C17 isolates showed higher larvicide activity than Bactivec's isolated reference strain, against both A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus. A21 isolate had a protein profile similar to IPS82 and Bactivec strain. A51 and C17 isolates produced a characteristic proteins pattern. A21 and A51 isolates had plasmid patterns similar to IPS82 standard strain, while C17 isolate had different both plasmid profile and protein bands. All the studied isolates showed a diverse RAPD patterns and were different from the strains previously used in biological control in Cuba.

  11. Antifungal activity of Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans isolated from a sourdough bread culture.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Yousef I; Bullerman, Lloyd B

    2008-01-15

    Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from four different sourdough bread cultures previously investigated for antifungal activity. A total of 116 isolates were obtained and screened for antifungal activity against a battery of molds. The most inhibitory isolate obtained was identified by API 50 CHL and 16s ribosomal RNA genotyping and found to be Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. tolerans. This isolate completely inhibited the growth of Fusarium proliferatum M 5689, M 5991 and Fusarium graminearum R 4053 compared to controls in a dual agar plate assay.

  12. Seeing in a new light: Astro-1 teacher's guide with activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A teacher's guide that concentrates on the electromagnetic spectrum is presented. The subject was chosen because it is part of the middle school curriculum and because an understanding of the different ranges of energy is crucial to an understanding of the high energy astronomy performed by the Astro-1 telescopes to be carried on the Space Shuttle's first astrophysics mission. Various learning activities are outlined.

  13. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems.

  14. Antibacterial Activities of Actinomycete Isolates Collected from Soils of Rajshahi, Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Md. Ajijur; Islam, Mohammad Zahidul; Islam, Md. Anwar Ul

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to isolate actinomycete colonies having antibacterial activity from soil samples collected from different places around Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Thirty actinomycete colonies were isolated in pure culture from five soil samples using Starch-casein-nitrate-agar medium. The isolates were grouped in five color series based on their aerial mycelia color and screened for their antibacterial activity against a range of test bacteria. Sixteen isolates (53.3%) were found to have moderate to high activity against four gram-positive and four gram-negative bacteria. Since many isolates showed inhibitory activity against indicator bacteria, it is suggestive that Bangladeshi soil could be an interesting source to explore for antibacterial secondary metabolites. PMID:21904683

  15. Fast isolation of highly active photosystem II core complexes from spinach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhao-Gai; Xu, Tian-Hua; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Chun-Hong

    2010-09-01

    Purification of photosystem II (PSII) core complexes is a time-consuming and low-efficiency process. In order to isolate pure and active PSII core complexes in large amounts, we have developed a fast method to isolate highly active monomeric and dimeric PSII core complexes from spinach leaves by using sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. By using a vertical rotor the process was completed significantly faster compared with a swing-out rotor. In order to keep the core complexes in high activity, the whole isolation procedure was performed in the presence of glycine betain and pH at 6.3. The isolated pigment-protein complexes were characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, absorption spectroscopy, 77 K fluorescence spectroscopy and high performance liquid chromatography. Our results show that this method is a better choice for quick and efficient isolation of functionally active PSII core complexes. PMID:20738723

  16. The occurrence of killer activity in yeasts isolated from natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Monika; Kordowska-Wiater, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Yeast's ability to restrict the growth and kill other yeasts, fungi and bacteria has been known for over 50 years. Killer activity was detected in yeasts deposited in the world collections or isolated from natural habitats. In this study, isolates from the forest environment, leaves of fruit trees, flower petals, cereals and frozen fruit have been screened in terms of their killer activities. Killer activity was tested on strains belonging to six yeast species: Candida, Rhodotorula, Pichia, Pachysolen, Yarrowia, Trichosporon. The reference strains were Kluyveromyces lactis Y-6682 and Kluyveromyces marxinanus Y-8281, well-known to be sensitive to yeast killer toxins. Among one hundred and two tested strains, 24 (23.5% of isolates) showed positive killer action, and 10 (9.8% of the isolates) a weak killer action against at least one sensitive reference strain. The highest killer activity was observed among isolates from forest soil and flowers. PMID:26636138

  17. Recognizing Proofreaders' Marks and Using Them in Editing. Audiovisual Package. Instructor's Guide [and] Student Activity Packet. Office Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Diane E.

    Designed for use with 38 full-color slides and a cassette tape presentation, this instructional package consists of an instructor's guide and a student activity packet. The instructor's guide includes general instructions for presenting the instructional unit as well as specific instructions for introducing, implementing, and evaluating student…

  18. The Big Jump: A Classroom Guide for Teaching Insurance to Teenagers and Young Adults through Creative Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Credit Union National Association, Inc., Madison, WI.

    This kit contains a teaching guide with objectives, answers, and instructions for each activity and spirit masters color coded to correspond with the appropriate chapter in the teaching guide. Five program segments are presented: (1) introduction to insurance; (2) homeowners/renters insurance; (3) automobile and motorcycle insurance; (4) health…

  19. Design and optimization of voice coil actuator for six degree of freedom active vibration isolation system using Halbach magnet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, MyeongHyeon; Kim, Hyunchang; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, optimization, and validation of an active vibration isolation system using a voice coil motor. The active vibration isolating method was constructed with a passive isolator and an active isolator. A spring was used for passive isolating; an actuator was used for active isolating. The proposed active vibration isolation system (AVIS) can isolate disturbances for many kinds of instruments. Until now, developed AVIS were able to isolate a six degree-of-freedom disturbance effectively. This paper proposes the realization of such a six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system that can work as a bench top device for precision measuring machines such as atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, etc.

  20. Design and optimization of voice coil actuator for six degree of freedom active vibration isolation system using Halbach magnet array.

    PubMed

    Kim, MyeongHyeon; Kim, Hyunchang; Gweon, Dae-Gab

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes the design, modeling, optimization, and validation of an active vibration isolation system using a voice coil motor. The active vibration isolating method was constructed with a passive isolator and an active isolator. A spring was used for passive isolating; an actuator was used for active isolating. The proposed active vibration isolation system (AVIS) can isolate disturbances for many kinds of instruments. Until now, developed AVIS were able to isolate a six degree-of-freedom disturbance effectively. This paper proposes the realization of such a six degree-of-freedom active vibration isolation system that can work as a bench top device for precision measuring machines such as atomic force microscope, scanning probe microscope, etc.

  1. Semi-active variable stiffness vibration control of vehicle seat suspension using an MR elastomer isolator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua; Zhang, Nong

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a study on continuously variable stiffness control of vehicle seat suspension using a magnetorheological elastomer (MRE) isolator. A concept design for an MRE isolator is proposed in the paper and its behavior is experimentally evaluated. An integrated seat suspension model, which includes a quarter-car suspension and a seat suspension with a driver body model, is used to design a sub-optimal H_{\\infty } controller for an active isolator. The desired control force generated by this active isolator is then emulated by the MRE isolator through its continuously variable stiffness property when the actuating condition is met. The vibration control effect of the MRE isolator is evaluated in terms of driver body acceleration responses under both bump and random road conditions. The results show that the proposed control strategy achieves better vibration reduction performance than conventional on-off control.

  2. Semi-active control of isolated and damaged structures using online damage detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amini, Fereidoun; Mohajeri, Seyed Ahmad; Javanbakht, Majd

    2015-10-01

    The idea of using semi-active or active control devices within a base isolation system has been developed recently, since applying this system to building structures has some shortcomings such as the creation of large displacements at the base level and the system's lack of adaptability to different seismic excitations. In this study, an integrated structural health monitoring and semi-active control scheme is proposed to enhance the seismic behavior of damaged isolated structures. The nonlinear behavior of an isolated structure is limited to the isolator level and the superstructure is assumed to remain linear. Then, using an online damage detection algorithm based on identified system Markov parameters and a semi-active fuzzy controller, the damage in the base isolator is mitigated and the seismic response of the structure is reduced. In addition, a magnetorheological damper is utilized as a well-studied semi-active actuator in the control system. The effectiveness of the proposed control system is evaluated through the numerical study of a six-degrees-of-freedom model of base-isolated buildings excited by various near-fault and far-field earthquake records. The results of the simulation show that the integrated algorithm is substantially effective in improving the dynamic behavior of isolated structures and reducing the damage in the isolator.

  3. Wheat root colonization and nitrogenase activity by Azospirillum isolates from crop plants in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chungwoo; Kecskés, Mihály L; Deaker, Rosalind J; Gilchrist, Kate; New, Peter B; Kennedy, Ivan R; Kim, Seunghwan; Sa, Tongmin

    2005-11-01

    Nitrogen-fixing bacteria were isolated from the rhizosphere of different crops of Korea. A total of 16 isolates were selected and characterized. Thirteen of the isolates produced characteristics similar to those of the reference strains of Azospirillum, and the remaining 3 isolates were found to be Enterobacter spp. The isolates could be categorized into 3 groups based on their ARDRA patterns, and the first 2 groups comprised Azospirillum brasilense and Azospirillum lipoferum. The acetylene reduction activity (ARA) of these isolates was determined for free cultures and in association with wheat roots. There was no correlation between pure culture and plant-associated nitrogenase activity of the different strains. The isolates that showed higher nitrogenase activities in association with wheat roots in each group were selected and sequenced. Isolates of Azospirillum brasilense CW301, Azospirillum brasilense CW903, and Azospirillum lipoferum CW1503 were selected to study colonization in association with wheat roots. We observed higher expression of beta-galactosidase activity in A. brasilense strains than in A. lipoferum strains, which could be attributed to their higher population in association with wheat roots. All strains tested colonized and exhibited the strongest beta-galactosidase activity at the sites of lateral roots emergence.

