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Sample records for activity iii project

  1. SELENIUM TREATMENT/REMOVAL ALTERNATIVES DEMONSTRATION PROJECT - MINE WASTE TECHNOLOGY PROGRAM ACTIVITY III, PROJECT 20

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is the final report for EPA's Mine WAste Technology Program (MWTP) Activity III, Project 20--Selenium Treatment/Removal Alternatives Demonstration project. Selenium contamination originates from many sources including mining operations, mineral processing, abandoned...

  2. Project ACE Activity Sets. Book III: Grades 8 through 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eden City Schools, NC.

    Eleven activity sets for students in grades 8 through 12 are designed to supplement courses in citizenship and U.S. history and government. "The Civil War That Could Have Been" creates a hypothetical situation which requires the participant to analyze the causes of the Civil War. In "History on TV -- Enemy or Ally of the Social Studies Program,"…

  3. THE OPTX PROJECT. IV. HOW RELIABLE IS [O III] AS A MEASURE OF AGN ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Trouille, L.; Barger, A. J.

    2010-10-10

    We compare optical and hard X-ray identifications of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using a uniformly selected (above a flux limit of f{sub 2-8{sub keV}} = 3.5 x 10{sup -15} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) and highly optically spectroscopically complete (>80% for f{sub 2-8{sub keV}} > 10{sup -14} erg cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and >60% below) 2-8 keV sample observed in three Chandra fields (CLANS, CLASXS, and the CDF-N). We find that empirical emission-line ratio diagnostic diagrams misidentify 50% of the X-ray-selected AGNs that can be put on these diagrams as star formers. We confirm that there is a large (two orders of magnitude) dispersion in the ratio of the [O III]{lambda}5007 (hereafter [O III]) to hard X-ray luminosities for the non-broad-line AGNs, even after applying reddening corrections to the [O III] luminosities. We find that the dispersion is similar for the broad-line AGNs, where there is not expected to be much X-ray absorption from an obscuring torus around the AGN nor much obscuration from the galaxy along the line of sight if the AGN is aligned with the galaxy. We postulate that the X-ray-selected AGNs that are misidentified by the diagnostic diagrams have low [O III] luminosities due to the complexity of the structure of the narrow-line region, which causes many ionizing photons from the AGN not to be absorbed. This would mean that the [O III] luminosity can only be used to predict the X-ray luminosity to within a factor of {approx}3 (1{sigma}). Despite selection effects, we show that the shapes and normalizations of the [O III] and transformed hard X-ray luminosity functions show reasonable agreement, suggesting that the [O III] samples are not finding substantially more AGNs at low redshifts than hard X-ray samples.

  4. The Decovalex III Project: A Summary of Activities and LessonsLearned

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, Chin-Fu; Jing, Lanru; Stephansson, Ove; Kautsky, Fritz

    2005-03-21

    Initiated in 1992, the DECOVALEX project is an international collaboration for advancing the understanding and modeling of coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes in geologic systems. The project has made important scientific achievements through three stages and is progressing in its fourth stage. It has played a key role in the development of mathematical modeling and in situ testing of coupled THM processes in fractured rock and buffer/backfill materials, a subject of importance for performance assessment of radioactive waste geologic repositories. This paper summarizes studies under the most recent stage of the project, DECOVALEX III (2000-2003). These studies include those of two major field experiments: (a) the FEBEX experiment at Grimsel, Switzerland, investigating coupled THM processes in a crystalline rock-bentonite system, and (b) the Drift Scale Test (DST) experiment at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, investigating coupled THM processes in unsaturated tuff. These are two of the largest multiyear heater tests undertaken to date for the study of coupled THM processes in geological systems. In addition, three so-called benchmark tests are also studied to evaluate the impact of coupled THM processes under different scenarios and geometries. Within the DECOVALEX project, multiple research teams participated in each of the studies, using different approaches and computer codes. Comparisons of results have provided insight into coupled THM processes, which in turn has stimulated further development of our modeling capabilities. Lessons learned from these studies are discussed. The scientific advances and enhanced insight gained through this kind of international cooperation illustrate the effectiveness of the DECOVALEX project.

  5. Project Profiles, ESEA Title III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada State Dept. of Education, Carson City.

    This report is comprised of a series of program descriptions relating to the activities of a research experimental center, a mathematics computer center, a wildlife study center, a social studies laboratory project, and a center for providing management, planning, developmental, and dissemination assistance. Several projects focused on revising…

  6. Doublet III Big Dee Project

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, L.G.; Luxon, J.L.

    1985-05-01

    The Doublet III tokamak is presently being reconfigured into a new larger dee-shaped plasma configuration. Experiments will begin in 1986 with a goal of high current, high beta plasma operation at moderate magnetic field. The existing toroidal field coil, Ohmic heating coil, and innermost plasma shaping coils will be retained. A new water-cooled vacuum vessel is being fabricated using a corrugated Inconel sandwich wall construction. Six new water-cooled copper poloidal field coils are also being fabricated. The resultant device along with additional power supplies will provide a capability for plasma currents of 3.5 MA for 1.5 s during the first phase of operations; the tokamak systems are designed for 5 MA operation with additional power systems. The four existing 80 keV, 3 MW neutral beam lines are being modified for optimum torus access and 0.7 s operation. These injectors will be upgraded to allow 5 s operation with new sources in 1987. The device has been designed to accommodate an additional 20 MW of ICRH and ECH power in the future. Limiters and vessel wall protection will be provided for initial operation with up to 40 MJ of input energy. Future installation of additional thermal armor will allow operation with up to 200 MJ of input energy over a 10 s period. Most of the existing diagnostics will be modified as required and reinstalled on the new vessel.

  7. 76 FR 33589 - Standards Improvement Project-Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ...Phase III of the Standards Improvement Project (SIP-III) is the third in a series of rulemaking actions to improve and streamline OSHA standards. The Standards Improvement Project removes or revises individual requirements within rules that are confusing, outdated, duplicative, or inconsistent. OSHA identified several requirements for SIP-III (e.g., rigging, NIOSH records, and training......

  8. A Systems Approach to the Development of an Evaluation System for ESEA Title III Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yost, Marlen; Monnin, Frank J.

    A major activity of any ESEA Title III project is evaluation. This paper suggests evaluation methods especially appropriate to such projects by applying a systems approach to the evaluation design. Evaluation as a system is divided into three subsystems: (1) baseline evaluation, which describes conditions as they exist before project treatment;…

  9. Space Processing Applications Rocket project SPAR III

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, F.

    1978-01-01

    This document presented the engineering report and science payload III test report and summarized the experiment objectives, design/operational concepts, and final results of each of five scientific experiments conducted during the third Space Processing Applications Rocket (SPAR) flight flown by NASA in December 1976. The five individual SPAR experiments, covering a wide and varied range of scientific materials processing objectives, were entitled: Liquid Mixing, Interaction of Bubbles with Solidification Interfaces, Epitaxial Growth of Single Crystal Film, Containerless Processing of Beryllium, and Contact and Coalescence of Viscous Bodies.

  10. Project Stretch Final Narrative Report. Year III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Camping Association, Martinsville, IN.

    In June, 1979, the American Camping Association implemented Project STRETCH (Strategies to Try out Resources to Enhance the Training of Camp Directors serving the Handicapped), a nationwide in-service training program for personnel providing services to handicapped children and youth in regularly and specially designed camping and outdoor…

  11. Project Basic Instructional Guide: Volume III, Citizenship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    A series of elementary and secondary school learning activities which correlate to citizenship education goals of the Maryland State Board of Education are presented. The five goals are to understand individual and group responsibilities in a democracy, know the functions of law and support a system of justice, value individual, societal, and…

  12. WFIRST Project Science Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    The WFIRST Project is a joint effort between GSFC and JPL. The project scientists and engineers are working with the community Science Definition Team to define the requirements and initial design of the mission. The objective is to design an observatory that meets the WFIRST science goals of the Astr02010 Decadal Survey for minimum cost. This talk will be a report of recent project activities including requirements flowdown, detector array development, science simulations, mission costing and science outreach. Details of the interim mission design relevant to scientific capabilities will be presented.

  13. Organoantimony(III)-Containing Tungstoarsenates(III): From Controlled Assembly to Biological Activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Peng; Bassil, Bassem S; Lin, Zhengguo; Haider, Ali; Alfaro-Espinoza, Gabriela; Ullrich, Matthias S; Silvestru, Cristian; Kortz, Ulrich

    2015-10-26

    A family of three sandwich-type, phenylantimony(III)-containing tungstoarsenates(III), [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](11-) (1), [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)](10-) (2), and [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ](12-) (3), have been synthesized by one-pot procedures and isolated as hydrated alkali metal salts, Cs3 K3.5 Na4.5 [(PhSb(III) ){Na(H2 O)}As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅41H2 O (CsKNa-1), Cs4.5 K5.5 [(PhSb(III) )2 As(III) 2 W19 O67 (H2 O)]⋅35H2 O (CsK-2), and Cs4.5 Na7.5 [(PhSb(III) )3 (B-α-As(III) W9 O33 )2 ]⋅42H2 O (CsNa-3). The number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } units could be selectively tuned from one to three by careful control of the reaction parameters. The three compounds were characterized in the solid state by single-crystal XRD, IR spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The aqueous solution stability of sandwich polyanions 1-3 was also studied by multinuclear ((1) H, (13) C, (183) W) NMR spectroscopy. Effective inhibitory activity against six different kinds of bacteria was identified for all three polyanions, for which the activity increased with the number of incorporated {PhSb(III) } groups. PMID:26368119

  14. An Action Resarch Proposal: Identifying and Addressing Problems Related to RACC's Writing Laboratory. Title III Curriculum Enrichment Activity: Faculty Development Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Annette; Jacobson, Karen H.

    An action research project was undertaken to understand how the Writing Laboratory at Reading Area Community College (RACC) defines and accomplishes its work, what faculty and students expect of the lab, and how they make use of it. The investigation sought to foster discussion and reflection on the appropriate role and staffing of a college…

  15. Status of the JINR DRIBs-III Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popeko, A. G.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Gulbekian, G. G.; Itkis, M. G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    2015-11-01

    The goal of the DRIBs-III project is to provide more possibilities for the effective study of the properties of heavy and light exotic nuclei at the Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. The realization of project DRIBs provides for: creation of a Superheavy Element Factory based on a high-current heavy-ion accelerator DC280, modernization of the existing U400 and U400M cyclotrons, and creation of new-generation experimental set-ups. In the course of the project, physical tasks will be shared among three specialized accelerators. In this report we present a more recent version of the project according to the latest (2013) recommendations of the Program Advisory Committees and of the JINR Scientific Council.

  16. Status of the SG-III solid state laser project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Hansheng; Zhang, Xiao Min; Wei, XiaoFeng; Zheng, Wanguo; Jing, Feng; Sui, Zhan; Fan, Dianyuan; Lin, Zunqi

    1999-07-01

    High power solid state laser technologies for application to inertial confinement fusion have been developed over the past three decades in China. The XG-1 laser facility was built in 1984 and upgraded into XG-II in 1993. The SG-1 was completed in 1985 and the upgrade into SG-II will be finished in a few months. As the next step, the SG-III laser facility has been proposed to produce 60-kJ blue light for ICF target physics experiments and is one being conceptually designed. A preliminary baseline design suggest that he SG- III be a 64-beam facility with an output beam size of 25 cm X 25cm. The main amplifier column of 4 high by 2 wide has been chosen as a module. New laser technologies, including multipass amplification, large aperture plasma electrode switches, fast growth of KDP, laser glass with fewer platinum grains, Ce-doped quartz long flash lamps, capacitors with higher energy density, Ce-doped quartz long flash lamps, capacitors with higher energy density and precision manufacturing technique of large optical components have been developed to meet the requirements of the SG-III Project. In addition, numerical simulations are being conducted to optimize the optical design of the facility. The technical integration line with a 4 X 2 segmented aperture array of the amplifiers as a prototype beamline of the SG-III has been scheduled for the next few years.

  17. Stellar populations in Active Galactic Nuclei III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, C.; Joly, M.; Pelat, D.; Ward, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we apply the stellar population synthesis method previously described in Boisson et al. (\\cite{Boisson2000}) to five more AGN. The analysis of these new data strengthen our previous conclusions: i) homogeneity of the stellar population within a class of nuclear activity regardless of the morphological type of the host galaxy; ii) populations within the nuclear regions of LINERs and Seyfert 2s are different: LINERs have a very old metal-rich population while in the Seyfert 2s a contribution of a weak burst of star formation is observed together with the old high metallicity component; iii) in the circum-nuclar region (200 pc ≤D≤1 kpc) of all the active galaxies in our sample, except for NGC 2992, we detect an old burst of star formation (0.2-1 Gyr),which is contrary to what is observed in normal galaxies. We note that the broad OIλ8446 Å emission line detected in the spectrum of the nucleus of NGC 2992 confirms its classification as a Seyfert 1. Based on observations collected at the New Technology Telescope of the European Southern Observatory, La Silla, Chile.

  18. Providing for Under-Achieving Students Using Renzulli's Type III Enrichment Activities: Gifted and Talented Video Projects at Holland Park Comprehensive School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Ian

    2001-01-01

    This article describes how an inner-city school used Renzulli's enrichment activities model to provide opportunities to above-average students who may not have been identified by traditional identification procedures. The program offered students opportunities to produce "real world" videos utilizing a production company who trained them in media…

  19. Breckinridge Project, initial effort. Report III, Volume 2. Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report III, Volume 2 contains those specifications numbered K through Y, as follows: Specifications for Compressors (K); Specifications for Piping (L); Specifications for Structures (M); Specifications for Insulation (N); Specifications for Electrical (P); Specifications for Concrete (Q); Specifications for Civil (S); Specifications for Welding (W); Specifications for Painting (X); and Specifications for Special (Y). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available for the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors.

  20. Protein-water dynamics in antifreeze protein III activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yao; Bäumer, Alexander; Meister, Konrad; Bischak, Connor G.; DeVries, Arthur L.; Leitner, David M.; Havenith, Martina

    2016-03-01

    We combine Terahertz absorption spectroscopy (THz) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to investigate the underlying molecular mechanism for the antifreeze activity of one class of antifreeze protein, antifreeze protein type III (AFP-III) with a focus on the collective water hydrogen bond dynamics near the protein. After summarizing our previous work on AFPs, we present a new investigation of the effects of cosolutes on protein antifreeze activity by adding sodium citrate to the protein solution of AFP-III. Our results reveal that for AFP-III, unlike some other AFPs, the addition of the osmolyte sodium citrate does not affect the hydrogen bond dynamics at the protein surface significantly, as indicated by concentration dependent THz measurements. The present data, in combination with our previous THz measurements and molecular simulations, confirm that while long-range solvent perturbation is a necessary condition for the antifreeze activity of AFP-III, the local binding affinity determines the size of the hysteresis.

  1. 76 FR 81927 - Shiloh III Wind Project, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Shiloh III Wind Project, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order Take... III Wind Project, LLC filed a Petition for Declaratory Order, requesting that the Federal Energy... transaction for wind powered generation and related interconnection facilities located in Solano...

  2. Human Development Program: Level III Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bessell, Harold

    The curriculum guide presents the activities component of the Human Development Program for the third grade. The Human Development Program (HDP) is an affective curricular approach developed by psychologists to help teachers instill responsibility and self-confidence in children. Following a brief overview of the HDP and explanation of the Magic…

  3. Mostly Plants. Individualized Biology Activities on: I. Investigating Bread Mold; II. Transpiration; III. Botany Project; IV. Collecting/Preserving/Identifying Leaves; [and] V. Student Science Laboratory Write-Ups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Paul R.

    Individualized biology activities for secondary students are presented in this teaching guide. The guide is divided into five sections: (1) investigating bread mold; (2) investigating transpiration; (3) completing a botany project; (4) collecting, preserving, and identifying leaves; and (5) writing up science laboratory investigations. The…

  4. Welcome to dBase III Plus. Learning Activity Packets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Steven; And Others

    This learning activity packet (LAP) contains nine self-paced study lessons that allow students to proceed along a a 43-hour course of study for dBase III Plus at their own pace. The lessons are organized in the following way: objectives, completion standard, performance standard, a list of required materials, unit test, and exercises (applications…

  5. National Project III, Elevating the Importance of Teaching. Fund Associate's Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibert, Warren F.

    Purdue University's participation as a fund associate in National Project III (NP III) for elevating the importance of teaching has its origins in a flexible and diagnostic instructional evaluation system called "CAFETERIA." CAFETERIA services include test development, scoring, and analysis; social surveys on topics of importance in education;…

  6. Teaching is for Kids. 1972 Edition. [A Documentary of Title III, ESEA Projects in Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Dept. of Education, Augusta.

    In this documentary of Title III projects funded under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, a 2-page descriptive narrative of each of 10 funded projects in Maine is given. Each project is classified by subject matter and is listed under 1 of the following headings: (1) Professional Improvement, (2) Help for the Educationally Disadvantaged,…

  7. Evaluating ESEA Title III Projects in Massachusetts, 1975-1976. A Designing Change Product. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrimack Education Center, Chelmsford, MA.

    Findings of the one-year evaluation of Massachusetts Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act innovative projects covering the period from July, 1975 through June, 1976 are outlined in this summary. The formative stages of evaluation are viewed from two perspectives: project strategy designs and project directors' change processes. The…

  8. Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS III) Process Development and Laboratory Tests at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    V. Jain; S. M. Barnes; B. G. Bindi; R. A. Palmer

    2000-04-30

    At the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP),the Vitrification Facility (VF)is designed to convert the high-level radioactive waste (HLW)stored on the site to a stable glass for disposal at a Department of Energy (DOE)-specified federal repository. The Scaled Vitrification System III (SVS-III)verification tests were conducted between February 1995 and August 1995 as a supplemental means to support the vitrification process flowsheet, but at only one seventh the scale.During these tests,the process flowsheet was refined and optimized. The SVS-III test series was conducted with a focus on confirming the applicability of the Redox Forecasting Model, which was based on the Index of Feed Oxidation (IFO)developed during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS)and SVS-I tests. Additional goals were to investigate the prototypical feed preparation cycle and test the new target glass composition. Included in this report are the basis and current designs of the major components of the Scale Vitrification System and the results of the SVS-III tests.The major subsystems described are the feed preparation and delivery, melter, and off-gas treatment systems. In addition,the correlation between the melter's operation and its various parameters;which included feed rate,cold cap coverage,oxygen reduction (redox)state of the glass,melter power,plenum temperature,and airlift analysis;were developed.

  9. Project HEED, Title III, Section 306. Final Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Orval D.

    Project HEED (Heed Ethnic Educational Depolarization) involves over 1,000 Indian children in grades 1-8 in Arizona. The project target sites are 48 classrooms at Sells, Topowa, San Carlos, Many Farms, Hotevilla, Peach Springs, and Sacaton. Objectives are to increase: (1) reading achievement, (2) affective behavior of teachers, (3) motivation by…

  10. Secretary's annual report to Congress. Volume III. Project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    Progress and status of representative projects in each program within DOE are summarized. Subjects covered and the number of projects reported on are: conservation (2); fossil energy (11); nuclear energy (5); renewable energy resources (16); energy production and power marketing (3); general science (11); defense programs (7); contingency planning (3); and management and oversight (1). (MCW)

  11. DOE tallies Class III oil recovery field projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-25

    Here are details from midterm proposals submitted as part of the US Department of Energy's Class 3 oil recovery field demonstration candidate projects. All of the proposals emphasize dissemination of project details so that the results, if successful, can be applied widely in similar reservoirs. Project results will also be fed into a national petroleum technology transfer network. The proposals include: Gulf of Mexico, Gulf coast, offshore California, a California thermal, immiscible CO[sub 2], produced/potable water, microbial EOR, California diatomite, West Texas Spraberry field, and other Permian Basin fields.

  12. Future Development Of The Flerov Laboratory Accelerator Complex (Project DRIBs-III)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbekian, G. G.; Dmitriev, S. N.; Itkis, M. G.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Popeko, A. G.

    2010-04-01

    Future development of the FLNR accelerator complex (project DRIBs-III) includes modernization of existing cyclotrons, construction of a new experimental hall, creation of a new high current cyclotron and of next generation experimental set-ups. Realization of the project is planned for 2010-2016.

  13. 77 FR 2968 - Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pomperaug Hydro Project, Andrew Peklo III; Notice Establishing Deadline for Comments and Reply Comments On December 15, 2011, the Commission issued notice that Office of Energy Projects staff will hold a site visit...

  14. An Evaluation of ESEA Title III Projects, Fiscal Year 1972. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jerusa; And Others

    This report contains descriptions and progress of five projects in the District of Columbia partially or wholly funded by ESEA Title III: (1) The Columbia Road Preschool Pilot Project, a second-year experimental effort designed to serve as a model school providing an experimental setting for early childhood educational programs; (2) The Montessori…

  15. Alternatives: A Survey of Title III, ESEA, Projects in New Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Mexico State Dept. of Education, Santa Fe.

    This survey provides a moderately detailed description of each of 13 projects funded under 1965 Elementary Secondary Education Act Title III. Freedom High School is an alternative school. The Resource Room for Visually Impaired Children was established in 1972. The Remediating Motor Dysfunction project helps elementary school students to enter a…

  16. Project Upper Cumberland, Title III ESEA. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanna, J. L.; And Others

    Project Upper Cumberland--serving 16 Tennessee counties from July 1, 1967 through September 30, 1970--sponsored a teachers' inservice program emphasizing human relations training, a cultural arts program (grades 1-12), and a guidance and counseling program (grades 1-9). All 3 programs had the general goal of changing and improving attitudes and…

  17. 75 FR 38645 - Standards Improvement Project-Phase III

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is continuing its efforts to remove or revise outdated, duplicative, unnecessary, and inconsistent requirements in its safety and health standards. This effort builds on the success of Standards Improvement Project (SIP)--Phase I published on June 18, 1998, and SIP--Phase II published on January 5, 2005. The Agency believes that the......

  18. Monolithic active pixel matrix with binary counters (MAMBO III) ASIC

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid, Farah; Deptuch, Grzegorz; Shenai, Alpana; Yarema, Raymond; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    Monolithic Active Matrix with Binary Counters (MAMBO) is a counting ASIC designed for detecting and measuring low energy X-rays from 6-12keV. Each pixel contains analogue functionality implemented with a charge preamplifier, CR-RC{sup 2} shaper and a baseline restorer. It also contains a window comparator which can be trimmed by 4 bit DACs to remove systematic offsets. The hits are registered by a 12 bit ripple counter which is reconfigured as a shift register to serially output the data from the entire ASIC. Each pixel can be tested individually. Two diverse approaches have been used to prevent coupling between the detector and electronics in MAMBO III and MAMBO IV. MAMBO III is a 3D ASIC, the bottom ASIC consists of diodes which are connected to the top ASIC using {mu}-bump bonds. The detector is decoupled from the electronics by physically separating them on two tiers and using several metal layers as a shield. MAMBO IV is a monolithic structure which uses a nested well approach to isolate the detector from the electronics. The ASICs are being fabricated using the SOI 0.2 {micro}m OKI process, MAMBO III is 3D bonded at T-Micro and MAMBO IV nested well structure was developed in collaboration between OKI and Fermilab.

  19. An Active Learning Project for Forage Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, M. H.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a successfully implemented active learning project and results of a survey to assess the success of the project. Materials and methods are discussed, and an example of one project is provided. (Author/CW)

  20. Inhibition of Type III Interferon Activity by Orthopoxvirus Immunomodulatory Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The type III interferon (IFN) family elicits an antiviral response that is nearly identical to that evoked by IFN-α/β. However, these cytokines (known as IFN-λ1, 2, and 3) signal through a distinct receptor, and thus may be resistant to the evasion strategies used by some viruses to avoid the IFN-α/β response. Orthopoxviruses are highly resistant to IFN-α/β because they encode well-characterized immunomodulatory proteins that inhibit IFN activity. These include a secreted receptor (B18R) that neutralizes IFN-α/β, and a cytoplasmic protein (E3L) that blocks IFN-α/β effector functions in infected cells. We therefore determined the ability of these immunomodulators to abrogate the IFN-λ–induced antiviral response. We found that (i) vaccinia virus (VACV) replication is resistant to IFN-λ antiviral activity; (ii) neither VACV B18R nor the variola virus homolog B20R neutralizes IFN-λ; (iii) VACV E3L inhibits the IFN-λ–mediated antiviral response through a PKR-dependent pathway; (iv) VACV infection inhibits IFN-λR–mediated signal transduction and gene expression. These results demonstrate differential sensitivity of IFN-λ to multiple distinct evasion mechanisms employed by a single virus. PMID:20038204

  1. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Record of Decision, October 25, 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-10-25

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has decided to implement the Proposed Action identified in the Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) (DOE/EIS-0374, September 2006). Under the Proposed Action, BPA will offer PPM Energy, Inc. (PPM) contract terms for interconnection of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project, located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the Federal Columbia River Transmission System (FCRTS). BPA will also offer Portland General Electric (PGE)1 contract terms for interconnection of its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, also located in Sherman County, Oregon, with the FCRTS, as proposed in the FEIS. To interconnect these wind projects, BPA will build and operate a 12-mile long, 230-kilovolt (kV) double-circuit transmission line between the wind projects and BPA's new 230-kV John Day Substation in Sherman County, Oregon. BPA will also expand its existing 500-kV John Day Substation.

  2. Cosmetology; Glossary of Key Words. Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Premer, LaVerne

    The glossary is one of twenty in various subject areas of vocational education designed to assist the student in vocabulary mastery for particular vocational education courses. They are part of the Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A. This glossary is for a course in cosmetology. It is divided into two parts: one provides the…

  3. Evaluation Reports of ESEA, Title III Projects: Final Report, FY 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Public Schools, Washington, DC. Dept. of Research and Evaluation.

    Through Title III of the Elementary Secondary Education Act of 1965, six programs were funded in Washington, D.C. public schools to meet the educational needs of handicapped disadvantaged children. One of the programs, the Columbia Road Pre-School Pilot Project was designed to serve as an experimental model for early childhood education for…

  4. Eisenhower Pre-Service Teacher Education Project, Higher Education Consortium Region III. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Jacci

    The Eisenhower Pre-Service Teacher Education Project was developed by the University of Central Florida, the five community colleges in Region III of the Higher Education Consortium, and the private college and universities in the same region to design curriculum changes to improve the preparation of elementary and secondary math and science…

  5. Application of the BISON Fuel Performance Code to the FUMEX-III Coordinated Research Project

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; S. R. Novascone

    2012-04-01

    INL recently participated in FUMEX-III, an International Atomic Energy Agency sponsored fuel modeling Coordinated Research Project. A main purpose of FUMEX-III is to compare code predictions to reliable experimental data. During the same time period, the INL initiated development of a new multidimensional (2D and 3D) multiphysics nuclear fuel performance code called BISON. Interactions with international fuel modeling researchers via FUMEX-III played a significant and important role in the BISON evolution, particularly influencing the selection of material and behavioral models which are now included in the code. BISON's ability to model integral fuel rod behavior did not mature until 2011, thus the only FUMEX-III case considered was the Riso3-GE7 experiment, which includes measurements of rod outer diameter following pellet clad mechanical interaction (PCMI) resulting from a power ramp late in fuel life. BISON comparisons to the Riso3-GE7 final rod diameter measurements are quite reasonable. The INL is very interested in participation in the next Fuel Modeling Coordinated Research Project and would like to see the project initiated as soon as possible.

  6. 78 FR 41785 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Implementation of Title I/II Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Implementation of Title I/II Program... notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Implementation of Title I/II Program... Estimated Number of Annual Burden Hours: 6,573. Abstract: The Implementation of Title I/II...

  7. Individualized Inservice Teacher Education (Project In-Step). Evaluation Report. Phase III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurber, John C.

    This is a report on the third phase of Project IN-STEP, which was intended to develop a viable model for individualized, multi-media in-service teacher education programs. (Phase I and II are reported in ED 033 905, and ED 042 709). The rationale for Phase III was to see if the model could be successfully transferred to an area other than teaching…

  8. Functional Activation of the Flagellar Type III Secretion Export Apparatus

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Andrew M.; Calvo, Rebecca A.; Kearns, Daniel B.

    2015-01-01

    Flagella are assembled sequentially from the inside-out with morphogenetic checkpoints that enforce the temporal order of subunit addition. Here we show that flagellar basal bodies fail to proceed to hook assembly at high frequency in the absence of the monotopic protein SwrB of Bacillus subtilis. Genetic suppressor analysis indicates that SwrB activates the flagellar type III secretion export apparatus by the membrane protein FliP. Furthermore, mutants defective in the flagellar C-ring phenocopy the absence of SwrB for reduced hook frequency and C-ring defects may be bypassed either by SwrB overexpression or by a gain-of-function allele in the polymerization domain of FliG. We conclude that SwrB enhances the probability that the flagellar basal body adopts a conformation proficient for secretion to ensure that rod and hook subunits are not secreted in the absence of a suitable platform on which to polymerize. PMID:26244495

  9. Bioassays of Compounds with Potential Juvenoid Activity on Drosophila melanogaster: Juvenile Hormone III, Bisepoxide Juvenile Hormone III and Methyl Farnesoates

    PubMed Central

    Harshman, Lawrence G.; Song, Ki-Duck; Casas, Josephina; Schuurmans, A.; Kuwano, Eichii; Kachman, Stephen D.; Riddiford, Lynn M.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolites of the 6,7,10,11 bisepoxide juvenile hormone III (JHB3), and other potential juvenoids, were tested for juvenile hormone activity using early instar or early stage pupae of Drosophila melanogaster. Importantly, methyl farnesoates were tested as they might have JH-like activity on Dipteran juveniles. Larvae were exposed to compounds in medium, or the compounds were applied to white puparia. In the assays employed in the present study, there was no indication for JH activity associated with the metabolites of JHB3. The activity of methyl farnesoate (MF) was higher than that of JH III and far greater than bisepoxide JH III. As opposed to the two endogenous juvenile hormones, methyl farnesoate has weak activity in the white puparial bioassaay. When fluorinated forms of methyl farnesoate, which is unlikely to be converted to JH, were applied to Drosophila medium to which fly eggs were introduced, there was a high degree of larval mortality, but no evidence of subsequent mortality at the pupal stage. One possible explanation for the results is that methyl farnesoate is active as a hormone in larval stages, but has little activity at the pupal stage where only juvenile hormone has a major effect. PMID:20599543

  10. Highly Regioselective Iodination of Arenes via Iron(III)-Catalyzed Activation of N-Iodosuccinimide.

    PubMed

    Racys, Daugirdas T; Warrilow, Catherine E; Pimlott, Sally L; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-10-01

    An iron(III)-catalyzed method for the rapid and highly regioselective iodination of arenes has been developed. Use of the powerful Lewis acid, iron(III) triflimide, generated in situ from iron(III) chloride and a readily available triflimide-based ionic liquid allowed activation of N-iodosuccinimide (NIS) and efficient iodination under mild conditions of a wide range of substrates including biologically active compounds and molecular imaging agents. PMID:26394175

  11. Klondike III/Biglow Canyon Wind Integration Project; Final Environmental Impact Statement, September 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    2006-09-01

    BPA has been asked by PPM Energy, Inc. to interconnect 300 megawatts (MW) of electricity generated from the proposed Klondike III Wind Project to the Federal Columbia River Transmission System. Orion Energy LLC has also asked BPA to interconnect 400 MW of electricity from its proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm, located north and east of the proposed Klondike III Wind Project. (Portland General Electric recently bought the rights to develop the proposed Biglow Canyon Wind Farm from Orion Energy, LLC.) Both wind projects received Site Certificates from the Oregon Energy Facility Siting Council on June 30, 2006. To interconnect these projects, BPA would need to build and operate a 230-kV double-circuit transmission line about 12 miles long, expand one substation and build one new substation. The wind projects would require wind turbines, substation(s), access roads, and other facilities. Two routes for the transmission line are being considered. Both begin at PPM's Klondike Schoolhouse Substation then travel north (Proposed Action) or north and westerly (Middle Alternative) to a new BPA 230-kV substation next to BPA's existing John Day 500-kV Substation. BPA is also considering a No Action Alternative in which BPA would not build the transmission line and would not interconnect the wind projects. The proposed BPA and wind projects would be located on private land, mainly used for agriculture. If BPA decides to interconnect the wind projects, construction of the BPA transmission line and substation(s) could commence as early as the winter of 2006-07. Both wind projects would operate for much of each year for at least 20 years. The proposed projects would generally create no or low impacts. Wildlife resources and local visual resources are the only resources to receive an impact rating other than ''none'' or ''low''. The low to moderate impacts to wildlife are from the expected bird and bat mortality and the cumulative impact of this project on wildlife when combined with

  12. 77 FR 13316 - FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III; Notice Announcing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission FFP Project 91, LLC, Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC, Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund.... 2. Riverbank Hydro No. 23, LLC: Project No. 14279-000. 3. Lock+ Hydro Friends Fund III: Project...

  13. Commutation of Projections and Characterization of Traces on von Neumann Algebras. III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bikchentaev, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    We obtain new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for nonnegative operators and projections in terms of operator inequalities. It is shown that in the general case in this inequalities the projections cannot be replaced by arbitrary nonnegative operators with preservation of operators commutativity. We also present new necessary and sufficient commutation conditions for projections in terms of operator inequalities. These inequalities are applied for trace characterization on von Neumann algebras in the class of all positive normal functionals. We also consider the following problems: I. Characterization of traces among arbitrary weights on von Neumann algebras. II. Characterization of tracial functionals among all positive linear functionals on C ∗-algebras. III. Characterization of commutativity for C ∗-algebras.

  14. Health Activities Project (HAP): Breathing Fitness Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) learning packet are activities for children in grades 5-8. Design of the activities centers around the idea that students can control their own health and safety. Within this module are teacher and student folios describing four activities which involve students in learning how to measure their…

  15. A Special Education Management System: ESEA Title III, Project No. 1328. Final Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Cruz County Superintendent of Schools, CA.

    Presented is the final report on a 3-year project sponsored by the Santa Cruz County, California Office of Education to develop a pupil assessment instrument listing behavioral characteristics of physically exceptional children (K-12) and to implement a program management system to serve 1,200 mentally retarded, educationally handicapped…

  16. The Cybersar project . INAF activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porceddu, I.; D'Amico, N.

    CyberSAR is an outstanding state of the art High Performance Computing (HPC) project. It has been proposed by the Cosmolab Consortium, which includes - mostly Sardinian based - private and government shareholders, and funded by the Italian Ministry for Education and Research (MIUR) on a competitive approach. Once completed, CyberSAR will be made by six HPC nodes, linked together through a photonic switch, for a total investment of 12 millions of euros. INAF is a Cosmolab shareholder, through the Osservatorio Astronomico di Cagliari and the upcoming Radioastronomical Station of the Sardinia Radio Telescope. A comprehensive scenario of the CyberSAR project and its relevance with respect to the HPC and INAF involment into the international VLBI network will be given.

  17. Absolute stereochemistry of fungal beauveriolide III and ACAT inhibitory activity of four stereoisomers.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Taichi; Namatame, Ichiji; Nagai, Kenichiro; Sekiguchi, Takafumi; Doi, Takayuki; Takahashi, Takashi; Akasaka, Kazuaki; Rudel, Lawrence L; Tomoda, Hiroshi; Omura, Satoshi

    2006-09-29

    Fungal beauveriolide III (BeauIII, 1b), a cyclodepsipeptide inhibiting acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) and showing antiatherogenic activity in mouse models, consists of L-Phe, L-Ala, D-allo-Ile, and 3-hydroxy-4-methyloctanoic acid (HMA) moieties, but the stereochemistry of the HMA part has not until now been fully defined. To determine it, four HMA stereoisomers were synthesized and labeled with (S)-(+)-2-(anthracene-2,3-dicarboximido)-1-propyl trifluoromethane sulfonate (AP-OTf), a chiral fluorescent reagent. The derivatives were separated by HPLC and compared with the natural HMA derivative, which was thereby identified as (3S,4S)HMA in BeauIII. Furthermore, the four beauveriolide III isomers ((3S,4S)BeauIII (23a), (3R,4R)BeauIII (23b), (3R,4S)BeauIII (23c), and (3S,4R)BeauIII (23d)) were synthesized, and it was shown that all the spectral data for 23a were identical with those for natural 1b. Isomers 23a and 23d showed potent inhibitory activity of lipid droplet accumulation in macrophages, while the other two isomers caused weak inhibition. Thus, the 3S configuration of BeauIII is important for this activity. Furthermore, 23a and 23d showed rather specific inhibition against the ACAT1 isozyme. PMID:16995669

  18. Project WET: Curriculum & Activity Guide. K-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dennis; And Others

    Project WET (Water Education for Teachers) is a nonprofit water education program for educators and young people. This curriculum and activity guide for kindergarten through twelfth grades is a collection of innovative, water-related activities that are hands-on, easy to use, and fun. The activities incorporate a variety of formats such as large…

  19. Antitumour Organometallics. III. In Vivo Activity of Diphenylantimony(III) and Diorganotin(IV) Dithiophosphorus Derivatives Against P388 Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Keppler, Bernhard K.; Silvestru, Cristian; Haiduc, Ionel

    1994-01-01

    Diphenylantimony(III) and diorganotin(IV) derivatives of dithiophosphorus ligands, i.e. Ph2SbS2PR′2 (R′ = Ph, OPr-i) and R2Sn(S2PR′2)2 (R = n-Bu, Ph, R′ = Ph; R = Ph, R′ = OPr-i), have been screened against P388 leukemia in mice. All the compounds showed marginal activity towards this tumor system, some of them increasing the life span of the animals with more than 20%. The best results were obtained with (di-iso-propylphosphorodithioato)diphenylantimony(III) which exhibited a T/C value of 136%, at a dose of 5 mg/kg, administered on days 1,2 and 3 after tumor transplantation. PMID:18476218

  20. Innovative Project Activities in Science [From the NSTA Study of Innovative Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Teacher, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes four projects chosen as innovative project activities in science which exhibited identification of unique or novel problems and creative approaches to their solutions. Projects included a study of fish in Lake Erie, a goat raising project, an analysis of terrestrial plant ecology and soil composition, and a study of marine and wetlands…

  1. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of biology experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher information…

  2. Cr(III), Fe(III) and Co(III) complexes of tetradentate (ONNO) Schiff base ligands: Synthesis, characterization, properties and biological activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keskioğlu, Eren; Gündüzalp, Ayla Balaban; Çete, Servet; Hamurcu, Fatma; Erk, Birgül

    2008-08-01

    A series of metal complexes were synthesized from equimolar amounts of Schiff bases: 1,4-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)propyl]piperazine (bappnaf) and 1,8-bis[3-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldimine)- p-menthane (damnaf) with metal chlorides. All of synthesized compounds were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (UV-vis, IR, 1H- 13C NMR, LC-MS) and thermal (TGA-DTA) methods, magnetic and conductance measurements. Schiff base complexes supposed in tetragonal geometry have the general formula [M(bappnaf or damnaf)]Cl· nH 2O, where M = Cr(III), Co(III) and n = 2, 3. But also Fe(III) complexes have octahedral geometry by the coordination of two water molecules and the formula is [Fe(bappnaf or damnaf)(H 2O) 2]Cl. The changes in the selected vibration bands in FT-IR indicate that Schiff bases behave as (ONNO) tetradentate ligands and coordinate to metal ions from two phenolic oxygen atoms and two azomethine nitrogen atoms. Conductance measurements suggest 1:1 electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The synthesized compounds except bappnaf ligand have the antimicrobial activity against the bacteria: Escherichia coli (ATCC 11230), Yersinia enterocolitica (ATCC 1501), Bacillus magaterium (RSKK 5117), Bacillus subtilis (RSKK 244), Bacillus cereus (RSKK 863) and the fungi: Candida albicans (ATCC 10239). These results have been considerably interest in piperazine derivatives due to their significant applications in antimicrobial studies.