  4. Teaching reactions and stoichiometry: A comparison of guided inquiry and traditional laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meister Thomas, Lynn

    There is a major movement in science education towards the inclusion of science inquiry and process. Guided-inquiry instruction is expected to have a positive impact on students' concrete and conceptual knowledge along with their ability to engage in the practices of science. This study examined the impact of inquiry-based teaching on student achievement. The topics of reactions and stoichiometry were taught in two different periods of first-year secondary honors chemistry. Both classes received the same lectures and assignments for this curriculum and both classes performed the same laboratory activities. However, one class received traditional, step-by-step (often called "cookbook") laboratory instructions while the other class developed their own procedures and made decisions about data to complete the laboratory activities. Pre- and post-tests were given to each class, followed by a test of retention after ten weeks. The results of this study indicate that inquiry-based instruction has a positive impact on student achievement. A significant increase between pre- and post- test scores for the experimental group as opposed to the scores for the control group suggests that achievement was correlated with guided inquiry instruction methods. Additionally, a notable trend suggested that guided inquiry instruction has a positive effect on learning retention.

  5. In vitro antimicrobial activity of orbifloxacin against Staphylococcus intermedius isolates from canine skin and ear infections.

    PubMed

    Ganière, Jean-Pierre; Médaille, Christine; Etoré, Florence

    2004-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of orbifloxacin against Staphylococcus intermedius strains isolated in France from canine skin and ear infections. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of orbifloxacin against 240 field S. intermedius isolates (69 skin and 171 ear isolates) ranged from 0.016 to 8 mg l(-1), with MIC50 and MIC90 equal to 0.5 and 1 mg l(-1), respectively. Only one strain, a pyoderma isolate was resistant (MIC=8 mg l(-1)). Orbifloxacin was tested at different concentrations for killing rate against five isolates obtained from pyoderma cases and against a reference strain (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213). Orbifloxacin expressed a concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against the S. aureus reference strain, but a time-dependent bactericidal activity against S. intermedius. Orbifloxacin induced bactericidal effect against the S. intermedius strains tested with concentrations equal to or two times MIC.

  6. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster)

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Kelsey L.; Whitley, Brittany N.; Treidel, Lisa A.; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C.; Stevenson, Jennie R.; Haussmann, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  7. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation.

  8. Isolation and characterization of some moderately halophilic bacteria with lipase activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Y; Rasoul-Amini, S; Kazemi, A; Zarrinic, G; Morowvat, M H; Kargar, M

    2011-01-01

    Lipases are an important class of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides and constitute the most prominent group ofbiocatalysts for biotechnological applications. There are a number of lipases, produced by some halophilic microorganisms. In this study, some lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu salt lake located in south of Iran were isolated. All isolates were screened for true lipase activity on plates containing olive oil. The lipase activity was measured using titrimetric methods. Among thirty three isolates, thirteen strains demonstrating orange zone around colonies under UV light, were selected for identification using the molecular methods and some morphological characteristics. The bacterium Bacillus vallismortis BCCS 007 with 3.41 +/- 0.14 U/mL lipase activity was selected as the highest lipase producing isolate. This is the first report of isolation and molecular identification of lipase producing bacteria from Maharlu lake. PMID:22073547

  9. Voluntary locomotor activity mitigates oxidative damage associated with isolation stress in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster).

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Kelsey L; Whitley, Brittany N; Treidel, Lisa A; Thompson, David; Williams, Annie; Noguera, Jose C; Stevenson, Jennie R; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-07-01

    Organismal performance directly depends on an individual's ability to cope with a wide array of physiological challenges. For social animals, social isolation is a stressor that has been shown to increase oxidative stress. Another physiological challenge, routine locomotor activity, has been found to decrease oxidative stress levels. Because we currently do not have a good understanding of how diverse physiological systems like stress and locomotion interact to affect oxidative balance, we studied this interaction in the prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster). Voles were either pair housed or isolated and within the isolation group, voles either had access to a moving wheel or a stationary wheel. We found that chronic periodic isolation caused increased levels of oxidative stress. However, within the vole group that was able to run voluntarily, longer durations of locomotor activity were associated with less oxidative stress. Our work suggests that individuals who demonstrate increased locomotor activity may be better able to cope with the social stressor of isolation. PMID:26179798

  10. Using FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) to isolate active regulatory DNA

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Jeremy M.; Giresi, Paul G.; Davis, Ian J.; Lieb, Jason D.

    2013-01-01

    Eviction or destabilization of nucleosomes from chromatin is a hallmark of functional regulatory elements of the eukaryotic genome. Historically identified by nuclease hypersensitivity, these regulatory elements are typically bound by transcription factors or other regulatory proteins. FAIRE (Formaldehyde-Assisted Isolation of Regulatory Elements) is an alternative approach to identify these genomic regions and has proven successful in a multitude of eukaryotic cell and tissue types. Cells or dissociated tissues are crosslinked briefly with formaldehyde, lysed, and sonicated. Sheared chromatin is subjected to phenol-chloroform extraction and the isolated DNA, typically encompassing 1–3% of the human genome, is purified. We provide guidelines for quantitative analysis by PCR, microarrays, or next-generation sequencing. Regulatory elements enriched by FAIRE display high concordance with those identified by nuclease hypersensitivity or ChIP, and the entire procedure can be completed in three days. FAIRE exhibits low technical variability, which allows its use in large-scale studies of chromatin from normal or diseased tissues. PMID:22262007

  11. Quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of phenolics isolated from different extracts of Capsicum frutescens (Pimenta Malagueta).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Patrícia L A; Nascimento, Talita C E S; Ramos, Natália S M; Silva, Girliane R; Gomes, José Erick Galindo; Falcão, Rosângela E A; Moreira, Keila A; Porto, Ana L F; Silva, Tania M S

    2014-04-24

    This paper presents the quantification, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of capsaicin, dihydrocapsaicin and the flavonoid chrysoeriol isolated from different extracts (hexane and acetonitrile extracts from whole fruit, peel and seed) of Capsicum frutescens (pimenta malagueta). The acetonitrile extract of the seeds, peel and whole fruits contained capsaicin as a major component, followed in abundance by dihydrocapsaicin and chrysoeriol. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated compounds against seven microorganisms showed chrysoeriol was the most active compound. In the antioxidant test, the acetonitrile extract from the whole fruit showed the highest activity. The antioxidant activity of pimenta malagueta may be correlated with its phenolic content, principally with the most active compound, capsaicin.

  12. Bio-guided isolation of antioxidant compounds from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum, a plant used in the Ivory Coast pharmacopeia.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Bidie Alain; Karine, Ndjoko; Barthélemy, Attioua Koffi; Noél, Zirihi Guédé; David, N'guessan Jean; Joseph, Djaman Allico; Hosttetmann, Kurt

    2010-09-13

    Chrysophyllum perpulchrum (Sapotaceae) is used in the traditional Ivory Coast pharmacopeia to cure fevers. The extract of C. perpulchrum used for this study was the powdered form obtained from the maceration of the dried plant bark in 96% methanol, followed by evaporation to dryness. In the present study, the antioxidative and radical-scavenging activities of the methanolic extract were studied with three standard biological tests: DPPH reduction, ferric thiocyanate (FTC) lipidic peroxidation inhibition and thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS). Gallic acid and quercetin were used as references. The total amount of phenolic compounds in the extract was determined by ultraviolet (UV) spectrometry and calculated as gallic acid equivalents. Catechin and two dimeric procyanidins were found to be the compounds responsible for the activities. They were chemically dereplicated in the extract by LC-MS. For quantitation purposes, they were isolated by successive chromatographic methods and characterized by mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry. The quantities of these compounds in C. perpulchrum were 5.4% for catechin (P1), and 5.6 and 9.2% for dimers (compounds 2 (P2) and 3 (P3)), respectively. They displayed antioxidant activity with IC(50) values of 2.50 ± 0.15 µg/mL (P1), 2.10 ± 0.2 µg/mL (P2) and 2.10 ± 0.1 µg/mL (P3). The total extract, the active fractions and the pure compounds inhibited the lipid peroxidation by the FTC method and the TBARS method in the range of 60%. These values were comparable to those seen for quercetin.

  13. Segmentation of Uterus Using Laparoscopic Ultrasound by an Image-Based Active Contour Approach for Guiding Gynecological Diagnosis and Surgery.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue-Hao; Lu, Jun; Liu, Jin; Deng, Ying-Yuan; Liu, Wei-Zong; Huang, Xian; Yang, Yong-Heng; Xu, Qin; Yu, Zhi-Ying

    2015-01-01

    In laparoscopic gynecologic surgery, ultrasound has been typically implemented to diagnose urological and gynecological conditions. We applied laparoscopic ultrasonography (using Esaote 7.5~10MHz laparoscopic transducer) on the retrospective analyses of 42 women subjects during laparoscopic extirpation and excision of gynecological tumors in our hospital from August 2011 to August 2013. The objective of our research is to develop robust segmentation technique for isolation and identification of the uterus from the ultrasound images, so as to assess, locate and guide in removing the lesions during laparoscopic operations. Our method enables segmentation of the uterus by the active contour algorithm. We evaluated 42 in-vivo laparoscopic images acquired from the 42 patients (age 39.1 ± 7.2 years old) and selected images pertaining to 4 cases of congenital uterine malformations and 2 cases of pelvic adhesions masses. These cases (n = 6) were used for our uterus segmentation experiments. Based on them, the active contour method was compared with the manual segmentation method by a medical expert using linear regression and the Bland-Altman analysis (used to measure the correlation and the agreement). Then, the Dice and Jaccard indices are computed for measuring the similarity of uterus segmented between computational and manual methods. Good correlation was achieved whereby 84%-92% results fall within the 95% confidence interval in the Student t-test) and we demonstrate that the proposed segmentation method of uterus using laparoscopic images is effective.