  3. Health Activities Project (HAP), Trial Edition II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buller, Dave; And Others

    Contained within this Health Activities Project (HAP) trial edition (set II) are a teacher information folio and numerous student activity folios which center around the idea that students in grades 5-8 can control their own health and safety. Each student folio is organized into a Synopsis, Health Background, Materials, Setting Up, and Activities…

  4. Nona-copper(II)-containing 18-tungsto-8-arsenate(III) exhibits antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhang, Dongdi; Yang, Lu; Ma, Pengtao; Si, Yanan; Kortz, Ulrich; Niu, Jingyang; Wang, Jingping

    2013-06-01

    The nona-Cu(II)-containing tungstoarsenate(III) [H4{Cu(II)9As(III)6O15(H2O)6}(α-As(III)W9O33)2](8-) (1a) has been synthesized and characterized. Polyanion 1a comprises a unique, cylindrical {Cu(II)9As(III)6O15(H2O)6}(6+) cluster, which forms a large central cavity and is capped on either end by an [α-As(III)W9O33](9-) capping group. It exhibits remarkable activity against K562 leukaemia cells, as well as induces HepG2 cell apoptosis and autophagy. PMID:23628910

  5. ZnCl2-activated biochar from biogas residue facilitates aqueous As(III) removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Dong; Tan, Fen; Zhang, Chuanpan; Jiang, Xiuli; Chen, Zheng; Li, Heng; Zheng, Yanmei; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2016-07-01

    Biochars prepared from biogas residue using different chemical activators were investigated for their As(III) adsorption properties. The results indicated that the original biochars did not exhibit significant As(III) adsorption. However, ZnCl2-activated biochar, which possessed the largest specific surface area, 516.67 cm2/g, and exhibited a perfectly porous texture, showed excellent performance in a 500 μgL-1 solution of As(III). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were utilized to identify the mechanism of As(III) adsorption by ZnCl2-activated biochar. Adsorption was found to occur mainly through ligand exchange of the hydroxyl in Zn-OH to form Zn-O-As(III), as well as through porous adsorption. As a low-cost adsorbent, the adsorption process was well fitted using a pseudo-second-order model, with an R2 > 0.993. The adsorption process was fast, requiring nearly 90 min to reach adsorption equilibrium. Batch adsorption experimental results indicated that ZnCl2-activated biochar has a maximum adsorption capacity of 27.67 mg/g at pH 7.0, and the adsorption process followed the Freundlich isotherm model well, with an R2 > 0.994. In addition, the current work demonstrated the efficiency of using ZnCl2-activated biochar adsorbent to treat As(III)-contaminated water.

  6. Projected performance of III-V epitaxial multijunction solar cells in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    The monolithic epitaxial multijunction stack, to be fabricated from III-V quaternary alloys, has been analyzed for use in space with a detailed computer model. AlGaInAs and AlGaAsSb three-junction cells, each having an AlAsSb window, were modeled as functions of temperature, concentration, minority carrier diffusion length, etc., as were AlGaAs/GaAs and AlGaAsSb/InP two-junction cells. Cell efficiencies for one expected operating point in space (50 suns, 125 C) were around 20% for the two-junction cells and around 23-24% for the three-junction cells, using projected minority carrier diffusion lengths of 1.5 microns. Longer diffusion lengths in the III-V alloys (approaching those of GaAs) would allow the three-junction cells to reach 30% efficiency, if such conditions as 100 suns, 50 C can be achieved. The major technological challenges facing the high-efficiency multijunction cell are summarized and discussed in light of the modeling results.

  7. Teaching Activities in Environmental Education. Volume III - 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheatley, John H.; Coon, Herbert L.

    This volume is the third in a series of learning activities designed to supplement a K-12 curriculum. The activities are interdisciplinary in nature and include topics in science, mathematics, social studies, language arts, and fine arts. Besides a division of activities according to grade and subject matter, they are also grouped by environmental…

  8. Improvement of thermostability and activity of Trichoderma reesei endo-xylanase Xyn III on insoluble substrates.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Tomohiko; Kaneko, Satoshi; Yaoi, Katsuro

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma reesei Xyn III, an endo-β-1,4-xylanase belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 10 (GH10), is vital for the saccharification of xylans in plant biomass. However, its enzymatic thermostability and hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates are low. To overcome these difficulties, the thermostability of Xyn III was improved using random mutagenesis and directed evolution, and its hydrolytic activity on insoluble substrates was improved by creating a chimeric protein. In the screening of thermostable Xyn III mutants from a random mutagenesis library, we identified two amino acid residues, Gln286 and Asn340, which are important for the thermostability of Xyn III. The Xyn III Gln286Ala/Asn340Tyr mutant showed xylanase activity even after heat treatment at 60 °C for 30 min or 50 °C for 96 h, indicating a dramatic enhancement in thermostability. In addition, we found that the addition of a xylan-binding domain (XBD) to the C-terminal of Xyn III improved its hydrolytic activity on insoluble xylan. PMID:27138202

  9. Effects of Al(III) and nano-Al13 species on malate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaodi; Cai, Ling; Peng, Yu; Li, Huihui; Chen, Rong Fu; Shen, Ren Fang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of different aluminum species on malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity were investigated by monitoring amperometric i-t curves for the oxidation of NADH at low overpotential using a functionalized multi-wall nanotube (MWNT) modified glass carbon electrode (GCE). The results showed that Al(III) and Al(13) can activate the enzymatic activity of MDH, and the activation reaches maximum levels as the Al(III) and Al(13) concentration increase. Our study also found that the effects of Al(III) and Al(13) on the activity of MDH depended on the pH value and aluminum speciation. Electrochemical and circular dichroism spectra methods were applied to study the effects of nano-sized aluminum compounds on biomolecules. PMID:22163924

  10. Structure and activity of the anticaking agent iron(iii) meso-tartrate.

    PubMed

    Bode, Arno A C; Granneman, Sanne J C; Feiters, Martin C; Verwer, Paul; Jiang, Shanfeng; Meijer, Jan A M; van Enckevort, Willem J P; Vlieg, Elias

    2016-04-12

    Iron(iii) meso-tartrate, a metal-organic complex, is a new anticaking agent for sodium chloride. A molecular structure in solution is proposed, based on a combination of experimental and molecular modelling results. We show that the active complex is a binuclear iron(iii) complex with two bridging meso-tartrate ligands. The iron atoms are antiferromagnetically coupled, resulting in a reduced paramagnetic nature of the solution. In solution, a water molecule coordinates to each iron atom as a sixth ligand, resulting in an octahedral symmetry around each iron atom. When the water molecule is removed, a flat and charged site is exposed, matching the charge distribution of the {100} sodium chloride crystal surface. This charge distribution is also found in the iron(iii) citrate complex, another anticaking agent. This gives a possible adsorption geometry on the crystal surface, which in turn explains the anticaking activity of the iron(iii) meso-tartrate complex. PMID:26974191

  11. PREPARATION AIDS FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF CATEGORY III QUALITY ASSURANCE PROJECT PLANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data collection activities performed for the Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory (RREL) of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency are divided into four categories, depending on the intended use of the data. uality Assurance (QA) Project Plans are written to ensure that projec...

  12. A description of an HPLC assay of coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity in mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Gross, U; Gerlach, R; Kühnel, A; Seifert, V; Doss, M O

    2003-01-01

    Coproporphyrinogen III oxidase is deficient in hereditary coproporphyria. An activity assay for this enzyme in mononuclear cells, besides the preparation of the substrate, are presented. The separation conditions for the product of the test protoporphyrin IX by gradient, reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography are given. The normal value from mononuclear cells of healthy volunteers was 138 +/- 21 pkat/g total soluble protein (mean +/- SD). The enzyme activity of a family with hereditary coproporphyria was measured. The gene carriers exhibit a specific coproporphyrinogen III oxidase activity of 61-90 pkat/g total soluble protein. PMID:14605502

  13. Acceptor impurity activation in III-nitride light emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Römer, Friedhard Witzigmann, Bernd

    2015-01-12

    In this work, the role of the acceptor doping and the acceptor activation and its impact on the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of a Gallium Nitride (GaN) based multi-quantum well light emitting diode is studied by microscopic simulation. Acceptor impurities in GaN are subject to a high activation energy which depends on the presence of proximate dopant atoms and the electric field. A combined model for the dopant ionization and activation barrier reduction has been developed and implemented in a semiconductor carrier transport simulator. By model calculations, we demonstrate the impact of the acceptor activation mechanisms on the decay of the IQE at high current densities, which is known as the efficiency droop. A major contributor to the droop is the electron leakage which is largely affected by the acceptor doping.

  14. Hanford spent nuclear fuel project recommended path forward, volume III: Alternatives and path forward evaluation supporting documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Fulton, J.C.

    1994-10-01

    Volume I of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project - Recommended Path Forward constitutes an aggressive series of projects to construct and operate systems and facilities to safely retrieve, package, transport, process, and store K Basins fuel and sludge. Volume II provided a comparative evaluation of four Alternatives for the Path Forward and an evaluation for the Recommended Path Forward. Although Volume II contained extensive appendices, six supporting documents have been compiled in Volume III to provide additional background for Volume II.

  15. Antibacterial Activity and Cytotoxicity of Gold (I) and (III) Ions and Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shareena Dasari, TP; Zhang, Y; Yu, H

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and gold ion complexes have been investigated for their antibacterial activities. However, the majority of the reports failed to disclose the concentration of free Au(I) or Au(III) present in solutions of AuNPs or gold ion complexes. The inconsistency of antibacterial activity of AuNPs may be due to the effect of the presence of Au(III). Here we report the antibacterial activity of Au(I) and Au(III) to four different bacteria: one nonpathogenic bacterium: E. coli and three multidrug-resistant bacteria: E. coli, S. typhimurium DT104, and S. aureus. Au(I) and Au(III) as chloride are highly toxic to all the four bacteria, with IC50 of 0.35 – 0.49 µM for Au(III) and 0.27–0.52 µM for Au(I).The bacterial growth inhibition by both Au(I) and Au(III) increases with exposure time and is strongly affected by the use of buffers. The IC50 values for Au(I) and Au(III) in different buffers are HEPES (0.48 and 1.55 µM) > Trizma (0.41 and 0.57 µM) > PBS (0.14 and 0.06 µM). Bacterial growth inhibition by AuNPs is gradually reduced by centrifugation-resuspension to remove residual Au(III) ion present in the crude synthetic AuNPs. After 4 centrifugations-resuspensions, AuNPs become non-toxic. In addition, both Au(I) and Au(III) are cytotoxic to skin keratinocyte and blood lymphocyte cells. These results suggest that Au(I) and Au(III) in pure or complex forms may be explored as a method to treat drug-resistant bacteria, and the test of AuNPs toxicity must consider residual Au(III), exposure time, and the use of buffers. PMID:27019770

  16. Passive and active soil gas sampling at the Mixed Waste Landfill, Technical Area III, Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    McVey, M.D.; Goering, T.J.; Peace, J.L.

    1996-02-01

    The Environmental Restoration Project at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico is tasked with assessing and remediating the Mixed Waste Landfill in Technical Area III. The Mixed Waste Landfill is a 2.6 acre, inactive radioactive and mixed waste disposal site. In 1993 and 1994, an extensive passive and active soil gas sampling program was undertaken to identify and quantify volatile organic compounds in the subsurface at the landfill. Passive soil gas surveys identified levels of PCE, TCE, 1,1, 1-TCA, toluene, 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, dichloroethyne, and acetone above background. Verification by active soil gas sampling confirmed concentrations of PCE, TCE, 1,1,1-TCA, and 1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane at depths of 10 and 30 feet below ground surface. In addition, dichlorodifluoroethane and trichlorofluoromethane were detected during active soil gas sampling. All of the volatile organic compounds detected during the active soil gas survey were present in the low ppb range.

  17. Educational Opportunities of Rural Consolidation: Final Report of District-Wide Opinion Survey--Title III, ESEA Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olympia Community Unit District 16, Minier, IL.

    In March 1973, a door-to-door District census was directed by the Olympia Title III, Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Project Office (Illinois). Assisted by the Olympia Citizens Advisory Council and over 300 volunteers, the ESEA Office obtained population data from the census for the rural area. At the same time, a questionnaire to…

  18. Heating, Air Conditioning; Glossary of Key Words. Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotchkiss, Marvin; Schafer, Thomas

    The glossary is one of twenty in various subject areas of vocational education designed to assist the student in vocabulary mastery for particular vocational education courses. They are part of the Vocational Reading Power Project, Title III, E.S.E.A. This glossary is for a course in heating and air conditioning. It is divided into two parts: one…

  19. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart R of... - Minor Projects for Purposes of § 922.193(a)(2)(iii)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Minor Projects for Purposes of § 922.193(a)(2)(iii) B Appendix B to Subpart R of Part 922 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL...

  20. Classroom Interactions in Four Follow Through Sites. Volume III, Progress Report, Cognitively Oriented Curriculum, Project Follow Through.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Mary E.; Love, John M.

    Volume III presents the results of High/Scope Foundation's Analysis of Classroom Interaction, a classroom observation instrument field tested at four projects. The purpose of this study was to assess the consistency of implementation of the Cognitively Oriented Curriculum in the four widely separated communities in which the High/Scope Foundation…

  1. Harrison Educational Research and Development Center. End of Project Period Evaluation Report ESEA, Title III. FY 1971-1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison Educational Research and Development Center, AR.

    Evaluated is a 2 year project in Harrison School District 1, Arkansas, funded through Title III, to develop academic and/music based instructional materials in two resource rooms for learning disabled (LD), educationally disadvantaged, and mentally retarded children; and to integrate art and music with social studies in grades 1 through 6.…

  2. Handicapped Children in the Regular Classroom; Project 1232: 1972-1973. (End of Budget Period Report) Title III, ESEA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fountain Valley School District, CA.

    Presented is the end of budget period report of an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III Dissemination Project which was established to install in 10 California school districts one or more components of the integrated special education program entitled "Handicapped Children in the Regular Classroom" and to locally expand the program…

  3. NEW RENIN-INHIBITORS--STABILITY AND ACTIVITY DETERMINATION. PART III.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Winiecka, Iwona; Jaworski, Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2016-01-01

    A series of new four potential renin inhibitors containing pseudodipeptides were synthesized. Stability for all compounds (1-4) in homogenates of liver, kidney, lung and in serum, gastric, intestinal juice and in the presence of α-chymotrypsin was determined. Compound 1 was unstable, compounds 2, 3 were stable, compound 4 was partly unstable, (liver and kidney homogenates, (α-chymotrypsin solution). Inhibitory activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by HPLC determination of lowering concentration of substrate (angiotensinogen) in the presence of renin and the potential renin inhibitor (compounds 1-4). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibitory activity (1.7 x 10(-6), 9.6 x 10(-7), 1.05 x 10(-9) and 1.31 x 10(-7)M, respectively). PMID:27180425

  4. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra; Roncaglioni, Alessandra; Tropsha, Alexander; Varnek, Alexandre; Zakharov, Alexey; Worth, Andrew; Richard, Ann M.; Grulke, Christopher M.; Trisciuzzi, Daniela; Fourches, Denis; Horvath, Dragos; Benfenati, Emilio; Muratov, Eugene; Wedebye, Eva Bay; Grisoni, Francesca; Mangiatordi, Giuseppe F.; Incisivo, Giuseppina M.; Hong, Huixiao; Ng, Hui W.; Tetko, Igor V.; Balabin, Ilya; Kancherla, Jayaram; Shen, Jie; Burton, Julien; Nicklaus, Marc; Cassotti, Matteo; Nikolov, Nikolai G.; Nicolotti, Orazio; Andersson, Patrik L.; Zang, Qingda; Politi, Regina; Beger, Richard D.; Todeschini, Roberto; Huang, Ruili; Farag, Sherif; Rosenberg, Sine A.; Slavov, Svetoslav; Hu, Xin; Judson, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Humans are exposed to thousands of man-made chemicals in the environment. Some chemicals mimic natural endocrine hormones and, thus, have the potential to be endocrine disruptors. Most of these chemicals have never been tested for their ability to interact with the estrogen receptor (ER). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. Objectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) and demonstrate the efficacy of using predictive computational models trained on high-throughput screening data to evaluate thousands of chemicals for ER-related activity and prioritize them for further testing. Methods: CERAPP combined multiple models developed in collaboration with 17 groups in the United States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure–activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical and 8 continuous models for binding, agonist, and antagonist ER activity. All predictions were evaluated on a set of 7,522 chemicals curated from the literature. To overcome the limitations of single models, a consensus was built by weighting models on scores based on their evaluated accuracies. Results: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. Conclusion: This project demonstrated the possibility to screen large libraries of chemicals using a consensus of different in silico approaches. This concept will be applied in future projects related to other

  5. 1967-1968 Project Reports by Faculty Members of San Joaquin Delta College: A Project under Title III, Higher Education Act of 1965.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullard, Richard F., Ed.

    These 17 curriculum studies by faculty members of San Joaquin Delta Junior College were funded under Title III of The Higher Education Act of 1965. They were intended to help initiate new courses, improve existing ones, or plan for future ones. Each project report gave its objective(s), the general methods for its development and completion, the…

  6. Increased activity of coagulation factor XII (Hageman factor) causes hereditary angioedema type III.

    PubMed

    Cichon, Sven; Martin, Ludovic; Hennies, Hans Christian; Müller, Felicitas; Van Driessche, Karen; Karpushova, Anna; Stevens, Wim; Colombo, Roberto; Renné, Thomas; Drouet, Christian; Bork, Konrad; Nöthen, Markus M

    2006-12-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is characterized clinically by recurrent acute skin swelling, abdominal pain, and potentially life-threatening laryngeal edema. Three forms of HAE have been described. The classic forms, HAE types I and II, occur as a consequence of mutations in the C1-inhibitor gene. In contrast to HAE types I and II, HAE type III has been observed exclusively in women, where it appears to be correlated with conditions of high estrogen levels--for example, pregnancy or the use of oral contraceptives. A recent report proposed two missense mutations (c.1032C-->A and c.1032C-->G) in F12, the gene encoding human coagulation factor XII (FXII, or Hageman factor) as a possible cause of HAE type III. Here, we report the occurrence of the c.1032C-->A (p.Thr328Lys) mutation in an HAE type III-affected family of French origin. Investigation of the F12 gene in a large German family did not reveal a coding mutation. Haplotype analysis with use of microsatellite markers is compatible with locus heterogeneity in HAE type III. To shed more light on the pathogenic relevance of the HAE type III-associated p.Thr328Lys mutation, we compared FXII activity and plasma levels in patients carrying the mutation with that of healthy control individuals. Our data strongly suggest that p.Thr328Lys is a gain-of-function mutation that markedly increases FXII amidolytic activity but that does not alter FXII plasma levels. We conclude that enhanced FXII enzymatic plasma activity in female mutation carriers leads to enhanced kinin production, which results in angioedema. Transcription of F12 is positively regulated by estrogens, which may explain why only women are affected with HAE type III. The results of our study represent an important step toward an understanding of the molecular processes involved in HAE type III and provide diagnostic and possibly new therapeutic opportunities. PMID:17186468

  7. Multiple mechanisms contribute to the activation of RNA polymerase III transcription in cells transformed by papovaviruses.

    PubMed

    Felton-Edkins, Zoë A; White, Robert J

    2002-12-13

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcription is abnormally active in fibroblasts transformed by polyomavirus (Py) or simian virus 40 (SV40). Several distinct mechanisms contribute to this effect. In untransformed fibroblasts, the basal pol III transcription factor (TF) IIIB is repressed through association with the retinoblastoma protein RB; this restraint is overcome by large T antigens of Py and SV40. Furthermore, cells transformed by these papovaviruses overexpress the BDP1 subunit of TFIIIB, at both the protein and mRNA levels. Despite the overexpression of BDP1, the abundance of the other TFIIIB components is unperturbed following papovavirus transformation. In contrast, mRNAs encoding all five subunits of the basal factor TFIIIC2 are found at elevated levels in fibroblasts transformed by Py or SV40. Thus, both papovaviruses stimulate pol III transcription by boosting production of selected components of the basal machinery. Py differs from SV40 in encoding a highly oncogenic middle T antigen that localizes outside the nucleus and activates several signal transduction pathways. Middle T can serve as a potent activator of a pol III reporter in transfected cells. Several distinct mechanisms therefore contribute to the high levels of pol III transcription that accompany transformation by Py and SV40. PMID:12370195

  8. Title III Project in Outdoor and Conservation Education; School Districts, Town of North Hempstead. Project Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmierer, Hy

    The document contains Part II, Narrative Report for End of Budget Period, and Part III, End of Year Evaluation Report, for the school districts of North Hempstead, New York. During the period from September of 1968 to September of 1969, under funds from Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the North Hempstead districts began…

  9. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP-III): cloning the synthetic gene and characterization of the protein expressed in E. coli

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.H.; Castor, C.W.; Walz, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    CTAP-III, an ..cap alpha..-granule protein secreted by human platelets, is known to stimulate mitogenesis, extracellular matrix synthesis, and plasminogen activator synthesis in human fibroblast cultures. From its primary sequence, a synthetic gene was constructed to code for a methionine-free derivative (Leu substituted for Met-21), then cloned and expressed in E. coli using a new expression vector containing regulatory elements of the colicin E1 operon. Partially purified recombinant CTAP-III showed a line of identity with CTAP-III by immunodiffusion against rabbit antibody to platelet-derived CTAP-III. Immunodetection of the reduced protein after SDS-PAGE electrophoresis showed a molecular weight (mobility) in agreement with the natural form. Biologic activity of rCTAP-III eluted from an antiCTAP-III immunoaffinity column was measured in human synovial cell bioassay systems. rCTAP-III stimulated synovial cell synthesis of /sup 14/C-hyaluronic acid approximately 13-fold; significant (P < 0.001) mitogenesis was also observed. These studies indicate that a sufficient quantity of bioactive peptide can be obtained for a more comprehensive study of its biologic properties.

  10. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  11. Cryptic activity within the Type III1 domain of fibronectin regulates tissue inflammation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Christina; Kelsh-Lasher, Rhiannon; Ambesi, Anthony; McKeown-Longo, Paula J.

    2016-01-01

    The fibronectin matrix provides mechanical and biochemical information to regulate homeostatic and pathological processes within tissues. Fibronectin consists of independently-folded modules termed Types I, II and III. In response to cellular contractile force, Type III domains unfold to initiate a series of homophilic binding events which result in the assembly of a complex network of intertwining fibrils. The unfolding of Type III modules provides elasticity to the assembled fibronectin matrix allowing it to function as a dynamic scaffold which provides binding sites for cellular receptors, growth factors and other matrix molecules. Access to bioactive sites within the fibronectin matrix is under complex regulation and controlled through a combination of mechanical and proteolytic activity. Mechanical unfolding of Type III modules and limited proteolysis can alter the topographical display of bioactive sites within the fibronectin fibrils by exposing previously cryptic sites and disrupting functional sites. In this review we will discuss cryptic activity found within the first Type III module of fibronectin and its impact on tissue angiogenesis and inflammation.

  12. ACRIM III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-12-30

    ACRIM III Data and Information Active Cavity Radiometer Irradiance ... the ACRIMSAT spacecraft on December 20, 1999. ACRIM III data are reprocessed every 90 days to utilize instrument recalibration.   ... ACRIM III Instrument Team Page ACRIM II Data Sets SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  13. GapIII, a new brain-enriched member of the GTPase-activating protein family.

    PubMed

    Baba, H; Fuss, B; Urano, J; Poullet, P; Watson, J B; Tamanoi, F; Macklin, W B

    1995-08-15

    Ras GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) are negative regulators of ras, which controls proliferation and differentiation in many cells. Ras GAPs have been found in a variety of species from yeast to mammals. We describe here a newly identified mammalian GAP, GapIII, which was obtained by differential screening of a rat oligodendrocyte cDNA library. GapIII putatively encodes a 834 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 96 kDa, which contains a consensus GAP-related domain (GRD). The protein encoded by this cDNA has high homology with Gap1m, which was recently identified as a putative mammalian homolog of Drosophila Gap1. These proteins contain three structural domains, an N-terminal calcium-dependent phospholipid binding domain, GRD, and a C-terminal PH/Btk domain. Because of the sequence homology and the structural similarities of this protein with Gap1m, we hypothesize that GapIII and Gap1m may be members of a mammalian GAP gene family, separate from p120GAP, neurofibromin (NF1), and IQGAP. To confirm the GapIII protein activity, constructs containing different GapIII-GRD domains were transformed into iral mutant yeast to determine their relative ability to replace IRA1 functionally. Constructs that contained essentially the full-length protein (all three domains), the GRD alone, or the GRD plus PH/Btk domain suppressed heat shock sensitivity of ira1, whereas constructs that contained the GRD with part of the PH/Btk domain had only a weak ability to suppress heat shock sensitivity. These results suggest that the GapIII GRD itself is sufficient to down-regulate ras proteins in yeast. Expression of GapIII mRNA (4.2 kb) was examined by Northern analysis and in situ hybridization. This mRNA was expressed at highest levels in the brain, where its expression increased with development. Lower levels of the mRNA were expressed in the spleen and lung. Among neural cells, GapIII mRNA was expressed in neurons and oligodendrocytes, but not in astrocytes

  14. Clean Coal III Project: Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection Project Trail 1 Report - Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection - Results with Low Volatile Coal

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1997-11-01

    This report describes the first coal trial test conducted with the Blast Furnace Granular Coal Injection System at Bethlehem Steel Corporation's Burns Harbor Plant. This demonstration project is divided into three phases: Phase I - Design Phase II - Construction Phase III - Operation The design phase was conducted in 1991-1993, Construction of the facility began in August 1993 and was completed in late 1994. The coal injection facility began operating in January 1995 and Phase III began in November 1995. The Trial 1 base test on C furnace was carried out in October 1996 as a comparison period for the analysis of the operation during subsequent coal trials.

  15. Synthesis of Mesoionic Isoquinolines by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Cheng-Qi; Lin, Hui; Dong, Lin; Xu, Yan-Jun

    2016-01-18

    Hydroxyl-substituted benzaldimines underwent a Rh(III) -catalyzed C-H activation and annulation with alkynes to provide novel mesoionic isoquinoline derivatives in moderate to excellent yields using oxygen as an internal anion source. This simple and efficient approach has a broad substrate scope. PMID:26671527

  16. Structural basis for activation, assembly and membrane binding of ESCRT-III Snf7 filaments

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Henne, W Mike; Borbat, Peter P; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Freed, Jack H; Mao, Yuxin; Fromme, J Christopher; Emr, Scott D

    2015-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs) constitute hetero-oligomeric machines that catalyze multiple topologically similar membrane-remodeling processes. Although ESCRT-III subunits polymerize into spirals, how individual ESCRT-III subunits are activated and assembled together into a membrane-deforming filament remains unknown. Here, we determine X-ray crystal structures of the most abundant ESCRT-III subunit Snf7 in its active conformation. Using pulsed dipolar electron spin resonance spectroscopy (PDS), we show that Snf7 activation requires a prominent conformational rearrangement to expose protein-membrane and protein-protein interfaces. This promotes the assembly of Snf7 arrays with ~30 Å periodicity into a membrane-sculpting filament. Using a combination of biochemical and genetic approaches, both in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that mutations on these protein interfaces halt Snf7 assembly and block ESCRT function. The architecture of the activated and membrane-bound Snf7 polymer provides crucial insights into the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12548.001 PMID:26670543

  17. Trimebutine-induced phase III-like activity in infants with intestinal motility disorders.

    PubMed

    Boige, N; Cargill, G; Mashako, L; Cezard, J P; Navarro, J

    1987-01-01

    Duodenal manometric recordings were performed in five male children (mean age 11.7 +/- 6.8 months) suffering from severe digestive pathology with clinical findings of dysmotility; they required total parenteral nutrition: one case of enteropathy following intestinal resection for congenital small bowel atresia, and four cases of intestinal pseudoobstruction. The basal 3-h fasting recordings showed complete disorganization of interdigestive activity characterized by an absence of migrating motor complexes and a marked basal hypomotility with motor indices lower than in control subjects. Intravenous trimebutine (3 mg/kg) produced a phase III-like activity 88 +/- 121 s after administration in four cases. The activity lasted 236 +/- 105 s and had a mean frequency of 11.75 +/- 0.86 waves/min. It was propagated aborally in the two patients having two duodenal recording sites. Trimebutine-induced phase III activity was followed by signs of peristalsis in two patients. PMID:3430262

  18. Identification of an iridium(III) complex with anti-bacterial and anti-cancer activity

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Liu, Li-Juan; Chao, Wei-chieh; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Lu, Jin-Jian; Li, Ruei-nian; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang

    2015-01-01

    Group 9 transition metal complexes have been widely explored as therapeutic agents due to their unique geometry, their propensity to undergo ligand exchanges with biomolecules and their diverse steric and electronic properties. These metal complexes can offer distinct modes of action in living organisms compared to carbon-based molecules. In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial and anti-proliferative abilities of a series of cyclometallated iridium(III) complexes. The iridium(III) complex 1 inhibited the growth of S. aureus with MIC and MBC values of 3.60 and 7.19 μM, respectively, indicating its potent bactericidal activity. Moreover, complex 1 also exhibited cytotoxicity against a number of cancer cell lines, with particular potency against ovarian, cervical and melanoma cells. This cyclometallated iridium(III) complex is the first example of a substitutionally-inert, Group 9 organometallic compound utilized as a direct and selective inhibitor of S. aureus. PMID:26416333

  19. The magic school bus TV project. Final technical performance report, July 1, 1992--July 31, 1995. Season III

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    For Season III, our goal has been to produce 13 new episodes that can optimally benefit from our research and experience in developing this unique series. With a total of 39 episodes, MSB`s third season will move the production from a weekly to a daily series, airing Monday to Friday and Sundays on PBS. As we delivered the 13 Season II episodes to PBS during fall of 1995, we also completed 13 more scripts for Season III production. During the remaining portion of Season III, these 13 scripts are being animated and prepared for delivery to PBS for an October 7th, 1996 launch date. Based on staggered phases of production used since the project`s inception, the development of science topics and show scripting for Season IV occurs at the same time that Season III shows are in animation and post-production. Thus, topics for Season IV shows are being selected, and science research and scripting have also begun during this time period. Both the National Science Foundation and PBS have made a commitment to Season IV, and a proposal has been submitted to Microsoft for consideration.

  20. SAGE III

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-15

    SAGE III Data and Information The Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas ... on the spacecraft. SAGE III produced L1 and L2 scientific data from 5/07/2002 until 12/31/2005. The flight of the second instrument is as ... Guide Documents:  Project Guide Data Products User's Guide  (PDF) Relevant Documents:  ...

  1. Anticancer Activity of Organogallium(III) Complexes in Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Kaluđerović, Milena R; Mojić, Marija; Gómez-Ruiz, Santiago; Mijatović, Sanja; Maksimović-Ivanić, Danijela

    2016-01-01

    In vitro antitumor activity of various organogallium(III) complexes (1-8) has been tested against CT26CL25, HCT116, SW480 colon cancer cell lines. CV and MTT assays were used to assess on the antiproliferative effect of investigated organogallium(III) complexes. From the investigated complexes, the most active was found to be tetranuclear compound 8 against CT26CL25 cells. Flow cytometric analysis of the CT26CL25 cells upon the treatment with 8 was performed in order to determine the role of apoptosis, caspase activation, autophagy and proliferation rate on the cell death caused with this compound. Results indicate cytotoxic potential of the tetranuclear complex 8 by inducing caspase independent apoptosis and blocking most of the cells before first division. PMID:26443026

  2. Aromatic Cyanoalkylation through Double C-H Activation Mediated by Ni(III).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Zheng, Shuai; Schultz, Jason W; Rath, Nigam P; Mirica, Liviu M

    2016-05-11

    Herein we report an atom- and step-economic aromatic cyanoalkylation reaction that employs nitriles as building blocks and proceeds through Csp(2)-H and Csp(3)-H bond activation steps mediated by Ni(III). In addition to cyanomethylation with MeCN, regioselective α-cyanoalkylation was observed with various nitrile substrates to generate secondary and tertiary nitriles. Importantly, to the best of our knowledge these are the first examples of C-H bond activation reactions occurring at a Ni(III) center, which may exhibit different reactivity and selectivity profiles than those corresponding to analogous Ni(II) centers. These studies provide guiding principles to design catalytic C-H activation and functionalization reactions involving high-valent Ni species. PMID:27120207

  3. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors is neuroprotective in cortical cultures.

    PubMed

    Bruno, V; Copani, A; Bonanno, L; Knoepfel, T; Kuhn, R; Roberts, P J; Nicoletti, F

    1996-08-22

    (RS)-alpha-Methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) and (S)-alpha-methyl-3-carboxyphenylalanine (M3CPA), two novel preferential antagonists of group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, antagonized the neuroprotective activity of L-2-amino-4-phosphono-butanoate (L-AP4) or L-serine-O-phosphate in mice cultured cortical cells exposed to a toxic pulse of N-methyl-D-aspartate. In contrast, MPPG did not influence the neuroprotective activity of the selective group II mGlu receptor agonist, (2S,1'R,2'R,3'R)-2-(2,3-dicarboxy-cyclopropyl) glycine (DCG-IV). These results indicate that activation of group III mGu receptors exerts neuroprotective activity against excitotoxic neuronal death. At least one of the two major group III mGlu receptor subtypes, i.e. mGlu4 receptor, is expressed by cultured cortical neurons, as shown by immunocytochemical analysis with specific polyclonal antibodies. PMID:8880068

  4. Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" focuses on wildlife and habitat. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD activities or the entire set of activities…

  5. Axonal neuregulin 1 type III activates NF-kappaB in Schwann cells during myelin formation.

    PubMed

    Limpert, Allison S; Carter, Bruce D

    2010-05-28

    The formation of myelin requires a series of complex signaling events initiated by the axon to surrounding glial cells, which ultimately respond by tightly wrapping the axon with layers of specialized plasma membrane thereby allowing for saltatory conduction. Activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB in Schwann cells has been suggested to be critical for these cells to differentiate into a myelinating phenotype; however, the mechanisms by which it is activated have yet to be elucidated. Here, we demonstrate that axonal membranes are sufficient to promote NF-kappaB activation in cultured Schwann cells and identify neuregulin 1 (NRG1), specifically the membrane-bound type III isoform, as the signal responsible for activating this transcription factor. Surprisingly, neither membrane-bound type I nor the soluble NRG1 EGF domain could activate NF-kappaB, indicating that type III induces a qualitatively unique signal. The transcriptional activity of NF-kappaB was significantly enhanced by treatment with forskolin, indicating these two signals converge for maximal activation. Both ErbB2 and -3 receptors were required for transducing the NRG1 signal, because gene deletion of ErbB3 in Schwann cells or treatment with the ErbB2 selective inhibitor, PKI-166, prevented the stimulation of NF-kappaB by axonal membranes. Finally, PKI-166 blocked the activation of the transcription factor in myelinating neuron/Schwann cell co-cultures and in vivo, in developing sciatic nerves. Taken together, these data establish NRG1 type III as the activator of NF-kappaB during myelin formation. PMID:20360002

  6. Project Success for the SLD Child, Motor-Perception Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wayne - Carroll Public Schools, Wayne, NE.

    Presented is a curriculum guide for a perceptual motor program which was developed by Project Success (Nebraska) through a Title III grant for language learning disabled elementary level students in kindergarten through grade 3. The program is said to be arranged in a hierarchy of skills ranging from simple to complex and to be written so that the…

  7. Low molecular weight heparin restores antithrombin III activity from hyperglycemia induced alterations.

    PubMed

    Ceriello, A; Marchi, E; Palazzni, E; Quatraro, A; Giugliano, D

    1990-01-01

    Alteration of antithrombin III (ATIII) activity, glycemia level dependent, exists in diabetes mellitus. In this study the ability of a low molecular weight heparin (LMWH) (Fluxum, Alfa-Wassermann S.p.A., Bologna, Italy), as well as unfractioned héparin, to preserve ATIII activity from glucose-induced alterations, both in vitro and in vivo, is reported. The subcutaneous and intravenous LMWH and heparin administration increases basal depressed ATIII activity in diabetic patients. Heparin shows an equivalent effect on both anti-IIa and anti-Xa activity of ATIII, while LMWH is more effective in preserving the anti-Xa activity. Similarity, heparin preserves ATIII activity from hyperglycemia-induced alterations, during hyperglycemic clamp, and LMWH infusion is able to preserve a significant amount of anti-Xa activity from glucose-induced alterations. Since diabetic patients show a high incidence of thrombotic accidents, LMWH appears to be a promising innovation for the prevention of diabetic thrombophylia. PMID:2196192

  8. Pre-Vocational Occupation Education Project: End of Budget Period Report and Final Project Report; ESEA Title III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento. Office of Program Planning and Development.

    The end of budget period and final project report describes a California project intended to promote the adoption or adaptation of a prevocational education program for secondary level educable mentally handicapped (EMH) students. Data are presented on staff development, the nature and results of the project's dissemination and demonstration…

  9. Novel adiabatic tapered couplers for active III-V/SOI devices fabricated through transfer printing.

    PubMed

    Dhoore, Sören; Uvin, Sarah; Van Thourhout, Dries; Morthier, Geert; Roelkens, Gunther

    2016-06-13

    We present the design of two novel adiabatic tapered coupling structures that allow efficient and alignment tolerant mode conversion between a III-V membrane waveguide and a single-mode SOI waveguide in active heterogeneously integrated devices. Both proposed couplers employ a broad intermediate waveguide to facilitate highly alignment tolerant coupling. This robustness is needed to comply with the current misalignment tolerance requirements for high-throughput transfer printing. The proposed coupling structures are expected to pave the way for transfer-printing-based heterogeneous integration of active III-V devices such as semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs), photodetectors, electro-absorption modulators (EAMs) and single wavelength lasers on silicon photonic integrated circuits. PMID:27410317

  10. RNA-activated DNA cleavage by the Type III-B CRISPR-Cas effector complex.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Michael A; Kuo, Fang-Ting; Bailey, Scott

    2016-02-15

    The CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat) system is an RNA-guided immune system that protects prokaryotes from invading genetic elements. This system represents an inheritable and adaptable immune system that is mediated by multisubunit effector complexes. In the Type III-B system, the Cmr effector complex has been found to cleave ssRNA in vitro. However, in vivo, it has been implicated in transcription-dependent DNA targeting. We show here that the Cmr complex from Thermotoga maritima can cleave an ssRNA target that is complementary to the CRISPR RNA. We also show that binding of a complementary ssRNA target activates an ssDNA-specific nuclease activity in the histidine-aspartate (HD) domain of the Cmr2 subunit of the complex. These data suggest a mechanism for transcription-coupled DNA targeting by the Cmr complex and provide a unifying mechanism for all Type III systems. PMID:26848046

  11. Effects of Fe(III) and organic matter additions on methanogenic activity and Fe(III) reduction in boreal lake and wetland sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karvinen, Anu; Lehtinen, Lotta; Kankaala, Paula

    2013-04-01

    We studied potential methane production and Fe(III) reduction activity in lake sediments and wetland peat sampled from 14 sites in southern and eastern Finland. The concentration of total iron in the sediments and peat varied between 0.5 and 1200 ppm and their organic matter content (loss of ignition) varied between 1-98% of dry weight. Also the effects of added amorphous Fe(III) oxyhydroxide and organic matter (ammoniumacetate and/or sodiumacetate) on methanogenic and Fe(III) reduction activities were studied in anaerobic laboratory incubations (in vitro) lasting 5-20 days at 15 °C in darkness. Potential methane production and the effects of iron and acetate additions were highly variable between lake and peatland sites. The highest methanogenic potential was generally measured in productive littoral sites, especially in those dominated by Phragmites australis vegetation stands. In these sediments the total iron concentrations were high and acetate additions clearly increased methane production whereas Fe(III) additions decreased it. Our results demonstrate that microbial Fe(III) reduction plays an important role in the anaerobic organic matter decomposition in many boreal lakes.