  14. In Vitro Activities of Garenoxacin (BMS 284756) against 108 Clinical Isolates of Gardnerella vaginalis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Ellie J. C.; Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Warren, Yumi A.; Tyrrell, Kerin L.; Fernandez, Helen T.

    2002-01-01

    Garenoxacin (BMS 284756) was active against 105 of 108 (97%) recent clinical Gardnerella vaginalis isolates at ≤2 μg/ml by using the reference agar dilution method for anaerobes. Twenty-eight percent of isolates (31 of 108) were resistant to metronidazole, and 44% were resistant to doxycycline. All were susceptible to clindamycin and ampicillin-sulbactam. PMID:12435709

  15. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  16. Isolation and Chemical Structural Characterisation of a Compound with Antioxidant Activity from the Roots of Senna italica

    PubMed Central

    Mokgotho, Matlou Phineas; Gololo, Stanley Sechene; Masoko, Peter; Shai, Leshwene Jeremiah; Bagla, Victor Patrick; Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas

    2013-01-01

    Senna italica, a member of the Fabaceae family (subfamily Caesalpiniaceae), is widely used in South African traditional medicine to treat a number of disease conditions. Aqueous extracts of the plant are mainly used to treat sexually transmitted infections and intestinal complications. The roots of S. italica were ground to a fine powder and sequentially extracted with n-hexane, dichloromethane, acetone, and methanol using serial exhaustive extraction (SEE) method. Thin layer chromatography was used to analyse the phytochemical composition of the extracts and DPPH radical scavenging method to detect the presence of antioxidant compounds. The bioassay guided fractionation of the acetone fraction afforded an antioxidant compound with free radical scavenging activity. The isolated compound was subsequently identified as 3,4′,5-trihydroxystilbene (resveratrol). This study represents the first report of the stilbene resveratrol in S. italica. PMID:23843877

  17. Static calibration of the RSRA active-isolator rotor balance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acree, C. W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The Rotor Systems Research Aircraft (RSRA) active-isolator system is designed to reduce rotor vibrations transmitted to the airframe and to simultaneously measure all six forces and moments generated by the rotor. These loads are measured by using a combination of load cells, strain gages, and hydropneumatic active isolators with built-in pressure gages. The first static calibration of the complete active-isolator rotor balance system was performed in l983 to verify its load-measurement capabilities. Analysis of the data included the use of multiple linear regressions to determine calibration matrices for different data sets and a hysteresis-removal algorithm to estimate in-flight measurement errors. Results showed that the active-isolator system can fulfill most performance predictions. The results also suggested several possible improvements to the system.

  18. Structural design of active seismic isolation floor with a charging function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakakoji, Hayato; Miura, Nanako

    2016-04-01

    This study shows an optimum structure of a seismic isolation floor against horizontal ground motions. Although a seismic isolation floor is effective with vibration reduction, the response of the floor becomes larger when excited by long-period ground motions. It is shown that caster equipment move and suffer damage in a seismic isolation structure by an experiment. Moreover, the permissible displacement of the floor is limited. Therefore, the focus is on an active seismic isolation. About active control, the system cannot operate without power supply. To solve these problems an energy regeneration is considered in our previous study. These studies only analyze simple model and did not choose the suitable structure for active control and energy regeneration. This research propose a new structure which has regenerated energy exceeds the energy required for the active control by numerical simulation.

  19. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup.

  20. Antitussive activity of polysaccharides isolated from the Malian medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Sutovská, M; Franová, S; Priseznaková, L; Nosálová, G; Togola, A; Diallo, D; Paulsen, B S; Capek, P

    2009-04-01

    From the leaves of popular Malian medicinal plants Trichilia emetica (TE) and Opilia celtidifolia (OC), and fruits of Crossopteryx febrifuga (CF) water and water-ethanol soluble polysaccharide materials were isolated. The results of chemical analysis of the crude polysaccharides showed the dominance of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 54%) and the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 30%) in T. emetica leaves, the arabinogalactan ( approximately 60%), the rhamnogalacturonan ( approximately 14%) and the glucuronoxylan ( approximately 14%) in O. celtidifolia leaves, and pectic type of polysaccharides ( approximately 75%) with a lower content of the arabinogalactan ( approximately 17%) in C. febrifuga fruits. The plant polysaccharides showed various biological effects on the citric acid-induced cough reflex and reactivity of airways smooth muscle in vivo conditions. T. emetica and O. celtidifolia polysaccharides possessed significant cough-suppressive effect on chemically induced cough. Furthermore, values of specific airways resistance pointed on bronchodilatory property of polysaccharides isolated from O. celtidifolia. However, the crude extract from C. febrifuga in the same dose as T. emetica and O. celtidifolia did not influence the experimentally induced cough as well as reactivity of airways smooth muscle despite of the fact that the water-ethanol extract is recommended for cough therapy in Mali in the form of syrup. PMID:19150368

  1. Validation of a "Kane's Dynamics" Model for the Active Rack Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beech, Geoffrey S.; Hampton, R. David

    2000-01-01

    Many microgravity space-science experiments require vibratory acceleration levels unachievable without active isolation. The Boeing Corporation's Active Rack Isolation System (ARIS) employs a novel combination of magnetic actuation and mechanical linkages, to address these isolation requirements on the International Space Station (ISS). ARIS provides isolation at the rack (international Standard Payload Rack, or ISPR) level. Effective model-based vibration isolation requires (1) an isolation device, (2) an adequate dynamic (i.e., mathematical) model of that isolator, and (3) a suitable, corresponding controller, ARIS provides the ISS response to the first requirement. In November 1999, the authors presented a response to the second ("A 'Kane's Dynamics' model for the Active Rack Isolation System", Hampton and Beech) intended to facilitate an optimal-controls approach to the third. This paper documents the validation of that high-fidelity dynamic model of ARIS. As before, this model contains the full actuator dynamics, however, the umbilical models are not included in this presentation. The validation of this dynamics model was achieved by utilizing two Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) software tools: Deneb's ENVISION, and Online Dynamics' AUTOLEV. ENVISION is a robotics software package developed for the automotive industry that employs 3-dimensional (3-D) Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to facilitate both forward and inverse kinematics analyses. AUTOLEV is a DOS based interpreter that is designed in general to solve vector based mathematical problems and specifically to solve Dynamics problems using Kane's method.

  2. Isolation and Molecular Identification of Streptomyces spp. with Antibacterial Activity from Northwest of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Maleki, Hadi; Dehnad, Alireza; Hanifian, Shahram; Khani, Sajjad

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Streptomyces are a group of prokaryotes that are usually found in all types of ecosystems including water and soil. This group of bacteria is noteworthy as antibiotic producers; so the isolation and characterization of new species seemed to be crucial in introduction of markedly favorable antibiotics. Therefore, in this study we aim to isolate and characterize novel strains of Streptomyces with high antibiotic production capability. Methods: To achieve this goal, from 140 isolates collected throughout northwest of Iran, 12 selected Streptomyces isolates which exhibited high antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria were subjected to PCR reaction for identification via 16S rDNA gene and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) pattern analysis. Results: Analysis of morphological and biochemical characteristics and the 16S rDNA gene sequence indicated that all 12 selected isolates belonged to the genus Streptomyces. Moreover, screening of the isolates with regard to their antimicrobial activity against indicator bacteria as well as their classification using RAPD analysis revealed that G614C1 and K36C5 isolates have considerable antimicrobial activity and high similarity to Streptomyces coelicolor and Sreptomyces albogriseolus, respectively. Conclusion: Since many isolates in this study showed inhibitory effects against pathogenic bacteria, soil of northwest of Iran could be used as a rich source to be explored for novel Streptomyces strains with high potency of antibiotic production. PMID:24163805

  3. [In vitro activity of ampicillin-ceftriaxone against Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections].

    PubMed

    Burguer Moreira, Noelia; Nastro, Marcela; Vay, Carlos; Famiglietti, Ángela; Rodríguez, Carlos Hernán

    2016-01-01

    In vitro activity of the combination of ampicillin- ceftriaxone against 30 Enterococcus faecalis isolates recovered from invasive infections in patients admitted to Hospital de Clínicas José de San Martin in the city of Buenos Aires was assessed. Ampicillin- ceftriaxone synergies were determined by microdilution in Müeller-Hinton (MH) broth with and without subinhibitory concentrations of ceftriaxone. Synergy was detected in 22/30 isolates. A decrease in both minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was observed in 14/30 isolates, whereas in 6/30 isolates the decrease was observed in the MIC value and only in the MBC value in the 2 remaining isolates. The bactericidal activity of the combination showed to be higher at low concentrations of ampicillin (< 1 μg/ml). We detected in vitro synergy using the ampicillin-ceftriaxone combination and thus, its efficacy was confirmed in the treatment of severe infections by E. faecalis.

  4. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Benovit, Simone C; Silva, Lenise L; Salbego, Joseânia; Loro, Vania L; Mallmann, Carlos A; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L(-1)) was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L(-1). Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnished E-(-)-pinocamphone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol. E-(-)-pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+)-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L(-1)) promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+)-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(-)-pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+)-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic.

  5. Anesthetic activity and bio-guided fractionation of the essential oil of Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hook.) Tronc. in silver catfish Rhamdia quelen.