  12. Iron(III)-induced activation of chloride and bromide from modeled salt pans.

    PubMed

    Wittmer, Julian; Bleicher, Sergej; Zetzsch, Cornelius

    2015-05-14

    The photochemistry of halides in sea spray aerosol, on salt pans, and on other salty surfaces leads to a formation of reactive halogen species. We investigated the photochemical formation of atomic chlorine (Cl) and bromine (Br) in the gas phase in the presence of laboratory-modeled salt pans consisting of sodium chloride doped with iron(III) chloride hexahydrate (0.5 and 2 wt %). The samples were spread on a Teflon sheet and exposed to simulated sunlight in a Teflon smog chamber in purified, humidified air in the presence of a test mixture of hydrocarbons at the ppb level to determine Cl, Br, and OH formation by the radical clock method. Driven by the photolytic reduction of Fe(III) to Fe(II), the production rates of the Fe(III)-doped NaCl salt samples (up to10(7) atoms cm(-3) s(-1)) exceeded the release of Cl above a pure NaCl sample by more than an order of magnitude in an initially O3-free environment at low NOX. In bromide-doped samples (0.5 wt % NaBr), a part of the Cl release was replaced by Br when Fe(III) was present. Additions of sodium sulfate, sodium oxalate, oxalic acid, and catechol to NaCl/FeCl3 samples were found to restrain the activation of chloride. PMID:25243918

  13. Human uroporphyrinogen III synthase: NMR-based mapping of the active site.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Luis; Kuti, Miklos; Bishop, David F; Mezei, Mihaly; Zeng, Lei; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Desnick, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    Uroporphyrinogen III synthase (URO-synthase) catalyzes the cyclization and D-ring isomerization of hydroxymethylbilane (HMB) to uroporphyrinogen (URO'gen) III, the cyclic tetrapyrrole and physiologic precursor of heme, chlorophyl, and corrin. The deficient activity of human URO-synthase results in the autosomal recessive cutaneous disorder, congenital erythropoietic porphyria. Mapping of the structural determinants that specify catalysis and, potentially, protein-protein interactions is lacking. To map the active site and assess the enzyme's possible interaction in a complex with hydroxymethylbilane-synthase (HMB-synthase) and/or uroporphyrinogen-decarboxylase (URO-decarboxylase) by NMR, an efficient expression and purification procedure was developed for these cytosolic enzymes of heme biosynthesis that enabled preparation of special isotopically-labeled protein samples for NMR characterization. Using an 800 MHz instrument, assignment of the URO-synthase backbone (13)C(alpha) (100%), (1)H(alpha) (99.6%), and nonproline (1)H(N) and (15)N resonances (94%) was achieved as well as 85% of the side-chain (13)C and (1)H resonances. NMR analyses of URO-synthase titrated with competitive inhibitors N(D)-methyl-1-formylbilane (NMF-bilane) or URO'gen III, revealed resonance perturbations of specific residues lining the cleft between the two major domains of URO synthase that mapped the enzyme's active site. In silico docking of the URO-synthase crystal structure with NMF-bilane and URO'gen III was consistent with the perturbation results and provided a 3D model of the enzyme-inhibitor complex. The absence of chemical shift changes in the (15)N spectrum of URO-synthase mixed with the homogeneous HMB-synthase holoenzyme or URO-decarboxylase precluded occurrence of a stable cytosolic enzyme complex. PMID:18004775

  14. Detailed correlation of type III radio bursts with H alpha activity. I - Active region of 22 May 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of observations of type III impulsive radio bursts made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory with high-spatial-resolution cinematographic observations taken at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. Use of the log-periodic radio interferometer makes it possible to localize the radio emission uniquely. This study concentrates on the particularly active region close to the limb on May 22, 1970. Sixteen of the 17 groups were associated with some H alpha activity, 11 of them with the start of such activity.

  15. Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Project WET Foundation, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WET Curriculum and Activity Guide 2.0" continues Project WET's dedication to 21st-century, cutting-edge water education. Now in full color, Guide 2.0 offers new activities on topics such as National Parks and storm water, fully revised and updated activities from the original Guide and the very best activities gathered from all of…

  16. Pima Cultural Background Materials for an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Weston L., Comp.; And Others

    Produced with funds under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, this unit on Pima cultural background and Middle American civilization was designed to help Pima students achieve a sense of identity and pride in their Indian background by (1) thinking of themselves as a people with a long history and (2) learning that their…

  17. Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Environmental Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The "Project WILD Aquatic K-12 Curriculum and Activity Guide" emphasizes aquatic wildlife and aquatic ecosystems. It is organized in topic units and is based on the Project WILD conceptual framework. Because these activities are designed for integration into existing courses of study, instructors may use one or many Project WILD Aquatic activities…

  18. Homebased Computer Assisted Adult Education Project--Phase III. Final Project Report, September 1, 1982, through August 31, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Rolland L.

    The purpose of this multi-year project was to develop a delivery system for adult education through expanded outreach opportunities using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) for undereducated adults in a home-based context. In phase 1 of the three-year project, planning, development, and testing of CAI in a…

  19. Different functional modes of p300 in activation of RNA polymerase III transcription from chromatin templates.

    PubMed

    Mertens, Claudia; Roeder, Robert G

    2008-09-01

    Transcriptional coactivators that regulate the activity of human RNA polymerase III (Pol III) in the context of chromatin have not been reported. Here, we describe a completely defined in vitro system for transcription of a human tRNA gene assembled into a chromatin template. Transcriptional activation and histone acetylation in this system depend on recruitment of p300 by general initiation factor TFIIIC, thus providing a new paradigm for recruitment of histone-modifying coactivators. Beyond its role as a chromatin-modifying factor, p300 displays an acetyltransferase-independent function at the level of preinitiation complex assembly. Thus, direct interaction of p300 with TFIIIC stabilizes binding of TFIIIC to core promoter elements and results in enhanced transcriptional activity on histone-free templates. Additional studies show that p300 is recruited to the promoters of actively transcribed tRNA and U6 snRNA genes in vivo. These studies identify TFIIIC as a recruitment factor for p300 and thus may have important implications for the emerging concept that tRNA genes or TFIIIC binding sites act as chromatin barriers to prohibit spreading of silenced heterochromatin domains. PMID:18644873

  20. Different Functional Modes of p300 in Activation of RNA Polymerase III Transcription from Chromatin Templates▿

    PubMed Central

    Mertens, Claudia; Roeder, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    Transcriptional coactivators that regulate the activity of human RNA polymerase III (Pol III) in the context of chromatin have not been reported. Here, we describe a completely defined in vitro system for transcription of a human tRNA gene assembled into a chromatin template. Transcriptional activation and histone acetylation in this system depend on recruitment of p300 by general initiation factor TFIIIC, thus providing a new paradigm for recruitment of histone-modifying coactivators. Beyond its role as a chromatin-modifying factor, p300 displays an acetyltransferase-independent function at the level of preinitiation complex assembly. Thus, direct interaction of p300 with TFIIIC stabilizes binding of TFIIIC to core promoter elements and results in enhanced transcriptional activity on histone-free templates. Additional studies show that p300 is recruited to the promoters of actively transcribed tRNA and U6 snRNA genes in vivo. These studies identify TFIIIC as a recruitment factor for p300 and thus may have important implications for the emerging concept that tRNA genes or TFIIIC binding sites act as chromatin barriers to prohibit spreading of silenced heterochromatin domains. PMID:18644873

  1. Bureau of Mines oil shale data bank. Part III. Recent research projects

    SciTech Connect

    Thill, R.E.; West, D.N.; Radcliffe, K.S.; Peterson, O.M.

    1981-01-01

    The data bank was created in 1976 to serve as a centralized source for the storage, retrieval, and dissemination of technical literature, patents, and information on research projects in oil shale. Thousands of bibliographic references, patents, and research projects relating to the mining of oil shale have been identified, abstracted, and indexed according to selected keyword topics. The resulting data bank listings are contained in three sections. Included specifically to provide awareness about recent oil shale research and aid in project planning, the recent research projects section describes work that is ongoing or completed in recent years. Each record includes the title of the research project, the performing organization, the principal and associate investigator(s), the start and completion dates, and a resume of the project objectives. The listing is arranged in roughly chronological ordre as provided by the Smithsonian Science Information Exchange.

  2. Iron (III) reduction: A novel activity of the human NAD(P)H:oxidoreductase

    SciTech Connect

    Onyenwoke, Rob U.; Wiegel, Juergen . E-mail: jwiegel@uga.edu

    2007-02-09

    NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1; EC 1.6.99.2) catalyzes a two-electron transfer involved in the protection of cells from reactive oxygen species. These reactive oxygen species are often generated by the one-electron reduction of quinones or quinone analogs. We report here on the previously unreported Fe(III) reduction activity of human NQO1. Under steady state conditions with Fe(III) citrate, the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K{sub m}{sup app}) was {approx}0.3nM and the apparent maximum velocity (V{sub max}{sup app}) was 16Umg{sup -1}. Substrate inhibition was observed above 5nM. NADH was the electron donor, K{sub m}{sup app}=340{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app}=46Umg{sup -1}. FAD was also a cofactor with a K{sub m}{sup app} of 3.1{mu}M and V{sub max}{sup app} of 89Umg{sup -1}. The turnover number for NADH oxidation was 25s{sup -1}. Possible physiological roles of the Fe(III) reduction by this enzyme are discussed.

  3. Mononuclear Ru(III) Schiff base complexes: Synthesis, spectral, redox, catalytic and biological activity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priya, N. Padma; Arunachalam, S.; Manimaran, A.; Muthupriya, D.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.

    2009-04-01

    An octahedral ruthenium(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)(L)] (where, X = Cl/Br; E = As/P; L = dianion of the Schiff bases derived from acetoacetanilide with o-phenylenediamine and salicylaldehyde/ o-hydroxyacetophenone/ o-vanillin/2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde) have been synthesized from the reactions of equimolar reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] and Schiff bases in benzene. The new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, FT-IR, electronic, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectra, EPR spectral studies, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and electrochemical studies. The new complexes were found to be effective catalysts for aryl-aryl coupling and the oxidation of alcohols into their corresponding carbonyl compounds, respectively, using molecular oxygen atmosphere at ambient temperature. Further, the new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes were screened for their antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Vibrio cholera, Salomonella typhi and Staphylococcus aureaus.

  4. Manganese(III) corrole-oxidant adduct as the active intermediate in catalytic hydrogen atom transfer.

    PubMed

    Zdilla, Michael J; Abu-Omar, Mahdi M

    2008-11-17

    Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) reactions from dihydroanthracene to ArINTs (Ar = 2- tert-butylsulfonyl)benzene and Ts = p-toluenesulfonyl) is catalyzed by Mn(tpfc) (tpfc = 5,10,15-tris(pentafluorophenyl)corrole). Kinetics of HAT was monitored by gas chromatography. Conversion to the major products anthracene, TsNH 2, and ArI is too fast to be explained by direct HAT from the terminal imido complex TsN=Mn(tpfc), which forms from the reaction of Mn(tpfc) with ArINTs. Steady-state kinetics, isotope effects, and variation of the initial catalyst form (Mn (III)(tpfc) vs TsN=Mn (V)(tpfc)) support a mechanism in which the active catalytic species is an adduct of manganese(III) with the oxidant, (ArINTs)Mn (III)(tpfc). This species was detected by rapid-scan stopped-flow absorption spectroscopy. Kinetic simulations demonstrated the viability of this mechanism in contrast to other proposals. PMID:18855381

  5. Arsenic (III) adsorption on iron acetate coated activated alumina: thermodynamic, kinetics and equilibrium approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The adsorption potential of iron acetate coated activated alumina (IACAA) for removal of arsenic [As (III)] as arsenite by batch sorption technique is described. IACAA was characterized by XRD, FTIR, EDAX and SEM instruments. Percentage adsorption on IACAA was determined as a function of pH, contact time and adsorbent dose. The study revealed that the removal of As (III) was best achieved at pH =7.4. The initial As (III) concentration (0.45 mg/L) came down to less than 0.01 mg/L at contact time 90 min with adsorbent dose of 1 g/100 mL. The sorption was reasonably explained with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG 0 , ΔH 0 , ΔS 0 and E a were calculated in order to understand the nature of sorption process. The sorption process was found to be controlled by pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion models. PMID:24359995

  6. Decentralized University Studies in Economics and English/The DUNE Project--An Evaluative Project Under Sub-Project III, an Alternative Form of Distribution for Higher Education. Educational Development 1976:3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahllof, Urban

    A teaching system practiced in the Swedish DUNE project, Subproject III, offered an alternative to the usual concentrated form of higher education. An attempt was made to solve the problem of educational distribution by cooperative efforts among municipal authorities, adult education associations, and two postsecondary establishments, the…

  7. Light-Activated Protein Inhibition through Photoinduced Electron Transfer of a Ruthenium(II)–Cobalt(III) Bimetallic Complex

    PubMed Central

    Holbrook, Robert J.; Weinberg, David J.; Peterson, Mark D.; Weiss, Emily A.; Meade, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a mechanism of light activation that initiates protein inhibitory action of a biologically inert Co(III) Schiff base (Co(III)-sb) complex. Photoinduced electron transfer (PET) occurs from a Ru(II) bipyridal complex to a covalently attached Co(III) complex and is gated by conformational changes that occur in tens of nanoseconds. Reduction of the Co(III)-sb by PET initiates displacement of the inert axial imidazole ligands, promoting coordination to active site histidines of α-thrombin. Upon exposure to 455 nm light, the rate of ligand exchange with 4-methylimidazole, a histidine mimic, increases by approximately 5-fold, as observed by NMR spectroscopy. Similarly, the rate of α-thrombin inhibition increases over 5-fold upon irradiation. These results convey a strategy for light activation of inorganic therapeutic agents through PET utilizing redox-active metal centers. PMID:25671465

  8. Project WET: Facilitator Handbook for Implementation of Activities in Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevebeck, Kathryn P.

    This handbook features ideas for implementing Project WET activities in Virginia. Project WET activities are designed for a variety of educational programs and can be used to complement existing curricula while addressing curricular objectives and educational standards nationwide. Activities include: (1) "Life Systems"; (2) "Atmospheric…

  9. Help with Solving Technological Problems in Project Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, Jean-Francois; Ginestie, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    In France, project activities figure predominantly in technology education. The general idea behind learning based on project activity is to allow the pupil to get involved in the activity in question, with the pupil tackling real situations rather than ones of an abstract nature. But too often, we notice that the pedagogical strategies used by…

  10. Evaluation of the Field Test of Project Information Packages: Volume III--Resource Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Salam, Nabeel; And Others

    The third of three volumes evaluating the first year field test of the Project Information Packages (PIPs) provides a cost analysis study as a key element in the total evaluation. The resource approach to cost analysis is explained and the specific resource methodology used in the main cost analysis of the 19 PIP field-test projects detailed. The…

  11. Epidermal growth factor receptor variant III mediates head and neck cancer cell invasion via STAT3 activation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shinsuke; Morgan, Sarah E.; Thomas, Sufi M.; Sen, Malabika; Leeman-Neill, Rebecca J.; Kuan, Chien-Tsun; Bigner, Darrell; Gooding, William E.; Lai, Stephen Y.; Grandis, Jennifer R.

    2009-01-01

    Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) is frequently over-expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) where aberrant signaling downstream of this receptor contributes to tumor growth. EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII) is the most commonly altered form of EGFR and contains a truncated ligand-binding domain. We previously reported that EGFRvIII is expressed in up to 40% of HNSCC tumors where it is associated with increased proliferation, tumor growth and chemoresistance to anti-tumor drugs including the EGFR targeting monoclonal antibody cetuximab. Cetuximab was FDA-approved in 2006 for HNSCC but has not been shown to prevent invasion or metastasis. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the mechanisms of EGFRvIII-mediated cell motility and invasion in HNSCC. We found that EGFRvIII induced HNSCC cell migration and invasion in conjunction with increased STAT3 activation, which was not abrogated by cetuximab treatment. Further investigation demonstrated that EGF-induced expression of the STAT3 target gene HIF1-α, was abolished by cetuximab in HNSCC cells expressing wild-type EGFR under hypoxic conditions, but not in EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC cells. These results suggest that EGFRvIII mediates HNSCC cell migration and invasion via increased STAT3 activation and induction of HIF1-α, which contribute to cetuximab resistance in EGFRvIII-expressing HNSCC tumors. PMID:20622897

  12. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  13. Wind River Watershed Project; Volume II of III Reports F and G, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, Patrick J.

    1999-11-01

    The authors report here their on-ground restoration actions. Part 1 describes work conducted by the Underwood Conservation District (UCD) on private lands. This work involves the Stabler Cut-Bank project. Part 2 describes work conducted by the U.S. Forest Service. The Stabler Cut-Bank Project is a cooperative stream restoration effort between Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the UCD, private landowners, the U.S. Forest Service (USFS), and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). The Stabler site was identified by UCD during stream surveys conducted in 1996 as part of a USFWS funded project aimed at initiating water quality and habitat restoration efforts on private lands in the basin. In 1997 the Wind River Watershed Council selected the project as a top priority demonstration project. The landowners were approached by the UCD and a partnership developed. Due to their expertise in channel rehabilitation, the Forest Service was consulted for the design and assisted with the implementation of the project. A portion of the initial phase of the project was funded by USFWS. However, the majority of funding (approximately 80%) has been provided by BPA and it is anticipated that additional work that is planned for the site will be conducted with BPA funds.

  14. Jobs and Self-Sufficiency: Goals of the Project, "Technical Support Services to the Developmentally Disabled, Region III." Final Report, October 1976 to September 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallik, Kalisankar; Shaver, Elaine M.

    The final report of a 3 year project to improve the quality of life of mentally retarded, cerebral palsied, and epileptic persons in Region III is presented. The first section details the efforts of the project staff in providing competitive employment opportunities or sheltered employment for 40 severely disabled persons. Equipment modification…

  15. A Comprehensive Model for Managing an ESEA Title III Project from Conception to Culmination. Report No. 3 of the Second National Study of PACE.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairfax County Schools, Baileys Crossroads, VA. Center for Effecting Educational Change.

    This report is a model to assist the planning, managing, and evaluation of all phases of projects funded under the ESEA Title III Projects to Advance Creativity in Education (PACE) program. Section 1 outlines a formula for successful proposal development. In addition to spelling out variables to be considered in forming a task force, assessing…

  16. Vanadium(III)-L-cysteine protects cisplatin-induced nephropathy through activation of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Basu, Abhishek; Singha Roy, Somnath; Bhattacharjee, Arin; Bhuniya, Avishek; Baral, Rathindranath; Biswas, Jaydip; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2016-01-01

    Cisplatin (CDDP) is one of the first-line anticancer drugs; however, the major limitation of CDDP therapy is development of nephrotoxicity (25-35% cases), whose precise mechanism mainly involves oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. Therefore, in search of a potential chemoprotectant, an organovanadium complex, viz., vanadium(III)-L-cysteine (VC-III) was evaluated against CDDP-induced nephropathy in mice. CDDP was administered intraperitoneally (5 mg/kg b.w.) and VC-III was given by oral gavage (1 mg/kg b.w.) in concomitant and pre-treatment schedule. The results showed that VC-III administration reduced (p < 0.001) serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen levels, suggesting amelioration of renal dysfunction. VC-III treatment also significantly (p < 0.001) prevented CDDP-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, and onset of lipid peroxidation in kidney tissues of the experimental mice. In addition, VC-III also substantially (p < 0.001) restored CDDP-induced depleted activities of the renal antioxidant enzymes such as, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, and glutathione (reduced) level. Furthermore, histopathological study also confirmed the renoprotective efficacy of VC-III. Western blotting analysis appended by immunohistochemical data showed that VC-III treatment quite effectively reduced the expression of proinflammatory mediators such as, NFκβ, COX-2 and IL-6. VC-III administration also stimulated Nrf2-mediated antioxidant defense system by promotion of downstream antioxidant enzymes, such as HO-1. Moreover, treatment with VC-III significantly (p < 0.001) enhanced CDDP-mediated cytotoxicity in MCF-7 and NCI-H520 human cancer cell lines. Thus, VC-III can serve as a suitable chemoprotectant and increase the therapeutic window of CDDP in cancer patients. PMID:26573721

  17. Nanocrystalline brookite with enhanced stability and photocatalytic activity: influence of lanthanum(III) doping.

    PubMed

    Perego, Céline; Wang, Yu-Heng; Durupthy, Olivier; Cassaignon, Sophie; Revel, Renaud; Jolivet, Jean-Pierre

    2012-02-01

    Metastable TiO(2) polymorphs are more promising materials than rutile for specific applications such as photocatalysis or catalysis support. This was clearly demonstrated for the anatase phase but still under consideration for brookite, which is difficult to obtain as pure phase. Moreover, the surface doping of anatase with lanthanum ions is known to both increase the thermal stability of the metastable phase and improve its photocatalytic activity. In this study, TiO(2) nanoparticles of almost only the brookite structure were prepared by a simple sol-gel procedure in aqueous solution. The nanoparticles were then doped with lanthanum(III) ions. The thermal stability of the nanoparticles was analyzed by X-ray diffraction and kinetic models were successfully applied to quantify phases evolutions. The presence of surface-sorbed lanthanum(III) ions increased the phase stability of at least 200 °C and this temperature shift was attributed to the selective phase stabilization of metastable TiO(2) polymorphs. Moreover, the combination of the surface doping ions and the thermal treatment induces the vanishing of the secondary anatase phase, and the photocatalytic tests on the doped brookite nanoparticles demonstrated that the doping increased photocatalytic activity and that the extent depended on the duration of the sintering treatment. PMID:22201282

  18. Detergent Isolation Stabilizes and Activates the Shigella Type III Secretion System Translocator Protein IpaC.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Abram R; Duarte, Shari M; Kumar, Prashant; Dickenson, Nicholas E

    2016-07-01

    Shigella rely on a type III secretion system as the primary virulence factor for invasion and colonization of human hosts. Although there are an estimated 90 million Shigella infections, annually responsible for more than 100,000 deaths worldwide, challenges isolating and stabilizing many type III secretion system proteins have prevented a full understanding of the Shigella invasion mechanism and additionally slowed progress toward a much needed Shigella vaccine. Here, we show that the non-denaturing zwitterionic detergent N, N-dimethyldodecylamine N-oxide (LDAO) and non-ionic detergent n-octyl-oligo-oxyethylene efficiently isolated the hydrophobic Shigella translocator protein IpaC from the co-purified IpaC/IpgC chaperone-bound complex. Both detergents resulted in monomeric IpaC that exhibits strong membrane binding and lysis characteristics while the chaperone-bound complex does not, suggesting that the stabilizing detergents provide a means of following IpaC "activation" in vitro. Additionally, biophysical characterization found that LDAO provides significant thermal and temporal stability to IpaC, protecting it for several days at room temperature and brief exposure to temperatures reaching 90°C. In summary, this work identified and characterized conditions that provide stable, membrane active IpaC, providing insight into key interactions with membranes and laying a strong foundation for future vaccine formulation studies taking advantage of the native immunogenicity of IpaC and the stability provided by LDAO. PMID:27297397

  19. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  20. Active Center Control of Termination by RNA Polymerase III and tRNA Gene Transcription Levels In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Rijal, Keshab; Maraia, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of RNA polymerase (RNAP) III to efficiently recycle from termination to reinitiation is critical for abundant tRNA production during cellular proliferation, development and cancer. Yet understanding of the unique termination mechanisms used by RNAP III is incomplete, as is its link to high transcription output. We used two tRNA-mediated suppression systems to screen for Rpc1 mutants with gain- and loss- of termination phenotypes in S. pombe. 122 point mutation mutants were mapped to a recently solved 3.9 Å structure of yeast RNAP III elongation complex (EC); they cluster in the active center bridge helix and trigger loop, as well as the pore and funnel, the latter of which indicate involvement of the RNA cleavage domain of the C11 subunit in termination. Purified RNAP III from a readthrough (RT) mutant exhibits increased elongation rate. The data strongly support a kinetic coupling model in which elongation rate is inversely related to termination efficiency. The mutants exhibit good correlations of terminator RT in vitro and in vivo, and surprisingly, amounts of transcription in vivo. Because assessing in vivo transcription can be confounded by various parameters, we used a tRNA reporter with a processing defect and a strong terminator. By ruling out differences in RNA decay rates, the data indicate that mutants with the RT phenotype synthesize more RNA than wild type cells, and than can be accounted for by their increased elongation rate. Finally, increased activity by the mutants appears unrelated to the RNAP III repressor, Maf1. The results show that the mobile elements of the RNAP III active center, including C11, are key determinants of termination, and that some of the mutations activate RNAP III for overall transcription. Similar mutations in spontaneous cancer suggest this as an unforeseen mechanism of RNAP III activation in disease. PMID:27518095

  1. Apolipoproteins C-I and C-III Inhibit Lipoprotein Lipase Activity by Displacement of the Enzyme from Lipid Droplets*

    PubMed Central

    Larsson, Mikael; Vorrsjö, Evelina; Talmud, Philippa; Lookene, Aivar; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2013-01-01

    Apolipoproteins (apo) C-I and C-III are known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, but the molecular mechanisms for this remain obscure. We present evidence that either apoC-I or apoC-III, when bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, prevent binding of LPL to the lipid/water interface. This results in decreased lipolytic activity of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that hydrophobic amino acid residues centrally located in the apoC-III molecule are critical for attachment to lipid emulsion particles and consequently inhibition of LPL activity. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins stabilize LPL and protect the enzyme from inactivating factors such as angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4). The addition of either apoC-I or apoC-III to triglyceride-rich particles severely diminished their protective effect on LPL and rendered the enzyme more susceptible to inactivation by angptl4. These observations were seen using chylomicrons as well as the synthetic lipid emulsion Intralipid. In the presence of the LPL activator protein apoC-II, more of apoC-I or apoC-III was needed for displacement of LPL from the lipid/water interface. In conclusion, we show that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit lipolysis by displacing LPL from lipid emulsion particles. We also propose a role for these apolipoproteins in the irreversible inactivation of LPL by factors such as angptl4. PMID:24121499

  2. Apolipoproteins C-I and C-III inhibit lipoprotein lipase activity by displacement of the enzyme from lipid droplets.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Mikael; Vorrsjö, Evelina; Talmud, Philippa; Lookene, Aivar; Olivecrona, Gunilla

    2013-11-22

    Apolipoproteins (apo) C-I and C-III are known to inhibit lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, but the molecular mechanisms for this remain obscure. We present evidence that either apoC-I or apoC-III, when bound to triglyceride-rich lipoproteins, prevent binding of LPL to the lipid/water interface. This results in decreased lipolytic activity of the enzyme. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that hydrophobic amino acid residues centrally located in the apoC-III molecule are critical for attachment to lipid emulsion particles and consequently inhibition of LPL activity. Triglyceride-rich lipoproteins stabilize LPL and protect the enzyme from inactivating factors such as angiopoietin-like protein 4 (angptl4). The addition of either apoC-I or apoC-III to triglyceride-rich particles severely diminished their protective effect on LPL and rendered the enzyme more susceptible to inactivation by angptl4. These observations were seen using chylomicrons as well as the synthetic lipid emulsion Intralipid. In the presence of the LPL activator protein apoC-II, more of apoC-I or apoC-III was needed for displacement of LPL from the lipid/water interface. In conclusion, we show that apoC-I and apoC-III inhibit lipolysis by displacing LPL from lipid emulsion particles. We also propose a role for these apolipoproteins in the irreversible inactivation of LPL by factors such as angptl4. PMID:24121499

  3. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2013-01-01

    World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Global Activity Module Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the World Energy Projection Plus (WEPS ) Global Activity Module (GAM) used to develop the International Energy Outlook for 2013 (IEO2013). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code.

  4. Project-Based Language Learning: An Activity Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbes, Marina; Carson, Lorna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an investigation of project-based language learning (PBLL) in a university language programme. Learner reflections of project work were analysed through Activity Theory, where tool-mediated activity is understood as the central unit of analysis for human interaction. Data were categorised according to the components of human…

  5. Special Education Diagnostic and Resource Center Project, 1967-68. ESEA Title III Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita Unified School District 259, KS.

    The project provided for the 2nd year of operation of a special education diagnostic and resource center, special classes, and supportive services for handicapped children and youth between the ages of 3 and 21. Cooperation was obtained from existing community agencies, participating school districts, and local private practitioners. Center staff…

  6. Efficacy, Outcomes, and Empowerment Evaluation of a School District NET Project, Part III: Theoretical Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller-Whitehead, Marie; Abbott, Gypsy

    The efficacy and outcomes of a U.S. Department of Agriculture Nutrition Education Training (NET) project designed to increase awareness of health risk and wellness factors for grade 9 students were studied. This paper comments on results from a survey of 125 ninth graders about the NET curriculum and results from a study of program impact on…

  7. Copper(III) Dithiocarbamates. An Undergraduate Experimental Project with Unexpected Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Victoriano, Luis I.

    2002-10-01

    We describe the products resulting from the reaction of copper(II) chloride and the ligand N,N,N’,N’,-tetraethylthiuram disulfide. This project experiment for undergraduate students involves the complete characterization of the reaction product and an explanation of the course followed by the reaction.

  8. Transportable Industrial Arts Learning Laboratories. Evaluation Report, 1968-1969. ESEA Title III Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwalm, George H.

    Four prefabricated mobile units housing specialized industrial arts equipment were rotated among four junior high schools in this project, which was designed to improve eighth grade student performance and teaching techniques. The demonstration group showed significantly greater gains in tool usage, problem solving abilities, consumer knowledge,…

  9. Rural Community College Initiative III. Building Teams for Institutional and Community Change. AACC Project Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eller, Ronald; Martinez, Ruben; Pace, Cynthia; Pavel, Michael; Barnett, Lynn

    This Project Brief focuses on the Ford Foundation's Rural Community College Initiative (RCCI), which aims to help selected community colleges in distressed communities expand their capacity to increase access to postsecondary education and to foster regional economic development. RCCI is geared to specific geographic regions where communities face…

  10. International Project Management Committee: Overview and Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation discusses the purpose and composition of the International Project Management Committee (IMPC). The IMPC was established by members of 15 space agencies, companies and professional organizations. The goal of the committee is to establish a means to share experiences and best practices with space project/program management practitioners at the global level. The space agencies that are involved are: AEB, DLR, ESA, ISRO, JAXA, KARI, and NASA. The industrial and professional organizational members are Comau, COSPAR, PMI, and Thales Alenia Space.

  11. Photosynthetic activity and protein overexpression found in Cr(III)-tolerant cells of the green algae Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M; Bartolomé, C M; Sánchez-Fortún, S

    2014-08-01

    Chromium is an important constituent in effluents obtained from chromium plating industries. Due to the highly toxic nature of Cr(VI), attention has been shifted to less hazardous Cr(III) electroplating processes. This study evaluated aquatic toxicity of Cr(III)-containing laboratory samples representative of effluents from chromium electroplating industries, on the photosynthetic activity exhibited by both Cr(III)-sensitive (Dc1M(wt)) and tolerant (Dc1M(Cr(III)R30)) Dictyosphaerium chlorelloides strains. Additionally, selected de novo-determined peptide sequences, obtained from Dc1M(Cr(III)R30), have been analyzed to evidence the possible Cr(III) toxic mechanism involved in the resistance of these cells to high Cr(III) levels in aquatic environments. Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) strain exhibited a gross photosynthetic balance of about five times lower than that exhibited by Dc1M(wt) strain, demonstrating that Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) has a photosynthetic yield significantly lower than Dc1M(wt). SDS-PAGE of Dc1M(Cr(III)R30) samples showed the presence of at least two protein bands (23.05 and 153.46 KDa, respectively) absent in wild-type strain samples. Although it has achieved a low coincidence between the lower molecular weight band and a GTPase identified from genome of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, none of de novo peptide sequences obtained showed a significant MS-BLAST score, so that further studies will be required. PMID:24556547

  12. Structure-activity relationship for Fe(III)-salen-like complexes as potent anticancer agents.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R; Matin, Maryam M; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R (2) train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q (2) LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

  13. Structure-Activity Relationship for Fe(III)-Salen-Like Complexes as Potent Anticancer Agents

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Zahra; Housaindokht, Mohammad R.; Izadyar, Mohammad; Bozorgmehr, Mohammad R.; Eshtiagh-Hosseini, Hossein; Bahrami, Ahmad R.; Matin, Maryam M.; Khoshkholgh, Maliheh Javan

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative structure activity relationship (QSAR) for the anticancer activity of Fe(III)-salen and salen-like complexes was studied. The methods of density function theory (B3LYP/LANL2DZ) were used to optimize the structures. A pool of descriptors was calculated: 1497 theoretical descriptors and quantum-chemical parameters, shielding NMR, and electronic descriptors. The study of structure and activity relationship was performed with multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN). In nonlinear method, the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was applied in order to choose the most effective descriptors. The ANN-ANFIS model with high statistical significance (R2train = 0.99, RMSE = 0.138, and Q2LOO = 0.82) has better capability to predict the anticancer activity of the new compounds series of this family. Based on this study, anticancer activity of this compound is mainly dependent on the geometrical parameters, position, and the nature of the substituent of salen ligand. PMID:24955417

  14. Type III interferon (IFN-lambda) antagonizes the antiviral activity of interferon-alpha in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bordi, L; Lalle, E; Lapa, D; Caglioti, C; Quartu, S; Capobianchi, M R; Castilletti, C

    2013-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-lambda) are the most recently discovered members of IFN family. Synergism between different IFN types is well established, but for type I and type III IFNs no conclusive evidence has been reported so far. Possible synergism/antagonism between IFN-alpha and IFN-lambda in the inhibition of virus replication (EMCV, WNV lineage 1 and 2, CHIKV and HSV-1), and in the activation of intracellular pathways of IFN response (MxA and 2'-5' OAS) was evaluated in different cell lines (Vero E6, A549 and Wish cells). The antiviral potency of IFN-lambda1 and -l2 was lower than that of IFN-alpha. When IFN-alpha and -lambda were used together, the Combination Index (CI) for virus inhibition was greater than 1 virtually for all virus/host cell systems, indicating antagonistic effect. Antagonism between IFN-alpha and -l was also observed for the induction of mRNA for both MxA and 2'-5'OAS. Elucidating the interplay between IFN-alpha and -lambda may help to better understand innate defence mechanisms against viral infections, including the molecular mechanisms underlying the influence of IL-28B polymorphisms in the response to HCV and other viral infections. PMID:24382181

  15. Local Luminous Infrared Galaxies. III. Co-evolution of Black Hole Growth and Star Formation Activity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang, Yiping; Hernán-Caballero, Antonio; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-01

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 × 107 M ⊙ using [Ne III] 15.56 μm and optical [O III] λ5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear ~1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 μm PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy. This work is based on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology under NASA contract 1407.

  16. LOCAL LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES. III. CO-EVOLUTION OF BLACK HOLE GROWTH AND STAR FORMATION ACTIVITY?

    SciTech Connect

    Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Hernan-Caballero, Antonio; Pereira-Santaella, Miguel; Rieke, George H.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Wang Yiping; Rigopoulou, Dimitra

    2013-03-10

    Local luminous infrared (IR) galaxies (LIRGs) have both high star formation rates (SFR) and a high AGN (Seyfert and AGN/starburst composite) incidence. Therefore, they are ideal candidates to explore the co-evolution of black hole (BH) growth and star formation (SF) activity, not necessarily associated with major mergers. Here, we use Spitzer/IRS spectroscopy of a complete volume-limited sample of local LIRGs (distances of <78 Mpc). We estimate typical BH masses of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} M{sub Sun} using [Ne III] 15.56 {mu}m and optical [O III] {lambda}5007 gas velocity dispersions and literature stellar velocity dispersions. We find that in a large fraction of local LIRGs, the current SFR is taking place not only in the inner nuclear {approx}1.5 kpc region, as estimated from the nuclear 11.3 {mu}m PAH luminosities, but also in the host galaxy. We next use the ratios between the SFRs and BH accretion rates (BHAR) to study whether the SF activity and BH growth are contemporaneous in local LIRGs. On average, local LIRGs have SFR to BHAR ratios higher than those of optically selected Seyferts of similar active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosities. However, the majority of the IR-bright galaxies in the revised-Shapley-Ames Seyfert sample behave like local LIRGs. Moreover, the AGN incidence tends to be higher in local LIRGs with the lowest SFRs. All of this suggests that in local LIRGs there is a distinct IR-bright star-forming phase taking place prior to the bulk of the current BH growth (i.e., AGN phase). The latter is reflected first as a composite and then as a Seyfert, and later as a non-LIRG optically identified Seyfert nucleus with moderate SF in its host galaxy.

  17. Calculus: An Active Approach with Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilbert, Steve; And Others

    Ithaca College, in New York, has developed and tested a projects-based first-year calculus course over the last 3 years which uses the graphs of functions and physical phenomena to illustrate and motivate the major concepts of calculus and to introduce students to mathematical modeling. The course curriculum is designed to: (1) emphasize on the…

  18. Novel class of Bi(iii) hydroxamato complexes: synthesis, urease inhibitory activity and activity against H. pylori.

    PubMed

    Keogan, D M; Twamley, B; Fitzgerald-Hughes, D; Griffith, D M

    2016-07-01

    Reaction of Bi(NO3)3 with benzohydroxamic acid (Bha) and salicylhydroxamic acid (Sha) gives the novel Bi(iii) complexes [Bi2(Bha-1H)2(μ-Bha-1H)2(η(2)-NO3)2] () and [Bi6(CH3OH)2(η(1)-NO3)2(η(2)-NO3)(OH2)2(Sha-1H)12](NO3)2 (). X-ray crystal structure of reveals two hydroxamato coordination modes; bidentate bridging (O, O') and bidentate non-bridging (O, O') and of reveals one coordination mode; bidentate bridging (O, O'). , specifically designed to and demonstrated to inhibit the activity of urease, exhibits excellent antibacterial activity against three strains of Helicobacter pylori with MIC ≥ 16 μg mL(-1). PMID:27314129

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP). III. (Sabbi+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabbi, E.; Lennon, D. J.; Anderson, J.; Cignoni, M.; van der Marel, R. P.; Zaritsky, D.; de Marchi, G.; Panagia, N.; Gouliermis, D. A.; Grebel, E. K.; Gallagher, J. S., III; Smith, L. J.; Sana, H.; Aloisi, A.; Tosi, M.; Evans, C. J.; Arab, H.; Boyer, M.; de Mink, S. E.; Gordon, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Larsen, S. S.; Ryon, J. E.; Zeidler, P.

    2016-02-01

    Hubble Tarantula Treasury Project (HTTP; HST 12939, PI Elena Sabbi + HST 12499, PI Danny Lennon) was awarded 60 orbits of HST time in cycle 20 to survey the entire Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus), using both the UVIS and the IR channels of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3), and, in parallel, the Wide Field Channel (WFC) of the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). See log of the observations (from 2011 Oct 03 to 2013 Sep 17) in table 1. (2 data files).

  20. ESCRT-III activation by parallel action of ESCRT-I/II and ESCRT-0/Bro1 during MVB biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Shaogeng; Buchkovich, Nicholas J; Henne, W Mike; Banjade, Sudeep; Kim, Yun Jung; Emr, Scott D

    2016-01-01

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) pathway facilitates multiple fundamental membrane remodeling events. Previously, we determined X-ray crystal structures of ESCRT-III subunit Snf7, the yeast CHMP4 ortholog, in its active and polymeric state (Tang et al., 2015). However, how ESCRT-III activation is coordinated by the upstream ESCRT components at endosomes remains unclear. Here, we provide a molecular explanation for the functional divergence of structurally similar ESCRT-III subunits. We characterize novel mutations in ESCRT-III Snf7 that trigger activation, and identify a novel role of Bro1, the yeast ALIX ortholog, in Snf7 assembly. We show that upstream ESCRTs regulate Snf7 activation at both its N-terminal core domain and the C-terminus α6 helix through two parallel ubiquitin-dependent pathways: the ESCRT-I-ESCRT-II-Vps20 pathway and the ESCRT-0-Bro1 pathway. We therefore provide an enhanced understanding for the activation of the spatially unique ESCRT-III-mediated membrane remodeling. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15507.001 PMID:27074665

  1. Arene activation by a nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex: pathways leading to phenol and ketone products.