    PubMed

    Benovit, Simone C; Silva, Lenise L; Salbego, Joseânia; Loro, Vania L; Mallmann, Carlos A; Baldisserotto, Bernardo; Flores, Erico M M; Heinzmann, Berta M

    2015-09-01

    This work aimed to determine the efficacy of the essential oil of A. gratissima as anesthetic for silver catfish, and to perform the bio-guided fractionation of essential oil aiming to isolate compounds responsible for the noted effects. Fish were submitted to anesthesia bath with essential oil, its fractions and isolated compounds to determine time of anesthetic induction and recovery. Eugenol (50 mg L(-1)) was used as positive control. Essential oil of A. gratissima was effective as an anesthetic at concentrations of 300 to 900 mg L(-1). Fish presented involuntary muscle contractions during induction and recovery. The bio-guided fractionation of essential oil furnished E-(-)-pinocamphone, (-)-caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol. E-(-)-pinocamphone caused the same side effects observed for essential oil. (-)-Caryophyllene oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil. (+)-Spathulenol (51.2 mg L(-1)) promoted deep anesthesia without side effects. A higher concentration of (+)-spathulenol, and lower or absent amounts ofE-(-)-pinocamphone could contribute to increase the activity and safety of the essential oil of A. gratissima. (+)-Spathulenol showed potent sedative and anesthetic activities in silver catfish, and could be considered as a viable compound for the development of a new anesthetic. PMID:26221984

  6. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Water Pollution and Environmental Studies, Volume I - Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershey, John T., Ed.; And Others

    This publication, Volume I of a two volume set, consists of many tested water pollution study activities. The activities are grouped into four headings: (1) Hydrologic Cycle, (2) Human Activities, (3) Ecological Perspectives, and (4) Social and Political Factors. Three levels of activities are provided: (1) those which increase awareness, (2)…

  7. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems. PMID:24211333

  8. Characterization of Multilayer Piezoelectric Actuators for Use in Active Isolation Mounts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Stephanie A.; Hooker, Matthew W.

    1997-01-01

    Active mounts are desirable for isolating spacecraft science instruments from on-board vibrational sources such as motors and release mechanisms. Such active isolation mounts typically employ multilayer piezoelectric actuators to cancel these vibrational disturbances. The actuators selected for spacecraft systems must consume minimal power while exhibiting displacements of 5 to 10 micron under load. This report describes a study that compares the power consumption, displacement, and load characteristics of four commercially available multilayer piezoelectric actuators. The results of this study indicate that commercially available actuators exist that meet or exceed the design requirements used in spacecraft isolation mounts.

  9. Antimicrobial and antileishmanial activities of diterpenoids isolated from the roots of Salvia deserta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four diterpenes with biological activity were isolated from Salvia deserta roots. Taxodione was considered leishmanicidal, with IC50 value of 0.46 µg/mL against Leishimania donovani and also exhibited antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Ferruginol displayed the greatest activity (24-h IC50 1.29...

  10. Quorum sensing activity of Hafnia alvei isolated from packed food.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei.

  11. Quorum Sensing Activity of Hafnia alvei Isolated from Packed Food

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei. PMID:24736131

  12. Quorum sensing activity of Hafnia alvei isolated from packed food.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jia-Yi; Yin, Wai-Fong; Chan, Kok-Gan

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism adopted by bacteria to regulate expression of genes according to population density. N-acylhomoserine lactones (AHLs) are a type of QS signalling molecules commonly found in Gram-negative bacteria which have been reported to play a role in microbial spoilage of foods and pathogenesis. In this study, we isolated an AHL-producing Hafnia alvei strain (FB1) from spherical fish pastes. Analysis via high resolution triple quadrupole liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) on extracts from the spent supernatant of H. alvei FB1 revealed the existence of two short chain AHLs: N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C6-HSL) and N-(3-oxo- octanoyl) homoserine lactone (3-oxo-C8-HSL). To our knowledge, this is the first report of the production of AHLs, especially 3-oxo-C8-HSL, by H. alvei. PMID:24736131

  13. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry.

  14. Fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity of non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from fermenting musts of Mezcal.

    PubMed

    Arrizon, Javier; Morel, Sandrine; Gschaedler, Anne; Monsan, Pierre

    2012-04-01

    Fructanase and fructosyltransferase are interesting for the tequila process and prebiotics production (functional food industry). In this study, one hundred thirty non-Saccharomyces yeasts isolated from "Mezcal de Oaxaca" were screened for fructanase and fructosyltransferase activity. On solid medium, fifty isolates grew on Agave tequilana fructans (ATF), inulin or levan. In liquid media, inulin and ATF induced fructanase activities of between 0.02 and 0.27U/ml depending of yeast isolate. High fructanase activity on sucrose was observed for Kluyveromyces marxianus and Torulaspora delbrueckii, while the highest fructanase activity on inulin and ATF was observed for Issatchenkia orientalis, Cryptococcus albidus, and Candida apicola. Zygosaccharomyces bisporus and Candida boidinii had a high hydrolytic activity on levan. Sixteen yeasts belonging to K. marxianus, T. delbrueckii and C. apicola species were positive for fructosyltransferase activity. Mezcal microbiota proved to showed to be a source for new fructanase and fructosyltransferases with potential application in the tequila and food industry. PMID:22336744

  15. Activation of Visuomotor Systems during Visually Guided Movements: A Functional MRI Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellermann, Jutta M.; Siegal, Joel D.; Strupp, John P.; Ebner, Timothy J.; Ugurbil, Kâmil

    1998-04-01

    The dorsal stream is a dominant visuomotor pathway that connects the striate and extrastriate cortices to posterior parietal areas. In turn, the posterior parietal areas send projections to the frontal primary motor and premotor areas. This cortical pathway is hypothesized to be involved in the transformation of a visual input into the appropriate motor output. In this study we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the entire brain to determine the patterns of activation that occurred while subjects performed a visually guided motor task. In nine human subjects, fMRI data were acquired on a 4-T whole-body MR system equipped with a head gradient coil and a birdcage RF coil using aT*2-weighted EPI sequence. Functional activation was determined for three different tasks: (1) a visuomotor task consisting of moving a cursor on a screen with a joystick in relation to various targets, (2) a hand movement task consisting of moving the joystick without visual input, and (3) a eye movement task consisting of moving the eyes alone without visual input. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast-based activation maps of each subject were generated using period cross-correlation statistics. Subsequently, each subject's brain was normalized to Talairach coordinates, and the individual maps were compared on a pixel by pixel basis. Significantly activated pixels common to at least four out of six subjects were retained to construct the final functional image. The pattern of activation during visually guided movements was consistent with the flow of information from striate and extrastriate visual areas, to the posterior parietal complex, and then to frontal motor areas. The extensive activation of this network and the reproducibility among subjects is consistent with a role for the dorsal stream in transforming visual information into motor behavior. Also extensively activated were the medial and lateral cerebellar structures, implicating the cortico

  16. Isolation and characterization of ellagic acid derivatives isolated from Casearia sylvestris SW aqueous extract with anti-PLA(2) activity.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Saulo L; Calgarotto, Andrana K; Chaar, Jamal S; Marangoni, Sérgio

    2008-11-01

    The Casearia sylvestris SW (Flacourtiaceae) is utilized in folk medicine (Brazil and all Latin American) to treat several pathologic processes as inflammation, cancer, microbial infection and snake bites. Studies showed that C. sylvestris aqueous extract can inhibit many toxic effects caused by snake venoms (or caused by phospholipase A(2) isolated) from different species, mainly of Bothrops genus. Inhibition of enzymatic and myotoxic activities, decrease of edema formation and increase of the survival rate of rats injected with lethal doses of bothropic venoms are some toxic effects inhibited by C. sylvestris. In this study, four ellagic acid derivatives from aqueous extracts of C. sylvestris were isolated, characterized, and tested against effects from both total venom and PLA(2) (Asp 49 BthTX-II) from the venom of Bothrops jararacussu. The isolated compounds were as follows: ellagic acid (A), 3'-O-methyl ellagic acid (B), 3,3'-di-O-methyl ellagic acid (C), 3-O-methyl-3',4'-methylenedioxy ellagic acid (D). The inhibition constant values (Ki) for enzymatic activity, as well the IC(50) values found in the edematogenic and myotoxic activities, indicate that the ellagic acid is the best inhibitor of these activities, while compounds C and D are the substances with lowest capacity on inhibiting these same effects. Our results show that the presence of hydroxyls at position 3 or 3' (compounds A and B) increases the capacity of these derivatives on inhibiting these toxic effects. However, the presence of methoxyl groups at position 3 or 3' reduced, but did not completely inhibit the capacity of compounds C and D on inhibiting all the toxic effects studied.

  17. Simple control-theoretic models of human steering activity in visually guided vehicle control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, Ronald A.

    1991-01-01

    A simple control theoretic model of human steering or control activity in the lateral-directional control of vehicles such as automobiles and rotorcraft is discussed. The term 'control theoretic' is used to emphasize the fact that the model is derived from a consideration of well-known control system design principles as opposed to psychological theories regarding egomotion, etc. The model is employed to emphasize the 'closed-loop' nature of tasks involving the visually guided control of vehicles upon, or in close proximity to, the earth and to hypothesize how changes in vehicle dynamics can significantly alter the nature of the visual cues which a human might use in such tasks.