    PubMed

    Faponle, Abayomi S; Banse, Frédéric; de Visser, Sam P

    2016-07-01

    Iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are found in various nonheme iron enzymes as catalytic cycle intermediates; however, little is known on their catalytic properties. The recent work of Banse and co-workers on a biomimetic nonheme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex provided evidence of its involvement in reactivity with arenes. This contrasts the behavior of heme iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes that are known to be sluggish oxidants. To gain insight into the reaction mechanism of the biomimetic iron(III)-hydroperoxo complex with arenes, we performed a computational (density functional theory) study. The calculations show that iron(III)-hydroperoxo reacts with substrates via low free energies of activation that should be accessible at room temperature. Moreover, a dominant ketone reaction product is observed as primary products rather than the thermodynamically more stable phenols. These product distributions are analyzed and the calculations show that charge interaction between the iron(III)-hydroxo group and the substrate in the intermediate state pushes the transferring proton to the meta-carbon atom of the substrate and guides the selectivity of ketone formation. These studies show that the relative ratio of ketone versus phenol as primary products can be affected by external interactions of the oxidant with the substrate. Moreover, iron(III)-hydroperoxo complexes are shown to selectively give ketone products, whereas iron(IV)-oxo complexes will react with arenes to form phenols instead. PMID:27099221

  2. Bile salt receptor complex activates a pathogenic type III secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peng; Rivera-Cancel, Giomar; Kinch, Lisa N; Salomon, Dor; Tomchick, Diana R; Grishin, Nick V; Orth, Kim

    2016-01-01

    Bile is an important component of the human gastrointestinal tract with an essential role in food absorption and antimicrobial activities. Enteric bacterial pathogens have developed strategies to sense bile as an environmental cue to regulate virulence genes during infection. We discovered that Vibrio parahaemolyticus VtrC, along with VtrA and VtrB, are required for activating the virulence type III secretion system 2 in response to bile salts. The VtrA/VtrC complex activates VtrB in the presence of bile salts. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domains of the VtrA/VtrC heterodimer reveals a β-barrel with a hydrophobic inner chamber. A co-crystal structure of VtrA/VtrC with bile salt, along with biophysical and mutational analysis, demonstrates that the hydrophobic chamber binds bile salts and activates the virulence network. As part of a family of conserved signaling receptors, VtrA/VtrC provides structural and functional insights into the evolutionarily conserved mechanism used by bacteria to sense their environment. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15718.001 PMID:27377244

  3. Human NAIP and mouse NAIP1 recognize bacterial type III secretion needle protein for inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jieling; Zhao, Yue; Shi, Jianjin; Shao, Feng

    2013-08-27

    Inflammasome mediated by central nucleotide-binding and oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein is critical for defense against bacterial infection. Here we show that type III secretion system (T3SS) needle proteins from several bacterial pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium, enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Shigella flexneri, and Burkholderia spp., can induce robust inflammasome activation in both human monocyte-derived and mouse bone marrow macrophages. Needle protein activation of human NRL family CARD domain containing 4 (NLRC4) inflammasome requires the sole human neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (hNAIP). Among the seven mouse NAIPs, NAIP1 functions as the mouse counterpart of hNAIP. We found that NAIP1 recognition of T3SS needle proteins was more robust in mouse dendritic cells than in bone marrow macrophages. Needle proteins, as well as flagellin and rod proteins from five different bacteria, exhibited differential and cell type-dependent inflammasome-stimulating activity. Comprehensive profiling of the three types of NAIP ligands revealed that NAIP1 sensing of the needle protein dominated S. flexneri-induced inflammasome activation, particularly in dendritic cells. hNAIP/NAIP1 and NAIP2/5 formed a large oligomeric complex with NLRC4 in the presence of corresponding bacterial ligands, and could support reconstitution of the NLRC4 inflammasome in a ligand-specific manner. PMID:23940371

  4. Spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III)-mediated radiofluorination of non-activated and hindered aromatics.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Benjamin H; Stephenson, Nickeisha A; Vasdev, Neil; Liang, Steven H

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine-18 (t½=109.7 min) is the most commonly used isotope to prepare radiopharmaceuticals for molecular imaging by positron emission tomography (PET). Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions of suitably activated (electron-deficient) aromatic substrates with no-carrier-added [(18)F]fluoride ion are routinely carried out in the synthesis of radiotracers in high specific activities. Despite extensive efforts to develop a general (18)F-labelling technique for non-activated arenes there is an urgent and unmet need to achieve this goal. Here we describe an effective solution that relies on the chemistry of spirocyclic hypervalent iodine(III) complexes, which serve as precursors for rapid, one-step regioselective radiofluorination with [(18)F]fluoride. This methodology proves to be efficient for radiolabelling a diverse range of non-activated functionalized arenes and heteroarenes, including arene substrates bearing electron-donating groups, bulky ortho functionalities, benzylic substituents and meta-substituted electron-withdrawing groups. Polyfunctional molecules and a range of previously elusive (18)F-labelled building blocks, compounds and radiopharmaceuticals are synthesized. PMID:25007318

  5. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  6. The Bacterial Alarmone (p)ppGpp Activates the Type III Secretion System in Erwinia amylovora

    PubMed Central

    Ancona, Veronica; Lee, Jae Hoon; Chatnaparat, Tiyakhon; Oh, Jinrok; Hong, Jong-In

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The hypersensitive response and pathogenicity (hrp) type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Erwinia amylovora. Previous studies have demonstrated that the T3SS in E. amylovora is transcriptionally regulated by a sigma factor cascade. In this study, the role of the bacterial alarmone ppGpp in activating the T3SS and virulence of E. amylovora was investigated using ppGpp mutants generated by Red recombinase cloning. The virulence of a ppGpp-deficient mutant (ppGpp0) as well as a dksA mutant of E. amylovora was completely impaired, and bacterial growth was significantly reduced, suggesting that ppGpp is required for full virulence of E. amylovora. Expression of T3SS genes was greatly downregulated in the ppGpp0 and dksA mutants. Western blotting showed that accumulations of the HrpA protein in the ppGpp0 and dksA mutants were about 10 and 4%, respectively, of that in the wild-type strain. Furthermore, higher levels of ppGpp resulted in a reduced cell size of E. amylovora. Moreover, serine hydroxamate and α-methylglucoside, which induce amino acid and carbon starvation, respectively, activated hrpA and hrpL promoter activities in hrp-inducing minimal medium. These results demonstrated that ppGpp and DksA play central roles in E. amylovora virulence and indicated that E. amylovora utilizes ppGpp as an internal messenger to sense environmental/nutritional stimuli for regulation of the T3SS and virulence. IMPORTANCE The type III secretion system (T3SS) is a key pathogenicity factor in Gram-negative bacteria. Fully elucidating how the T3SS is activated is crucial for comprehensively understanding the function of the T3SS, bacterial pathogenesis, and survival under stress conditions. In this study, we present the first evidence that the bacterial alarmone ppGpp-mediated stringent response activates the T3SS through a sigma factor cascade, indicating that ppGpp acts as an internal messenger to sense environmental/nutritional stimuli for

  7. Esmeralda Energy Company, Final Scientific Technical Report, January 2008. Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project, DOE GRED III

    SciTech Connect

    Deymonaz, John; Hulen, Jeffrey B.; Nash, Gregory D.; Schriener, Alex

    2008-01-22

    The Emigrant Slimhole Drilling Project (ESDP) was a highly successful, phased resource evaluation program designed to evaluate the commercial geothermal potential of the eastern margin of the northern Fish Lake Valley pull-apart basin in west-central Nevada. The program involved three phases: (1) Resource evaluation; (2) Drilling and resource characterization; and (3) Resource testing and assessment. Efforts included detailed geologic mapping; 3-D modeling; compilation of a GIS database; and production of a conceptual geologic model followed by the successful drilling of the 2,938 foot deep 17-31 slimhole (core hole), which encountered commercial geothermal temperatures (327⁰ F) and exhibits an increasing, conductive, temperature gradient to total depth; completion of a short injection test; and compilation of a detailed geologic core log and revised geologic cross-sections. Results of the project greatly increased the understanding of the geologic model controlling the Emigrant geothermal resource. Information gained from the 17-31 core hole revealed the existence of commercial temperatures beneath the area in the Silver Peak Core Complex which is composed of formations that exhibit excellent reservoir characteristics. Knowledge gained from the ESDP may lead to the development of a new commercial geothermal field in Nevada. Completion of the 17-31 core hole also demonstrated the cost-effectiveness of deep core drilling as an exploration tool and the unequaled value of core in understanding the geology, mineralogy, evolutional history and structural aspects of a geothermal resource.

  8. Annex III-evaluation of past and ongoing enhanced oil recovery projects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-02-01

    The Infill Drilling Predictive Model (IDPM) was developed by Scientific Software-Intercomp (SSI) for the Bartlesville Project Office (BPO) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The model and certain adaptations thereof were used in conjunction with other models to support the Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission`s (IOGCC) 1993 state-by-state assessment of the potential domestic reserves achievable through the application of Advanced Secondary Recovery (ASR) and Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) techniques. Funding for this study was provided by the DOE/BPO, which additionally provided technical support. The IDPM is a three-dimensional (stratified, five-spot), two-phase (oil and water) model which uses a minimal amount of reservoir and geologic data to generate production and recovery forecasts for ongoing waterflood and infill drilling projects. The model computes water-oil displacement and oil recovery using finite difference solutions within streamtubes. It calculates the streamtube geometries and uses a two-dimensional reservoir simulation to track fluid movement in each streamtube slice. Thus the model represents a hybrid of streamtube and numerical simulators.

  9. Dynamics of the Type III Secretion System Activity of Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Erez; Baruch, Kobi; Aviv, Gili; Nitzan, Mor; Rosenshine, Ilan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Type III secretion systems (TTSSs) are employed by pathogens to translocate host cells with effector proteins, which are crucial for virulence. The dynamics of effector translocation, behavior of the translocating bacteria, translocation temporal order, and relative amounts of each of the translocated effectors are all poorly characterized. To address these issues, we developed a microscopy-based assay that tracks effector translocation. We used this assay alongside a previously described real-time population-based translocation assay, focusing mainly on enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) and partly comparing it to Salmonella. We found that the two pathogens exhibit different translocation behaviors: in EPEC, a subpopulation that formed microcolonies carried out most of the translocation activity, while Salmonella executed protein translocation as planktonic bacteria. We also noted variability in host cell susceptibility, with some cells highly resistant to translocation. We next extended the study to determine the translocation dynamics of twenty EPEC effectors and found that all exhibited distinct levels of translocation efficiency. Further, we mapped the global effects of key TTSS-related components on TTSS activity. Our results provide a comprehensive description of the dynamics of the TTSS activity of EPEC and new insights into the mechanisms that control the dynamics. PMID:23900171

  10. Synthesis, structures and urease inhibitory activity of cobalt(III) complexes with Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Jing, Changling; Wang, Cunfang; Yan, Kai; Zhao, Kedong; Sheng, Guihua; Qu, Dan; Niu, Fang; Zhu, Hailiang; You, Zhonglu

    2016-01-15

    A series of new cobalt(III) complexes were prepared. They are [CoL(1)(py)3]·NO3 (1), [CoL(2)(bipy)(N3)]·CH3OH (2), [CoL(3)(HL(3))(N3)]·NO3 (3), and [CoL(4)(MeOH)(N3)] (4), where L(1), L(2), L(3) and L(4) are the deprotonated form of N'-(2-hydroxy-5-methoxybenzylidene)-3-methylbenzohydrazide, N'-(2-hydroxybenzylidene)-3-hydroxylbenzohydrazide, 2-[(2-dimethylaminoethylimino)methyl]-4-methylphenol, and N,N'-bis(5-methylsalicylidene)-o-phenylenediamine, respectively, py is pyridine, and bipy is 2,2'-bipyridine. The complexes were characterized by infrared and UV-Vis spectra, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The Co atoms in the complexes are in octahedral coordination. Complexes 1 and 4 show effective urease inhibitory activities, with IC50 values of 4.27 and 0.35 μmol L(-1), respectively. Complex 2 has medium activity against urease, with IC50 value of 68.7 μmol L(-1). While complex 3 has no activity against urease. Molecular docking study of the complexes with Helicobacter pylori urease was performed. PMID:26712097

  11. The Taiwanese-American occultation survey project stellar variability. III. Detection of 58 new variable stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ishioka, R.; Wang, S.-Y.; Zhang, Z.-W.; Lehner, M. J.; Cook, K. H.; King, S.-K.; Lee, T.; Marshall, S. L.; Schwamb, M. E.; Wang, J.-H.; Wen, C.-Y.; Alcock, C.; Protopapas, P.; Axelrod, T.; Bianco, F. B.; Byun, Y.-I.; Chen, W. P.; Ngeow, C.-C.; Kim, D.-W.; Rice, J. A.

    2014-04-01

    The Taiwanese-American Occultation Survey project is designed for the detection of stellar occultations by small-size Kuiper Belt Objects, and it has monitored selected fields along the ecliptic plane by using four telescopes with a 3 deg{sup 2} field of view on the sky since 2005. We have analyzed data accumulated during 2005-2012 to detect variable stars. Sixteen fields with observations of more than 100 epochs were examined. We recovered 85 variables among a total of 158 known variable stars in these 16 fields. Most of the unrecovered variables are located in the fields observed less frequently. We also detected 58 variable stars which are not listed in the International Variable Star Index of the American Association of Variable Star Observers. These variable stars are classified as 3 RR Lyrae, 4 Cepheid, 1 δ Scuti, 5 Mira, 15 semi-regular, and 27 eclipsing binaries based on the periodicity and the profile of the light curves.

  12. DNA ligase III is the major high molecular weight DNA joining activity in SV40-transformed human fibroblasts: normal levels of DNA ligase III activity in Bloom syndrome cells.

    PubMed Central

    Tomkinson, A E; Starr, R; Schultz, R A

    1993-01-01

    The phenotypes of cultured cell lines established from individuals with Bloom syndrome (BLM), including an elevated spontaneous frequency of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs), are consistent with a defect in DNA joining. We have investigated the levels of DNA ligase I and DNA ligase III in an SV40-transformed control and BLM fibroblast cell line, as well as clonal derivatives of the BLM cell line complemented or not for the elevated SCE phenotype. No differences in either DNA ligase I or DNA ligase III were detected in extracts from these cell lines. Furthermore, the data indicate that in dividing cultures of SV40-transformed fibroblasts, DNA ligase III contributes > 85% of high molecular weight DNA joining activity. This observation contrasts with previous studies in which DNA ligase I was reported to be the major DNA joining activity in extracts from proliferating mammalian cells. Images PMID:8265359

  13. Creating Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures through Project ALOHA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Claire; Anderson, Thomas; Sakuda, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Describes an integrated curriculum project for fourth graders in a Hawaiian elementary school with a highly transient population. The project, ALOHA (Active Learners on Hawaiian Adventures) was developed to motivate students in learning about Hawaii's culture and ecosystems. Cooperation between the library media specialist, technology coordinator,…

  14. Project Destiny: Initiating Physical Activity for Nonathletic Girls through Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyles, Carli; Lounsbery, Monica

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to emphasize the need to develop unique physical activity and sport programs that specifically target the participation of nonathletic and nonactive girls. In addition, the authors provide an overview of an example of one such program, Project Destiny. A description of Project Destiny is provided in terms of its…

  15. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections

    PubMed Central

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented. PMID:27413392

  16. Human Activity Recognition in AAL Environments Using Random Projections.

    PubMed

    Damaševičius, Robertas; Vasiljevas, Mindaugas; Šalkevičius, Justas; Woźniak, Marcin

    2016-01-01

    Automatic human activity recognition systems aim to capture the state of the user and its environment by exploiting heterogeneous sensors attached to the subject's body and permit continuous monitoring of numerous physiological signals reflecting the state of human actions. Successful identification of human activities can be immensely useful in healthcare applications for Ambient Assisted Living (AAL), for automatic and intelligent activity monitoring systems developed for elderly and disabled people. In this paper, we propose the method for activity recognition and subject identification based on random projections from high-dimensional feature space to low-dimensional projection space, where the classes are separated using the Jaccard distance between probability density functions of projected data. Two HAR domain tasks are considered: activity identification and subject identification. The experimental results using the proposed method with Human Activity Dataset (HAD) data are presented. PMID:27413392

  17. Solar Energy Project, Activities: General Solar Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of activities which introduce students to concepts and issues relating to solar energy. Lessons frequently presented in the context of solar energy as it relates to contemporary energy problems. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; necessary skills and knowledge; materials; method;…

  18. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Chemistry & Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of chemistry and physics experiments. Each unit presents an introduction to the unit; objectives; required skills and knowledge; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet.…

  19. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Junior High Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of the junior high science curriculum. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; methods; questions; recommendations for further work; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  20. Solar Energy Project, Activities: Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tullock, Bruce, Ed.; And Others

    This guide contains lesson plans and outlines of science activities which present concepts of solar energy in the context of earth science experiments. Each unit presents an introduction; objectives; skills and knowledge needed; materials; method; questions; recommendations for further study; and a teacher information sheet. The teacher…

  1. An Overhead Projection Demonstration of Optical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, John W.

    1973-01-01

    Describes the use of two polarizing lenses, a yellow filter, an oatmeal bos, a piece of cardboard, a 1,000 ml beaker, and an overhead projector to demonstrate compound optical activity to large classes. Indicates the presence of an accuracy within 1-2 degrees of usually acceptable data. (CC)

  2. Coordination polymers of Fe(iii) and Al(iii) ions with TCA ligand: distinctive fluorescence, CO2 uptake, redox-activity and oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Dhara, Barun; Sappati, Subrahmanyam; Singh, Santosh K; Kurungot, Sreekumar; Ghosh, Prasenjit; Ballav, Nirmalya

    2016-04-28

    Fe and Al belong to different groups in the periodic table, one from the p-block and the other from the d-block. In spite of their different groups, they have the similarity of exhibiting a stable 3+ oxidation state. Here we have prepared Fe(iii) and Al(iii) based coordination polymers in the form of metal-organic gels with the 4,4',4''-tricarboxyltriphenylamine (TCA) ligand, namely Fe-TCA and Al-TCA, and evaluated some important physicochemical properties. Specifically, the electrical conductivity, redox-activity, porosity, and electrocatalytic activity (oxygen evolution reaction) of the Fe-TCA system were noted to be remarkably higher than those of the Al-TCA system. As for the photophysical properties, almost complete quenching of the fluorescence originating from TCA was observed in case of the Fe-TCA system, whereas for the Al-TCA system a significant retention of fluorescence with red-shifted emission was observed. Quantum mechanical calculations based on density functional theory (DFT) were performed to unravel the origin of such discriminative behaviour of these coordination polymer systems. PMID:26961352

  3. Mathematics. MDC-Squared Review Guide. Course III. A Co-Ser Project of the Cortland-Madison BOCES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Patricia A.; And Others

    This review guide, prepared as an aid to teachers of Course III, starts with a pre-test review of Course II topics found again in Course III. The five units of Course III, as outlined in the New York State Syllabus, are then separated into nine smaller units. These include: real numbers; complex numbers; functions; logarithms; trigonometry;…

  4. Water-soluble Co(III) complexes of substituted phenanthrolines with cell selective anticancer activity.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Sivaraman; Balasubramanian, Vimalkumar; Baumann, Patric; Neuburger, Markus; Häussinger, Daniel; Palivan, Cornelia G

    2013-11-01

    Transition metal complexes with substituted phenanthrolines as ligands represent potential anticancer products without the drawbacks of platinum complexes that are currently marketed. Here, we report the synthesis and cell selective anticancer activity of five new water-soluble Co(III) complexes with methyl substituted phenanthroline ligands. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, FAB-mass spectrometry, FTIR, electronic spectroscopy, and single crystal X-ray diffraction. Possible interaction of these complexes with DNA was assessed by a combination of circular dichroism, UV-vis spectroscopy titration, and ethidium bromide displacement assay, and the results indicated that DNA interaction is weak for these complexes. Cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of complexes at low concentrations were assessed by flow cytometry on PC-3 cells, while their effect on intracellular mitochondrial function was measured by MTS assay on HeLa and PC-3 cell lines. These complexes showed selective cytotoxicity with a significantly higher effect on intracellular mitochondrial function in PC-3 cells than in HeLa cells. At low concentrations, complex 2 had the highest cytotoxic effect on PC-3 cells, inducing around 38% cell death, and the correlation of cytotoxicity of these complexes to their hydrophobicity indicates that an appropriate value of the hydrophobicity is essential for high antitumor activity. PMID:24127683

  5. Designing an Active Target Test Projection Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koci, James; Tan Ahn Collaboration, Dr.; Nicolas Dixneuf Collaboration

    2015-10-01

    The development of instrumentation in nuclear physics is crucial for advancing our ability to measure the properties of exotic nuclei. One limitation of the use of exotic nuclei in experiment is their very low production intensities. Recently, detectors, called active-target dectectors, have been developed to address this issue. Active-target detectors use a gas medium to image charged-particle tracks that are emitted in nuclear reactions. Last semester, I designed a vacuum chamber to be used in developing Micro-Pattern Gas detectors that will upgrade the capabilities of an active-target detector called the Prototype AT-TPC. With the exterior of the chamber complete, I have now been using an electric field modeling program, Garfield, developed by CERN to design a field cage to be placed within the vacuum chamber. The field cage will be a box-like apparatus consisting of two parallel metal plates connected with a resistor chain and attached to wires wrapped between them. The cage will provide a uniform electric field within the chamber to drift electrons from nuclear reactions down to the detector in the bottom of the chamber. These signals are then amplified by a proportional counter, and the data is sent to a computer. For the long term, we would like to incorporate a Micro-Pattern Gas Detectors in the interior of the chamber and eventually use the AT-TPC to examine various nuclei. Dr. Ahn is my advising professor.

  6. Culturally Oriented Instructional Materials for Pima Children. Final Report, Academic Year 1969-70, for an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Weston L., Comp.

    Culturally oriented instructional materials for Pima children are described in this final report of a 3-year study funded by the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, Title III. The reported objective of the project was to assist the Pima children living on the Gila River Indian Reservation in Arizona to develop a positive self-image and a sense…

  7. Tuning the geometry and biomimetic catalytic activity of manganese(III)-tetrabromocatecholate based robust platforms by introducing substitution at pyridine.

    PubMed

    Jana, Narayan Ch; Brandão, Paula; Panja, Anangamohan

    2016-06-01

    The present report describes synthesis, characterization, crystal structures and catecholase activity of a series of five new manganese(III) complexes (1-5) derived from redox-noninnocent tetrabromocatecholate ligand in combination with different substituted pyridines. X-ray crystallography reveals that the geometry of manganese(III) centers in 1 and 2 is square pyramidal and they are pseudo-dimeric in the solid state resulting from the weak bonding of manganese(III) with a catecholate oxygen atom from the adjacent manganese(III) unit together with other weak interactions like hydrogen bonding and π⋯π stacking interactions. On the other hand, complexes 3-5 are discrete octahedral structures. All the complexes exhibit strong catecholase activity and their diverse catalytic activity can nicely be explained by the nature of substitution at pyridine ring - better electron donor inhibits the reduction of the metal center thereby lowering catecholase activity and vice versa (1 and 2 vs. 3-5). Besides the donor property of ancillary ligands, the structural distortion has also significant role in the biomimetic catalytic activity (1 vs. 2). PMID:26970727

  8. Recent advances on antimony(III/V) compounds with potential activity against tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Hadjikakou, S K; Ozturk, I I; Banti, C N; Kourkoumelis, N; Hadjiliadis, N

    2015-12-01

    Antimony one of the heavier pnictogens, has been in medical use against microbes and parasites as well. Antimony-based drugs have been prescribed against leishmaniasis since the parasitic transmission of the tropical disease was understood in the beginning of the 20th century. The activity of arsenic against visceral leishmaniasis led to the synthesis of an array of arsenic-containing parasitic agents, among them the less toxic pentavalent antimonials: Stibosan, Neostibosan, and Ureastibamine. Other antimony drugs followed: sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and melglumine antimoniate (Glucantim or Glucantime); both continue to be in use today despite their toxic side effects and increasing loss in potency due to the growing resistance of the parasite against antimony. Antimony compounds and their therapeutic potentials are under consideration from many research groups, while a number of early reviews recording advances of antimony biomedical applications are also available. However, there are only few reports on the screening for antitumor potential of antimony compounds. This review focuses upon results obtained on the anti-proliferative activity of antimony compounds in the past years. This survey shows that antimony(III/V) complexes containing various types of ligands such as thiones, thiosemicarbazones, dithiocarbamates, carboxylic acids, or ketones, nitrogen donor ligands, exhibit selectivity against a variety of cancer cells. The role of the ligand type of the complex is elucidated within this review. The complexes and their biological activity are already reported elsewhere. However quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modeling studies have been carried out and they are reported for the first time here. PMID:26092367

  9. ESEA Title III 1972 - PACE in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research and Information Services for Education, King of Prussia, PA.

    This document is a collection of abstracts of all ESEA Title III educational innovation projects funded or operating in Pennsylvania during 1972. Each abstract contains the name of the local supporting agency, the project number, financial information, target population, major objectives, activities, evaluation design, findings to date,…

  10. A Region of Bdp1 Necessary for Transcription Initiation That Is Located within the RNA Polymerase III Active Site Cleft.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hui-Lan; Wu, Chih-Chien; Lee, Jin-Cheng; Chen, Hung-Ta

    2015-08-01

    The RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-specific transcription factor Bdp1 is crucial to Pol III recruitment and promoter opening in transcription initiation, yet structural information is sparse. To examine its protein-binding targets within the preinitiation complex at the residue level, photoreactive amino acids were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bdp1. Mutations within the highly conserved SANT domain cross-linked to the transcription factor IIB (TFIIB)-related transcription factor Brf1, consistent with the findings of previous studies. In addition, we identified an essential N-terminal region that cross-linked with the Pol III catalytic subunit C128 as well as Brf1. Closer examination revealed that this region interacted with the C128 N-terminal region, the N-terminal half of Brf1, and the C-terminal domain of the C37 subunit, together positioning this region within the active site cleft of the preinitiation complex. With our functional data, our analyses identified an essential region of Bdp1 that is positioned within the active site cleft of Pol III and necessary for transcription initiation. PMID:26055328

  11. A Region of Bdp1 Necessary for Transcription Initiation That Is Located within the RNA Polymerase III Active Site Cleft

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hui-Lan; Wu, Chih-Chien; Lee, Jin-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-specific transcription factor Bdp1 is crucial to Pol III recruitment and promoter opening in transcription initiation, yet structural information is sparse. To examine its protein-binding targets within the preinitiation complex at the residue level, photoreactive amino acids were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bdp1. Mutations within the highly conserved SANT domain cross-linked to the transcription factor IIB (TFIIB)-related transcription factor Brf1, consistent with the findings of previous studies. In addition, we identified an essential N-terminal region that cross-linked with the Pol III catalytic subunit C128 as well as Brf1. Closer examination revealed that this region interacted with the C128 N-terminal region, the N-terminal half of Brf1, and the C-terminal domain of the C37 subunit, together positioning this region within the active site cleft of the preinitiation complex. With our functional data, our analyses identified an essential region of Bdp1 that is positioned within the active site cleft of Pol III and necessary for transcription initiation. PMID:26055328

  12. Activities of NICT space weather project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murata, Ken T.; Nagatsuma, Tsutomu; Watari, Shinichi; Shinagawa, Hiroyuki; Ishii, Mamoru

    NICT (National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) has been in charge of space weather forecast service in Japan for more than 20 years. The main target region of the space weather is the geo-space in the vicinity of the Earth where human activities are dominant. In the geo-space, serious damages of satellites, international space stations and astronauts take place caused by energetic particles or electromagnetic disturbances: the origin of the causes is dynamically changing of solar activities. Positioning systems via GPS satellites are also im-portant recently. Since the most significant effect of positioning error comes from disturbances of the ionosphere, it is crucial to estimate time-dependent modulation of the electron density profiles in the ionosphere. NICT is one of the 13 members of the ISES (International Space Environment Service), which is an international assembly of space weather forecast centers under the UNESCO. With help of geo-space environment data exchanging among the member nations, NICT operates daily space weather forecast service every day to provide informa-tion on forecasts of solar flare, geomagnetic disturbances, solar proton event, and radio-wave propagation conditions in the ionosphere. The space weather forecast at NICT is conducted based on the three methodologies: observations, simulations and informatics (OSI model). For real-time or quasi real-time reporting of space weather, we conduct our original observations: Hiraiso solar observatory to monitor the solar activity (solar flare, coronal mass ejection, and so on), domestic ionosonde network, magnetometer HF radar observations in far-east Siberia, and south-east Asia low-latitude ionosonde network (SEALION). Real-time observation data to monitor solar and solar-wind activities are obtained through antennae at NICT from ACE and STEREO satellites. We have a middle-class super-computer (NEC SX-8R) to maintain real-time computer simulations for solar and solar

  13. Antiviral activity of bovine type III interferon against foot-and-mouth disease virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Interferons (IFN) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Recently a new family of IFNs, type III, has been identified in humans, mice, swine and chickens. Here we report the identification and characterization of a member of the bovine type III IFN family, boIFN-lambda3, also known...

  14. Subsurface Characterization and Seismic Monitoring for the Southwest Partnerships Phase III Demonstration Project at Farnsworth Field, TX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Will, R. A.; Balch, R. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Southwest Partnership on Carbon Sequestration is performing seismic based characterization and monitoring activities at an active CO2 EOR project at Farnsworth Field, Texas. CO2 is anthropogenically sourced from a fertilizer and an ethanol plant. The field has 13 CO2 injectors and has sequestered 302,982 metric tonnes of CO2 since October 2013. The field site provides an excellent laboratory for testing a range of monitoring technologies in an operating CO2 flood since planned development is sequential and allows for multiple opportunities to record zero CO2 baseline data, mid-flood data, and fully flooded data. The project is comparing and contrasting several scales of seismic technologies in order to determine best practices for large scale commercial sequestration projects. Characterization efforts include an 85 km2 3D surface seismic survey, baseline and repeat 3D VSP surveys centered on injection wells, cross-well tomography baseline and repeat surveys between injector/producer pairs, and a borehole passive seismic array to monitor induced seismicity. All surveys have contributed to detailed geologic models which were then used for fluid flow and risk assessment simulations. 3D VSP and cross-well data with repeat surveys have allowed for direct comparisons of the reservoir prior to CO2 injection and at eight months into injection, with a goal of imaging the CO2 plume as it moves away from injection wells. Additional repeat surveys at regular intervals will continue to refine the plume. The goal of this work is to demonstrate seismic based technologies to monitor CO2 sequestration projects, and to contribute to best practices manuals for commercial scale CO2 sequestration projects. In this talk the seismic plan will be outlined, progress towards goals enumerated, and preliminary results from baseline and repeat seismic data will be discussed. Funding for this project is provided by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FC26-05NT42591.

  15. Youth Initiatives and Projects on Human Rights and Ethics in Space Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, W.; Delegates, Sgs

    2002-01-01

    The `Declaration of Human Rights in Outer Space' project was initiated at the Space Generation Forum (SGF), at UNISPACE-III in 1999. These projects are being further developed at the Space Generation Summit (SGS), an event at World Space Congress (WSC) that will unite international students and young professionals to develop a youth vision and strategy for the peaceful uses of space. SGS, endorsed by the United Nations, will take place from October 11- 13th, during which the 200 delegates will discuss ongoing youth space activities, particularly those stemming from the UNISPACE-III/SGF and taken forward by the Space Generation Advisory Council. Delegates will address a variety of topics with the goal of devising new recommendations according to the theme, 'Accelerating Our Pace in Space'. The material presented here and in other technical sessions throughout WSC includes the findings of these discussions. In this paper, we present the work of the SGS delegates relating to ethical issues arising in space activities, and we discuss plans to organize a space ethics conference. This international and inter-generational event would aim to develop a vision and series of recommendations for how the space sector should proceed with regard to ethical issues. We present also the results of the Space Generation Summit with regards to initiating a declaration of human rights in space.

  16. POISSON project. III. Investigating the evolution of the mass accretion rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniucci, S.; García López, R.; Nisini, B.; Caratti o Garatti, A.; Giannini, T.; Lorenzetti, D.

    2014-12-01

    Context. As part of the Protostellar Optical-Infrared Spectral Survey On NTT (POISSON) project, we present the results of the analysis of low-resolution near-IR spectroscopic data (0.9-2.4 μm) of two samples of young stellar objects in the Lupus (52 objects) and Serpens (17 objects) star-forming clouds, with masses in the range of 0.1 to 2.0 M⊙ and ages spanning from 105 to a few 107 yr. Aims: After determining the accretion parameters of the targets by analysing their H i near-IR emission features, we added the results from the Lupus and Serpens clouds to those from previous regions (investigated in POISSON with the same methodology) to obtain a final catalogue (143 objects) of mass accretion rate values (Ṁacc) derived in a homogeneous and consistent fashion. Our final goal is to analyse how Ṁacc correlates with the stellar mass (M∗) and how it evolves in time in the whole POISSON sample. Methods: We derived the accretion luminosity (Lacc) and Ṁacc for Lupus and Serpens objects from the Brγ (Paβ in a few cases) line by using relevant empirical relationships available in the literature that connect the H i line luminosity and Lacc. To minimise the biases that arise from adopting literature data that are based on different evolutionary models and also for self-consistency, we re-derived mass and age for each source of the POISSON samples using the same set of evolutionary tracks. Results: We observe a correlation Ṁacc~M*2.2 between mass accretion rate and stellar mass, similarly to what has previously been observed in several star-forming regions. We find that the time variation of Ṁacc is roughly consistent with the expected evolution of the accretion rate in viscous disks, with an asymptotic decay that behaves as t-1.6. However, Ṁacc values are characterised by a large scatter at similar ages and are on average higher than the predictions of viscous models. Conclusions: Although part of the scattering may be related to systematics due to the

  17. Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation/cyclization of oximes with alkenes for regioselective synthesis of isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Qi, Jifeng; Mao, Zhenjun; Cui, Sunliang

    2016-07-14

    A Rh(iii)-catalyzed C-H activation/cyclization of oximes and alkenes for facile and regioselective access to isoquinolines has been developed. This protocol features mild reaction conditions and easily accessible starting materials, and has been applied to the concise synthesis of moxaverine. A kinetic isotope effect study was conducted and a plausible mechanism was proposed. PMID:27273816

  18. Mutation of Arg-115 of human class III alcohol dehydrogenase: a binding site required for formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity and fatty acid activation.

    PubMed Central

    Engeland, K; Höög, J O; Holmquist, B; Estonius, M; Jörnvall, H; Vallee, B L

    1993-01-01

    The origin of the fatty acid activation and formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity that distinguishes human class III alcohol dehydrogenase (alcohol:NAD+ oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.1) from all other alcohol dehydrogenases has been examined by site-directed mutagenesis of its Arg-115 residue. The Ala- and Asp-115 mutant proteins were expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography and ion-exchange HPLC. The activities of the recombinant native and mutant enzymes toward ethanol are essentially identical, but mutagenesis greatly decreases the kcat/Km values for glutathione-dependent formaldehyde oxidation. The catalytic efficiency for the Asp variant is < 0.1% that of the unmutated enzyme, due to both a higher Km and a lower kcat value. As with the native enzyme, neither mutant can oxidize methanol, be saturated by ethanol, or be inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole; i.e., they retain these class III characteristics. In contrast, however, their activation by fatty acids, another characteristic unique to class III alcohol dehydrogenase, is markedly attenuated. The Ala mutant is activated only slightly, but the Asp mutant is not activated at all. The results strongly indicate that Arg-115 in class III alcohol dehydrogenase is a component of the binding site for activating fatty acids and is critical for the binding of S-hydroxymethylglutathione in glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity. PMID:8460164

  19. DFT calculations, spectroscopic, thermal analysis and biological activity of Sm(III) and Tb(III) complexes with 2-aminobenzoic and 2-amino-5-chloro-benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Essawy, Amr A; Afifi, Manal A; Moustafa, H; El-Medani, S M

    2014-10-15

    The complexes of Sm(III) and Tb(III) with 2-aminobenzoic acid (anthranilic acid, AA) and 2-amino-5-chlorobenzoic acid (5-chloroanthranilic acid, AACl) were synthesized and characterized based on elemental analysis, IR and mass spectroscopy. The data are in accordance with 1:3 [Metal]:[Ligand] ratio. On the basis of the IR analysis, it was found that the metals were coordinated to bidentate anthranilic acid via the ionised oxygen of the carboxylate group and to the nitrogen of amino group. While in 5-chloroanthranilic acid, the metals were coordinated oxidatively to the bidentate carboxylate group without bonding to amino group; accordingly, a chlorine-affected coordination and reactivity-diversity was emphasized. Thermal analyses (TGA) and biological activity of the complexes were also investigated. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p)_ level of theory have been carried out to investigate the equilibrium geometry of the ligand. The optimized geometry parameters of the complexes were evaluated using SDDALL basis set. Moreover, total energy, energy of HOMO and LUMO and Mullikan atomic charges were calculated. In addition, dipole moment and orientation have been performed and discussed. PMID:24835942

  20. NASA's University Program: Active projects, fiscal year 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Active university R and D activities funded by NASA which contribute to mission needs are documented. Technical rather than fiscal information is emphasized. A classification of government sponsored research is included. A cross index providing access to the project description is also included.

  1. Activities Selected from the High School Geography Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natoli, Salvatore J., Ed.; And Others

    Out of approximately 50 activities which were, for a variety of reasons, not included in the final version of the High School Geography Project course, Geography in an Urban Age, the HSGP staff selected eight which would be useful in many secondary school classrooms. The activities included here are: 1) Operation Bigger Beef (on themes of cultural…

  2. IAU Project and Research Activity in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    The second half of the twentieth century has witnessed a tremendous development in the field of astronomy and space exploration. The large telescope both on the land and in the orbit, using the whole range of the electromagnetic spectra from radio waves to gamma rays are extending their range of exploration, right to the edge of the observable universe, and making astounding discoveries in the process. Many large international telescope facilities and global plans are accessible to all astronomers throughout the world, providing an inexpensive entry to cutting- edge international research for developing countries.Nepal is a mountainous country it has a wide range of climatic and altitude variations which varies from an elevation of 200 meter to ≥ 4000 meter. The average temperature varies from ≥ 25 o C to ≤ 0 to 5oC. Because of these diverse weather and climatic variation there is the potential for the establishment of sophisticated observatory/ data centre and link with each other. So, the future possible opportunity of astronomy in Nepal will be discussed. Besides Education and Research activities conducted in Tribhuvan University, Nepal under the support of International Astronomical Union (IAU) will also be highlighted. The importance brought by those two workshops conducted on data simulation supported by IAU under TF1 will also be discussed which is believed to play a vital role for the promotion and development of astronomy and astrophysics in developing countries.

  3. RF thermal and new cold part design studies on TTF-III input coupler for Project-X

    SciTech Connect

    Pei, Shilun; Adolphsen, Chris E.; Li, Zenghai; Solyak, Nikolay A.; Gonin, Ivan V.

    2015-05-15

    An RF power coupler is one of the key components in a superconducting (SC) linac. It provides RF power to the SC cavity and interconnects different temperature layers (1.8 K, 4.2 K, 70 K and 300 K). The TTF-III coupler is one of the most promising candidates for the High Energy (HE) linac of Project X, but it cannot meet the average power requirements because of the relatively high temperature rise on the warm inner conductor, so some design modifications will be required. In this paper, we describe our simulation studies on the copper coating thickness on the warm inner conductor with RRR values of 10 and 100. Our purpose is to rebalance the dynamic and static loads, and finally lower the temperature rise along the warm inner conductor. Additionally, to get stronger coupling, better power handling and less multipacting probability, one new cold part design was proposed using a 60 mm coaxial line; the corresponding multipacting simulation studies have also been investigated.