  18. Multiple Active Contours Guided by Differential Evolution for Medical Image Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Aceves, I.; Avina-Cervantes, J. G.; Lopez-Hernandez, J. M.; Rostro-Gonzalez, H.; Garcia-Capulin, C. H.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; Guzman-Cabrera, R.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new image segmentation method based on multiple active contours guided by differential evolution, called MACDE. The segmentation method uses differential evolution over a polar coordinate system to increase the exploration and exploitation capabilities regarding the classical active contour model. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, a set of synthetic images with complex objects, Gaussian noise, and deep concavities is introduced. Subsequently, MACDE is applied on datasets of sequential computed tomography and magnetic resonance images which contain the human heart and the human left ventricle, respectively. Finally, to obtain a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the medical image segmentations compared to regions outlined by experts, a set of distance and similarity metrics has been adopted. According to the experimental results, MACDE outperforms the classical active contour model and the interactive Tseng method in terms of efficiency and robustness for obtaining the optimal control points and attains a high accuracy segmentation. PMID:23983809

  19. Unique Activity Spectrum of Colicin FY: All 110 Characterized Yersinia enterocolitica Isolates Were Colicin FY Susceptible

    PubMed Central

    Bosák, Juraj; Micenková, Lenka; Vrba, Martin; Ševčíková, Alena; Dědičová, Daniela; Garzetti, Debora; Šmajs, David

    2013-01-01

    Colicin FY is a plasmid encoded toxin that recognizes a yersinia-specific outer membrane protein (YiuR) as a receptor molecule. We have previously shown that the activity spectrum of colicin FY comprises strains of the genus Yersinia. In this study, we analyzed the activity of colicin FY against 110 Yersinia enterocolitica isolates differing in geographical origin and source. All isolates were characterized through analysis of 16S rRNA genes, serotyping, biotyping, restriction profiling of genomic DNA, detection of virulence markers and susceptibility to antibiotics. This confirmed the broad variability of the collection, in which all 110 Y. enterocolitica isolates, representing 77 various strains, were inhibited by colicin FY. Although isolates showed variable levels of susceptibility to colicin FY, it was not associated with any strain characteristic. The universal susceptibility of Y. enterocolitica strains to colicin FY together with the absence of activity towards strains outside the Yersinia genus suggests potential therapeutic applications for colicin FY. PMID:24339971

  20. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  1. Alcohol and Alcohol Safety. Volume II of II. A Curriculum Manual for Elementary Level. A Teacher's Activities Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Peter; Platt, Judith

    This curriculum manual for the elementary school level is the first in a series on alcohol and alcohol safety and is designed as a teacher's activities guide. Each activity provided is a self-contained learning experience which requires varying numbers of class period and focuses on one or more objectives. Activities are numbered consecutively and…

  2. Agriculture--Forestry, Biltmore Stick. Kit No. AG-107. Instructor's Manual and Student Learning Activity Guide. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Barron; Johnson, Boston

    This two-volume set, consisting of an instructor's manual and a student learning activity guide, is designed for use in teaching vocational agriculture students basic forestry skills. Provided in the instructor's manual are guidelines concerning the duration of the activity; activity goals; a list of instructional objectives; a list of vocational…

  3. Isolation and characterization of genetic variability in bacteria with β-hemolytic and antifungal activity isolated from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salmerón, J E; Prieto-Barajas, C M; Valencia-Cantero, E; Moreno-Hagelsieb, G; Santoyo, G

    2014-07-04

    In the present study, we analyzed the frequency of hemolytic and antifungal activities in bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of Medicago truncatula plants. Of the 2000 bacterial colonies, 96 showed β-hemolytic activities (frequency, 4.8 x 10(-2)). Hemolytic isolates were analyzed for their genetic diversity by using random amplification of polymorphic DNA, yielding 88 haplotypes. The similarity coefficient of Nei and Li showed a polymorphic diversity ranging from 0.3 to 1. Additionally, 8 of the hemolytic isolates showed antifungal activity toward plant pathogens, Diaporthe phaseolorum, Colletotrichum acutatum, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. The 16S ribosomal sequencing analysis showed that antagonistic bacterial isolates corresponded to Bacillus subtilis (UM15, UM33, UM42, UM49, UM52, and UM91), Bacillus pumilus (UM24), and Bacillus licheniformis (UM88). The present results revealed a higher genetic diversity among hemolytic isolates compared to that of isolates with antifungal action.

  4. Evaluation of arabinofuranosidase and xylanase activities of Geobacillus spp. isolated from some hot springs in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Canakci, Sabriye; Inan, Kadriye; Kacagan, Murat; Belduz, Ali Osman

    2007-08-01

    Some hot springs located in the west of Turkey were investigated with respect to the presence of thermophilic microorganisms. Based on phenotyping characteristics and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, 16 of the isolates belonged to the genus Geobacillus and grew optimally at about 60 degrees C on nutrient agar. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that these isolates resembled Geobacillus species by > or = 97%, but SDS-PAGE profiles of these 16 isolates differ from some of the other species of the genus Geobacillus. However, it is also known that analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences may be insufficient to distinguish between some species. It is proposed that recN sequence comparisons could accurately measure genome similarities for the Geobacillus genus. Based on recN sequence analysis, isolates 11, IT3, and 12 are strains of G stearothermophilus; isolate 14.3 is a strain of G thermodenitrificans; isolates 9.1, IT4.1, and 4.5 are uncertain and it is required to make further analysis. The presence of xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, and their optimum temperature and pH were also investigated. These results showed that 7 of the strains have both xylanase and arabinofuranosidase activities, 4 of them has only xylanase, and the remaning 5 strains have neither of these activities. The isolates 9.1, 7.1, and 3.3 have the highest temperature optima (80 degrees C), and 7.2, 9.1, AO4, 9.2, and AO17 have the highest pH optima (pH 8) of xylanase. Isolates 7.2, AO4, AC15, and 12 have optimum arabinofuranosidase activities at 75 degrees C, and only isolate AC 15 has the lowest pH of 5.5. PMID:18051594

  5. Chitinophaga vermicomposti sp. nov., with antifungal activity, isolated from vermicompost.

    PubMed

    Yasir, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Song, Geun Cheol; Bibi, Fehmida; Jeon, Che Ok; Chung, Young Ryun

    2010-01-01

    A Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterial strain, YC6729T, was isolated from the vermicompost (VC) collected at Masan, Korea and its taxonomic position was investigated by a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Strain YC6729T grew optimally at 30 degrees C and at pH 6.5-8.5. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain YC6729T belongs to the genus Chitinophaga in the family Chitinophagaceae. Most closely related species are Chitinophaga terra KP01T (96.4 %), Chitinophaga ginsengisegetis Gsoil 040T (96.1 %) and Chitinophaga arvensicola IAM 12650T (96.1 %). Strain YC6729T contained MK-7 as the major menaquinone and homospermidine as the major polyamine. The major fatty acids of strain YC6729T C15:0 iso, C16:1omega5c and C17:0 iso 3-OH. The total DNA G+C content was 48.9 mol%. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data showed that strain YC6729T represents a novel species of the genus Chitinophaga, for which the name Chitinophaga vermicomposti sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YC6729T (= KACC 13774T = DSM 22224T).

  6. Looking at Earth from Space: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Earth and Space Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Colleen (Editor); Steele, Colleen; Ryan, William F.

    1995-01-01

    The Maryland Pilot Earth Science and Technology Education Network (MAPS-NET) project was sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to enrich teacher preparation and classroom learning in the area of Earth system science. This publication includes a teacher's guide that replicates material taught during a graduate-level course of the project and activities developed by the teachers. The publication was developed to provide teachers with a comprehensive approach to using satellite imagery to enhance science education. The teacher's guide is divided into topical chapters and enables teachers to expand their knowledge of the atmosphere, common weather patterns, and remote sensing. Topics include: weather systems and satellite imagery including mid-latitude weather systems; wave motion and the general circulation; cyclonic disturbances and baroclinic instability; clouds; additional common weather patterns; satellite images and the internet; environmental satellites; orbits; and ground station set-up. Activities are listed by suggested grade level and include the following topics: using weather symbols; forecasting the weather; cloud families and identification; classification of cloud types through infrared Automatic Picture Transmission (APT) imagery; comparison of visible and infrared imagery; cold fronts; to ski or not to ski (imagery as a decision making tool), infrared and visible satellite images; thunderstorms; looping satellite images; hurricanes; intertropical convergence zone; and using weather satellite images to enhance a study of the Chesapeake Bay. A list of resources is also included.

  7. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses, pullulan production and xylanase activity of tropical isolates of Aureobasidium pullulans.

    PubMed

    Manitchotpisit, Pennapa; Leathers, Timothy D; Peterson, Stephen W; Kurtzman, Cletus P; Li, Xin-Liang; Eveleigh, Douglas E; Lotrakul, Pongtharin; Prasongsuk, Sehanat; Dunlap, Christopher A; Vermillion, Karl E; Punnapayak, Hunsa

    2009-10-01

    Aureobasidium pullulans is the source of the commercially valuable polysaccharide pullulan and the enzyme xylanase. Isolates are typically off-white to pale pink or black on solid media, while some tropical isolates have been described as 'color variants' with bright pigments of red, yellow or purple. We sequenced 5 loci (internal transcribed spacer, intergenic spacer 1, translation elongation factor-1 alpha, beta tubulin, and RNA polymerase II) from 45 new isolates from Thailand. Based on the phylogenetic analyses, isolates were classified into 12 clades. Each clade showed different colors on different culture media including two clades with 'color variants' and some clades exhibited high levels of pullulan production or xylanase activity. Colony characteristics do not correlate perfectly with DNA sequence phylogeny or the physiological characters, but DNA sequence differences rapidly identify isolates with genetic novelty. PMID:19619651

  8. Plant oligoadenylates: enzymatic synthesis, isolation, and biological activities

    SciTech Connect

    Devash, Y.; Reichman, M.; Sela, I.; Reichenbach, N.L.; Suhadolnik, R.J.