  4. Tobacco Nectarin III is a bifunctional enzyme with monodehydroascorbate reductase and carbonic anhydrase activities.

    PubMed

    Carter, Clay J; Thornburg, Robert W

    2004-02-01

    Tobacco plants secrete a limited array of proteins (nectarins) into their floral nectar. N-terminal sequencing of the Nectarin II ( NEC2; 35kD) and the Nectarin III ( NEC3; 40kD) proteins revealed that they both share identity with dioscorin, the major soluble protein of yam tubers. These sequences also revealed that NEC2 is a breakdown product of NEC3. Using these N-terminal peptide sequences, degenerate oligonucleotides were designed that permitted the isolation of a partial NEC3 cDNA. This cDNA was then used to probe a nectary specific cDNA library and a full-length NEC3 cDNA clone was isolated. Complete sequence analysis confirmed the identity of NEC3 as a dioscorin-like protein. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric fingerprinting of tryptic peptides derived from the purified NEC3 confirmed that this protein was encoded by the isolated cDNA. NEC3 was shown to possess both carbonic anhydrase and monodehydroascorbate reductase activities. RT-PCR based expression analyses demonstrated that NEC3 transcript is expressed throughout nectary development as well as in other floral organs. A proposed function in the maintenance of pH and oxidative balance in nectar is discussed. PMID:15284496

  5. Myosin III-mediated cross-linking and stimulation of actin bundling activity of Espin

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiyang; Li, Jianchao; Raval, Manmeet H; Yao, Ningning; Deng, Xiaoying; Lu, Qing; Nie, Si; Feng, Wei; Wan, Jun; Yengo, Christopher M; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Mingjie

    2016-01-01

    Class III myosins (Myo3) and actin-bundling protein Espin play critical roles in regulating the development and maintenance of stereocilia in vertebrate hair cells, and their defects cause hereditary hearing impairments. Myo3 interacts with Espin1 through its tail homology I motif (THDI), however it is not clear how Myo3 specifically acts through Espin1 to regulate the actin bundle assembly and stabilization. Here we discover that Myo3 THDI contains a pair of repeat sequences capable of independently and strongly binding to the ankyrin repeats of Espin1, revealing an unexpected Myo3-mediated cross-linking mechanism of Espin1. The structures of Myo3 in complex with Espin1 not only elucidate the mechanism of the binding, but also reveal a Myo3-induced release of Espin1 auto-inhibition mechanism. We also provide evidence that Myo3-mediated cross-linking can further promote actin fiber bundling activity of Espin1. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12856.001 PMID:26785147

  6. Impact of physical activity and fitness in class II and III obese individuals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baillot, A; Audet, M; Baillargeon, J P; Dionne, I J; Valiquette, L; Rosa-Fortin, M M; Abou Chakra, C N; Comeau, E; Langlois, M F

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to appraise current knowledge on the impact of physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on the health of class II and III obese subjects and bariatric surgery (BS) patients. All original studies were searched using four databases (Medline®, Scopus®, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected studies assessing the impact of PA or PF on specific health outcomes (anthropometric parameters, body composition, cardiometabolic risk factors, PF, wellness) in adults with a body mass index ≥35 kg m(-2) or in BS patients. Conclusions were drawn based on a rating system of evidence. From 3,170 papers identified, 40 papers met the inclusion criteria. The vast majority of studies were recently carried out with a predominance of women. Less than one-third of these studies were experimental and only three of them were of high quality. Each study reported at least one beneficial effect of PA or PF. However, a lack of high-quality studies and heterogeneity in designs prevented us from finding high levels of evidence. In conclusion, although results support the importance of PA and PF to improve the health of this population, higher-quality trials are required to strengthen evidence-based recommendations. PMID:24712685

  7. Synthesis, crystal structure, and biological activities of two chiral mononuclear Mn((III)) complexes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bi-Wei; Jiang, Lin; Shu, Si-Sheng; Li, Bo-Wen; Dong, Zhang; Gu, Wen; Liu, Xin; Tian, Jin-Lei

    2015-02-01

    Two new chiral mononuclear Mn((III)) complexes, [MnL((R)) Cl (C2 H5 OH)]•C2 H5 OH () and [MnL((S)) (CH3 OH)2 ]Cl•CH3 OH (), {H2 L = (R,R)-or (S,S)-N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxy-1-naphthalidehydene)-cyclohexanediamine} were synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical techniques. Bond valence sum (BVS) calculations and the Jahn-Teller effect indicate that the Mn centers are in a +3 oxidation state. The statuses of the two complexes in the solution were confirmed as a pair of enantiomers by electrospray ionization, mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectrum. The binding ability of the complexes with calf thymus CT-DNA was investigated by spectroscopic and viscosity measurements. Both of the complexes could interact with CT-DNA via an intercalative mode with the order of (R-enantiomer) > (S-enantiomer). Under the physiological conditions, the two compounds exhibit efficient DNA cleavage activities without any external agent, which also follows the order of R-enantiomer > S-enantiomer. Interestingly, the concentration-dependent DNA cleavage experiments indicate an optimal concentration of 17.5 μM. In addition, the interaction of the compounds with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also investigated, which indicated that the complexes could quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by a static quenching mechanism. PMID:25403736

  8. Oxidation of Orange G by persulfate activated by Fe(II), Fe(III) and zero valent iron (ZVI).

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, S; Vasquez, L; Costa, D; Romero, A; Santos, A

    2014-04-01

    Persulfate (PS) was employed in the oxidation of Orange G (OG), an azo dye commonly found in textile wastewaters. Activation of PS was conducted with iron to generate sulfate free radicals (SO4(-)) with high redox potential capable to oxidize most of the organics in water. Identification of oxidation intermediates was carried out by analyzing at different times organic by-products generated from treatment of a concentrate dye solution (11.6 mM) with 153 mM of PS and 20 mM of Fe(II) at 20 °C. Intermediate reaction products (mainly phenol (PH) and benzoquinone (BQ), and in less extent aniline, phenolic compounds and naphthalene type compounds with quinone groups) were identified by GC/MS and HPLC, and an oxidation pathway was proposed for the oxidation of OG with iron activated PS. The effect of iron valence (0, II and III) in the oxidation of an aqueous solution of OG (containing 0.1 mM) was studied in a 0.5 L batch reactor at 20 °C. Initial activator and PS concentrations employed were both 1 mM. Complete pollutant removal was achieved within the first 30 min when iron II or III were employed as activators. Quinone intermediates generated during pollutant oxidation may act as electron shuttles, allowing the reduction of Fe(III) into Fe(II) in the redox cycling of iron. Therefore, activation of PS by Fe(III) allowed complete OG removal. When zero valent iron (ZVI) was employed (particle diameter size 0.74 mm) the limiting step in SO4(-) generation was the surface reaction between ZVI and the oxidant yielding a lower oxidation rate of the dye. An increase in the oxidant dosage (0.2 mM OG, 2 mM Fe(III) and 6 mM PS) allowed complete pollutant and ecotoxicity removal, as well as mineralization close to 75%. PMID:24439838

  9. Activation of dioxygen by a mononuclear non-heme iron complex: characterization of a Fe(III)(OOH) intermediate.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Marlène; Blain, Guillaume; Banse, Frédéric

    2010-02-14

    The reaction of the iron(ii) complex supported by the ligand L(5)(2)aH (2,2-dimethyl-N-[6-({[2-(methyl-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino)-ethyl]-pyridin-2-ylmethyl-amino}-methyl)-pyridin-2-yl]-propionamide) with dioxygen, in the presence of HClO(4) and NaBPh(4) yields the corresponding low spin (S = 1/2) Fe(III)(OOH) complex. This reaction, where the anion BPh(4)(-) acts as an electron donor, is reminiscent of the reductive activation of O(2) by enzymatic systems. Under these specific experimental conditions, the hydroperoxoiron(iii) complex evolves in an unexpected way to yield a high spin (S = 5/2) green species. This transformation is shown to arise from the reaction between the hydroperoxoiron(iii) intermediate and BPh(3), a side product of BPh(4)(-). PMID:20104327

  10. Synthesis and characterization of chromium(III) Schiff base complexes: antimicrobial activity and its electrocatalytic sensing ability of catechol.

    PubMed

    Kumar, S Praveen; Suresh, R; Giribabu, K; Manigandan, R; Munusamy, S; Muthamizh, S; Narayanan, V

    2015-03-15

    A series of acyclic Schiff base chromium(III) complexes were synthesized with the aid of microwave irradiation method. The complexes were characterized on the basis of elemental analysis, spectral analysis such as UV-Visible, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopies and electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry. Electrochemical analysis of the complexes indicates the presence of chromium ion in +3 oxidation state. Cr (III) ion is stabilized by the tetradentate Schiff base ligand through its nitrogen and phenolic oxygen. From the spectral studies it is understood that the synthesized chromium(III) complexes exhibits octahedral geometry. Antimicrobial activity of chromium complexes was investigated towards the Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. In the present work, an attempt was made to fabricate a new kind of modified electrode based on chromium Schiff base complexes for the detection of catechol at nanomolar level. PMID:25576940

  11. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, T.P.

    1994-10-20

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the activities associated with the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, which are part of the overall Hanford Site Environmental Protection Plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of the individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans.

  12. [Serum determination of N-terminal peptide of type III procollagen as a marker of fibrotic activity].

    PubMed

    García Montes, J M; De Bonilla Blánez, F; Herrerías Gutiérrez, J M

    1989-03-01

    Among the noninvasive methods proposed for the study of collagen metabolism as an of fibrosis and inflammation, the most widely accepted method is quantitation in serum of the N-terminal peptide of type III procollagen (P-III-Ps). We measured this variable in 87 subjects classified into five study groups: 19 controls (C), 18 alcoholics (E), 15 patients diagnosed as liver cirrhosis (CH), 11 chronic liver disease (HC) and 24 pregnant women (EMB). In our environment, the serum level of P-III-P in the healthy population was 9.12-12.8 ng/ml. In 27.77% of the alcoholics studied (5 cases) the mean value exceeded this level, 19.35 +/- 3.05 ng/ml. Forty percent of the cirrhotics (6 cases) presented the highest values, 26.54 +/- 11.45 ng/ml, while 83.33% of the patients with chronic active hepatitis presented a mean value of 18.53 +/- 3.8 ng/ml. Of the 24 pregnant women, 95.83% (23 cases) had higher than normal values, and concentrations roses in the last trimester of gestation with respect to the previous trimesters. Analysis of the correlations of all the biochemical parameters of liver function with P-III-Ps disclosed a relationship between P-III-Ps and alkaline phosphatase in the groups of cirrhotics and chronic persistent hepatitis (p less than 0.05). We conclude that the N-terminal peptide of type III procollagen is a useful marker of active fibrosis. PMID:2734469

  13. Structural basis for the endoribonuclease activity of the type III-A CRISPR-associated protein Csm6

    PubMed Central

    Niewoehner, Ole; Jinek, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Prokaryotic CRISPR–Cas systems provide an RNA-guided mechanism for genome defense against mobile genetic elements such as viruses and plasmids. In type III-A CRISPR–Cas systems, the RNA-guided multisubunit Csm effector complex targets both single-stranded RNAs and double-stranded DNAs. In addition to the Csm complex, efficient anti-plasmid immunity mediated by type III-A systems also requires the CRISPR-associated protein Csm6. Here we report the crystal structure of Csm6 from Thermus thermophilus and show that the protein is a ssRNA-specific endoribonuclease. The structure reveals a dimeric architecture generated by interactions involving the N-terminal CARF and C-terminal HEPN domains. HEPN domain dimerization leads to the formation of a composite ribonuclease active site. Consistently, mutations of invariant active site residues impair catalytic activity in vitro. We further show that the ribonuclease activity of Csm6 is conserved across orthologs, suggesting that it plays an important functional role in CRISPR–Cas systems. The dimer interface of the CARF domains features a conserved electropositive pocket that may function as a ligand-binding site for allosteric control of ribonuclease activity. Altogether, our work suggests that Csm6 proteins provide an auxiliary RNA-targeting interference mechanism in type III-A CRISPR–Cas systems that operates in conjunction with the RNA- and DNA-targeting endonuclease activities of the Csm effector complex. PMID:26763118

  14. The RNA cleavage activity of RNA polymerase III is mediated by an essential TFIIS-like subunit and is important for transcription termination

    PubMed Central

    Chédin, Stéphane; Riva, Michel; Schultz, Patrick; Sentenac, André; Carles, Christophe

    1998-01-01

    Budding yeast RNA polymerase III (Pol III) contains a small, essential subunit, named C11, that is conserved in humans and shows a strong homology to TFIIS. A mutant Pol III, heterocomplemented with Schizosaccharomyces pombe C11, was affected in transcription termination in vivo. A purified form of the enzyme (Pol III Δ), deprived of C11 subunit, initiated properly but ignored pause sites and was defective in termination. Remarkably, Pol III Δ lacked the intrinsic RNA cleavage activity of complete Pol III. In vitro reconstitution experiments demonstrated that Pol III RNA cleavage activity is mediated by C11. Mutagenesis in C11 of two conserved residues, which are critical for the TFIIS-dependent cleavage activity of Pol II, is lethal. Immunoelectron microscopy data suggested that C11 is localized on the mobile thumb-like stalk of the polymerase. We propose that C11 allows the enzyme to switch between an RNA elongation and RNA cleavage mode and that the essential role of the Pol III RNA cleavage activity is to remove the kinetic barriers to the termination process. The integration of TFIIS function into a specific Pol III subunit may stem from the opposite requirements of Pol III and Pol II in terms of transcript length and termination efficiency. PMID:9869639

  15. NASA Desert RATS 2011 Education Pilot Project and Classroom Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruener, J. E.; McGlone, M.; Allen, J.; Tobola, K.; Graff, P.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS) is a multi-year series of tests of hardware and operations carried out annually in the high desert of Arizona, as an analog to future exploration activities beyond low Earth orbit [1]. For the past several years, these tests have occurred in the San Francisco Volcanic Field, north of Flagstaff. For the 2011 Desert RATS season, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) at NASA headquarters provided support to develop an education pilot project that would include student activities to parallel the Desert RATS mission planning and exploration activities in the classroom, and educator training sessions. The development of the pilot project was a joint effort between the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) Astromaterials Research and Exploration Science (ARES) Directorate and the Aerospace Education Services Project (AESP), managed at Penn State University.

  16. Characterization and Properties of Activated Carbon Prepared from Tamarind Seeds by KOH Activation for Fe(III) Adsorption from Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Mopoung, Sumrit; Moonsri, Phansiri; Palas, Wanwimon; Khumpai, Sataporn

    2015-01-01

    This research studies the characterization of activated carbon from tamarind seed with KOH activation. The effects of 0.5 : 1–1.5 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratios and 500–700°C activation temperatures were studied. FTIR, SEM-EDS, XRD, and BET were used to characterize tamarind seed and the activated carbon prepared from them. Proximate analysis, percent yield, iodine number, methylene blue number, and preliminary test of Fe(III) adsorption were also studied. Fe(III) adsorption was carried out by 30 mL column with 5–20 ppm Fe(III) initial concentrations. The percent yield of activated carbon prepared from tamarind seed with KOH activation decreased with increasing activation temperature and impregnation ratios, which were in the range from 54.09 to 82.03 wt%. The surface functional groups of activated carbon are O–H, C=O, C–O, –CO3, C–H, and Si–H. The XRD result showed high crystallinity coming from a potassium compound in the activated carbon. The main elements found in the activated carbon by EDS are C, O, Si, and K. The results of iodine and methylene blue adsorption indicate that the pore size of the activated carbon is mostly in the range of mesopore and macropore. The average BET pore size and BET surface area of activated carbon are 67.9764 Å and 2.7167 m2/g, respectively. Finally, the tamarind seed based activated carbon produced with 500°C activation temperature and 1.0 : 1 KOH : tamarind seed charcoal ratio was used for Fe(III) adsorption test. It was shown that Fe(III) was adsorbed in alkaline conditions and adsorption increased with increasing Fe(III) initial concentration from 5 to 20 ppm with capacity adsorption of 0.0069–0.019 mg/g. PMID:26689357

  17. An important role for type III interferon (IFN-lambda/IL-28) in TLR-induced antiviral activity.

    PubMed

    Ank, Nina; Iversen, Marie B; Bartholdy, Christina; Staeheli, Peter; Hartmann, Rune; Jensen, Uffe B; Dagnaes-Hansen, Frederik; Thomsen, Allan R; Chen, Zhi; Haugen, Harald; Klucher, Kevin; Paludan, Søren R

    2008-02-15

    Type III IFNs (IFN-lambda/IL-28/29) are cytokines with type I IFN-like antiviral activities, which remain poorly characterized. We herein show that most cell types expressed both types I and III IFNs after TLR stimulation or virus infection, whereas the ability of cells to respond to IFN-lambda was restricted to a narrow subset of cells, including plasmacytoid dendritic cells and epithelial cells. To examine the role of type III IFN in antiviral defense, we generated IL-28Ralpha-deficient mice. These mice were indistinguishable from wild-type mice with respect to clearance of a panel of different viruses, whereas mice lacking the type I IFN receptor (IFNAR(-/-)) were significantly impaired. However, the strong antiviral activity evoked by treatment of mice with TLR3 or TLR9 agonists was significantly reduced in both IL-28RA(-/-) and IFNAR(-/-) mice. The type I IFN receptor system has been shown to mediate positive feedback on IFN-alphabeta expression, and we found that the type I IFN receptor system also mediates positive feedback on IFN-lambda expression, whereas IL-28Ralpha signaling does not provide feedback on either type I or type III IFN expression in vivo. Finally, using bone-marrow chimeric mice we showed that TLR-activated antiviral defense requires expression of IL-28Ralpha only on nonhemopoietic cells. In this compartment, epithelial cells responded to IFN-lambda and directly restricted virus replication. Our data suggest type III IFN to target a specific subset of cells and to contribute to the antiviral response evoked by TLRs. PMID:18250457

  18. Redox activation of Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and Fe(III)-bleomycin by thioredoxin reductase: specificity of enzymatic redox centers and analysis of reactive species formation by ESR spin trapping

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Judith M.; Cheng, Qing; Antholine, William E.; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman; Filipovska, Aleksandra; Arnér, ArnerElias S.J.; Myers, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    Thiosemicarbazones such as triapine (Tp) and Dp44mT are tridentate iron (Fe) chelators that have well-documented anti-neoplastic activity. While Fe-thiosemicarbazones can undergo redox-cycling to generate reactive species that may have important roles in their cytotoxicity, there is only limited insight into specific cellular agents that can rapidly reduce Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and thereby promote their redox activity. Here we report that thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1) and glutathione reductase (GR) have this activity, and that there is considerable specificity to the interactions between specific redox centers in these enzymes and different Fe(III) complexes. Site-directed variants of TrxR1 demonstrate that the selenocysteine (Sec) of the enzyme is not required, whereas the C59 residue and the flavin have important roles. While TrxR1 and GR have analogous C59/flavin motifs, TrxR is considerably faster than GR. For both enzymes, Fe(III)(Tp)2 is reduced faster than Fe(III)(Dp44mT)2. This reduction promotes redox cycling and the generation of hydroxyl radical (HO•) in a peroxide-dependent manner, even with low μM levels of Fe(Tp)2. TrxR also reduces Fe(III)-bleomycin and this activity is Sec-dependent. TrxR cannot reduce Fe(III)-EDTA at significant rates. Our findings are the first to demonstrate pro-oxidant reductive activation of Fe(III)-based antitumor thiosemicarbazones by interactions with specific enzyme species. The marked elevation of TrxR in many tumors could contribute to the selective tumor toxicity of these drugs by enhancing the redox activation of Fe(III)-thiosemicarbazones and the generation of reactive oxygen species such as HO• PMID:23485585

  19. Improving Immunization Rates Using Lean Six Sigma Processes: Alliance of Independent Academic Medical Centers National Initiative III Project

    PubMed Central

    Hina-Syeda, Hussaini; Kimbrough, Christina; Murdoch, William; Markova, Tsveti

    2013-01-01

    , particularly for the residents. The hospital has completed quality improvement projects in the past; however, this project was the first in which residents were actively involved. The didactic components and experiential learning were powerfully synergistic. This and similar projects can have far-reaching implications in terms of promoting patient health and improving the quality of care delivered by the healthcare systems and teaching hospitals. PMID:24052758

  20. MOIRCS DEEP SURVEY. III. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN MASSIVE GALAXIES AT z = 2-4

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, T.; Kajisawa, M.; Akiyama, M.; Ichikawa, T.; Tokoku, C.; Yoshikawa, T.; Konishi, M.; Nishimura, T.; Omata, K.; Suzuki, R.; Tanaka, I.; Uchimoto, Y. K.

    2009-07-10

    We investigate the X-ray properties of the K-band-selected galaxies at redshift 2 < z < 4 by using our deep near-infrared images obtained in the Multi-Object Infrared Camera and Spectrograph Deep Survey project and the published Chandra X-ray source catalog. Sixty-one X-ray sources with the 2-10 keV luminosity L{sub X} = 10{sup 42}-10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} are identified with the K-selected galaxies and we found that they are exclusively (90%) associated with the massive objects with a stellar mass larger than 10{sup 10.5} M{sub sun}. Our results are consistent with the idea that the M {sub BH}/M{sub str} ratio of the galaxies at z = 2-4 is similar to the present-day value. On the other hand, the active galactic nucleus (AGN) detection rate among the very massive galaxies with a stellar mass larger than 10{sup 11} M{sub sun} is high, 33% (26/78). They are active objects in the sense that the black hole mass accretion rate is {approx}1%-50% of the Eddington limit if they indeed have similar M {sub BH}/M {sub str} ratio with those observed in the local universe. The active duration in the AGN duty cycle of the high-redshift massive galaxies seems large.

  1. Observation Targeting for the Tehachapi Pass and Mid-Columbia Basin: WindSENSE Phase III Project Summary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, D

    2011-10-22

    The overall goal of this multi-phased research project known as WindSENSE is to develop an observation system deployment strategy that would improve wind power generation forecasts. The objective of the deployment strategy is to produce the maximum benefit for 1- to 6-hour ahead forecasts of wind speed at hub-height ({approx}80 m). In Phase III of the project, the focus was on the Mid-Columbia Basin region which encompasses the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) wind generation area shown in Figure 1 that includes Klondike, Stateline, and Hopkins Ridge wind plants. The typical hub height of a wind turbine is approximately 80-m above ground level (AGL). So it would seem that building meteorological towers in the region upwind of a wind generation facility would provide data necessary to improve the short-term forecasts for the 80-m AGL wind speed. However, this additional meteorological information typically does not significantly improve the accuracy of the 0- to 6-hour ahead wind power forecasts because processes controlling wind variability change from day-to-day and, at times, from hour-to-hour. It is also important to note that some processes causing significant changes in wind power production function principally in the vertical direction. These processes will not be detected by meteorological towers at off-site locations. For these reasons, it is quite challenging to determine the best type of sensors and deployment locations. To address the measurement deployment problem, Ensemble Sensitivity Analysis (ESA) was applied in the Phase I portion of the WindSENSE project. The ESA approach was initially designed to produce spatial fields that depict the sensitivity of a forecast metric to a set of prior state variables selected by the user. The best combination of variables and locations to improve the forecast was determined using the Multiple Observation Optimization Algorithm (MOOA) developed in Phase I. In Zack et al. (2010a), the ESA-MOOA approach was

  2. World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ): Global Activity Module

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) is a comprehensive, mid?term energy forecasting and policy analysis tool used by EIA. WEPS projects energy supply, demand, and prices by country or region, given assumptions about the state of various economies, international energy markets, and energy policies. The Global Activity Module (GLAM) provides projections of economic driver variables for use by the supply, demand, and conversion modules of WEPS . GLAM’s baseline economic projection contains the economic assumptions used in WEPS to help determine energy demand and supply. GLAM can also provide WEPS with alternative economic assumptions representing a range of uncertainty about economic growth. The resulting economic impacts of such assumptions are inputs to the remaining supply and demand modules of WEPS .

  3. The stellar populations of low-luminosity active galactic nuclei - III. Spatially resolved spectral properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid Fernandes, R.; González Delgado, R. M.; Storchi-Bergmann, T.; Martins, L. Pires; Schmitt, H.

    2005-01-01

    In a recently completed survey of the stellar population properties of low-ionization nuclear emission-line regions (LINERs) and LINER/HII transition objects (TOs), we have identified a numerous class of galactic nuclei which stand out because of their conspicuous 108-9 yr populations, traced by high-order Balmer absorption lines and other stellar indices. These objects are called `young-TOs', because they all have TO-like emission-line ratios. In this paper we extend this previous work, which concentrated on the nuclear properties, by investigating the radial variations of spectral properties in low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (LLAGNs). Our analysis is based on high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) long-slit spectra in the 3500-5500 Å interval for a sample of 47 galaxies. The data probe distances of typically up to 850 pc from the nucleus with a resolution of ~100 pc (~1 arcsec) and S/N ~ 30. Stellar population gradients are mapped by the radial profiles of absorption-line equivalent widths and continuum colours along the slit. These variations are further analysed by means of a decomposition of each spectrum in terms of template galaxies representative of very young (<=107 yr), intermediate age (108-9 yr) and old (1010 yr) stellar populations. This study reveals that young-TOs also differ from old-TOs and old-LINERs in terms of the spatial distributions of their stellar populations and dust. Specifically, our main findings are as follows. (i) Significant stellar population gradients are found almost exclusively in young-TOs. (ii) The intermediate age population of young-TOs, although heavily concentrated in the nucleus, reaches distances of up to a few hundred pc from the nucleus. Nevertheless, the half width at half-maximum of its brightness profile is more typically 100 pc or less. (iii) Objects with predominantly old stellar populations present spatially homogeneous spectra, be they LINERs or TOs. (iv) Young-TOs have much more dust in their central regions

  4. Resource Constrained Planning of Multiple Projects with Separable Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Susumu; Morita, Hiroshi; Kanawa, Takuya

    In this study we consider a resource constrained planning problem of multiple projects with separable activities. This problem provides a plan to process the activities considering a resource availability with time window. We propose a solution algorithm based on the branch and bound method to obtain the optimal solution minimizing the completion time of all projects. We develop three methods for improvement of computational efficiency, that is, to obtain initial solution with minimum slack time rule, to estimate lower bound considering both time and resource constraints and to introduce an equivalence relation for bounding operation. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is demonstrated by numerical examples. Especially as the number of planning projects increases, the average computational time and the number of searched nodes are reduced.

  5. Ontogeny of nitric oxide synthase I and III protein expression and enzymatic activity in the guinea pig hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kimura, K A; Reynolds, J N; Brien, J F

    1999-09-01

    60. NOS enzymatic activity increased throughout prenatal and postnatal life, and attained highest activity in the adult. The developmental profile of NOS III protein expression was similar to that for NOS enzymatic activity. There was differential expression of NOS I protein, which was low in the GD 50 fetus and increased rapidly during fetal development to attain adult level by GD 62. These data suggest that the guinea pig is a reliable animal model in which to investigate the roles of NO in normal hippocampal development and in mediating neuronal injury in this brain region. PMID:10521566

  6. [NiIII(OMe)]-mediated reductive activation of CO2 affording a Ni(κ1-OCO) complex

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chiou, Tzung -Wen; Tseng, Yen -Ming; Lu, Tsai -Te; Weng, Tsu -Chien; Sokaras, Dimosthenes; Ho, Wei -Chieh; Kuo, Ting -Shen; Jang, Ling -Yun; Lee, Jyh -Fu; Liaw, Wen -Feng

    2016-02-24

    Here, carbon dioxide is expected to be employed as an inexpensive and potential feedstock of C1 sources for the mass production of valuable chemicals and fuel. Versatile chemical transformations of CO2, i.e. insertion of CO2 producing bicarbonate/acetate/formate, cleavage of CO2 yielding μ-CO/μ-oxo transition-metal complexes, and electrocatalytic reduction of CO2 affording CO/HCOOH/CH3OH/CH4/C2H4/oxalate were well documented. Herein, we report a novel pathway for the reductive activation of CO2 by the [NiIII(OMe)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex, yielding the [NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–)(P(C6H3-3-SiMe3-2-S)3)]– complex. The formation of this unusual NiIII(κ1-OCO˙–) complex was characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, EPR, IR, SQUID, Ni/S K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and Ni valence-to-core X-ray emissionmore » spectroscopy. The inertness of the analogous complexes [NiIII(SPh)], [NiII(CO)], and [NiII(N2H4)] toward CO2, in contrast, demonstrates that the ionic [NiIII(OMe)] core attracts the binding of weak σ-donor CO2 and triggers the subsequent reduction of CO2 by the nucleophilic [OMe]– in the immediate vicinity. This metal–ligand cooperative activation of CO2 may open a novel pathway promoting the subsequent incorporation of CO2 in the buildup of functionalized products.« less

  7. Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment, SAGE III on ISS, An Earth Science Mission on the International Space Station, Schedule Risk Analysis, A Project Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonine, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The presentation provides insight into the schedule risk analysis process used by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment III on the International Space Station Project. The presentation focuses on the schedule risk analysis process highlighting the methods for identification of risk inputs, the inclusion of generic risks identified outside the traditional continuous risk management process, and the development of tailored analysis products used to improve risk informed decision making.

  8. Critters: K-6 Life Science Activities. Project AIMS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Maureen Murphy; And Others

    Project AIMS (Activities to Integrate Mathematics and Science) has as its purpose the integration of subject matter in grades K-9. Field testing of the curriculum materials produced by AIMS indicates that this integration produces the following beneficial results: (1) mathematics becomes more meaningful, hence more useful; (2) science is…

  9. Global Art: Activities, Projects, and Inventions from Around the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, MaryAnn F.; Potter, Jean

    This activity book contains over 130 art ideas from around the world, combining the fun and creativity of art with the mysteries of history, the lure of geography, and the diversity of the cultures of the world. These projects allow children to explore the world through art with a process, not a product, approach to artistic outcome; the process…

  10. Cooperative activation of the T-type CaV3.2 channel: interaction between Domains II and III.

    PubMed

    Demers-Giroux, Pierre-Olivier; Bourdin, Benoîte; Sauvé, Rémy; Parent, Lucie

    2013-10-11

    T-type CaV3 channels are important mediators of Ca(2+) entry near the resting membrane potential. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms responsible for channel activation. Homology models based upon the high-resolution structure of bacterial NaV channels predict interaction between the S4-S5 helix of Domain II (IIS4-S5) and the distal S6 pore region of Domain II (IIS6) and Domain III (IIIS6). Functional intra- and inter-domain interactions were investigated with a double mutant cycle analysis. Activation gating and channel kinetics were measured for 47 single mutants and 20 pairs of mutants. Significant coupling energies (ΔΔG(interact) ≥ 1.5 kcal mol(-1)) were measured for 4 specific pairs of mutants introduced between IIS4-S5 and IIS6 and between IIS4-S5 and IIIS6. In agreement with the computer based models, Thr-911 in IIS4-S5 was functionally coupled with Ile-1013 in IIS6 during channel activation. The interaction energy was, however, found to be stronger between Val-907 in IIS4-S5 and Ile-1013 in IIS6. In addition Val-907 was significantly coupled with Asn-1548 in IIIS6 but not with Asn-1853 in IVS6. Altogether, our results demonstrate that the S4-S5 and S6 helices from adjacent domains are energetically coupled during the activation of a low voltage-gated T-type CaV3 channel. PMID:23970551

  11. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Mild Alkylation of (Hetero)Arenes with Cyclopropanols via C-H Activation and Ring Opening.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xukai; Yu, Songjie; Qi, Zisong; Kong, Lingheng; Li, Xingwei

    2016-06-01

    The rhodium(III)-catalyzed regioselective alkylation of (hetero)arenes using cyclopropanols as a reactive and efficient coupling partner under oxidative conditions has been developed. This coupling occurred at room temperature via C-H activation of arenes and C-C cleavage of cyclopropanols. Various types of (hetero)arenes (indolines, carbazole, tetrahydrocarbazole, pyrrole, thiophene, etc.) were all successfully reacted under the present conditions. This protocol provides the facile and efficient construction of C7-alkylated indoline scaffolds. PMID:27166521

  12. Epstein-Barr virus induces cellular transcription factors to allow active expression of EBER genes by RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed

    Felton-Edkins, Zoë A; Kondrashov, Alexander; Karali, Dimitra; Fairley, Jennifer A; Dawson, Christopher W; Arrand, John R; Young, Lawrence S; White, Robert J

    2006-11-10

    The EBER genes of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) are transcribed by RNA polymerase (pol) III to produce untranslated RNAs that are implicated in oncogenesis. These EBER transcripts are the most highly expressed viral gene products in EBV-transformed cells. We have identified changes to the cellular transcription machinery that may contribute to the high levels of EBER RNA. These include phosphorylation of ATF2, which interacts with EBER promoters. A second is induction of TFIIIC, a pol III-specific factor that activates EBER genes; all five subunits of TFIIIC are overexpressed in EBV-positive cells. In addition, EBV induces BDP1, a subunit of the pol III-specific factor TFIIIB. Although BDP1 is the only TFIIIB subunit induced by EBV, its induction is sufficient to stimulate EBER expression in vivo, implying a limiting function. The elevated levels of BDP1 and TFIIIC in EBV-positive cells stimulate production of tRNA, 7SL, and 5S rRNA. Abnormally high expression of these cellular pol III products may contribute to the ability of EBV to enhance growth potential. PMID:16956891

  13. The light-activated signaling pathway in SCN-projecting rat retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Erin J.; Allen, Charles N.; Brown, R. Lane; Robinson, David W.

    2008-01-01

    In mammals, the master circadian clock resides in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus. The period and phase of the circadian pacemaker are calibrated by direct photic input from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). SCN-projecting RGCs respond to light in the absence of rod- and cone-driven synaptic input, a property for which they are termed intrinsically photosensitive. In SCN-projecting RGCs, light activates a nonselective cationic current that displays inward and outward rectification. The goal of the present study was to investigate the identity of the light-activated ion channel and the intracellular signaling pathway leading to its activation. We considered two candidate channels, cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, which mediate vertebrate and invertebrate phototransduction, respectively. We report that the intrinsic light response relies upon a G-protein-dependent process. Although our data indicate that cyclic nucleotides modulate the signaling pathway, CNG channels do not appear to conduct the light-activated current because (i) cyclic nucleotides in the pipette solution do not activate a conductance or completely block the light response, (ii) CNG channel blockers fail to inhibit the light response, (iii) the effects of internal and external divalent cations are inconsistent with their effects on CNG channels, and (iv) immunohistochemistry reveals no CNG channels in SCN-projecting RGCs. Finally, we show that the pharmacology of the light-activated channel resembles that of some TRPC channel family members; the response is blocked by lanthanides and ruthenium red and SK&F 96365, and is enhanced by flufenamic acid and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol. Furthermore, immunohistochemical experiments reveal that TRPC6 is expressed in many RGCs, including those that express melanopsin. PMID:16706854

  14. Enhanced acetohydroxy acid synthase III activity in an ilvH mutant of Escherichia coli K-12.

    PubMed Central

    Ricca, E; Limauro, D; Lago, C T; de Felice, M

    1988-01-01

    The acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme, which catalyzes the first common step in the biosynthesis of isoleucine, leucine, and valine in Escherichia coli K-12, is composed of two subunits, the ilvI and ilvH gene products. A missense mutation in ilvH (ilvH612), which reduced the sensitivity of the enzyme to the end product inhibition by valine, also increased its specific activity and lowered the Km for alpha-acetolactate synthesis. The mutation increased the sensitivity of acetohydroxy acid synthase III to dialysis and heat treatment and reduced the requirement for thiamine pyrophosphate addition to the assay mixture for activity. A strain carrying the ilvH612 mutation grew better than a homologous ilvH+ strain in the presence of leucine. The data indicate that this is a consequence of a more active acetohydroxy acid synthase III isozyme rather than the result of an alteration of the leucine-mediated repression of the ilvIH operon. PMID:3053650

  15. Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project Probability/Coordination Study Resident Fish and Wildlife Impacts Phase III, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1998-10-01

    Phase III began in 1995 with the overall goal of quantifying changes in resident fish habitat in the Snake River Basin upstream of Brownlee Reservoir resulting from the release of salmon flow augmentation water.

  16. The Early Childhood Mental Health Best Practices Project. Report on Project Activities, Year Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Multnomah County Dept. of Community and Family Services, Portland, OR. Behavioral Health Div.

    The goal of the Early Childhood Mental Health (ECMH) Best Practices Project in Multnomah County, Oregon, is to improve the ability of early childhood professionals and partners to support and strengthen the emotional and relational development of young children with their families and communities. This report presents the activities for Year 2 of…

  17. The Subarcsecond Mid-infrared View of Local Active Galactic Nuclei. III. Polar Dust Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmus, D.; Hönig, S. F.; Gandhi, P.

    2016-05-01

    Recent mid-infrared (MIR) interferometric observations have shown that in a few active galactic nuclei (AGNs) the bulk of the infrared emission originates from the polar region above the putative torus, where only a little dust should be present. Here, we investigate whether such strong polar dust emission is common in AGNs. Out of 149 Seyferts in the MIR atlas of local AGNs, 21 show extended MIR emission on single-dish images. In 18 objects, the extended MIR emission aligns with the position angle (PA) of the system axis, established by [O iii], radio, polarization, and maser-based PA measurements. The relative amount of resolved MIR emission is at least 40% and scales with the [O iv] fluxes, implying a strong connection between the extended continuum and [O iv] emitters. These results together with the radio-quiet nature of the Seyferts support the scenario that the bulk of MIR emission is emitted by dust in the polar region and not by the torus, which would demand a new paradigm for the infrared emission structure in AGNs. The current low detection rate of polar dust in the AGNs of the MIR atlas is explained by the lack of sufficient high-quality MIR data and the requirements on the orientation, strength of narrow-line region, and distance of the AGNs. The James Webb Space Telescope will enable much deeper nuclear MIR studies with comparable angular resolution, allowing us to resolve the polar emission and surroundings in most of the nearby AGNs. Based on European Southern Observatory (ESO) observing programmes 60.A-9242, 074.A-9016, 075.B-0182, 075.B-0621, 075.B-0631, 075.B-0727, 075.B-0791, 075.B-0844, 076.B-0194, 076.B-0468, 076.B-0599, 076.B-0621, 076.B-0656, 076.B-0696, 076.B-0743, 077.B-0060, 077.B-0135, 077.B-0137, 077.B-0728, 078.B-0020, 078.B-0173, 078.B-0255, 078.B-0303, 080.B-0240, 080.B-0860, 081.B-0182, 082.B-0299, 083.B-0239, 083.B-0452, 083.B-0536, 083.B-0592, 084.B-0366, 084.B-0606, 084.B-0974, 085.B-0251, 085.B-0639, 086.B-0242, 086.B-0257, 086

  18. Structure and membrane remodeling activity of ESCRT-III helical polymers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    McCullough, John; Clippinger, Amy K.; Talledge, Nathaniel; Skowyra, Michael L.; Saunders, Marissa G.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Colf, Leremy A.; Afonine, Pavel; Arthur, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.; et al

    2015-12-18

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins mediate fundamental membrane remodeling events that require stabilizing negative membrane curvature. These include endosomal intralumenal vesicle formation, HIV budding, nuclear envelope closure, and cytokinetic abscission. ESCRT-III subunits perform key roles in these processes by changing conformation and polymerizing into membrane-remodeling filaments. Here, we report the 4 angstrom resolution cryogenic electron microscopy reconstruction of a one-start, double-stranded helical copolymer composed of two different human ESCRT-III subunits, charged multivesicular body protein 1B (CHMP1B) and increased sodium tolerance 1 (IST1). The inner strand comprises “open” CHMP1B subunits that interlock in an elaborate domain-swapped architecturemore » and is encircled by an outer strand of “closed” IST1 subunits. Unlike other ESCRT-III proteins, CHMP1B and IST1 polymers form external coats on positively curved membranes in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our analysis suggests how common ESCRT-III filament architectures could stabilize different degrees and directions of membrane curvature.« less

  19. Structure and membrane remodeling activity of ESCRT-III helical polymers

    SciTech Connect

    McCullough, John; Clippinger, Amy K.; Talledge, Nathaniel; Skowyra, Michael L.; Saunders, Marissa G.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Colf, Leremy A.; Afonine, Pavel; Arthur, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hanson, Phyllis I.; Frost, Adam

    2015-12-18

    The endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT) proteins mediate fundamental membrane remodeling events that require stabilizing negative membrane curvature. These include endosomal intralumenal vesicle formation, HIV budding, nuclear envelope closure, and cytokinetic abscission. ESCRT-III subunits perform key roles in these processes by changing conformation and polymerizing into membrane-remodeling filaments. Here, we report the 4 angstrom resolution cryogenic electron microscopy reconstruction of a one-start, double-stranded helical copolymer composed of two different human ESCRT-III subunits, charged multivesicular body protein 1B (CHMP1B) and increased sodium tolerance 1 (IST1). The inner strand comprises “open” CHMP1B subunits that interlock in an elaborate domain-swapped architecture and is encircled by an outer strand of “closed” IST1 subunits. Unlike other ESCRT-III proteins, CHMP1B and IST1 polymers form external coats on positively curved membranes in vitro and in vivo. In conclusion, our analysis suggests how common ESCRT-III filament architectures could stabilize different degrees and directions of membrane curvature.

  20. Structure and membrane remodeling activity of ESCRT-III helical polymers

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, John; Clippinger, Amy K.; Talledge, Nathaniel; Skowyra, Michael L.; Saunders, Marissa G.; Naismith, Teresa V.; Colf, Leremy A.; Afonine, Pavel; Arthur, Christopher; Sundquist, Wesley I.; Hanson, Phyllis I.; Frost, Adam

    2015-01-01

    The Endosomal Sorting Complexes Required for Transport (ESCRT) proteins mediate fundamental membrane remodeling events that require stabilizing negative membrane curvature. These include endosomal intralumenal vesicle formation, HIV budding, nuclear envelope closure and cytokinetic abscission. ESCRT-III subunits perform key roles in these processes by changing conformation and polymerizing into membrane-remodeling filaments. Here, we report the 4 Å resolution cryo-EM reconstruction of a one-start, double-stranded helical copolymer composed of two different human ESCRT-III subunits, CHMP1B and IST1. The inner strand comprises “open” CHMP1B subunits that interlock in an elaborate domain-swapped architecture, and is encircled by an outer strand of “closed” IST1 subunits. Unlike other ESCRT-III proteins, CHMP1B and IST1 polymers form external coats on positively-curved membranes in vitro and in vivo. Our analysis suggests how common ESCRT-III filament architectures could stabilize different degrees and directions of membrane curvature. PMID:26634441

  1. Project Choices: Update on the Effectiveness of Adventure Activities Used for Treating Addictions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillis, H. L.

    This paper describes an adventure-based treatment program for court-involved youth who display significant alcohol or drug abuse behavior. Project Choices' clients meet the criteria for drug abuse from the Diagnostic Statistical Manual-Revised (DSM-III-R). The clients reside in Project Choices placement homes during the 8-week treatment and 8-week…

  2. EGFR and EGFRvIII interact with PUMA to inhibit mitochondrial translocalization of PUMA and PUMA-mediated apoptosis independent of EGFR kinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hu; Cao, Xinyu; Ali-Osman, Francis; Keir, Stephen; Lo, Hui-Wen

    2010-01-01

    EGFR and its constitutively activated variant EGFRvIII are linked to glioblastoma resistance to therapy, the mechanisms underlying this association, however, are still unclear. We report that in glioblastoma, EGFR/EGFRvIII paradoxically co-expresses with p53-upregulated modulator of apoptosis (PUMA), a proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family of proteins primarily located on the mitochondria. EGFR/EGFRvIII binds to PUMA constitutively and under apoptotic stress, and subsequently sequesters PUMA in the cytoplasm. The EGFR-PUMA interaction is independent of EGFR activation and is sustained under EGFR inhibition. A Bcl-2/Bcl-xL inhibitor that mimics PUMA activity sensitizes EGFR/EGFRvIII-expressing glioblastoma cells to Iressa. Collectively, we uncovered a novel kinase-independent function of EGFR/EGFRvIII that leads to tumor drug resistance. PMID:20153921

  3. Mechanistic insight into conjugated N-N bond cleavage by Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Weirong; Liu, Yuxia; Bi, Siwei

    2015-08-14

    Density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to investigate the detailed mechanism of Rh(III)-catalyzed redox-neutral C-H activation of pyrazolones with PhC≡CPh. It is found that (1) the methylene C-H activation is prior to the phenyl C-H activation, (2) the N-N bond cleavage is realized via Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) rather than via Rh(III) → Rh(V) → Rh(III). The zwitterionic Rh(I) complex is identified to be a key intermediate in promoting the N-N bond cleavage. (3) Different from the Rh(III)-catalyzed hydrazine-directed C-H activation for indole synthesis, the rate-determining step of the reaction studied in this work is the Rh(III) → Rh(I) → Rh(III) process resulting in the N-N bond cleavage rather than the alkyne insertion step. The present theoretical study provides new insight into the mechanism of the conjugated N-N bond cleavage. PMID:26138233

  4. Microcalorimetric study of the effect of Ce(III) on metabolic activity of mitochondria isolated from indice rice 9311.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi; Li, Qiang-Guo

    2008-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have beneficial influence on plant growth and are widely used in agriculture practice, but little is known about behavior of the REEs on mitochondria in plant cells. Thermogenic metabolic curves were determined by the ampoule method at 303 K using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter in mitochondria isolated from indice rice 9311 (Oryza sativa L.), and the effect of Ce(III) on mitochondrial metabolism was investigated. By analyzing the obtained heat flux curves, the crucial parameters such as activity recovery rate constant (k) and maximum heat power (P(m)) were investigated. Application of Ce3+ in concentrations ranging from 0 to 120 microg/ml significantly increased k and P(m) values, with the maximum reaching 261 and 180% of the control, respectively. Concentrations from 140 to 150 microg/ml had the opposite effect. These results were consistent with previous reports on the effects of REEs on plant growth. It was concluded that the Ce(III)-induced change of mitochondrial metabolic activity is a possible mechanism by which Ce(III) influenced indice rice 9311 growth. PMID:18649319

  5. Characterization of Salmonella Type III Secretion Hyper-Activity Which Results in Biofilm-Like Cell Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Jennings, Matthew E.; Quick, Laura N.; Ubol, Nicha; Shrom, Sally; Dollahon, Norman; Wilson, James W.

    2012-01-01

    We have previously reported the cloning of the Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 secretion system and the use of this clone to functionally complement a ΔSPI-1 strain for type III secretion activity. In the current study, we discovered that S. Typhimurium cultures containing cloned SPI-1 display an adherent biofilm and cell clumps in the media. This phenotype was associated with hyper-expression of SPI-1 type III secretion functions. The biofilm and cell clumps were associated with copious amounts of secreted SPI-1 protein substrates SipA, SipB, SipC, SopB, SopE, and SptP. We used a C-terminally FLAG-tagged SipA protein to further demonstrate SPI-1 substrate association with the cell aggregates using fluorescence microscopy and immunogold electron microscopy. Different S. Typhimurium backgrounds and both flagellated and nonflagellated strains displayed the biofilm phenotype. Mutations in genes essential for known bacterial biofilm pathways (bcsA, csgBA, bapA) did not affect the biofilms formed here indicating that this phenomenon is independent of established biofilm mechanisms. The SPI-1-mediated biofilm was able to massively recruit heterologous non-biofilm forming bacteria into the adherent cell community. The results indicate a bacterial aggregation phenotype mediated by elevated SPI-1 type III secretion activity with applications for engineered biofilm formation, protein purification strategies, and antigen display. PMID:22412985

  6. SERS Activity of Silver Nanoparticles Functionalized with A Desferrioxamine B Derived Ligand for FE(III) Binding and Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galinetto, P.; Taglietti, A.; Pasotti, L.; Pallavicini, P.; Dacarro, G.; Giulotto, E.; Grandi, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    We report the SERS activity of colloidal silver nanoparticles functionalized with a ligand, derived from the siderophore desferrioxamine B (desferal, DFO), an iron chelator widely used in biological and medical applications. The ligand was equipped with a sulfur-containing moiety to ensure optimal binding with silver surfaces. By means of Raman and SERS effects we monitored the route of material preparation from the modified DFO-S molecule to the colloidal aggregates. The results indicate that the functionalization of the chelating agent does not affect its binding ability towards Fe(III). The resulting functionalized silver nanoparticles are a promising SERS tag for operation in biological environments. The Fe-O stretching signature, arising when DFO-S grafted to silver nanoparticles binds Fe(III), could provide a tool for cation sensing in solution.

  7. Fluorescence detection of telomerase activity in cancer cell extracts based on autonomous exonuclease III-assisted isothermal cycling signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Ding, Caifeng; Li, Xiaoqian; Wang, Wei; Chen, Yaoyao

    2016-09-15

    Based on the extension reaction of a telomerase substrate (TS) primer in the presence of the telomerase, strand-displacement process to perform more stable longer duplex chain, and stepwise hydrolysis of mononucleotides from the blunt or the recessed 3'-hydroxyl termini of duplex DNA in the presence of Exonuclease III (Exo III), an amplified fluorescence detection of telomerase activity in the cancer cells was described in this manuscript. A fluorescence probe DNA, a quencher DNA, and a TS primer were mixed to construct a three-chain DNA structure and a two-chain DNA structure because the amount of the TS primer was less than the other two DNA. In the presence of the telomerase, the quencher DNA was replaced from the probe DNA and the telomerase activity could be determined with the fluorescence enhancement. The telomerase activity in HeLa extracts equivalent to 6-2000 cells was detected by this method. Moreover, the strategy was further proved by using telomerase extracted from Romas cells. With the multiple rounds of isothermal strand displacement and the hydrolysis process, constituted consecutive of signal amplification for the novel detection paradigm that allowed measuring of telomerase activity in crude cancer cell extracts confirmed the reliability and practicality of the protocol, which reveal this platform holds great promise in the biochemical assay for the telomerase activity in early diagnosis for cancers. PMID:27108253

  8. A series of mononuclear Co(III) complexes using tridentate N,O-donor ligands: chemical properties and cytotoxicity activity.

    PubMed

    Souza, Elizabeth Teixeira; Maia, Paulo José Sousa; Azevedo, Erica Melo; Kaiser, Carlos Roland; Resende, Jackson Antônio Lamounier Camargos; Pinheiro, Carlos Basílio; Heinrich, Tassiele Andrea; da Silva, Roberto Santana; Scarpellini, Marciela

    2011-12-01

    Continuing our interest in tridentate ligands to develop new prototypes of cobalt-based metallodrugs for combating cancer, modifications in the backbone of HL1, [(2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-(pyridil-2-yl)ethyl]amine) were proposed in order to modulate the redox potential of new Co(III) complexes. Three ligands with electron withdrawing groups were synthesized: HL2: [(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)(2-(pyridil-2-yl)ethyl]amine); HL3: [(2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-(pyridil-2-yl)ethyl]imine) and HL4: [(2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzyl)(2-(pyridil-2-yl)ethyl]imine). They were used to obtain the respective mononuclear complexes 2, 3 and 4, which are discussed compared to the previous reported complex 1 (obtained from HL1). The new complexes were characterized and studied by several techniques including X-ray crystallography, elemental and conductimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectroscopies, and electrochemistry. The substitutions of the group in the para position of the phenol (HL1 and HL2) and the imine instead of the amine (HL3 and HL4), promote anodic shifts in the complexes reduction potentials. The influence of these substitutions in the biological activities of the Co(III) complexes against the murine melanoma cell line (B16F10) was also evaluated. Little effect was observed on cellular viability decrease for all free ligands, however the coordination to Co(III) enhances their activities in the following range: 1>4≈2>3. The data suggest that no straight correlation can be addressed between the reduction potential of the Co(III) center and the cell viability. PMID:22001498

  9. Effects of Soil Property Uncertainty on Projected Active Layer Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harp, D. R.; Atchley, A. L.; Coon, E.; Painter, S. L.; Wilson, C. J.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Liljedahl, A.

    2014-12-01

    Uncertainty in future climate is often assumed to contribute the largest uncertainty to active layer thickness (ALT) projections. However, the impact of soil property uncertainty on these projections may be significant. In this research, we evaluate the contribution of soil property uncertainty on ALT projections at the Barrow Environmental Observatory, Alaska. The effect of variations in porosity, thermal conductivity, saturation, and water retention properties of peat and mineral soil are evaluated. The micro-topography of ice wedge polygons present at the site is included in the analysis using three 1D column models to represent polygon center, rim and trough features. The Arctic Terrestrial Simulator (ATS) is used to model multiphase thermal and hydrological processes in the subsurface. We apply the Null-Space Monte Carlo (NSMC) algorithm to identify an ensemble of soil property combinations that produce simulated temperature profiles that are consistent with temperature measurements available from the site. ALT is simulated for the ensemble of soil property combinations for four climate scenarios. The uncertainty in ALT due to soil properties within and across climate scenarios is evaluated. This work was supported by LANL Laboratory Directed Research and Development Project LDRD201200068DR and by the The Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE Arctic) project. NGEE-Arctic is supported by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research in the DOE Office of Science.

  10. Amber light-emitting diode comprising a group III-nitride nanowire active region

    DOEpatents

    Wang, George T.; Li, Qiming; Wierer, Jr., Jonathan J.; Koleske, Daniel

    2014-07-22

    A temperature stable (color and efficiency) III-nitride based amber (585 nm) light-emitting diode is based on a novel hybrid nanowire-planar structure. The arrays of GaN nanowires enable radial InGaN/GaN quantum well LED structures with high indium content and high material quality. The high efficiency and temperature stable direct yellow and red phosphor-free emitters enable high efficiency white LEDs based on the RGYB color-mixing approach.

  11. Synthesis, characterization, hydrolase and catecholase activity of a dinuclear iron(III) complex: Catalytic promiscuity.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Tiago P; Maia, Fernanda F; Chaves, Cláudia; de Souza, Bernardo; Bortoluzzi, Adailton J; Castilho, Nathalia; Bortolotto, Tiago; Terenzi, Hernán; Castellano, Eduardo E; Haase, Wolfgang; Tomkowicz, Zbigniew; Peralta, Rosely A; Neves, Ademir

    2015-05-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and characterization of the new di-iron(III) complex [(bbpmp)(H2O)(Cl)Fe(III)(μ-Ophenoxo)Fe(III)(H2O)Cl)]Cl (1), with the symmetrical ligand 2,6-bis{[(2-hydroxybenzyl)(pyridin-2-yl)methylamino]methyl}-4-methylphenol (H3bbpmp). Complexes 2 with the unsymmetrical ligand H2bpbpmp - {2-[[(2-hydroxybenzyl)(2-pyridylmethyl)]aminomethyl]-6-bis(pyridylmethyl) aminomethyl}-4-methylphenol and 3 with the ligand L(1)=4,11-dimethyl-1,8-bis{2-[N-(di-2-pyridylmethyl)amino]ethyl}cyclam were included for comparison purposes. Complex 1 was characterized through elemental analysis, X-ray crystallography, magnetochemistry, electronic spectroscopy, electrochemistry, mass spectrometry and potentiometric titration. The magnetic data show a very weak antiferromagnetic coupling between the two iron centers of the dinuclear complex 1 (J=-0.29cm(-1)). Due to the presence of labile coordination sites in both iron centers the hydrolysis of both the diester model substrate 2,4-BDNPP and DNA was studied in detail. Complex 1 was also able to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate 3,5-di-tert-butylcatechol (3,5-DTBC) to give the corresponding quinone, and thus it can be considered as a catalytically promiscuous system. PMID:25792035

  12. Analysis of Escherichia coli RNase E and RNase III activity in vivo using tiling microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Stead, Mark B.; Marshburn, Sarah; Mohanty, Bijoy K.; Mitra, Joydeep; Castillo, Lourdes Peňa; Ray, Debashish; van Bakel, Harm; Hughes, Timothy R.; Kushner, Sidney R.

    2011-01-01

    Tiling microarrays have proven to be a valuable tool for gaining insights into the transcriptomes of microbial organisms grown under various nutritional or stress conditions. Here, we describe the use of such an array, constructed at the level of 20 nt resolution for the Escherichia coli MG1655 genome, to observe genome-wide changes in the steady-state RNA levels in mutants defective in either RNase E or RNase III. The array data were validated by comparison to previously published results for a variety of specific transcripts as well as independent northern analysis of additional mRNAs and sRNAs. In the absence of RNase E, 60% of the annotated coding sequences showed either increases or decreases in their steady-state levels. In contrast, only 12% of the coding sequences were affected in the absence of RNase III. Unexpectedly, many coding sequences showed decreased abundance in the RNase E mutant, while more than half of the annotated sRNAs showed changes in abundance. Furthermore, the steady-state levels of many transcripts showed overlapping effects of both ribonucleases. Data are also presented demonstrating how the arrays were used to identify potential new genes, RNase III cleavage sites and the direct or indirect control of specific biological pathways. PMID:21149258

  13. Projecting climate-driven increases in North American fire activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, D.; Morton, D. C.; Collatz, G. J.

    2013-12-01

    Climate regulates fire activity through controls on vegetation productivity (fuels), lightning ignitions, and conditions governing fire spread. In many regions of the world, human management also influences the timing, duration, and extent of fire activity. These coupled interactions between human and natural systems make fire a complex component of the Earth system. Satellite data provide valuable information on the spatial and temporal dynamics of recent fire activity, as active fires, burned area, and land cover information can be combined to separate wildfires from intentional burning for agriculture and forestry. Here, we combined satellite-derived burned area data with land cover and climate data to assess fire-climate relationships in North America between 2000-2012. We used the latest versions of the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) burned area product and Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) climate data to develop regional relationships between burned area and potential evaporation (PE), an integrated dryness metric. Logistic regression models were developed to link burned area with PE and individual climate variables during and preceding the fire season, and optimal models were selected based on Akaike Information Criterion (AIC). Overall, our model explained 85% of the variance in burned area since 2000 across North America. Fire-climate relationships from the era of satellite observations provide a blueprint for potential changes in fire activity under scenarios of climate change. We used that blueprint to evaluate potential changes in fire activity over the next 50 years based on twenty models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). All models suggest an increase of PE under low and high emissions scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5, respectively), with largest increases in projected burned area across the western US and central Canada. Overall, near

  14. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus.

    PubMed

    Bender, Silke; Reuter, Antje; Eberle, Florian; Einhorn, Evelyne; Binder, Marco; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA) is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN) as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito) or peroxisomal (pex) MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease. PMID:26588843

  15. Activation of Type I and III Interferon Response by Mitochondrial and Peroxisomal MAVS and Inhibition by Hepatitis C Virus

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Silke; Reuter, Antje; Eberle, Florian; Einhorn, Evelyne; Binder, Marco; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Sensing viruses by pattern recognition receptors (PRR) triggers the innate immune system of the host cell and activates immune signaling cascades such as the RIG-I/IRF3 pathway. Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS, also known as IPS-1, Cardif, and VISA) is the crucial adaptor protein of this pathway localized on mitochondria, peroxisomes and mitochondria-associated membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum. Activation of MAVS leads to the production of type I and type III interferons (IFN) as well as IFN stimulated genes (ISGs). To refine the role of MAVS subcellular localization for the induction of type I and III IFN responses in hepatocytes and its counteraction by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), we generated various functional and genetic knock-out cell systems that were reconstituted to express mitochondrial (mito) or peroxisomal (pex) MAVS, exclusively. Upon infection with diverse RNA viruses we found that cells exclusively expressing pexMAVS mounted sustained expression of type I and III IFNs to levels comparable to cells exclusively expressing mitoMAVS. To determine whether viral counteraction of MAVS is affected by its subcellular localization we employed infection of cells with HCV, a major causative agent of chronic liver disease with a high propensity to establish persistence. This virus efficiently cleaves MAVS via a viral protease residing in its nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) and this strategy is thought to contribute to the high persistence of this virus. We found that both mito- and pexMAVS were efficiently cleaved by NS3 and this cleavage was required to suppress activation of the IFN response. Taken together, our findings indicate comparable activation of the IFN response by pex- and mitoMAVS in hepatocytes and efficient counteraction of both MAVS species by the HCV NS3 protease. PMID:26588843

  16. Pro-oxidant activity of aluminum: promoting the Fenton reaction by reducing Fe(III) to Fe(II).

    PubMed

    Ruipérez, F; Mujika, J I; Ugalde, J M; Exley, C; Lopez, X

    2012-12-01

    The possibility for an Al-superoxide complex to reduce Fe(III) to Fe(II), promoting oxidative damage through the Fenton reaction, is investigated using highly accurate ab initio methods and density functional theory in conjunction with solvation continuum methods to simulate bulk solvent effects. It is found that the redox reaction between Al-superoxide and Fe(III) to produce Fe(II) is exothermic. Moreover, the loss of an electron from the superoxide radical ion in the Al-superoxide complex leads to a spontaneous dissociation of molecular oxygen from aluminum, recovering therefore an Al(3+) hexahydrated complex. As demonstrated in previous studies, this complex is again prone to stabilize another superoxide molecule, suggesting a catalytic cycle that augments the concentration of Fe(II) in the presence of Al(III). Similar results are found for Al(OH)(2+) and Al(OH)(2)(+) hydrolytic species. Our work reinforces the idea that the presence of aluminum in biological systems could lead to an important pro-oxidant activity through a superoxide formation mechanism. PMID:23085591

  17. Cobalt(III) Protoporphyrin Activates the DGCR8 Protein and Can Compensate microRNA Processing Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Barr, Ian; Weitz, Sara H; Atkin, Talia; Hsu, PeiKen; Karayiorgou, Maria; Gogos, Joseph A; Weiss, Shimon; Guo, Feng

    2015-06-18

    Processing of microRNA primary transcripts (pri-miRNAs) is highly regulated and defects in the processing machinery play a key role in many human diseases. In 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS), heterozygous deletion of DiGeorge critical region gene 8 (DGCR8) causes a processing deficiency, which contributes to abnormal brain development. The DGCR8 protein is the RNA-binding partner of Drosha RNase, both essential for processing canonical pri-miRNAs. To identify an agent that can compensate reduced DGCR8 expression, we screened for metalloporphyrins that can mimic the natural DGCR8 heme cofactor. We found that Co(III) protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) stably binds DGCR8 and activates it for pri-miRNA processing in vitro and in HeLa cells. Importantly, treating cultured Dgcr8(+/-) mouse neurons with Co(III)PPIX can compensate the pri-miRNA processing defects. Co(III)PPIX is effective at concentrations as low as 0.2 μM and is not degraded by heme degradation enzymes, making it useful as a research tool and a potential therapeutic. PMID:26091172

  18. THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN NATIONAL EDUCATIONAL SURVEY, AN INTERDISCIPLINARY RESEARCH PROJECT. VOLUME III, RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS AND TABULATIONS OF RESEARCH DATA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WHITMAN, LAURIS B.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEPARTMENT OF RESEARCH OF THE NATIONAL COUNCIL OF CHURCHES CONDUCTED A SURVEY FOR THE UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH OF ITS MEMBERSHIP AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS. VOLUME III OF ITS REPORT IS THE STUDY APPENDIXES. THERE ARE MARGINAL TABULATIONS ON THE SAMPLE CHURCHES AND COMMUNITY BACKGROUND, WHICH INCLUDE SUCH INFORMATION AS MEMBERSHIP, BUDGET,…

  19. The Design and Implementation of a Model Evaluation Capability. 1975-76 Final Report. Title III Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    The Austin Independent School District received an Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title III grant in 1973 to develop an internal research and evaluation capability. Funding was provided the resulting Office of Research and Evaluation (ORE) for three years. The foci of the original grant were (1) to develop a district evaluation model, (2)…

  20. Computational Exploration of Rh(III)/Rh(V) and Rh(III)/Rh(I) Catalysis in Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation Reactions of N-Phenoxyacetamides with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Fang; Houk, K N; Wu, Yun-Dong

    2016-06-01

    The selective rhodium-catalyzed functionalization of arenes is greatly facilitated by oxidizing directing groups that act both as directing groups and internal oxidants. We report density functional theory (B3LYP and M06) investigations on the mechanism of rhodium(III)-catalyzed redox coupling reaction of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes. The results elucidated the role of the internal oxidizing directing group, and the role of Rh(III)/Rh(I) and Rh(III)/Rh(V) catalysis of C-H functionalizations. A novel Rh(III)-Rh(V)-Rh(III) cycle successfully rationalizes recent experimental observations by Liu and Lu et al. ( Liu , G. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013 , 52 , 6033 ) on the reactions of N-phenoxyacetamides with alkynes in different solvents. Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis confirms the identity of Rh(V) intermediate in the catalytic cycle. PMID:27177448

  1. A SEARCH FOR BINARY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: DOUBLE-PEAKED [O III] AGNs IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K. L.; Shields, G. A.; McMullen, C. C.; Salviander, S.; Bonning, E. W.; Rosario, D. J. E-mail: shields@astro.as.utexas.ed E-mail: erin.bonning@yale.ed

    2010-06-10

    We present active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) having double-peaked profiles of [O III]{lambda}{lambda}5007, 4959 and other narrow emission lines, motivated by the prospect of finding candidate binary AGNs. These objects were identified by means of a visual examination of 21,592 quasars at z < 0.7 in SDSS Data Release 7 (DR7). Of the spectra with adequate signal-to-noise, 148 spectra exhibit a double-peaked [O III] profile. Of these, 86 are Type 1 AGNs and 62 are Type 2 AGNs. Only two give the appearance of possibly being optically resolved double AGNs in the SDSS images, but many show close companions or signs of recent interaction. Radio-detected quasars are three times more likely to exhibit a double-peaked [O III] profile than quasars with no detected radio flux, suggesting a role for jet interactions in producing the double-peaked profiles. Of the 66 broad-line (Type 1) AGNs that are undetected in the FIRST survey, 0.9% show double-peaked [O III] profiles. We discuss statistical tests of the nature of the double-peaked objects. Further study is needed to determine which of them are binary AGNs rather than disturbed narrow line regions, and how many additional binaries may remain undetected because of insufficient line-of-sight velocity splitting. Previous studies indicate that 0.1% of SDSS quasars are spatially resolved binaries, with typical spacings of {approx}10-100 kpc. If a substantial fraction of the double-peaked objects are indeed binaries, then our results imply that binaries occur more frequently at smaller separations (<10 kpc). This suggests that simultaneous fueling of both black holes is more common as the binary orbit decays through these spacings.

  2. [Various aspects of cognitive activities of schizophrenics. III. Maladjustment assimilation/accommodation and generalization of reasoning].

    PubMed

    Blein, G; Azorin, J M; Vollrath, J L; Andréoli, A; Tissot, R

    1987-05-01

    Paranoid schizophrenics are unable to balance affirmation and negation. Using the terms of Jean Piaget, they therefore only partially achieve the "équilibrations majorantes" of level II and never those of level III. In their thinking, they have access to the "généralisations inductives" (often excessive ones), but rarely to the "généralisations constructives complétives". They do not have access to the "généralisations synthétisantes" or to the feeling that logic is necessary. They oscillate between the positivist need to measure or verify and absolute beliefs issued from magical thinking. PMID:3688697

  3. Construct Validity of the Chinese Version of the Activities of Daily Living Rating Scale III in Patients with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, En-Chi; Lee, Yen; Lai, Kuan-Yu; Kuo, Chian-Jue; Lee, Shu-Chun; Hsieh, Ching-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Background The Chinese version of the Activities of Daily Living Rating Scale III (ADLRS-III), which has 10 domains, is commonly used for assessing activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with schizophrenia. However, construct validity (i.e., unidimensionality) for each domain of the ADLRS-III is unknown, limiting the explanations of the test results. Purpose This main purpose of this study was to examine unidimensionality of each domain in the ADLRS-III. We also examined internal consistency and ceiling/floor effects in patients with schizophrenia. Methods From occupational therapy records, we obtained 304 self-report data of the ADLRS-III. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted to examine the 10 one-factor structures. If a domain showed an insufficient model fit, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was performed to investigate the factor structure and choose one factor representing the original construct. Internal consistency was examined using Cronbach’s alpha (α). Ceiling and floor effects were determined by the percentage of patients with the maximum and minimum scores in each domain, respectively. Results CFA analyses showed that 4 domains (i.e., leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, communication tools use) had sufficient model fits. These 4 domains had acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.79-0.87) and no ceiling/floor effects, except the leisure domain which had a ceiling effect. The other 6 domains showed insufficient model fits. The EFA results showed that these 6 domains were two-factor structures. Conclusion The results supported unidimensional constructs of the leisure, picture recognition, literacy ability, and communication tool uses domains. The sum scores of these 4 domains can be used to represent their respective domain-specific functions. Regarding the 6 domains with insufficient model fits, we have explained the two factors of each domain and chosen one factor to represent its original construct. Future users may

  4. Reactivity of a Fe(III)-Bound Methoxide Supported with a Tris(thiolato)phosphine Ligand: Activation of C-Cl Bond in CH2Cl2 by Nucleophilic Attack of a Fe(III)-OCH3 Moiety.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-Chun; Huang, Ching-Ju; Chang, Ya-Ho; Wu, Zong-Han; Kuo, Ting-Shen; Hsu, Hua-Fen

    2016-01-19

    Two mononuclear nonheme Fe(III) complexes, [PPh4][Fe(III)(PS3″)(OCH3)] (1) and [PPh4][Fe(III)(PS3″)(Cl)] (2), supported by a tris(benzenethiolato)phosphine derivative PS3″ (PS3″ = P(C6H3-3-Me3Si-2-S)3(3-)) have been synthesized and characterized. The structures resolved from X-ray crystallography show that Fe(III) centers in both complexes adopt distorted trigonal-bipyramidal geometry with a methoxide or a chloride binding in the axial position. The magnetic data for both are consistent with intermediate-spin Fe(III) centers with a C3 symmetry (S = 3/2 ground state). The bound methoxide in 1 is labile and can be replaced by a CH3CN molecule. The forming Fe(III)-CH3CN species can be further reduced by cobaltcene quantitatively to a stable Fe(II)-CH3CN complex, [Fe(PS3″)(CH3CN)](-). One-electron oxidation of 2 by ferrocenium gave a Fe(IV) analogue, [Fe(IV)(PS3″)(Cl)]. Importantly, the Fe(III)-OCH3 moiety in complex 1 acts as a strong nucleophile that activates the C-Cl bond in CH2Cl2, leading to the formation of complex 2 quantitatively. Complex 1 also reacts with other electrophiles, benzyl chloride and benzyl bromide, to generate Fe(III)-X species (X = Cl or Br). The reactions were investigated and monitored by UV-vis-NIR, NMR, and ESI-MS spectroscopies. PMID:26699874

  5. Oxidative Stress and Antimicrobial Activity of Chromium(III) and Ruthenium(II) Complexes on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Páez, Paulina L.; Bazán, Claudia M.; Bongiovanni, María E.; Toneatto, Judith; Albesa, Inés; Becerra, María C.; Argüello, Gerardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of antibiotic resistance has resulted in the need for new approaches to be developed to combat previously easily treatable infections. The main aim of this work was to establish the potential of the synthetic α-diimine chromium(III) and ruthenium(II) complexes (where the α-diimine ligands are bpy = 2,2-bipyridine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline, and dppz = dipyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c]-phenazine) like [Cr(phen)3]3+, [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+, [Ru(phen)3]2+, and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ as antibacterial agents by generating oxidative stress. The [Cr(phen)3]3+ and [Cr(phen)2(dppz)]3+ complexes showed activity against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.125 μg/mL to 1 μg/mL, while [Ru(phen)3]2+ and [Ru(bpy)3]2+ do not exhibit antimicrobial activity against the two bacterial genera studied at the concentration range used. When ciprofloxacin was combined with [Cr(phen)3]3+ for the inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, an important synergistic effect was observed, FIC 0.066 for S. aureus and FIC 0.064 for E. coli. The work described here shows that chromium(III) complexes are bactericidal for S. aureus and E. coli. Our results indicate that α-diimine chromium(III) complexes may be interesting to open new paths for metallodrug chemotherapy against different bacterial genera since some of these complexes have been found to exhibit remarkable antibacterial activities. PMID:24093107

  6. Microcalorimetric investigation on metabolic activity and effects of La (III) in mitochondria isolated from indica rice 9311.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi

    2008-01-01

    Thermogenic metabolic curves were determined by the ampoule method at 303 K using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter in mitochondria isolated from rice 9311 (Oryza sativa L). From the thermogenic curves the activity recovery rate constant k and the maximum heat power Pm were obtained. Both were positively correlated to the protein content of rice mitochondria. The corresponding correlation coefficients were 0.9959 and 0.9950, respectively, indicating that the in vitro metabolic activity of mitochondria can be reliably expressed by these parameters. Addition of La (III) ions in concentrations ranging from 0 to 130 microg/mL resulted in significantly higher k and Pm values. Concentrations from 140 to 180 microg/mL had the opposite effect. These results are consistent with previous reports on the effects of rare earth elements on plant growth. We propose that the lanthanum-induced change of mitochondrial metabolic activity is a possible mechanism by which La (III) ions influence indica rice 9311 growth. PMID:18186001

  7. The Type III Radio Burst Occurrence Rate as a New Solar Activity Index: Rieger-Type periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.

    2012-12-01

    The type III radio burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) strongly correlates with solar activity and was recently proposed as a new index of solar activity. This index can provide complementary information and may be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. The first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156 days in the daily T3BOR are presented. This periodicity was detected during the time interval from 22 June 2000 to 31 December 2003. This interval partially contains maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN).

  8. Catalytic activity of ruthenium(III) on the oxidation of an anticholinergic drug-atropine sulfate monohydrate by copper(III) periodate complex in aqueous alkaline medium - decarboxylation and free radical mechanism.

    PubMed

    Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

    2013-01-01

    Atropine sulfate monohydrate (ASM) is an anticholinergic drug, having a wide spectrum of activity. Hence, the kinetics of oxidation of ASM by diperiodatocuperate (DPC) in the presence of micro (10-6) amounts of Ru(III) catalyst has been investigated spectrophotometrically in aqueous alkaline medium at I = 0.50 mol dm-3. The reaction between DPC and ASM exhibits 1:2 stoichiometry (ASM:DPC) i. e., one mole of ASM require two moles of DPC to give products. The main oxidation products were confirmed by spectral studies. The reaction is first order with respect to [DPC] and [Ru(III)], while the order with respect to [ASM] and [OH-] was less than unity. The rates decreased with increase in periodate concentration. The reaction rates revealed that Ru(III) catalyzed reaction was about seven-fold faster than the uncatalyzed reaction. The catalytic constant (KC) was also determined at different temperatures. A plausible mechanism is proposed. The activation parameters with respect to slow step of the mechanism were calculated and the thermodynamic quantities were also determined. Kinetic experiments suggest that [Cu(H2IO6)(H2O)2] is the reactive Cu(III) species and [Ru(H2O)5OH]2+ is the reactive Ru(III) species. PMID:24169716

  9. Title III in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Title III Quarterly, 1972

    1972-01-01

    The journal on special education programs funded under Title III of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act contains articles on three projects, abstracts of other projects, a picture story on San Diego Schools' outdoor classroom for special education, and a state by state listing of all Title III special education projects. The programs…

  10. Energy and Safety: Science Activities for Elementary Students, Level III (Grades (5-6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westcott, Dale; And Others

    Thirteen activities are presented that focus on a common phenomenon of a child's world: energy. These activities relate energy, how it occurs, how it is used, and how to use it safely. Each activity includes the purpose, introduction, background, procedure, materials, estimated time for the activity, typical results, safety notes, and more ideas.…

  11. Formation, Characterization, and O-O Bond Activation of a Peroxomanganese(III) Complex Supported by a Cross-Clamped Cyclam Ligand.

    PubMed

    Colmer, Hannah E; Howcroft, Anthony W; Jackson, Timothy A

    2016-03-01

    Although there have been reports describing the nucleophilic reactivity of peroxomanganese(III) intermediates, as well as their conversion to high-valent oxo-bridged dimers, it remains a challenge to activate peroxomanganese(III) species for conversion to high-valent, mononuclear manganese complexes. Herein, we report the generation, characterization, and activation of a peroxomanganese(III) adduct supported by the cross-clamped, macrocyclic Me2EBC ligand (4,11-dimethyl-1,4,8,11-tetraazabicyclo[6.6.2]hexadecane). This ligand is known to support high-valent, mononuclear Mn(IV) species with well-defined spectroscopic properties, which provides an opportunity to identify mononuclear Mn(IV) products from O-O bond activation of the corresponding Mn(III)-peroxo adduct. The peroxomanganese(III) intermediate, [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+), was prepared at low-temperature by the addition of KO2 to [Mn(II)(Cl)2(Me2EBC)] in CH2Cl2, and this complex was characterized by electronic absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and Mn K-edge X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies. The electronic structure of the [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) intermediate was examined by density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent (TD) DFT calculations. Detailed spectroscopic investigations of the decay products of [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) revealed the presence of mononuclear Mn(III)-hydroxo species or a mixture of mononuclear Mn(IV) and Mn(III)-hydroxo species. The nature of the observed decay products depended on the amount of KO2 used to generate [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+). The Mn(III)-hydroxo product was characterized by Mn K-edge XAS, and shifts in the pre-edge transition energies and intensities relative to [Mn(III)(O2)(Me2EBC)](+) provide a marker for differences in covalency between peroxo and nonperoxo ligands. To the best of our knowledge, this work represents the first observation of a mononuclear Mn(IV) center upon decay of a nonporphyrinoid Mn(III)-peroxo center. PMID:26908013

  12. The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III counteracts the necrotic activity of a Fusarium graminearum xylanase in vitro and in durum wheat transgenic plants.

    PubMed

    Moscetti, Ilaria; Faoro, Franco; Moro, Stefano; Sabbadin, Davide; Sella, Luca; Favaron, Francesco; D'Ovidio, Renato

    2015-08-01

    The xylanase inhibitor TAXI-III has been proven to delay Fusarium head blight (FHB) symptoms caused by Fusarium graminearum in transgenic durum wheat plants. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the capacity of the TAXI-III transgenic plants to limit FHB symptoms, we treated wheat tissues with the xylanase FGSG_03624, hitherto shown to induce cell death and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Experiments performed on lemmas of flowering wheat spikes and wheat cell suspension cultures demonstrated that pre-incubation of xylanase FGSG_03624 with TAXI-III significantly decreased cell death. Most interestingly, a reduced cell death relative to control non-transgenic plants was also obtained by treating, with the same xylanase, lemmas of TAXI-III transgenic plants. Molecular modelling studies predicted an interaction between the TAXI-III residue H395 and residues E122 and E214 belonging to the active site of xylanase FGSG_03624. These results provide, for the first time, clear indications in vitro and in planta that a xylanase inhibitor can prevent the necrotic activity of a xylanase, and suggest that the reduced FHB symptoms on transgenic TAXI-III plants may be a result not only of the direct inhibition of xylanase activity secreted by the pathogen, but also of the capacity of TAXI-III to avoid host cell death. PMID:25346411

  13. Enhancement by heparin of thrombin-induced antithrombin III proteolysis: its relation to the molecular weight and anticoagulant activity of heparin

    SciTech Connect

    Marciniak, E.; Gora-Maslak, G.

    1982-11-01

    Previous findings indicated that binding of heparin to antithrombin III (AT III) facilitates thrombin-induced proteolysis of the inhibitor. Researchers now studied this property of heparin in regard to its molecular weight and anticoagulant activity. Commercial heparin was resolved on Sephadex G-200 into six fractions of decreasing molecular weight. From each fraction high affinity (HA) heparin was isolated by chromatography on AT III-Sepharose and examined in reaction of alpha-thrombin with a molar excess of /sup 125/I AT III. Proteolysis of the inhibitor was assessed by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. In the presence of the HA heparin from 18% to 38% of AT III participating in reaction appeared in the form of inactive 50,000-dalton fragment, as opposed to 7% of AT III fragmented in the absence of heparin. Although the ability to potentiate proteolysis was at its peak in the medium-molecular-size heparin fraction, the amount of degraded inhibitor relative to anticoagulant activity increased with decreasing molecular weight of the polysaccharide. These findings are consistent with the possibility that the ability of bound heparin to facilitate the cleavage of AT III by thrombin is generally less contingent upon secondary characteristics of the polysaccharide than the anticoagulant activity.

  14. 36 CFR 218.24 - Notification of opportunity to comment on proposed projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration... on a proposed project or activity implementing a land management plan. (2) Determine the...

  15. 36 CFR 218.24 - Notification of opportunity to comment on proposed projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration... on a proposed project or activity implementing a land management plan. (2) Determine the...

  16. Microcalorimetric investigation on effects of La(III) on metabolic activity of mitochondria isolated from hybrid rice.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jie; Li, Chuan-Ling; Zhang, Ye-Zhong; Liu, Yi

    2008-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) have beneficial influence on plant growth and are widely used in agriculture practice, but little is known about the behavior of the REEs in mitochondria of plant cell. Thermogenic metabolic curves were determined by the ampoule method at 303 K using a TAM air isothermal microcalorimeter in mitochondria isolated from hybrid rice Liangyoupeijiu (Oryza sativa L.), and the effect of La(III) on its mitochondrial metabolism was investigated. From the obtained heat flux curves, the crucial parameters including as activity recovery rate constant (k) and maximum heat power (P(max)) were determined. Application of La(3+) in concentrations ranging from 0 to 120 microg/ml significantly increased k and P(max) values with the high point reaching 346 and 222% of the control, respectively. Concentrations from 140-150 microg/ml had the opposite effect. These results were consistent with previous reports on the effects of REEs on plant growth. It was concluded that the La-induced change of mitochondrial metabolic activity is a possible mechanism by which La(III) ions influences hybrid rice growth. PMID:19089826

  17. Active Control of Low-Speed Fan Tonal Noise Using Actuators Mounted in Stator Vanes: Part III Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Daniel L.; Remington, Paul J.; Walker, Bruce E.