    1985-01-29

    An enzyme that converts (/sup 3/H, /sup 32/P)ATP, with a /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio of 1:1, to oligoadenylates with the same /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P ratio was increased in plants following treatment with human leukocyte interferon or plant antiviral factor or inoculation with tobacco mosaic virus. The enzyme was extracted from tobacco leaves, callus tissue cultures, or cell suspension cultures. The enzyme, a putative plant oligoadenylate synthetase, was immobilized on poly(rI) . poly(rC)-agarose columns and converted ATP into plant oligoadenylates. These oligoadenylates were displaced from DEAE-cellulose columns with 350 mM KCl buffer, dialyzed, and further purified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and DEAE-cellulose gradient chromatography. In all steps of purification, the ratio of /sup 3/H:/sup 32/P in the oligoadenylates remained 1:1. The plant oligoadenylates isolated by displacement with 350 mM KCl had a molecular weight greater than 1000. The plant oligoadenylates had charges of 5- and 6-. HPLC resolved five peaks, three of which inhibited protein synthesis in reticulocyte and wheat germ systems. Partial structural elucidation of the plant oligoadenylates has been determined by enzymatic and chemical treatments. An adenylate with a 3',5'-phosphodiester and/or a pyrophosphoryl linkage with either 3'- or 5'-terminal phosphates is postulated on the basis of treatment of the oligoadenylates with T2 RNase, snake venom phosphodiesterase, and bacterial alkaline phosphatase and acid and alkaline hydrolyses. The plant oligoadenylates at 8 X 10(-7) M inhibit protein synthesis by 75% in lysates from rabbit reticulocytes and 45% in wheat germ cell-free systems.

  9. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients.

  10. Antifungal Activity of Bee Venom and Sweet Bee Venom against Clinically Isolated Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Bae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the antifungal effect of bee venom (BV) and sweet bee venom (SBV) against Candida albicans (C. albicans) clinical isolates. Methods: In this study, BV and SBV were examined for antifungal activities against the Korean Collection for Type Cultures (KCTC) strain and 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans. The disk diffusion method was used to measure the antifungal activity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays were performed by using a broth microdilution method. Also, a killing curve assay was conducted to investigate the kinetics of the anti- fungal action. Results: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against 10 clinical isolates of C. albicans that were cultured from blood and the vagina by using disk diffusion method. The MIC values obtained for clinical isolates by using the broth microdilution method varied from 62.5 μg/ mL to 125 μg/mL for BV and from 15.63 μg/mL to 62.5 μg/mL for SBV. In the killing-curve assay, SBV behaved as amphotericin B, which was used as positive control, did. The antifungal efficacy of SBV was much higher than that of BV. Conclusion: BV and SBV showed antifungal activity against C. albicans clinical strains that were isolated from blood and the vagina. Especially, SBV might be a candidate for a new antifungal agent against C. albicans clinical isolates. PMID:27280049

  11. Antimicrobial activities of ozenoxacin against isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Akiko; Ikeda, Fumiaki; Kanayama, Shoji; Okamoto, Kazuaki; Matsumoto, Tatsumi; Ishii, Ritsuko; Fujikawa, Akira; Takei, Katsuaki; Kawashima, Makoto

    2016-08-01

    Ozenoxacin, a novel non-fluorinated topical quinolone, was assessed for in vitro antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci according to the broth microdilution method recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The isolates used in this study were collected from Japanese patients with acne vulgaris during a period from 2012 to 2013. The MIC90s of ozenoxacin against Propionibacterium acnes (n=266), Propionibacterium granulosum (n=10), Staphylococcus aureus (n=23), Staphylococcus epidermidis (n=229) and other coagulase-negative staphylococci (n=82) were ≤0.06, ≤0.06, ≤0.06, 0.125 and ≤0.06 µg ml-1, respectively. The antimicrobial activity of ozenoxacin against the clinical isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci was greater than that of five reference antimicrobial agents which have been used for the treatment of acne vulgaris. The MICs of ozenoxacin were correlated with those of nadifloxacin in P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates. However, the MICs of ozenoxacin were 0.25-0.5 µg ml-1 and 0.5-8 µg ml-1 against nadifloxacin-resistant P. acnes (MIC: ≥8 µg ml-1; n=8) and S. epidermidis (MIC: ≥64 µg ml-1; n=10), respectively. These results indicated the potent antimicrobial activity against P. acnes and S. epidermidis isolates resistant to nadifloxacin. Topical ozenoxacin could represent an alternative therapeutic drug for acne vulgaris based on its potent antimicrobial activity against the isolates of propionibacteria and staphylococci from acne patients. PMID:27305898

  12. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent. PMID:25827948

  13. Melanin biosynthesis inhibitory activity of a compound isolated from young green barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in B16 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Meng, Tian Xiao; Irino, Nobuto; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2015-07-01

    In the course to find compounds that inhibit melanin biosynthesis (i.e., whitening agents), we evaluated the effects of the methanol-soluble fraction (i.e., the water-soluble portion of methanol extracts-CHP20P-MeOH eluted fraction) from young green barley leaves on melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Activity-guided fractionation led to an isolate called tricin (compound 1) as an inhibitory compound of melanin production in B16 melanoma cells. Furthermore, tricin analogs such as tricetin, tricetin trimethyl ether, luteolin, and apigenin were used for analyzing the structure-activity relationships (SAR) of 5,7-dihydroxyflavones studies. Tricin demonstrated stronger inhibitory activity compared to three other compounds. The results suggest that a hydroxyl group at the C-4' position and methoxy groups at the C-3',5' positions of the tricin skeleton may have important roles in this inhibitory activity in B16 melanoma cells. Our results suggest that tricin inhibits melanin biosynthesis with higher efficacy than arbutin, and it could be used as a whitening agent.

  14. Mite-control activities of active constituents isolated from Pelargonium graveolens against house dust mites.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Kim, Hyung-Wook; Kim, Min-Gi; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2008-10-01

    The mite-control activities of materials obtained from Pelargonium graveolens oil against Dermatophagoides farinae and D. pteronyssinus were examined using an impregnated fabric disk bioassay and were compared with those shown by commercial benzyl benzoate and N,N-diethylm- toluamide (DEET). Purification of the biologically active constituents from P. graveolens oil was done by silica gel chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The structures of the active components were analyzed by EI/MS, (1)H-NMR, (13)C-NMR, (1)H-(13)C COSYNMR, and DEPT-NMR spectra, and were identified as geraniol (C(10)H(18)O, MW 154.25, trans-3,7-dimethyl-2,6- octadien-1-ol) and beta-citronellol (C(10)H(20)O, MW 156.27, 3,7-dimethyl-6-octen-1-ol). Based on the LD50 values, the most toxic compound was geraniol (0.26 microg/cm(2)), followed by beta-citronellol (0.28 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (10.03 microg/ cm(2)), and DEET (37.12 microg/cm(2)) against D. farinae. In the case of D. pteronyssinus, geraniol (0.28 microg/cm(2)) was the most toxic, followed by beta-citronellol (0.29 microg/cm(2)), benzyl benzoate (9.58 microg/cm(2)), and DEET (18.23 microg/cm(2)). These results suggest that D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus may be controlled more effectively by the application of geraniol and beta-citronellol than benzyl benzoate and DEET. Furthermore, geraniol and beta-citronellol isolated from P. graveolens could be useful for managing populations of D. farinae and D. pteronyssinus.

  15. Colors of Competence in Competition: A Guide for Active Learning in Competitive Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernstein, Eve; Rasmussen, Jennifer F.

    2013-01-01

    The idea of actively involving children in the learning process can be beneficial for both teacher and student on a number of levels. Allowing students in physical education class to make choices has been incorporated into elementary-age teaching successfully. As a way to invite students to become more active participants in their learning,…

  16. Isolation, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Schisandra sphenanthera.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ting; Mao, Guanghua; Feng, Weiwei; Mao, Riwen; Gu, Xiaoyun; Li, Ting; Li, Qian; Bao, Yongtuan; Yang, Liuqing; Wu, Xiangyang

    2014-05-25

    A water-soluble polysaccharide (SSPP11) from Schisandra sphenanthera was purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex G-100 columns. Structure of SSPP11 and its antioxidant activity was evaluated. Results showed that SSPP11 has a molecular weight of 5.3×10(3)Da and is composed of Man, Glu and Gal. A linkage analysis and NMR study revealed that SSPP11 has a backbone of →1)-d-Man-(6→, →1)-d-Manp-(2→, →1)-d-Glup(4→, →1)-d-Glup-(6→, →1)-d-Galp-(4→, →1)-d-Galp-(4,6→ and →1)-d-Manp-(3,6→, with Man, Glu and Gal, which are distributed in branched chains. The Congo red absorption test revealed that SSPP11 has a triple helix stereo-configuration. Moreover, antioxidant activity of SSPP11 was stronger than the polysaccharide from Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill. In sum, this study demonstrates that a moderate molecular weight, triple helix stereo-configuration and higher degree of branching are beneficial for exerting antioxidant activity.

  17. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

  18. Rhythmic neuronal activity in the lateral cerebellum of the cat during visually guided stepping.

    PubMed

    Marple-Horvat, D E; Criado, J M

    1999-07-15

    1. The discharge patterns of 117 lateral cerebellar neurones were studied in cats during visually guided stepping on a horizontal circular ladder. Ninety per cent of both nuclear cells (53/59) and Purkinje cells (53/58) showed step-related rhythmic modulations of their discharge frequency (one or more periods of 'raised activity' per step cycle of the ipsilateral forelimb). 2. For 31% of nuclear cells (18/59) and 34% of Purkinje cells (20/58) the difference between the highest and lowest discharge rates in different parts of the step cycle was > 50 impulses s-1. 3. Individual neurones differed widely in the phasing of their discharges relative to the step cycle. Nevertheless, for both Purkinje cells and nuclear cells population activity was significantly greater in swing than in stance; the difference was more marked for the nuclear population. 4. Some cells exhibited both step-related rhythmicity and visual responsiveness (28 of 67 tested, 42%), whilst others were rhythmically active during locomotion and increased their discharge rate ahead of saccadic eye movements (11 of 54 tested, 20%). The rhythmicity of cells that were visually responsive was typical of the rhythmicity seen in the whole locomotor-related population. The step-related rhythmicity of cells that also discharged in relation to saccades was generally below average strength compared with the cortical and nuclear populations as a whole. 5. The possibility is discussed that the rhythmicity of dentate neurones acts as a powerful source of excitatory locomotor drive to motor cortex, and may thereby contribute to establishing the step-related rhythmicity of motor cortical (including pyramidal tract) neurones. More generally, the activity patterns of lateral cerebellar neurones provide for a role in the production of visually guided, co-ordinated eye and body movements.