    2003-01-01

    A test program to demonstrate simplification of Active Noise Control (ANC) systems relative to standard techniques was performed on the NASA Glenn Active Noise Control Fan from May through September 2001. The target mode was the m = 2 circumferential mode generated by the rotor-stator interaction at 2BPF. Seven radials (combined inlet and exhaust) were present at this condition. Several different error-sensing strategies were implemented. Integration of the error-sensors with passive treatment was investigated. These were: (i) an in-duct linear axial array, (ii) an induct steering array, (iii) a pylon-mounted array, and (iv) a near-field boom array. The effect of incorporating passive treatment was investigated as well as reducing the actuator count. These simplified systems were compared to a fully ANC specified system. Modal data acquired using the Rotating Rake are presented for a range of corrected fan rpm. Simplified control has been demonstrated to be possible but requires a well-known and dominant mode signature. The documented results here in are part III of a three-part series of reports with the same base title. Part I and II document the control system and error-sensing design and implementation.

  18. A Homozygous Mutation in LYRM7/MZM1L Associated with Early Onset Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Severe Reduction of Mitochondrial Complex III Activity

    PubMed Central

    Invernizzi, Federica; Tigano, Marco; Dallabona, Cristina; Donnini, Claudia; Ferrero, Ileana; Cremonte, Maurizio; Ghezzi, Daniele; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in nuclear genes associated with defective complex III (cIII) of the mitochondrial respiratory chain are rare, having been found in only two cIII assembly factors and, as private changes in single families, three cIII structural subunits. Recently, human LYRM7/MZM1L, the ortholog of yeast MZM1, has been identified as a new assembly factor for cIII. In a baby patient with early onset, severe encephalopathy, lactic acidosis and profound, isolated cIII deficiency in skeletal muscle, we identified a disease-segregating homozygous mutation (c.73G>A) in LYRM7/MZM1L, predicting a drastic change in a highly conserved amino-acid residue (p.Asp25Asn). In a mzm1Δ yeast strain, the expression of a mzm1D25N mutant allele caused temperature-sensitive respiratory growth defect, decreased oxygen consumption, impaired maturation/stabilization of the Rieske Fe–S protein, and reduced complex III activity and amount. LYRM7/MZM1L is a novel disease gene, causing cIII-defective, early onset, severe mitochondrial encephalopathy. PMID:24014394

  19. β-III spectrin underpins ankyrin R function in Purkinje cell dendritic trees: protein complex critical for sodium channel activity is impaired by SCA5-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Yvonne L; Perkins, Emma M; Cairncross, Callum J; Lyndon, Alastair R; Skehel, Paul A; Jackson, Mandy

    2014-07-15

    Beta III spectrin is present throughout the elaborate dendritic tree of cerebellar Purkinje cells and is required for normal neuronal morphology and cell survival. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 5 (SCA5) and spectrin associated autosomal recessive cerebellar ataxia type 1 are human neurodegenerative diseases involving progressive gait ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. Both disorders appear to result from loss of β-III spectrin function. Further elucidation of β-III spectrin function is therefore needed to understand disease mechanisms and identify potential therapeutic options. Here, we report that β-III spectrin is essential for the recruitment and maintenance of ankyrin R at the plasma membrane of Purkinje cell dendrites. Two SCA5-associated mutations of β-III spectrin both reduce ankyrin R levels at the cell membrane. Moreover, a wild-type β-III spectrin/ankyrin-R complex increases sodium channel levels and activity in cell culture, whereas mutant β-III spectrin complexes fail to enhance sodium currents. This suggests impaired ability to form stable complexes between the adaptor protein ankyrin R and its interacting partners in the Purkinje cell dendritic tree is a key mechanism by which mutant forms of β-III spectrin cause ataxia, initially by Purkinje cell dysfunction and exacerbated by subsequent cell death. PMID:24603075

  20. 15 CFR Appendix B to Subpart R of... - Minor Projects for Purposes of § 922.193(a)(2)(iii)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the adjacent riparian. (e) Filling for restoration of existing permitted fill, fills placed incidental... complete project, where the fill is of suitable material free from pollutants, waste metal products, debris... more than 300 cubic yards as a single and complete project when both of the following criteria are...

  1. Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland--Project DyAdd: WAIS-III Cognitive Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laasonen, Marja; Leppamaki, Sami; Tani, Pekka; Hokkanen, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The project Adult Dyslexia and Attention Deficit Disorder in Finland (Project DyAdd) compares adults (n = 119, 18-55 years) with dyslexia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), dyslexia together with ADHD (comorbid), and healthy controls with neuropsychological, psychophysical, and biological methods. The focus of this article is on the…

  2. Project Talented and Gifted, End of Grant Report. (ESEA Title III) Appendix IV: Part 2 of Two Bindings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Presented is a collection of instructional program units, or mini-workshops, developed by the coordinators and resource personnel working in Project Talented and Gifted and used by students participating in the project at the elementary and secondary level. Sections on each topic usually cover objectives and outlines of each session in the…

  3. Project Talented and Gifted, End of Grant Report. (ESEA Title III) Appendix IV: Part 1 of Two Bindings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1977

    Presented is a collection of instructional program units, or mini-workshops, developed by the coordinators and resource personnel working in Project Talented and Gifted and used by students participating in the project at the elementary and secondary level. Sections on each topic usually cover objectives and outlines of each session in the…

  4. Evaluation of Title I ESEA Projects, 1971-1972. Volume III, Instructional Practices and Student Cognitive Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prusso, Kenneth W.; And Others

    In this volume, ESEA Title I projects related to instructional practices and student cognitive performance, carried out in Philadelphia during 1971-1972, are evaluated. The six projects in this cluster are: Class for Mentally Retarded/Emotionally Distrubed Children; English as a Second Language; Improvement of Reading Skills (Reading Skills…

  5. The Development of an Instructional Television Publication: ITV: Promise Into Practice. An ESEA Title III Project Termination Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbus Public Schools, OH. Dept. of Evaluation, Research, and Planning.

    The Columbus Ohio Public School system conducted a project to develop an instructional television (ITV) publication. The project's major goals were to: 1) develop a rationale for using ITV to enhance learning; 2) produce a book for preservice and inservice educators which would examine ITV in relation to the foundations of education, as well as…

  6. Student Organizations--FBLA Projects and Activities Relating to Free Enterprise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green.

    This guide for Future Business Leaders of America and Phi Beta Lambda chapters describes 25 economic awareness projects/activities to create awareness of the free enterprise economic system. Introductory materials include suggestions for project planning and management and a worksheet for planning activities and projects. The projects/activities…

  7. Distinct inhibition of acute cocaine-stimulated motor activity following microinjection of a group III metabotropic glutamate receptor agonist into the dorsal striatum of rats.

    PubMed

    Mao, L; Wang, J Q

    2000-09-01

    Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase through G-proteins. Activation of this group of mGluRs shows an inhibition of dopaminergic transmission in the forebrain. To define the role of striatal group III mGluRs in the regulation of basal and dopamine-stimulated motor behavior, the recently developed agonist and antagonist relatively selective for group III mGluRs were utilized to pharmacologically enhance and reduce group III mGluR glutamatergic tone in the dorsal striatum of chronically cannulated rats. Bilateral injections of a group III agonist, L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4), did not alter basal levels of motor activity at three doses surveyed (1, 10, and 100 nmol). Neither did intracaudate injection of a group III antagonist, alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG), at 10, 30, and 100 nmol. However, pretreatment with L-AP4 (10 and 100 nmol) dose dependently blocked hyperlocomotion induced by acute injection of cocaine (20 mg/kg, i.p.), amphetamine (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.), or apomorphine (1 mg/kg, s.c.). The behavioral activity induced by cocaine was much more sensitive to L-AP4 than that induced by amphetamine and apomorphine. At 100 nmol, L-AP4 completely blocked cocaine effect whereas amphetamine- and apomorphine-stimulated behaviors were blocked only by 28% and 31%, respectively. The blocking effect of L-AP4 on cocaine action was reversed by pretreatment with MPPG. MPPG itself did not modify behavioral responses to cocaine, amphetamine, or apomorphine. These data indicate that the glutamatergic tone on the group III mGluRs is not active in the regulation of basal and acute dopamine-stimulated motor activity. However, enhanced group III mGluR glutamatergic transmission by an exogenous ligand is capable of suppressing behavioral responses to acute exposure of dopamine stimulants. PMID:11113488

  8. Quality Assurance Project Plan for Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities

    SciTech Connect

    Nickels, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan addresses the quality assurance requirements for the Facility Monitoring Plans of the overall site-wide environmental monitoring plan. This plan specifically applies to the sampling and analysis activities and continuous monitoring performed for all Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan activities conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company. It is generic in approach and will be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans. This document is intended to be a basic road map to the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan documents (i.e., the guidance document for preparing Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan determinations, management plan, and Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans). The implementing procedures, plans, and instructions are appropriate for the control of effluent monitoring plans requiring compliance with US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, state, and local requirements. This Quality Assurance Project Plan contains a matrix of organizational responsibilities, procedural resources from facility or site manuals used in the Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans, and a list of the analytes of interest and analytical methods for each facility preparing a Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan. 44 refs., 1 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Pore-forming activity of type III system-secreted proteins leads to oncosis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, D; Goure, J; Chabert, J; Usson, Y; Attree, I

    2001-04-01

    The Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis isolate CHA induces type III secretion system-dependent but ExoU-independent oncosis of neutrophils and macrophages. Time-lapse microscopy of the infection process revealed the rapid accumulation of motile bacteria around infected cells undergoing the process of oncosis, a phenomenon we termed pack swarming. Characterization of the non-chemotactic CHAcheZ mutant showed that pack swarming is a bacterial chemotactic response to infected macrophages. A non-cytotoxic mutant, lacking the type III-secreted proteins PcrV, PopB and PopD, was able to pack swarm only in the presence of the parental strain CHA or when macrophages were pretreated with the pore-forming toxin streptolysin O. Interaction of P. aeruginosa with red blood cells (RBCs) showed that the contact-dependent haemolysis provoked by CHA requires secretion via the type III system and the PcrV, PopB/PopD proteins. The pore inserted into RBC membrane was estimated from osmoprotection experiments to be between 2.8 and 3.5 nm. CHA-infected macrophages could be protected from cell lysis with PEG3350, indicating that the pore introduced into RBC and macrophage membranes is of similar size. The time course uptake of the vital fluorescent dye, Yo-Pro-1, into infected macrophages confirmed that the formation of transmembrane pores by CHA precedes cellular oncosis. Therefore, CHA-induced macrophage death results from a pore-forming activity that is dependent on the intact pcrGVHpopBD operon. PMID:11298277

  10. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  11. Activation of type III interferon genes by pathogenic bacteria in infected epithelial cells and mouse placenta.

    PubMed

    Bierne, Hélène; Travier, Laetitia; Mahlakõiv, Tanel; Tailleux, Ludovic; Subtil, Agathe; Lebreton, Alice; Paliwal, Anupam; Gicquel, Brigitte; Staeheli, Peter; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial infections trigger the expression of type I and II interferon genes but little is known about their effect on type III interferon (IFN-λ) genes, whose products play important roles in epithelial innate immunity against viruses. Here, we studied the expression of IFN-λ genes in cultured human epithelial cells infected with different pathogenic bacteria and in the mouse placenta infected with Listeria monocytogenes. We first showed that in intestinal LoVo cells, induction of IFN-λ genes by L. monocytogenes required bacterial entry and increased further during the bacterial intracellular phase of infection. Other Gram-positive bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Enterococcus faecalis, also induced IFN-λ genes when internalized by LoVo cells. In contrast, Gram-negative bacteria Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Shigella flexneri and Chlamydia trachomatis did not substantially induce IFN-λ. We also found that IFN-λ genes were up-regulated in A549 lung epithelial cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and in HepG2 hepatocytes and BeWo trophoblastic cells infected with L. monocytogenes. In a humanized mouse line permissive to fetoplacental listeriosis, IFN-λ2/λ3 mRNA levels were enhanced in placentas infected with L. monocytogenes. In addition, the feto-placental tissue was responsive to IFN-λ2. Together, these results suggest that IFN-λ may be an important modulator of the immune response to Gram-positive intracellular bacteria in epithelial tissues. PMID:22720036

  12. THE MAGELLANIC QUASARS SURVEY. III. SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF 758 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI BEHIND THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Kozłowski, Szymon; Udalski, Andrzej; Szymański, M. K.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzyński, G.; Soszyński, I.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Ulaczyk, K.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Onken, Christopher A.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Meixner, M.; Bonanos, A. Z. E-mail: onken@mso.anu.edu.au; Collaboration: OGLE Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    The Magellanic Quasars Survey (MQS) has now increased the number of quasars known behind the Magellanic Clouds by almost an order of magnitude. All survey fields in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 70% of those in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) have been observed. The targets were selected from the third phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE-III) based on their optical variability, mid-IR, and/or X-ray properties. We spectroscopically confirmed 758 quasars (565 in the LMC and 193 in the SMC) behind the clouds, of which 94% (527 in the LMC and 186 in the SMC) are newly identified. The MQS quasars have long-term (12 yr and growing for OGLE), high-cadence light curves, enabling unprecedented variability studies of quasars. The MQS quasars also provide a dense reference grid for measuring both the internal and bulk proper motions of the clouds, and 50 quasars are bright enough (I ∼< 18 mag) for absorption studies of the interstellar/intergalactic medium of the clouds.

  13. Learning Activity Packets for Milling Machines. Unit III--Vertical Milling Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) outlines the study activities and performance tasks covered in a related curriculum guide on milling machines. The course of study in this LAP is intended to help students learn to set up and operate a vertical mill. Tasks addressed in the LAP include mounting and removing cutters and cutter holders for vertical…

  14. Learning Activity Packets for Grinding Machines. Unit III--Cylindrical Grinding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Board of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This learning activity packet (LAP) is one of three that accompany the curriculum guide on grinding machines. It outlines the study activities and performance tasks for the third unit of this curriculum guide. Its purpose is to aid the student in attaining a working knowledge of this area of training and in achieving a skilled or moderately…

  15. Scorpion venom component III inhibits cell proliferation by modulating NF-κB activation in human leukemia cells

    PubMed Central

    SONG, XIANGFENG; ZHANG, GUOJUN; SUN, AIPING; GUO, JIQIANG; TIAN, ZHONGWEI; WANG, HUI; LIU, YUFENG

    2012-01-01

    Scorpion venom contains various groups of compounds that exhibit anticancer activity against a variety of malignancies through a poorly understood mechanism. While the aberrant activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) has been linked with hematopoietic malignancies, we hypothesized that scorpion venom mediates its effects by modulating the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the present study, we examined the effects of scorpion venom component III (SVCIII) on the human leukemia cell lines THP-1 and Jurkat and focused on the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results showed that SVCIII inhibited cell proliferation, caused cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and inhibited the expression of cell cycle regulatory protein cyclin D1 in a dose-dependent manner in THP-1 and Jurkat cells. SVCIII also suppressed the constitutive NF-κB activation through inhibition of the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. NF-κB luciferase reporter activity was also inhibited by SVCIII. Our data suggest that SVCIII, a natural compound, may exert its antiproliferative effects by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and, thus, has potential use in the treatment of hematopoietic malignancies, alone or in combination with other agents. PMID:23060939

  16. DNA binding and topoisomerase II inhibitory activity of water-soluble ruthenium(II) and rhodium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Joshi, Shweta; Singh, Alok Ranjan; Saxena, Jitendra Kumar; Pandey, Daya Shankar

    2007-12-10

    Water-soluble piano-stool arene ruthenium complexes based on 1-(4-cyanophenyl)imidazole (CPI) and 4-cyanopyridine (CNPy) with the formulas [(eta6-arene)RuCl2(L)] (L = CPI, eta6-arene = benzene (1), p-cymene (2), hexamethylbenzene (3); L = CNPy, eta6-arene = benzene (4), p-cymene (5), hexamethylbenzene (6)) have been prepared by our earlier methods. The molecular structure of [(eta6-C6Me6)RuCl2(CNPy)] (6) has been determined crystallographically. Analogous rhodium(III) complex [(eta5-C5Me5)RhCl2(CPI)] (7) has also been prepared and characterized. DNA interaction with the arene ruthenium complexes and the rhodium complex has been examined by spectroscopic and gel mobility shift assay; condensation of DNA and B-->Z transition have also been described. Arene ruthenium(II) and EPh3 (E = P, As)-containing arene ruthenium(II) complexes exhibited strong binding behavior, however, rhodium(III) complexes were found to be Topo II inhibitors with an inhibition percentage of 70% (7) and 30% (7a). Furthermore, arene ruthenium complexes containing polypyridyl ligands also act as mild Topo II inhibitors (10%, 3c and 40%, 3d) in contrast to their precursor complexes. Complexes 4-6 also show significant inhibition of beta-hematin/hemozoin formation activity. PMID:18001110

  17. Hemozymes peroxidase activity of artificial hemoproteins constructed from the Streptomyces lividans xylanase A and iron(III)-carboxy-substituted porphyrins.

    PubMed

    Ricoux, Rémy; Dubuc, Roger; Dupont, Claude; Marechal, Jean-Didier; Martin, Aurore; Sellier, Marion; Mahy, Jean-Pierre

    2008-04-01

    To develop artificial hemoproteins that could lead to new selective oxidation biocatalysts, a strategy based on the insertion of various iron-porphyrin cofactors into Xylanase A (Xln10A) was chosen. This protein has a globally positive charge and a wide enough active site to accommodate metalloporphyrins that possess negatively charged substituents such as microperoxidase 8 (MP8), iron(III)-tetra-alpha4-ortho-carboxyphenylporphyrin (Fe(ToCPP)), and iron(III)-tetra-para-carboxyphenylporphyrin (Fe(TpCPP)). Coordination chemistry of the iron atom and molecular modeling studies showed that only Fe(TpCPP) was able to insert deeply into Xln10A, with a KD value of about 0.5 microM. Accordingly, Fe(TpCPP)-Xln10A bound only one imidazole molecule, whereas Fe(TpCPP) free in solution was able to bind two, and the UV-visible spectrum of the Fe(TpCPP)-Xln10A-imidazole complex suggested the binding of an amino acid of the protein on the iron atom, trans to the imidazole. Fe(TpCPP)-Xln10A was found to have peroxidase activity, as it was able to catalyze the oxidation of typical peroxidase cosubstrates such as guaiacol and o-dianisidine by H2O2. With these two cosubstrates, the KM value measured with the Fe(TpCPP)-Xln10A complex was higher than those values observed with free Fe(TpCPP), probably because of the steric hindrance and the increased hydrophobicity caused by the protein around the iron atom of the porphyrin. The peroxidase activity was inhibited by imidazole, and a study of the pH dependence of the oxidation of o-dianisidine suggested that an amino acid with a pKA of around 7.5 was participating in the catalysis. Finally, a very interesting protective effect against oxidative degradation of the porphyrin was provided by the protein. PMID:18324756

  18. Polymerization of ethylene by silica-supported dinuclear Cr(III) sites through an initiation step involving C-H bond activation.

    PubMed

    Conley, Matthew P; Delley, Murielle F; Siddiqi, Georges; Lapadula, Giuseppe; Norsic, Sébastien; Monteil, Vincent; Safonova, Olga V; Copéret, Christophe

    2014-02-10

    The insertion of an olefin into a preformed metal-carbon bond is a common mechanism for transition-metal-catalyzed olefin polymerization. However, in one important industrial catalyst, the Phillips catalyst, a metal-carbon bond is not present in the precatalyst. The Phillips catalyst, CrO3 dispersed on silica, polymerizes ethylene without an activator. Despite 60 years of intensive research, the active sites and the way the first CrC bond is formed remain unknown. We synthesized well-defined dinuclear Cr(II) and Cr(III) sites on silica. Whereas the Cr(II) material was a poor polymerization catalyst, the Cr(III) material was active. Poisoning studies showed that about 65 % of the Cr(III) sites were active, a far higher proportion than typically observed for the Phillips catalyst. Examination of the spent catalyst and isotope labeling experiments showed the formation of a Si-(μ-OH)-Cr(III) species, consistent with an initiation mechanism involving the heterolytic activation of ethylene at Cr(III) O bonds. PMID:24505006

  19. III. The importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for cognitive control and memory in children.

    PubMed

    Chaddock-Heyman, Laura; Hillman, Charles H; Cohen, Neal J; Kramer, Arthur F

    2014-12-01

    In this chapter, we review literature that examines the association among physical activity, aerobic fitness, cognition, and the brain in elementary school children (ages 7-10 years). Specifically, physical activity and higher levels of aerobic fitness in children have been found to benefit brain structure, brain function, cognition, and school achievement. For example, higher fit children have larger brain volumes in the basal ganglia and hippocampus, which relate to superior performance on tasks of cognitive control and memory, respectively, when compared to their lower fit peers. Higher fit children also show superior brain function during tasks of cognitive control, better scores on tests of academic achievement, and higher performance on a real-world street crossing task, compared to lower fit and less active children. The cross-sectional findings are strengthened by a few randomized, controlled trials, which demonstrate that children randomly assigned to a physical activity intervention group show greater brain and cognitive benefits compared to a control group. Because these findings suggest that the developing brain is plastic and sensitive to lifestyle factors, we also discuss typical structural and functional brain maturation in children to provide context in which to interpret the effects of physical activity and aerobic fitness on the developing brain. This research is important because children are becoming increasingly sedentary, physically inactive, and unfit. An important goal of this review is to emphasize the importance of physical activity and aerobic fitness for the cognitive and brain health of today's youth. PMID:25387414

  20. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  1. Residential construction demonstration project, Cycle II: Active ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This report documents the analysis of the performance of natural and mechanical ventilation in Pacific Northwest homes. The analysis was part of Cycle II of the Residential Construction Demonstration Project, sponsored by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Since 1986, the Residential Construction Demonstration Project (RCDP) has sponsored the collection of data on energy efficient homes in the Pacific Northwest that comply with these new standards and requirements. Cycle II of RCDP was conducted between September 1987 and April 1990. It concentrated on energy innovations in homes built to the Super Good Cents specification. All of the test homes have electric heat and mechanical ventilation systems. Seven different types of active ventilation systems are represented in the homes. Three of these system types are equipped with heat recovery devices, and are represented in approximately a quarter of the test homes. The potential for both natural and mechanical ventilation was measured. Potential structural leakage was measured by blower door testing. Flow rate and operating time of mechanical ventilation systems were measured with flow hoods and hour meters. Actual ventilation was measured by using a passive tracer gas technique for several weeks during the heating season and at times of normal occupancy.

  2. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Rocchini, G.; Scagliotti, M.

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  3. Self-service for software development projects and HPC activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husejko, M.; Høimyr, N.; Gonzalez, A.; Koloventzos, G.; Asbury, D.; Trzcinska, A.; Agtzidis, I.; Botrel, G.; Otto, J.

    2014-05-01

    This contribution describes how CERN has implemented several essential tools for agile software development processes, ranging from version control (Git) to issue tracking (Jira) and documentation (Wikis). Running such services in a large organisation like CERN requires many administrative actions both by users and service providers, such as creating software projects, managing access rights, users and groups, and performing tool-specific customisation. Dealing with these requests manually would be a time-consuming task. Another area of our CERN computing services that has required dedicated manual support has been clusters for specific user communities with special needs. Our aim is to move all our services to a layered approach, with server infrastructure running on the internal cloud computing infrastructure at CERN. This contribution illustrates how we plan to optimise the management of our of services by means of an end-user facing platform acting as a portal into all the related services for software projects, inspired by popular portals for open-source developments such as Sourceforge, GitHub and others. Furthermore, the contribution will discuss recent activities with tests and evaluations of High Performance Computing (HPC) applications on different hardware and software stacks, and plans to offer a dynamically scalable HPC service at CERN, based on affordable hardware.

  4. Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project probability/coordination study resident fish and wildlife impacts, Phase III. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, E.

    1996-09-01

    Phase III began in 1995 with the overall goal of quantifying changes in resident fish habitat in the Snake River basin upstream of Brownlee Reservoir resulting from the release of salmon flow augmentation water. Existing data, in the form of weighted usable area versus flow relationships, were used to estimate habitat changes for white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)in the Snake River between C.J. Strike Dam and Brownlee pool. The increased flows resulted in increased white sturgeon habitat for most life stages. Rainbow trout adult and spawning habitat increased while juvenile and fry habitat generally decreased. Whether or not these short term increases in habitat result in long term benefits to the fish populations has yet to be determined.

  5. Idaho Water Rental Pilot Project Probability/Coordination Study Resident Fish and Wildlife Impact Phase III, 1995 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Leitzinger, Eric J.

    1996-09-01

    Phase III began in 1995 with the overall goal of quantifying changes in resident fish habitat in the Snake River basin upstream of Brownlee Reservoir resulting from the release of salmon flow augmentation water. Existing data, in the form of weighted usable area versus flow relationships, were used to estimate habitat changes for white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Snake River between C.J. Strike Dam and Brownlee pool. The increased flows resulted in increased white sturgeon habitat for most life stages. Rainbow trout adult and spawning habitat increased while juvenile and fry habitat generally decreased. Whether or not these short term increases in habitat result in long term benefits to the fish populations has yet to be determined.

  6. Antibacterial activity of Eisenia fetida andrei coelomic fluid: III--Relationship within the polymorphic hemolysins.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Lassegues, M; Valembois, P

    1991-01-01

    The antibacterial activity exhibited by 10 different hemolytic, genetic families was established by measuring the inhibition of spontaneous in vitro growth by cell-free coelomic fluid toward 2 bacteria which are pathogenic for the earthworm: Bacillus megaterium (Gram +) and Aeromonas hydrophila (Gram -). Only two families (B and K) displayed potent inhibitory activities. This finding is consistent with the fact that the B family occurs most frequently in both natural as well as in industrial breedings. Nevertheless, evidence of a poor antibacterial defense in some frequent families suggests the existence of alternative antibacterial mechanisms. PMID:2050244

  7. Comprehensive Study of Educational Technology Programs Authorized from 1989-1992. Volume III: Level II Model Technology School Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, CA.

    This report, the third in a series of six, evaluates the 10 school districts that received grants from the California Department of Education to develop Level II Model Technology School (MTS) Projects intended to enhance instruction and student learning through a combination of curriculum improvement and integration of technology within a single…

  8. Project SOUL: Computer Training Program for High School Students from Disadvantaged Areas. Part III, The Scientific Programming Course. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lew, Art

    This report details the Scientific Programming Course that is a part of "Project SOUL." The course is intended for underprivileged high school juniors and seniors having an interest in mathematics or science and aspirations to attend college. The report is divided into three sections. In section I, the administration and operation of the course as…

  9. Improving Efficiency of III-N Quantum Well Based Optoelectronic Devices through Active Region Design and Growth Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Nathan Garrett

    The III-Nitride materials system provides a fascinating platform for developing optoelectronic devices, such as solar cells and LEDs, which have the power to dramatically improve the efficiency of our power consumption and reduce our environmental footprint. Finding ways to make these devices more efficient is key to driving their widespread adoption. This dissertation focuses on the intersection of challenges in physics and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth at the nanoscale when designing for device efficiency. In order to create the best possible InGaN solar cell, a multiple quantum well (MQW) active region design had to be employed to prevent strain relaxation related degradation. There were two competing challenges for MQW active region design and growth. First, it was observed current collection efficiency improved with thinner quantum barriers, which promoted efficient tunneling transport instead of inefficiency thermally activated escape. Second, GaN barriers could planarize surface defects in the MQW region under the right conditions and when grown thick enough. A two-step growth method for thinner quantum barriers was developed that simultaneously allowed for tunneling transport and planarized V-defects. Barriers as thin as 4 nm were employed in MQW active regions with up to 30 periods without structural or electrical degradation, leading to record performance. Application of dielectric optical coatings greatly reduced surface reflections and allowed a second pass of light through the device. This both demonstrated the feasibility of multijunction solar integration and boosted conversion efficiency to record levels for an InGaN solar cell. III-N LEDs have achieved state-of-the-art performance for decades, but still suffer from the phenomena of efficiency droop, where device efficiency drops dramatically at high power operation. Droop is exacerbated by the polarization-induced electric fields in InGaN quantum wells, which originate from

  10. Basic Skills Integration Plan Evaluation Report for 1984-1985. Title III Curriculum Enrichment Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanley, Bruce H.; And Others

    This descriptive and evaluative report focuses on the work of Reading Area Community College's (RACC's) Basic Skills Articulation Team in developing a Basic Skills Integration Plan (BSIP) for the systematic integration of basic skills instruction into the college curriculum. Section A provides an introduction to the creation and activities of the…

  11. neutron activation analysis using thermochromatography. III. analysis of samples of biological origin

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, G.; Davydov, A.V.; Khamatov, S.; Kist, A.A.

    1986-07-01

    The use of gas thermochromatography (GTC) in the radioactivation analysis of biological materials is discussed. A group separation of a number of highly volatile elements from sodium and bromine radionuclides has been achieved. The limit of detection of the elements by INAA and neutron activation analysis was estimated using GTC. The advantages of the procedure and the analytical parameters are discussed.

  12. Thematic Resources and Activities for Career Education: CEI Final Report: Vol. III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Central Susquehanna Intermediate Unit 16, Lewisburg, PA.

    The book, Volume Three of a final report, is a collection of teachers' guides to units in career education, written by Pennsylvania teachers during a regional inservice institute in career education. The format used, Thematic Resources and Activities for Career Education (TRACE), incorporates the concerns of the Pennsylvania Career Development…

  13. INVESTIGATIONS OF AMITRAZ NEUROTOXICITY IN RATS. III. EFFECTS ON MOTOR ACTIVITY AND INHIBITION OF MONOAMINE OXIDASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The formamidine pesticide amitraz (AMZ) produces many behavioral and physiological changes in rats. o explore possible neurochemical mechanisms for the behavioral effects of AMZ, we examined the dose effect and time course of AMZ on motor activity, monoamine oxidase (MAO) and ace...

  14. Extending the Diffuse Layer Model of Surface Acidity Behavior: III. Estimating Bound Site Activity Coefficients

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although detailed thermodynamic analyses of the 2-pK diffuse layer surface complexation model generally specify bound site activity coefficients for the purpose of accounting for those non-ideal excess free energies contributing to bound site electrochemical potentials, in applic...

  15. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part III-A: Calculation Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the second in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. This document deals exclusively with the calculation procedures, including simplified mixing formulas, aeration tank…

  16. Two initiator-like elements are required for the combined activation of the human apolipoprotein C-III promoter by upstream stimulatory factor and hepatic nuclear factor-4.

    PubMed

    Pastier, Daniele; Lacorte, Jean-Marc; Chambaz, Jean; Cardot, Philippe; Ribeiro, Agnes

    2002-04-26

    Human apoC-III (-890/+24) promoter activity is strongly activated by hepatic nuclear factor (HNF)-4 through its binding to the proximal (-87/-72) element B. This site overlaps the binding site for an activity that we identified as the ubiquitously expressed upstream stimulatory factor (USF) (Ribeiro, A., Pastier, D., Kardassis, D., Chambaz, J., and Cardot, P. (1999) J. Biol. Chem. 274, 1216-1225). In the present study, we characterized the relationship between USF and HNF-4 in the activation of human apoC-III transcription. Although USF and HNF-4 binding to element B is mutually exclusive, co-transfection experiments in HepG2 cells surprisingly showed a combined effect of USF and HNF-4 in the transactivation of the (-890/+24) apoC-III promoter. This effect only requires the proximal region (-99/+24) of the apoC-III promoter and depends neither on USF binding to its cognate site in element B nor on a USF-dependent facilitation of HNF-4 binding to its site. By contrast, we found by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and footprinting analysis two USF low affinity binding sites, located within the proximal promoter at positions -58/-31 (element II) and -19/-4 (element I), which are homologous to initiator-like element sequence. Co-transfection experiments in HepG2 cells show that a mutation in element II reduces 2-fold the USF transactivation effect on the proximal promoter of apoC-III and that a mutation in element I inhibits the combined effect of USF and HNF-4. In conclusion, these initiator-like elements are directly involved in the transactivation of the apoC-III promoter by USF and are necessary to the combined effect between USF and HNF-4 for the apoC-III transcription. PMID:11839757

  17. Activation of group III metabotropic glutamate receptors inhibits basal and amphetamine-stimulated dopamine release in rat dorsal striatum: an in vivo microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Mao, L; Lau, Y S; Wang, J Q

    2000-09-22

    Group III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors are negatively coupled to adenylate cyclase and are distributed pre-synaptically in the striatum. A behavioral study previously conducted in this laboratory shows that activation of this group of mGlu receptors attenuates acute amphetamine-stimulated motor activity. By administering a group III selective agonist or antagonist via the dialysis probe, the present study employed in vivo microdialysis to evaluate the capacity of the group III selective agents to alter extracellular levels of dopamine in the dorsal striatum of normal and amphetamine-treated rats. It was found that the group III agonist L-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate (L-AP4) dose-dependently (1, 10 and 100 microM) reduced basal levels of extracellular dopamine. In contrast, the group III antagonist alpha-methyl-4-phosphonophenylglycine (MPPG) dose-dependently (10, 50 and 250 microM) elevated the basal release of extracellular dopamine. This elevation was antagonized by co-perfusion of L-AP4. Perfusion of 5-microM amphetamine through the dialysis probe increased extracellular dopamine in the dorsal striatum. Co-perfusion of L-AP4 (100 microM) significantly reduced amphetamine-stimulated dopamine levels, whereas co-perfusion of L-AP4 (100 microM) and MPPG (100 microM) did not alter the capacity of amphetamine to elicit dopamine release. The data obtained from this study demonstrate the presence of a tonically active glutamatergic tone on group III mGlu receptors in the dorsal striatum to pre-synaptically regulate basal dopamine release in an inhibitory fashion. Moreover, activation of L-AP4-sensitive group III mGlu receptors can suppress the phasic release of dopamine induced by a dopamine stimulant amphetamine. PMID:10996594

  18. An Empirical Investigation of Pre-Project Partnering Activities on Project Performance in the Software Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proffitt, Curtis K.

    2012-01-01

    Project failure remains a challenge within the software development field especially during the early stages of the IT project development. Despite the herculean efforts by project managers and organizations to identify and offset problems, projects remain plagued with issues. If these challenges are not mitigated, to a successful degree,…

  19. Projection type transparent 3D display using active screen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamoshita, Hiroki; Yendo, Tomohiro

    2015-05-01

    Equipment to enjoy a 3D image, such as a movie theater, television and so on have been developed many. So 3D video are widely known as a familiar image of technology now. The display representing the 3D image are there such as eyewear, naked-eye, the HMD-type, etc. They has been used for different applications and location. But have not been widely studied for the transparent 3D display. If transparent large 3D display is realized, it is useful to display 3D image overlaid on real scene in some applications such as road sign, shop window, screen in the conference room etc. As a previous study, to produce a transparent 3D display by using a special transparent screen and number of projectors is proposed. However, for smooth motion parallax, many projectors are required. In this paper, we propose a display that has transparency and large display area by time multiplexing projection image in time-division from one or small number of projectors to active screen. The active screen is composed of a number of vertically-long small rotate mirrors. It is possible to realize the stereoscopic viewing by changing the image of the projector in synchronism with the scanning of the beam.3D vision can be realized by light is scanned. Also, the display has transparency, because it is possible to see through the display when the mirror becomes perpendicular to the viewer. We confirmed the validity of the proposed method by using simulation.

  20. Remediation activities at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP)

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, T.J.; Danner, R.

    1996-07-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) facility located in southwestern Ohio. The facility began manufacturing uranium products in the early 1950`s and continued processing uranium ore concentrates until 1989. The facility used a variety of chemical and metallurgical processes to produce uranium metals for use at other DOE sites across the country. Since the facility manufactured uranium metals for over thirty years, various amounts of radiological contamination exists at the site. Because of the chemical and metallurgical processes employed at the site, some hazardous wastes as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) were also generated at the site. In 1989. the FEMP was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) requiring cleanup of the facility`s radioactive and chemical contamination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This paper discusses the proposed remediation activities at the five Operable Units (OUs) designated at the FEMP. In addition, the paper also examines the ongoing CERCLA response actions and RCRA closure activities at the facility.

  1. Genetic Dissection of the Signaling Cascade that Controls Activation of the Shigella Type III Secretion System from the Needle Tip

    PubMed Central

    Murillo, I.; Martinez-Argudo, I.; Blocker, A. J.

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) for virulence. The Shigella T3SS consists of a hollow needle, made of MxiH and protruding from the bacterial surface, anchored in both bacterial membranes by multimeric protein rings. Atop the needle lies the tip complex (TC), formed by IpaD and IpaB. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, T3S is initiated leading to formation of a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane, which is made of IpaB and IpaC. Through the needle and pore channels, further bacterial proteins are translocated inside the host cell to meditate its invasion. IpaD and the needle are implicated in transduction of the host cell-sensing signal to the T3S apparatus. Furthermore, the sensing-competent TC seems formed of 4 IpaDs topped by 1 IpaB. However, nothing further is known about the activation process. To investigate IpaB’s role during T3SS activation, we isolated secretion-deregulated IpaB mutants using random mutagenesis and a genetic screen. We found ipaB point mutations in leading to defects in secretion activation, which sometimes diminished pore insertion and host cell invasion. We also demonstrated IpaB communicates intramolecularly and intermolecularly with IpaD and MxiH within the TC because mutations affecting these interactions impair signal transduction. PMID:27277624

  2. Genetic Dissection of the Signaling Cascade that Controls Activation of the Shigella Type III Secretion System from the Needle Tip.

    PubMed

    Murillo, I; Martinez-Argudo, I; Blocker, A J

    2016-01-01

    Many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens use type III secretion systems (T3SSs) for virulence. The Shigella T3SS consists of a hollow needle, made of MxiH and protruding from the bacterial surface, anchored in both bacterial membranes by multimeric protein rings. Atop the needle lies the tip complex (TC), formed by IpaD and IpaB. Upon physical contact with eukaryotic host cells, T3S is initiated leading to formation of a pore in the eukaryotic cell membrane, which is made of IpaB and IpaC. Through the needle and pore channels, further bacterial proteins are translocated inside the host cell to meditate its invasion. IpaD and the needle are implicated in transduction of the host cell-sensing signal to the T3S apparatus. Furthermore, the sensing-competent TC seems formed of 4 IpaDs topped by 1 IpaB. However, nothing further is known about the activation process. To investigate IpaB's role during T3SS activation, we isolated secretion-deregulated IpaB mutants using random mutagenesis and a genetic screen. We found ipaB point mutations in leading to defects in secretion activation, which sometimes diminished pore insertion and host cell invasion. We also demonstrated IpaB communicates intramolecularly and intermolecularly with IpaD and MxiH within the TC because mutations affecting these interactions impair signal transduction. PMID:27277624

  3. The constitutive activity of epidermal growth factor receptor vIII leads to activation and differential trafficking of wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor and erbB2.

    PubMed

    Zeineldin, Reema; Ning, Yan; Hudson, Laurie G

    2010-06-01

    A constitutively active epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant, EGFR variant III (EGFRvIII), has been detected at high frequencies in certain human cancers. This study evaluated transactivation and trafficking of erbB family members as a result of constitutive EGFR activity in a cancer cell line. Expression of EGFRvIII modulated erbB family members through different mechanisms; the erbB3 mRNA level was reduced, whereas wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR) and erbB2 protein levels were diminished, with no change in their mRNA levels, and there was no change in the erbB4 expression level. Both EGFR and erbB2 were internalized as a result of EGFRvIII's activity and redistributed to the cell surface upon addition of AG1478, an inhibitor of wtEGFR/EGFRvIII catalytic activity. Acute activation of EGFRvIII by removing AG1478 from cells increased phosphorylation of both wtEGFR and erbB2 and caused differential trafficking of EGFRvIII's activation partners; wtEGFR was directed primarily to lysosomal compartments and partially to recycling compartments, whereas erbB2 was directed primarily to recycling compartments and partially to lysosomal compartments. Our data demonstrate that the constitutive activity of EGFRvIII is sufficient to trigger endocytosis and trafficking of wtEGFR and erbB2, which may play a role in activating signaling pathways that are triggered during receptor endocytosis. PMID:20159766

  4. The Effect of Project-Based Activities on Intermediate EFL Students' Reading Comprehension Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiraz, Mona Poorverdi; Larsari, Ebrahim Ezati

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the relationship between the use of Project-based activities and intermediate EFL students' reading comprehension. The study addresses the questions of whether students' reading comprehension differs after implementing Project-based activities, and whether different projects lead to different degrees of reading…

  5. Clean Coal Technology III: 10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption final project performance and economics report

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, F.E.