  19. A review on antifungal activity of mushroom (basidiomycetes) extracts and isolated compounds.

    PubMed

    Alves, Maria José; Ferreira, Isabel C F R; Dias, Joana; Teixeira, Vânia; Martins, Anabela; Pintado, Manuela

    2013-01-01

    The present review reports the antifungal activity of mushroom extracts and isolated compounds including high (e.g. peptides and proteins) and low (e.g. sesquiterpenes and other terpenes, steroids, organic acids, acylcyclopentenediones and quinolines) molecular weight compounds. Most of the studies available on literature focused on screening of antifungal activity of mushroom extracts, rather than of isolated compounds. Data indicate that mushroom extracts are mainly tested against different Candida species, while mushroom compounds are mostly tested upon other fungi. Therefore, the potential of these compounds might be more useful in food industry than in clinics. Oudemansiella canarii and Agaricus bisporus methanolic extracts proved to be the most active mushroom extracts against Candida spp. Grifolin, isolated from Albatrellus dispansus, seemed to be the most active compound against phytopathogenic fungi. Further studies should be performed in order to better understand the mechanism of action of this and other antifungal compounds as well as safety issues.

  20. Adjuvant-activity of `diphtheroid' organisms isolated from the joints of cases of rhemumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    White, R. G.; Gordon, J.

    1970-01-01

    Two isolates of `diphtheroid' organisms from the joints of cases of rheumatoid arthritis were found to possess a surface network of filaments (125 Å wide) resembling the adjuvant-active peptidoglycolipid filaments of mycobacteria and some Nocardia spp. Tests for adjuvant activity in guinea-pigs showed that both isolates possessed the ability to induce delayed-type hypersensitivity to a simultaneously injected immunogen (ovalbumin) and to increase serum anti-ovalbumin levels (in particular γ2-immunoglobulin). The relationship of adjuvant-active bacilli to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis is discussed. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 1 PMID:5477931

  1. Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss.: isolation, diversity, and anti-microbial activity.

    PubMed

    Verma, Vijay C; Gond, Surendra K; Kumar, Anuj; Mishra, Ashish; Kharwar, Ravindra N; Gange, Alan C

    2009-05-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes from Azadirachta indica A. Juss. were screened and evaluated for their anti-microbial activity against an array of pathogenic fungi and bacteria. A total of 55 separate isolates were obtained from 20 plants, and 60% of these showed inhibitory activity against one or more pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Actinomycetes were most commonly recovered from roots (54.5% of all isolates), followed by stems (23.6%), and leaves (21.8%). The dominant genus was Streptomyces (49.09% of all isolates), while Streptosporangium (14.5%), Microbispora (10.9%), Streptoverticillium (5.5%), Sacchromonospora sp. (5.5%), and Nocardia (3.6%) were also recovered. Streptomyces isolates AzR 006, 011, and 031 (all from roots) had acute activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens, while AzR027, 032, and 051 (also all from roots) showed activity against Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, an isolate of Nocardia sp. from leaves (AzL025) showed antagonism against Bacillus subtilis. Overall, 32 of the 55 were found to have broad spectrum significant antimicrobial activity, while about 4% of them showed strong and acute inhibition to pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Isolates of Streptomyces AzR031, 008, and 047, Nocardia sp. AzL025, and Streptosporangium sp. AzR 021 and 048 are of particular interest because they showed significant antagonistic activity against root pathogens, including Pythium and Phytophthora sp. Thus, many of the isolates recovered from A. indica in this study may be used in developing potential bio-control agents against a range of pathogenic fungi and bacteria and in the production of novel natural antimicrobial compounds. These results not only further our understanding of plant-microbe interactions but also indicate that there is an untapped resource of endophytic microorganisms that could be exploited in the biotechnological, medicinal, and agricultural industries.

  2. In Vitro Activity of Delafloxacin Tested against Isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Rhomberg, Paul R; Huband, Michael D; Farrell, David J

    2016-10-01

    Delafloxacin, an investigational anionic fluoroquinolone, is active against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, 200 Streptococcus pneumoniae (plus 30 levofloxacin-resistant isolates), 200 Haemophilus influenzae, and 100 Moraxella catarrhalis isolates selected primarily from the United States (2014) were tested against delafloxacin and comparator agents. Delafloxacin was the most potent agent tested. MIC50 and MIC90 values against all S. pneumoniae isolates were 0.008 and 0.015 μg/ml. Delafloxacin susceptibility was not affected by β-lactamase status against H. influenzae and M. catarrhalis.

  3. Bactericidal activity of black pepper, bay leaf, aniseed and coriander against oral isolates.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nazia Masood Ahmed; Tariq, Perween

    2006-07-01

    Present investigation focused on antibacterial potential of aqueous decoction of black pepper (Piper nigrum L.), bay leaf (Laurus nobilis L.), aniseed (Pimpinella anisum L.), and coriander (Coriandum sativum L.) against 176 bacterial isolates belonging to 12 different genera of bacterial population isolated from oral cavity of 200 individuals. The disc diffusion technique was employed. Overall aqueous decoction of black pepper was the most bacterial-toxic exhibited 75% antibacterial activity as compared to aqueous decoction of bay leaf (53.4%) and aqueous decoction of aniseed (18.1%), at the concentration of 10 ml/disc. The aqueous decoction of coriander did not show any antibacterial effect against tested bacterial isolates.

  4. Note: A three-dimension active vibration isolator for precision atom gravimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Min-Kang; Xiong, Xin; Chen, Le-Le; Cui, Jia-Feng; Duan, Xiao-Chun; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2015-04-15

    An ultra-low frequency active vibration isolator, simultaneously suppressing three-dimensional vibration noise, is demonstrated experimentally. The equivalent natural period of the isolator is 100 s and 12 s for the vertical and horizontal direction, respectively. The vibration noise in the vertical direction is about 50 times reduced during 0.2 and 2 Hz, and 5 times reduced in the other two orthogonal directions in the same frequency range. This isolator is designed for atom gravimeters, especially suitable for the gravimeter whose sensitivity is limited by vibration couplings.

  5. Anti-inflammatory activity of constituents isolated from Terminalia chebula ***waiting for publication date

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was aimed at the evaluation of the anti-inflammatory activity of twelve compounds isolated from the methanolic extract of fruits of Terminalia chebula. The activity was determined in terms of their ability to inhibit inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in L...

  6. In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts and isolated constituents of Rubus ulmifolius.

    PubMed

    Panizzi, L; Caponi, C; Catalano, S; Cioni, P L; Morelli, I

    2002-02-01

    The antimicrobial activity on bacteria and fungi of increasing polarity extracts of Rubus ulmifolius and that of some isolated constituents, quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide; kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucuronide, gallic acid, ferulic acid and tiliroside was evaluated. The phenolic and tannins fractions showed an high antimicrobial activity.

  7. [In vitro activities of faropenem against clarithromycin resistance Helicobacter pylori isolates].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, M; Saika, T; Matsuzaki, K; Kobayashi, I; Fujioka, T; Nasu, M; Saionji, K; Igari, J

    1998-03-01

    Agar dilution and semi-solid agar dilution were used to determine the MIC of faropenem (FRPM) against 24 H. pylori isolates. FRPM was active against clarithromycin resistance H. pylori isolates. And, the MICs obtained by both methods were in agreement. The results suggest that FRPM was not affected by pH and is a clinically useful oral antibiotic for the eradication therapy of H. pylori infections. PMID:9585692

  8. Ice nucleation activity of bacteria isolated from cloud water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joly, Muriel; Attard, Eléonore; Sancelme, Martine; Deguillaume, Laurent; Guilbaud, Caroline; Morris, Cindy E.; Amato, Pierre; Delort, Anne-Marie

    2013-05-01

    Some Gamma-Proteobacteria can catalyze ice formation thereby potentially contributing to the induction of precipitation in supercooled clouds and subsequently to bacterial deposition. Forty-four bacterial strains from cloud water were screened for their capacity to induce freezing. Seven strains (16%) were active at -8 °C or warmer and were identified as Pseudomonas syringae, Xanthomonas spp. and Pseudoxanthomonas sp. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the P. syringae strains in clouds at the Puy de Dôme belonged to clades that are among the most infrequently detected in the environment, while widespread clades were absent suggesting some extent of selection or unusual biogeography of the bacteria at the sampling site. Three strains induced freezing at -3 °C while the others nucleated ice at -4 °C to -6 °C. The freezing profiles revealed that the peaks of activity were centered around -3.5 °C, -5 °C and/or -8.5 °C depending on the strain. The frequency of ice-nuclei (IN) per cell at -6 °C was generally below 0.5% and reached up to 4.2% in one strain. We estimated that clouds influenced by vegetated areas would carry between less than 1 and ˜500 bacterial IN mL-1 of water active between -3 °C and -10 °C depending on the season. These data will contribute to modeling the impact of bacterial IN on precipitation at regional scales.

  9. Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398.

    PubMed

    Lapenda, J C; Silva, P A; Vicalvi, M C; Sena, K X F R; Nascimento, S C

    2015-02-01

    Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 ± 0.6), E. faecalis (22 ± 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 ± 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 μg/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA. PMID:25549906

  10. Antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin isolated from Serratia marcescens UFPEDA 398.

    PubMed

    Lapenda, J C; Silva, P A; Vicalvi, M C; Sena, K X F R; Nascimento, S C

    2015-02-01

    Prodigiosin is an alkaloid and natural red pigment produced by Serratia marcescens. Prodigiosin has antimicrobial, antimalarial and antitumor properties and induces apoptosis in T and B lymphocytes. These properties have piqued the interest of researchers in the fields of medicine, pharmaceutics and different industries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of prodigiosin against pathogenic micro-organisms. The red pigments produced by S. marcescens exhibited absorption at 534 nm, Rf of 0.59 and molecular weight of 323 m/z. Antimicrobial activity was tested against oxacillin-resistant Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Acinetobacter sp. and oxacillin-resistant S. aureus. The standard antibiotics employed were ampicillin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin and oxacillin. The disc-diffusion tests demonstrated significant inhibition zones for S. aureus (35 ± 0.6), E. faecalis (22 ± 1.0) and S. pyogenes (14 ± 0.6). However, prodigiosin showed resistance to E. coli, P. aeruginosa and acinetobacter, where no significant formation of inhibitory halos were observed. We determined the inhibitory minimum concentrations and bactericidal for 20 strains of oxacillin-resistant S. aureus (ORSA). The pattern was the antibiotic oxacillin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations observed ranged from 1, 2 and 4.0 μg/mL, respectively, while the minimum bactericidal concentrations ranged from 2, 4, 8 and 16 μg/mL. The S. marcescens prodigiosin produced by showed bactericidal and bacteriostatic effect showing promising antimicrobial activity and suggesting future studies regarding its applicability in antibiotics therapies directed ORSA.

  11. Active optics: variable curvature mirrors for ELT laser guide star refocusing systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challita, Zalpha; Hugot, Emmanuel; Madec, Fabrice; Ferrari, Marc; Le Mignant, David; Vivès, Sébastien; Cuby, Jean-Gabriel

    2011-10-01

    The future generation of Extremely Large Telescopes will require a complex combination of technologies for adaptive optics (AO) systems assisted by laser guide stars (LGS). In this context, the distance from the LGS spot to the telescope pupil ranges from about 80 to 200 km, depending on the Sodium layer altitude and the elevation of the telescope. This variation leads to a defocusing effect on the LGS wave-front sensor which needs to be compensated. We propose an active mirror able to compensate for this variation, based on an original optical design including this active optics component. This LGS Variable Curvature Mirror (LGS-VCM) is a 120 mm spherical active mirror able to achieve 820 μm deflection sag with an optical quality better than 150 nm RMS, allowing the radius of curvature variation from F/12 to F/2. Based on elasticity theory, the deformation of the metallic mirror is provided by an air pressure applied on a thin meniscus with a variable thickness distribution. In this article, we detail the analytical development leading to the specific geometry of the active component, the results of finite element analysis and the expected performances in terms of surface error versus the range of refocalisation. Three prototypes have been manufactured to compare the real behavior of the mirror and the simulations data. Results obtained on the prototypes are detailed, showing that the deformation of the VCM is very close to the simulation, and leads to a realistic active concept.

  12. Feasibility and acceptability of remotely monitored pedometer-guided physical activity.

    PubMed

    Darvall, J N; Parker, A; Story, D A

    2016-07-01

    Nearly 70% of the Australian adult population are either sedentary, or have low levels of physical activity. There has been interest in addressing this problem by the 'mHealth', or mobile Health, arena, which is concerned with the confluence of mobile technology and health promotion. The newer generation of activity pedometers has the ability to automatically upload information, to enable aggregation and meta-data analysis of individual patient data. We conducted a ten-week pilot trial of the Fitbit Zip® pedometer using a validated tool in ten volunteers, finding it highly acceptable to both participants and investigators. Data synching was ranked as 'very easy' or 'easy' by all participants, and investigators could successfully monitor activity levels remotely. Median (interquartile range) daily step counts of participants over the ten-week trial ranged from 5471 (4591-7026) to 18779 (15031-21505) steps. Sedentary time over the study period ranged from 1.4% to 33.3% of study days. Percentage of days reaching the target activity level of >10,000 steps/day varied markedly between participants from 4.5% to 95.7%. This study demonstrates the feasibility and acceptability of a remotely monitored pedometer-guided physical activity intervention. This technology may be useful to encourage increased exercise as a form of 'prehabilitation' of adequately screened at-risk surgical or obstetric patients. PMID:27456182

  13. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils

    PubMed Central

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  14. Lipase Activity among Bacteria Isolated from Amazonian Soils.

    PubMed

    Willerding, André Luis; de Oliveira, Luiz Antonio; Moreira, Francisco Wesen; Germano, Mariana Gomes; Chagas, Aloísio Freitas

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to select lipase-producing bacteria collected from different counties of the Amazon region. Of the 440 bacteria strains, 181 were selected for the lipase assay in qualitative tests at Petri dishes, being 75 (41%) lipase positive. The enzymatic index was determined during fifteen days at different temperatures (30°, 35°, 40°, and 45°C). The highest lipase activity was observed within 72 hours at 30°C. Twelve bacteria strains presented an index equal to or greater than the standard used like reference, demonstrating the potential of microbial resource. After the bioassay in Petri dishes, the selected bacteria strains were analyzed in quantitative tests on p-nitrophenyl palmitate (p-NPP). A group of the strains was selected for other phases of study with the use in oleaginous substrates of the Amazonian flora, aiming for the application in processes like oil biotransformation. PMID:22007294

  15. Learning to Fly: The Wright Brothers' Adventure. A Guide for Educators and Students with Activities in Aeronautics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Roger; Benson, Thomas; Galica, Carol; McCredie, Patty

    2003-01-01

    This educator guide provides background information on Wilbur and Orville Wright. It also presents activities on aeronautics that provide templates for building the 1900, 1901, and 1902 Gliders and the 1903 Flyer. Activities include: (1) Early Aviation; (2) Your First Interview; (3) Your First Report; (4) Build a Model of the 1900 Glider; (5)…

  16. 3...2...1...Liftoff!: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, Technology, and Language Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This curriculum supplement introduces students in the early childhood classroom to the International Space Station and the role rockets play in its construction. The guide uses these topics as the basis for interdisciplinary activities for the early learner. Each activity features objectives, a material list, educator information, procedures, and…

  17. A Curriculum Activities Guide to Selected Environmental Topics for Use With Elementary and Junior High School Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Alan D., Ed.

    This guide contains learning activities in environmental education developed by teachers and intended for use at the elementary or junior high school levels. Topics covered include: water, esthetics, air, soil and sediment, solid waste, energy, noise, population, and transportation. Generally, each activity contains an introduction, a listing of…

  18. Geometry and Algebra: The Future Flight Equation. A Lesson Guide with Activities in Mathematics, Science, and Technology. NASA CONNECT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    This activity, part of the NASA CONNECT Series, is designed to help students in grades 6-8 learn how NASA engineers develop experimental aircraft. It consists of an overview of the program, details of the hands-on activity, a series of blackline master student worksheets, teacher materials, and a guide to further resources. (MM)

  19. Curriculum development for the workplace using Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs): AMEE Guide No. 99.

    PubMed

    Ten Cate, Olle; Chen, Huiju Carrie; Hoff, Reinier G; Peters, Harm; Bok, Harold; van der Schaaf, Marieke

    2015-01-01

    This Guide was written to support educators interested in building a competency-based workplace curriculum. It aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the literature on Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs), supplemented with suggestions for practical application to curriculum construction, assessment and educational technology. The Guide first introduces concepts and definitions related to EPAs and then guidance for their identification, elaboration and validation, while clarifying common misunderstandings about EPAs. A matrix-mapping approach of combining EPAs with competencies is discussed, and related to existing concepts such as competency milestones. A specific section is devoted to entrustment decision-making as an inextricable part of working with EPAs. In using EPAs, assessment in the workplace is translated to entrustment decision-making for designated levels of permitted autonomy, ranging from acting under full supervision to providing supervision to a junior learner. A final section is devoted to the use of technology, including mobile devices and electronic portfolios to support feedback to trainees about their progress and to support entrustment decision-making by programme directors or clinical teams.

  20. Removal of odorous sulphur-containing gases by a new isolate from activated sludge.

    PubMed

    Geng, A L; Chen, X G; Gould, W D; Ng, Y L; Yan, R; Lee, C C; Liang, D T

    2004-01-01

    Biological treatment of odorous sulphur-containing compounds is attracting attention due to its benign eco-friendliness, energy-savings and low operating costs. As the biological treatment efficiency of dimethylsulphide (DMS) reported was often low and variable, selection of useful DMS-degrading microorganisms is of importance for the enhancement of the biological deodorizing process. This paper reports the successful isolation of a DMS-degrading bacterium from activated sludge, using the enrichment isolation technique. The isolate was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and found to belong to the alpha group of Proteobacteria, with an identity of 99.4% and 99.1% to the 16S rRNA gene sequences of Afipia felis and Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena, respectively. The isolate was able to metabolize DMS as well as hydrogen sulphide (H2S). A batch experiment was performed to assess the removal characteristics of DMS by the isolate. The results showed that over half of DMS could be removed by the isolate in 3 hours when the initial DMS amount was approximately 10 micromol and 25 micromol. Removal of H2S by the isolate was evaluated by a continuous test in a 2-L gas-bubbling bottle. Although part of the H2S removal by the mineral medium itself was observed in the control test, the majority of H2S removal was believed to be attributed to the metabolic activity of the isolate. In conclusion, the isolate might be potentially useful for the enhancement of the biological deodorizing processes. PMID:15484773