    1995-08-01

    The 10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) program is a government and industry co-funded technology development. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating a 10 MW slipstream of flue gas resulting from the combustion of a high sulfur coal. This project involves design, fabrication, construction and testing of the GSA system. The Project Performance and Economics Report provides the nonproprietary information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of the Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA) Project`` installed at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emissions Research (CER) at Paducah, Kentucky. The program demonstrated that the GSA flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) technology is capable of achieving high SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies (greater than 90%), while maintaining particulate emissions below the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), without any negative environmental impact (section 6). A 28-day test demonstrated the reliability and operability of the GSA system during continuous operation. The test results and detailed discussions of the test data can be obtained from TVA`s Final Report (Appendix A). The Air Toxics Report (Appendix B), prepared by Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EERC) characterizes air toxic emissions of selected hazardous air pollutants (HAP) from the GSA process. The results of this testing show that the GSA system can substantially reduce the emission of these HAP. With its lower capital costs and maintenance costs (section 7), as compared to conventional semi-dry scrubbers, the GSA technology commands a high potential for further commercialization in the United States. For detailed information refer to The Economic Evaluation Report (Appendix C) prepared by Raytheon Engineers and Constructors.

  6. Spectroscopic, structure and antimicrobial activity of new Y(III) and Zr(IV) ciprofloxacin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeek, Sadeek A.; El-Shwiniy, Walaa H.; Zordok, Wael A.; El-Didamony, Akram M.

    2011-02-01

    The preparation and characterization of the new solid complexes [Y(CIP) 2(H 2O) 2]Cl 3·10H 2O and [ZrO(CIP) 2Cl]Cl·15H 2O formed in the reaction of ciprofloxacin (CIP) with YCl 3 and ZrOCl 2·8H 2O in ethanol and methanol, respectively, at room temperature were reported. The isolated complexes have been characterized with elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy, conductance measurements, UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopic methods and thermal analyses. The results support the formation of the complexes and indicate that ciprofloxacin reacts as a bidentate ligand bound to the metal ion through the pyridone oxygen and one carboxylato oxygen. The activation energies, E*; entropies, Δ S*; enthalpies, Δ H*; Gibbs free energies, Δ G*, of the thermal decomposition reactions have been derived from thermogravimetric (TGA) and differential thermogravimetric (DTG) curves, using Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzeger methods. The proposed structure of the two complexes was detected by using the density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/CEP-31G level of theory. The ligand as well as their metal complexes was also evaluated for their antibacterial activity against several bacterial species, such as Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus), Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) and antifungal screening was studied against two species ( Penicillium ( P. rotatum) and Trichoderma ( T. sp.)). This study showed that the metal complexes are more antibacterial as compared to free ligand and no antifungal activity observed for ligand and their complexes.

  7. Distinct catalytic activity and in vivo roles of the ExoIII and EndoIV AP endonucleases from Sulfolobus islandicus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhou; Huang, Qihong; Ni, Jinfeng; Shen, Yulong

    2016-09-01

    AP endonuclease cleaves the phosphodiester bond 5'- to the AP (apurinic or apyrimidinic) sites and is one of the major enzymes involved in base excision repair. So far, the properties of several archaeal AP endonuclease homologues have been characterized in vitro, but little is known about their functions in vivo. Herein, we report on the biochemical and genetic analysis of two AP endonucleases, SisExoIII and SisEndoIV, from the hyperthermophilic crenarchaeon Sulfolobus islandicus REY15A. Both SisExoIII and SisEndoIV exhibit AP endonuclease activity, but neither of them has 3'-5' exonuclease activity. SisExoIII and SisEndoIV have similar K M values on the substrate containing an AP site, but the latter cleaves the AP substrate at a dramatically higher catalytic rate than the former. Unlike other AP endonucleases identified in archaea, SisExoIII and SisEndoIV do not exhibit any cleavage activity on DNA having oxidative damage (8-oxo-dG) or uracil. Genetic analysis revealed that neither gene is essential for cell viability, and the growth of ∆SiRe_2666 (endoIV), ∆SiRe_0100 (exoIII), and ∆SiRe_0100∆SiRe_2666 is not affected under normal growth conditions. However, ∆SiRe_2666 exhibits higher sensitivity to the alkylating agent methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) than ∆SiRe_0100. Over-expression of SiRe_0100 can partially complement the sensitivity of ∆SiRe_2666 to MMS, suggesting a backup role of SisExoIII in AP site processing in vivo. Intriguingly, over-expression of SisEndoIV renders the strain more sensitive to MMS than the control. Taken together, we conclude that SisEndoIV, but not SisExoIII, is the main AP endonuclease that participates directly in base excision repair in S. islandicus. PMID:27457080

  8. A low-luminosity type-1 QSO sample. III. Optical spectroscopic properties and activity classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremou, E.; Garcia-Marin, M.; Zuther, J.; Eckart, A.; Valencia-Schneider, M.; Vitale, M.; Shan, C.

    2015-08-01

    Context. We report on the optical spectroscopic analysis of a sample of 99 low-luminosity quasi-stellar objects (LLQSOs) at z ≤ 0.06 base the Hamburg/ESO QSO Survey (HES). To better relate the low-redshift active galactic nucleus (AGN) to the QSO population it is important to study samples of the latter type at a level of detail similar to that of the low-redshift AGN. Powerful QSOs, however, are absent at low redshifts due to evolutionary effects and their small space density. Our understanding of the (distant) QSO population is, therefore, significantly limited by angular resolution and sensitivity. The LLQSOs presented here offer the possibility of studying the faint end of this population at smaller cosmological distances and, therefore, in greater detail. Aims: In comparing two spectroscopic methods, we aim to establish a reliable activity classification scheme of the LLQSOs sample. Our goal is to enrich our systematic multiwavelength analysis of the AGN/starburst relation in these systems and give a complementary information on this particular sample of LLQSOs from the Hamburg ESO survey. Methods: Here, we present results of the analysis of visible wavelength spectroscopy provided by the HES and the 6 Degree Field Galaxy Survey (6dFGS). These surveys use different spectroscopic techniques, long-slit and circular fiber, respectively. These allow us to assess the influence of different apertures on the activity of the LLQSOs using classical optical diagnostic diagrams. We perform a Gaussian fitting of strong optical emission lines and decompose narrow and broad Balmer components. Results: A small number of our LLQSO present no broad component, which is likely to be present but buried in the noise. Two sources show double broad components, whereas six comply with the classic NLS1 requiremnts. As expected in NLR of broad line AGNs, the [Sii]-based electron density values range between 100 and 1000 Ne/cm3. Using the optical characteristics of Populations A and B

  9. Half-sandwich rhodium(III) transfer hydrogenation catalysts: Reduction of NAD(+) and pyruvate, and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Organometallic complexes have the potential to behave as catalytic drugs. We investigate here Rh(III) complexes of general formula [(Cp(x))Rh(N,N')(Cl)], where N,N' is ethylenediamine (en), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide (TfEn), and Cp(x) is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPh)) or 1-biphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPhPh)). These complexes can reduce NAD(+) to NADH using formate as a hydride source under biologically-relevant conditions. The catalytic activity decreased in the order of N,N-chelated ligand bpy > phen > en with Cp* as the η(5)-donor. The en complexes (1-3) became more active with extension to the Cp(X) ring, whereas the activity of the phen (7-9) and bpy (4-6) compounds decreased. [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl](+) (4) showed the highest catalytic activity, with a TOF of 37.4±2h(-1). Fast hydrolysis of the chlorido complexes 1-10 was observed by (1)H NMR (<10min at 310K). The pKa* values for the aqua adducts were determined to be ca. 8-10. Complexes 1-9 also catalysed the reduction of pyruvate to lactate using formate as the hydride donor. The efficiency of the transfer hydrogenation reactions was highly dependent on the nature of the chelating ligand and the Cp(x) ring. Competition reactions between NAD(+) and pyruvate for reduction by formate catalysed by 4 showed a preference for reduction of NAD(+). The antiproliferative activity of complex 3 towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells increased by up to 50% when administered in combination with non-toxic doses of formate, suggesting that transfer hydrogenation can induce reductive stress in cancer cells. PMID:26601938

  10. Enhanced activity and stability of binuclear iron (III) phthalocyanine on graphene nanosheets for electrocatalytic oxygen reduction in acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tengfei; Peng, Yingxiang; Li, Kai; Zhang, Rui; Zheng, Lirong; Xia, Dingguo; Zuo, Xia

    2015-10-01

    Binuclear iron (III) phthalocyanine (bi-FePc) and iron (III) phthalocyanine (FePc) are synthesized in situ on graphene nanosheets (GNS) by a microwave-assisted method. TEM, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy confirm that bi-FePc is supported on GNS through π-π interactions. The catalytic activity of the bi-FePc/GNS and FePc/GNS composites in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) is investigated by CV and RDE measurements. The bi-FePc/GNS composite shows a more positive onset potential (0.12 V vs. Hg/Hg2SO4) for the ORR than FePc/GNS (-0.02 V vs. Hg/Hg2SO4), and a four-electron mechanism similar to commercial Pt/C (0.22 V vs. Hg/Hg2SO4). Moreover, bi-FePc/GNS exhibits good stability with 100% retention after 36,000 s, while Pt/C has a retention of only 50% after the same period. Additionally, bi-FePc/GNS shows higher tolerance toward methanol than the Pt/C catalyst. XPS and X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy demonstrate that compared with FePc/GNS, bi-FePc/GNS possesses a higher concentration of Fe3+ and smaller skeleton radius of the phthalocyanine ring, which has a square-planar structure that evidently favors the ORR. Thus, bi-FePc/GNS is a promising candidate as a cathode catalyst in direct methanol fuel cells.

  11. Preparation and Anti-Tumour Activity of Some Arylbismuth(III) Oxine Complexes.

    PubMed

    Smith, K A; Deacon, G B; Jackson, W R; Tiekink, E R; Rainone, S; Webster, L K

    1998-01-01

    New arylbismuth(lll) oxinates, PhBi(MeOx)(2), (p-MeC(6)H(4))Bi(Ox)(2), (p-MeC(6)H(4))Bi(MeOx)(2), (p-ClC(6)H(4))Bi(Ox)(2), and (p-ClC(6)H(4))Bi(MeOx)(2) (Ox(-) = quinolin-8-olate and MeOx(-)=2-methylquinolin-8-olate) have been prepared by reaction of the appropriate diarylbismuth chlorides with Na(Ox) or Na(MeOx) in the presence of 15-crown-5. An X-ray crystallographic study has shown PhBi(MeOx)(2) to be a five coordinate monomer with distorted square pyramidal stereochemistry. Chelating MeOx ligands have a cisoid arrangement in the square plane and the phenyl group is apical. The lattice is stabilised by significant pi-pi interactions between centrosymmetric molecules. A range of these complexes has been shown to have high in vitro biological activity (comparable with or better than cisplatin) against L1210 leukaemia, the corresponding cisplatin resistant line, and a human ovarian cell line, SKOV-3. However, initial in vivo testing against a solid mouse plasmacytoma (PC6) and P388 leukaemia has not revealed significant activity. PMID:18475861

  12. Electron-transfer reactions of cobalt(III) complexes. 1. The kinetic investigation of the reduction of various surfactant cobalt(III) complexes by iron(II) in surface active ionic liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaraj, Karuppiah; Senthil Murugan, Krishnan; Thangamuniyandi, Pilavadi; Sakthinathan, Subramanian

    2015-05-01

    The kinetics of outer sphere electron transfer reaction of surfactant cobalt(III) complex ions, cis-[Co(en)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (1), cis-[Co(dp)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (2), cis-[Co(trien)(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (3), cis-[Co(bpy)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (4) and cis-[Co(phen)2(C12H25NH2)2]3+ (5) (en: ethylenediamine, dp: diaminopropane, trien : triethylenetetramine, bpy: 2,2‧-bipyridyl, phen: 1,10-phenanthroline and C12H25NH2 : dodecylamine) have been interrogated by Fe2+ ion in ionic liquid (1-butyl-3-methylimidazoliumbromide) medium at different temperatures (298, 303, 308, 313, 318 and 323 K) by the spectrophotometry method under pseudo first order conditions using an excess of the reductant. Experimentally the reactions were found to be of second order and the electron transfer as outer sphere. The second order rate constant for the electron transfer reaction in ionic liquids was found to increase with increase in the concentration of all these surfactant cobalt(III) complexes. Among these complexes (from en to phen ligand), complex containing the phenanthroline ligand rate is higher compared to other complexes. By assuming the outer sphere mechanism, the results have been explained based on the presence of aggregated structures containing cobalt(III) complexes at the surface of ionic liquids formed by the surfactant cobalt(III) complexes in the reaction medium. The activation parameters (enthalpy of activation ΔH‡ and entropy of activation ΔS‡) of the reaction have been calculated which substantiate the kinetics of the reaction.

  13. Evolution of Enzymatic Activities in the Enolase Superfamily: Galactarate Dehydratase III from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 encodes 12 members of the enolase superfamily (ENS), eight of which are members of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup and, therefore, likely to be acid sugar dehydratases. Using a library of 77 acid sugars for high-throughput screening, one protein (UniProt entry A9CG74; locus tag Atu4196) showed activity with both m-galactarate and d-galacturonate. Two families of galactarate dehydratases had been discovered previously in the ENS, GalrD/TalrD [Yew, W. S., et al. (2007) Biochemistry46, 9564–9577] and GalrD-II [Rakus, J. F., et al. (2009) Biochemistry48, 11546–11558]; these have different active site acid/base catalysis and have no activity with d-galacturonate. A9CG74 dehydrates m-galactarate to form 2-keto-3-deoxy-galactarate but does not dehydrate d-galacturonate as expected. Instead, when A9CG74 is incubated with d-galacturonate, 3-deoxy-d-xylo-hexarate or 3-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexarate is formed. In this reaction, instead of abstracting the C5 proton α to the carboxylate group, the expected reaction for a member of the ENS, the enzyme apparently abstracts the proton α to the aldehyde group to form 3-deoxy-d-threo-hexulosuronate that undergoes a 1,2-hydride shift similar to the benzylic acid rearrangement to form the observed product. A. tumefaciens C58 does not utilize m-galactarate as a carbon source under the conditions tested in this study, although it does utilize d-galacturonate, which is a likely precursor to m-galactarate. The gene encoding A9CG74 and several genome proximal genes were upregulated with d-galacturonate as the carbon source. One of these, a member of the dihydrodipicolinate synthase superfamily, catalyzes the dehydration and subsequent decarboxylation of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-galactarate to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde, thereby providing a pathway for the conversion of m-galactarate to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde. PMID:24926996

  14. Evolution of enzymatic activities in the enolase superfamily: galactarate dehydratase III from Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58.

    PubMed

    Groninger-Poe, Fiona P; Bouvier, Jason T; Vetting, Matthew W; Kalyanaraman, Chakrapani; Kumar, Ritesh; Almo, Steven C; Jacobson, Matthew P; Gerlt, John A

    2014-07-01

    The genome of Agrobacterium tumefaciens C58 encodes 12 members of the enolase superfamily (ENS), eight of which are members of the mandelate racemase (MR) subgroup and, therefore, likely to be acid sugar dehydratases. Using a library of 77 acid sugars for high-throughput screening, one protein (UniProt entry A9CG74; locus tag Atu4196) showed activity with both m-galactarate and d-galacturonate. Two families of galactarate dehydratases had been discovered previously in the ENS, GalrD/TalrD [Yew, W. S., et al. (2007) Biochemistry 46, 9564-9577] and GalrD-II [Rakus, J. F., et al. (2009) Biochemistry 48, 11546-11558]; these have different active site acid/base catalysis and have no activity with d-galacturonate. A9CG74 dehydrates m-galactarate to form 2-keto-3-deoxy-galactarate but does not dehydrate d-galacturonate as expected. Instead, when A9CG74 is incubated with d-galacturonate, 3-deoxy-d-xylo-hexarate or 3-deoxy-d-lyxo-hexarate is formed. In this reaction, instead of abstracting the C5 proton α to the carboxylate group, the expected reaction for a member of the ENS, the enzyme apparently abstracts the proton α to the aldehyde group to form 3-deoxy-d-threo-hexulosuronate that undergoes a 1,2-hydride shift similar to the benzylic acid rearrangement to form the observed product. A. tumefaciens C58 does not utilize m-galactarate as a carbon source under the conditions tested in this study, although it does utilize d-galacturonate, which is a likely precursor to m-galactarate. The gene encoding A9CG74 and several genome proximal genes were upregulated with d-galacturonate as the carbon source. One of these, a member of the dihydrodipicolinate synthase superfamily, catalyzes the dehydration and subsequent decarboxylation of 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-galactarate to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde, thereby providing a pathway for the conversion of m-galactarate to α-ketoglutarate semialdehyde. PMID:24926996

  15. Endocrine effects of lithium. III. Hypermagnesaemia and activation of the renin-aldosterone system.

    PubMed

    Transbøl, I; Christiansen, C; Baastrup, P C; Nielsen, M D; Giese, J

    1978-07-01

    Hypermagnesaemia is a well-known but as yet unexplained concomitant of lithium treatment. Prior suggestions implicating a role for aldosterone in magnesium homoeostasis prompted this study of plasma renin, plasma aldosterone and serum magnesium in 17 maniodepressive patients on long-term lithium treatment. In addition to hypermagnesaemia (P less than 0.001), this group of patients had raised plasma levels of aldosterone (P less than 0.001) and increased plasma renin concentration (P less than 0.05). Serum magnesium was positively correlated to plasma aldosterone (r = 0.58, P less than 0.02). The relation between activation of the renin-aldosterone system and the presence of hypermagnesaemia during chronic lithium treatment could conceivably be mediated through a lithium-induced hypovolaemic state. PMID:581026

  16. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activities of two lanthanide(III) complexes with a nicotinohydrazone ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhou-Qin; Mao, Xian-Jie; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Cai, Hong-Xin; Bie, Hong-Yan; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-liang

    2015-12-01

    Two isostructural acylhydrazone based complexes, namely [Ce(penh)2(H2O)4](NO3)3·4H2O (1) and [Sm(penh)2(NO3)2](NO3)·C2H5OH (2) (penh = 2-acetylpyridine nicotinohydrazone), have been obtained and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The ten-coordinated lanthanide metal ion in each complex is surrounded by two independent tridentate neutral acylhydrazones with two ON2 donor sets. The other four coordination oxygen atoms are from four water molecules and two bidentate nitrate anions for complexes 1 and 2, respectively, thus giving distorted bicapped square antiprism geometry. Both complexes have excellent antitumor activity towards human pancreatic cancer (PATU8988), human colorectal cancer (lovo) and human gastric cancer(SGC7901) cell line. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis of complex 1 is detected by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometry.

  17. 77 FR 33774 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Agency Information Collection Activities: Comment Request; Education and Human Resources Project... of Collection: Education and Human Resources Project Monitoring Clearance. OMB Approval Number: 3145... States and internationally. The Directorate for Education and Human Resources (EHR), a unit within...

  18. Studies on the synthesis, characterization, human serum albumin binding and biological activity of single chain surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Vignesh, G; Sugumar, K; Arunachalam, S; Vignesh, S; Arthur James, R; Arun, R; Premkumar, K

    2016-03-01

    The interaction of surfactant-cobalt(III) complexes [Co(bpy)(dien)TA](ClO4)3 · 3H2O (1) and [Co(dien)(phen)TA](ClO4)3 · 4H2O (2), where bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, dien = diethylenetriamine, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline and TA = tetradecylamine with human serum albumin (HSA) under physiological conditions was analyzed using steady state, synchronous, 3D fluorescence, UV/visabsorption and circular dichroism spectroscopic techniques. The results show that these complexes cause the fluorescence quenching of HSA through a static mechanism. The binding constant (Kb ) and number of binding-sites (n) were obtained at different temperatures. The corresponding thermodynamic parameters (∆G°, ∆H° and ∆S°) and Ea were also obtained. According to Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance (r) between the complexes and HSA were calculated. The results of synchronous and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy indicate that the binding process has changed considerably the polarity around the fluorophores, along with changes in the conformation of the protein. The antimicrobial and anticancer activities of the complexes were tested and the results show that the complexes have good activities against pathogenic microorganisms and cancer cells. PMID:26250655

  19. Synthesis, antioxidant activities of the nickel(II), iron(III) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N2O2 chelating thiosemicarbazones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal-Demirci, Tülay; Şahin, Musa; Özyürek, Mustafa; Kondakçı, Esin; Ülküseven, Bahri

    The nickel(II), iron(III) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes of the N2O2 chelating thiosemicarbazones were synthesized using 4-hydroxysalicyladehyde-S-methylthiosemicarbazone and R1-substitute-salicylaldehyde (R1: 4-OH, H) in the presence of Ni(II), Fe(III), VO(IV) ions by the template reaction. The structures of the thiosemicarbazone complexes were characterized by FT-IR, 1H NMR, elemental, ESI-MS and APCI-MS analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity by using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of iron(III) complex, 1c, was measured to be higher than that of the other complexes. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on rad OH, O2rad - and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. All the compounds have shown encouraging ROS scavenging activities.

  20. Synthesis, antioxidant activities of the nickel(II), iron(III) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes with N2O2 chelating thiosemicarbazones.

    PubMed

    Bal-Demirci, Tülay; Sahin, Musa; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Kondakçı, Esin; Ulküseven, Bahri

    2014-05-21

    The nickel(II), iron(III) and oxovanadium(IV) complexes of the N2O2 chelating thiosemicarbazones were synthesized using 4-hydroxysalicyladehyde-S-methylthiosemicarbazone and R1-substitute-salicylaldehyde (R1: 4-OH, H) in the presence of Ni(II), Fe(III), VO(IV) ions by the template reaction. The structures of the thiosemicarbazone complexes were characterized by FT-IR, (1)H NMR, elemental, ESI-MS and APCI-MS analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their antioxidant capacity by using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of iron(III) complex, 1c, was measured to be higher than that of the other complexes. Other parameters of antioxidant activity (scavenging effects on •OH, O2(•-) and H2O2) of these compounds were also determined. All the compounds have shown encouraging ROS scavenging activities. PMID:24656797

  1. Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors and D1-like and D2-like dopamine receptors interact in the rat nucleus accumbens to influence locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    David, Hélène N; Abraini, Jacques H

    2002-03-01

    Evidence for functional interactions between metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors and dopamine (DA) neurotransmission is now clearly established. In the present study, we investigated interactions between group III mGlu receptors and D1- and D2-like receptors in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc). Administration, into the NAcc, of the selective group III mGlu receptor agonist, AP4, resulted in an increase in locomotor activity, which was blocked by pretreatment with the group III mGlu receptor antagonist, MPPG. In addition, pretreatment with AP4 further blocked the increase in motor activity induced by the D1-like receptor agonist, SKF 38393, but potentiated the locomotor responses induced by either the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole, or coinfusion of SKF 38393 and quinpirole. MPPG reversed the effects of AP4 on the motor responses induced by D1-like and/or D2-like receptor activation. These results confirm that glutamate transmission may control DA-dependent locomotor function through mGlu receptors and further indicate that group III mGlu receptors oppose the behavioural response produced by D1-like receptor activation and favour those produced by D2-like receptor activation. PMID:11906529

  2. Project Spectrum: Early Learning Activities. Project Zero Frameworks for Early Childhood Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jie-Qi, Ed.; Isberg, Emily, Ed.; Krechevsky, Mara, Ed.

    Project Spectrum is a collaborative research and development project that offers an alternative approach to assessment and curriculum development for preschool and early primary years. The project, based on Howard Gardner's multiple intelligences theory and David Henry Feldman's nonuniversal development theory, emphasizes observing children…

  3. A series of binuclear lanthanide(III) complexes: Crystallography, antimicrobial activity and thermochemistry properties studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying-Ying; Ren, Ning; Xu, Su-Ling; Zhang, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Da-Hai

    2015-02-01

    A series of novel lanthanide complexes with the general formula [Ln(3,4-DClBA)3phen]2 (Ln = Ho(1), Nd(2), Sm(3), Dy(4), Eu(5), Tb(6), Yb(7) and Er(8), 3,4-DClBA = 3,4-dichlorobenzoate, phen = 1,10-phenanthroline) were prepared at room temperature and characterized. The crystal structures of complexes 1-8 have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction. These complexes are isomorphous and lanthanide ions are all eight-coordinated to oxygen atoms and nitrogen atoms with distorted square-antiprism geometry. The thermal decomposition mechanism and TG-FTIR spectra of gaseous products of thermal decomposition processes for complexes 1-8 were acquired through TG/DSC-FTIR system. The heat capacities of complexes 1-8 were measured using DSC technology and fitted to a polynomial equation by the least-squares method. Complexes 3-6 display characteristic lanthanide emission bands in the visible region. Meanwhile, these complexes exhibit in good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureu.

  4. Bismuth(III) 5-sulfosalicylate complexes: structure, solubility and activity against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Philip C; Deacon, Glen B; Ferrero, Richard L; Junk, Peter C; Karrar, Abdulgader; Kumar, Ish; MacLellan, Jonathan G

    2009-08-28

    Treatment of 5-sulfosalicylic acid (H(3)Ssal) with BiPh(3) results in the formation of the first dianionic carboxylate-sulfonate bismuth complex, [PhBi(HSsal)H(2)O](infinity) 1a, and its ethanol analogue [PhBi(HSsal)EtOH](infinity) 1b (space group P2(1)/c), while Bi(OAc)(3) gives the mixed monoanionic and dianionic complex, {[Bi(HSsal)(H(2)Ssal)(H(2)O)(3)](2) x 2 H(2)O}(infinity) 2 (space group P1). The three complexes are all polymeric in the solid state as determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction, with extended frameworks constructed from dimeric [Bi(HSsal)](2), 1a and 1b, or from [Bi(HSsal)(H(2)Ssal)](2) units, 2. The heteroleptic bismuth complexes 1a and 2 display remarkable aqueous solubility, 10 and 2.5 mg ml(-1) respectively, resulting in a clear solution of pH 1.5. In contrast, 1b is essentially insoluble in aqueous environments. All three complexes show significant activity against the bacterium Helicobacter pylori of <6.25 microg ml(-1). PMID:19655072

  5. Simultaneous precipitation of orthophosphate in activated sludge systems with Al(III)

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    This dissertation examines the simultaneous precipitation of soluble orthophosphate (SOP) when alum is dosed to an activated sludge aeration basin. The results of batch and continuous flow experimental studies were used to develop a model of this process. This research identified three regions of chemical phosphorus removal, in each of which a different SOP removal mechanism appeared to apply: Region 1 extends to SOP residual concentrations as low as 1.0 mg P/1. In this region the stoichiometric precipitation of Al{sub 0.91}H{sub 2}PO{sub 4} (OH){sub 1.73(s)} is the predominate phosphate removal mechanism. Region 2 includes SOP residual concentrations in the range 0.1-1.0 mg P/1. Phosphate removal in this region is described on the basis of the adsorption of SOP on to aluminum hydroxide solid surfaces. Region 3 includes SOP residual concentrations as low as 0.02 mg P/1. The minimum SOP phosphate concentration that can be reached in this region is controlled by the presence of both aluminum-hydroxyphosphate and aluminum hydroxide solids.

  6. Project Real World: Economic Living Skills for High School Students. Module III, Resource Management Skills--What Money Can't Buy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal/Provincial Consumer Education and Plain Language Task Force (Canada).

    Project Real World, a self-contained, activity-based Canadian consumer science program, provides students with systematic instruction in economic living skills. It gives students in grades 10-12 an orientation to the economic realities and opportunities in society. The program helps students function effectively within the rapidly changing…

  7. Erratum: The Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. III. The Discovery of Cepheids and a New Distance to M101 Using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelson, Daniel D; Illingworth, Garth D.; Freedman, Wendy F.; Graham, John A.; Hill, Robert; Madore, Barry F.; Saha, Abhijit; Stetson, Peter B.; Kennicutt, Robert C., Jr.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Hughes, Shaun M.; Ferrarese, Laura; Phelps, Randy; Turner, Anne; Cook, Kem H.; Ford, Holland; Hoessel, John G.; Huchra, John

    1997-03-01

    In the paper ``The Extragalactic Distance Scale Key Project. III. The Discovery of Cepheids and a New Distance to M101 Using the Hubble Space Telescope'' by Daniel D. Kelson, Garth D. Illingworth, Wendy F. Freedman, John A. Graham, Robert Hill, Barry F. Madore, Abhijit Saha, Peter B. Stetson, Robert C. Kennicutt, Jr., Jeremy R. Mould, Shaun M. Hughes, Laura Ferrarese, Randy Phelps, Anne Turner, Kem H. Cook, Holland Ford, John G. Hoessel, and John Huchra (ApJ, 463, 26 [1996]), two of the tables are in error. The magnitudes in Tables B1 and B2, in Appendix B, are ordered incorrectly. As a result, the Julian dates are not associated with their correct Cepheid magnitudes. We have now corrected these data, and updated versions of the tables are available on the World Wide Web. The tables are available in ASCII format at our Key Project site (http://www.ipac.caltech.edu/H0kp/) and will appear in volume 7 of the AAS CDROM. PostScript and paper copies are also available from the first author (http://www.ucolick.org/~kelson/H0/home.html or kelson@ucolick.org).

  8. The Hubble Space Telescope quasar absorption line key project. III - First observational results on Milky Way gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Blair D.; Lu, Limin; Bahcall, John N.; Bergeron, Jacqueline; Boksenberg, Alec; Hartig, George F.; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Kirhakos, Sofia; Lockman, Felix J.; Sargent, W. L. W.

    1993-01-01

    Absorption lines found near zero redshift due to Milky Way disk and halo gas in the spectra of 15 quasars observed with the Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) of the HST at a resolution of about 230 km/s are reported. Results show that Milky Way absorption lines comprise about 44 percent of all absorption lines seen in the first group of Key Project FOS spectra. Milky Way lines were observed for 3C 273 and H1821 + 643. Limits to the Mg-to-H abundance ratio obtained for very high velocity Mg II absorption detections imply gas-phase Mg abundances for the very high velocity gas ranging from more than 0.059 to more than 0.32 times the solar abundance. In all cases where high-velocity H I emission is seen, corresponding high-velocity metal-line absorption is observed.

  9. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  10. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  11. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  12. 34 CFR 694.21 - What are required activities for GEAR UP projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? 694... READINESS FOR UNDERGRADUATE PROGRAMS (GEAR UP) § 694.21 What are required activities for GEAR UP projects? A... in the GEAR UP program. These services must include the following activities: (a)...

  13. Inferring Earthquake Physics from Deep Drilling Projects of Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Toro, G.; Smith, S. A. F.; Kuo, L. W.; Mittempergher, S.; Remitti, F.; Spagnuolo, E.; Mitchell, T. M.; Gualtieri, A.; Hadizadeh, J.; Carpenter, B. M.

    2014-12-01

    Deep drilling projects of active faults offer the opportunity to correlate physical and chemical processes identified in core samples with experiments reproducing the seismic cycle in the laboratory and with high-resolution seismological and geophysical data. Here we discuss the constraints about earthquakes source processes at depth gained by fault cores retrieved from the deep drilling projects SAFOD (2.7 km depth, San Andreas Fault), J-FAST (0.9 km depth, following the Mw 9.0 Tohoku 2011 earthquake), TCDP (1.1 km depth, following the Mw 7.6 Chi-Chi 1999 earthquake) and WFSD (1.2 km depth, following the Mw 7.9 Wenchuan 2008 earthquake). Recovered samples were tested at room temperature with the rotary shear apparatus SHIVA installed in Rome (INGV, Italy). All the tested samples were made by clay-rich gouges (usually including smectite/illite), though their bulk mineralogy and modal composition were different (e.g., SAFOD samples included saponite, WFSD carbonaceous materials). The gouges were investigated before and after the experiments with scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-Ray diffraction, micro-Raman spectroscopy, etc. A common behavior of all the tested gouges was that their friction coefficient was low (often less than 0.1) under room-humidity and wet conditions when sheared at slip rates of ca. 1 m/s (seismic deformation conditions). Moreover, when the natural fault rocks next to the principal slipping zones were sheared from sub-seismic (few micrometers/s) to seismic slip rates, the experimental products had similar microstructures to those found in the principal slipping zones of the drilled faults. This included the formation of mirror-like surfaces, graphite-rich materials, foliated gouges, nanograins, amorphous materials, etc. In most cases the mechanical data were consistent with several seismological (> 50 m of seismic slip for the fault zone drilled by J-FAST) and geophysical observations (absence of a thermal anomaly in the fault

  14. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) over-production and autocrine cell activation are key factors in monomethylarsonous acid [MMA(III)]-induced malignant transformation of urothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Escudero-Lourdes, C.; Wu, T.; Camarillo, J.M.; Gandolfi, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The association between chronic human exposure to arsenicals and bladder cancer development is well recognized; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been fully determined. We propose that inflammatory responses can play a pathogenic role in arsenic-related bladder carcinogenesis. In previous studies, it was demonstrated that chronic exposure to 50 nM monomethylarsenous acid [MMA(III)] leads to malignant transformation of an immortalized model of urothelial cells (UROtsa), with only 3 mo of exposure necessary to trigger the transformation-related changes. In the three-month window of exposure, the cells over-expressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8), consistent with the sustained activation of NFKβ and AP1/c-jun, ERK2, and STAT3. IL-8 was over-expressed within hours after exposure to MMA(III), and sustained over-expression was observed during chronic exposure. In this study, we profiled IL-8 expression in UROtsa cells exposed to 50 nM MMA(III) for 1 to 5 mo. IL-8 expression was increased mainly in cells after 3 mo MMA(III) exposure, and its production was also found increased in tumors derived from these cells after heterotransplantation in SCID mice. UROtsa cells do express both receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, suggesting that autocrine cell activation could be important in cell transformation. Supporting this observation and consistent with IL-8 over-expression, CXCR1 internalization was significantly increased after three months of exposure to MMA(III). The expression of MMP-9, cyclin D1, bcl-2, and VGEF was significantly increased in cells exposed to MMA(III) for 3 mo, but these mitogen-activated kinases were significantly decreased after IL-8 gene silencing, together with a decrease in cell proliferation rate and in anchorage-independent colony formation. These results suggest a relevant role of IL-8 in MMA(III)-induced UROtsa cell transformation. -- Highlights: ► IL-8 is over-expressed in human MMA(III)-exposed urothelial

  15. Rift Valley fever dynamics in Senegal: a project for pro-active adaptation and improvement of livestock raising management.

    PubMed

    Lafaye, Murielle; Sall, Baba; Ndiaye, Youssou; Vignolles, Cecile; Tourre, Yves M; Borchi, Franc Ois; Soubeyroux, Jean-Michel; Diallo, Mawlouth; Dia, Ibrahima; Ba, Yamar; Faye, Abdoulaye; Ba, Taibou; Ka, Alioune; Ndione, Jacques-André; Gauthier, Hélène; Lacaux, Jean-Pierre

    2013-11-01

    The multi-disciplinary French project "Adaptation à la Fiévre de la Vallée du Rift" (AdaptFVR) has concluded a 10-year constructive interaction between many scientists/partners involved with the Rift Valley fever (RVF) dynamics in Senegal. The three targeted objectives reached were (i) to produce--in near real-time--validated risk maps for parked livestock exposed to RVF mosquitoes/vectors bites; (ii) to assess the impacts on RVF vectors from climate variability at different time-scales including climate change; and (iii) to isolate processes improving local livestock management and animal health. Based on these results, concrete, pro-active adaptive actions were taken on site, which led to the establishment of a RVF early warning system (RVFews). Bulletins were released in a timely fashion during the project, tested and validated in close collaboration with the local populations, i.e. the primary users. Among the strategic, adaptive methods developed, conducted and evaluated in terms of cost/benefit analyses are the larvicide campaigns and the coupled bio-mathematical (hydrological and entomological) model technologies, which are being transferred to the staff of the "Centre de Suivi Ecologique" (CSE) in Dakar during 2013. Based on the results from the AdaptFVR project, other projects with similar conceptual and modelling approaches are currently being implemented, e.g. for urban and rural malaria and dengue in the French Antilles. PMID:24258902

  16. Characteristics of an Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Source for the Production of Active Nitrogen Species in III-V Nitride Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, Meyya; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    A simple analysis is provided to determine the characteristics of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source for the generation of active nitrogen species in the molecular beam epitaxy of III-V nitrides. The effects of reactor geometry, pressure, power, and flow rate on the dissociation efficiency and ion flux are presented. Pulsing the input power is proposed to reduce the ion flux.

  17. A "turn-on" carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters fluorescent sensor for sensitive and selective detection of Hg2+ with cyclic amplification of exonuclease III activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guangfeng; Xu, Gang; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-21

    With exonuclease III activity on DNA hybrids containing thymine-Hg(2+)-thymine, a label-free ultrasensitive "turn-on" fluorescent sensor involving "quenching" and "reappearing" processes based on a carbon nanotube-Ag nanoclusters system is demonstrated for amplified determination of Hg(2+). PMID:24292243

  18. Utilization of Different Bmy1 Intron III Alleles for Predicting ß-Amylase Activity and Thermostability in Wild and Cultivated Barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Polymorphisms in intron III of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) endosperm-specific beta-amylase (Bmy1) have been associated with beta-amylase activity and thermostability and are thought to have potential as a selective marker for breeding elite malting cultivars. The third intron of Bmy1 was sequenced ...

  19. The ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP Pathways Display Synergistic Interactions in Regulating Floral Meristem Activities

    PubMed Central

    Landau, Udi; Asis, Lior; Eshed Williams, Leor

    2015-01-01

    In angiosperms, the production of flowers marks the beginning of the reproductive phase. At the emergence of flower primordia on the flanks of the inflorescence meristem, the WUSCHEL (WUS) gene, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor starts to be expressed and establishes de novo stem cell population, founder of the floral meristem (FM). Similarly to the shoot apical meristem a precise spatial and temporal expression pattern of WUS is required and maintained through strict regulation by multiple regulatory inputs to maintain stem cell homeostasis. However, following the formation of a genetically determined fixed number of floral organs, this homeostasis is shifted towards organogenesis and the FM is terminated. In here we performed a genetic study to test how a reduction in ERECTA, CLAVATA and class III HD-ZIP pathways affects floral meristem activity and flower development. We revealed strong synergistic phenotypes of extra flower number, supernumerary whorls, total loss of determinacy and extreme enlargement of the meristem as compared to any double mutant combination indicating that the three pathways, CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII distinctively regulate meristem activity and that they act in parallel. Our findings yield several new insights into stem cell-driven development. We demonstrate the crucial requirement for coupling floral meristem termination with carpel formation to ensure successful reproduction in plants. We also show how regulation of meristem size and alternation in spatial structure of the meristem serve as a mechanism to determine flower organogenesis. We propose that the loss of FM determinacy due to the reduction in CLV3, ER and HD-ZIPIII activity is genetically separable from the AGAMOUS core mechanism of meristem termination. PMID:25946150

  20. Contrasting Anticancer Activity of Half-Sandwich Iridium(III) Complexes Bearing Functionally Diverse 2-Phenylpyridine Ligands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report the synthesis, characterization, and antiproliferative activity of 15 iridium(III) half-sandwich complexes of the type [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-(R′-phenyl)-R-pyridine)Cl] bearing either an electron-donating (−OH, −CH2OH, −CH3) or electron-withdrawing (−F, −CHO, −NO2) group at various positions on the 2-phenylpyridine (2-PhPy) chelating ligand giving rise to six sets of structural isomers. The X-ray crystal structures of [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-(2′-fluorophenyl)pyridine)Cl] (1) and [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-(4′-fluorophenyl)pyridine)Cl] (2) exhibit the expected “piano-stool” configuration. DFT calculations showed that substituents caused only localized effects on the electrostatic potential surface of the chelating 2-PhPy ligand of the complexes. Hydrolysis of all complexes is rapid, but readily reversed by addition of NaCl. The complexes show preferential binding to 9-ethylguanine over 9-methyladenine and are active catalysts for the oxidation of NADH to NAD+. Antiproliferative activity experiments in A2780 ovarian, MCF-7 breast, A549 lung, and HCT116 colon cancer cell lines showed IC50 values ranging from 1 to 89 μM, with the most potent complex, [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-(2′-methylphenyl)pyridine)Cl] (13) (A2780 IC50 = 1.18 μM), being 10× more active than the parent, [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-phenylpyridine)Cl], and 2× more active than [(η5-CpxPh)Ir(2-phenylpyridine)Cl]. Intriguingly, contrasting biological activities are observed between structural isomers despite exhibiting similar chemical reactivity. For pairs of structural isomers both the nature and position of the functional group can affect the hydrophobicity of the complex. An increase in hydrophobicity resulted in enhanced cellular-iridium accumulation in A2780 ovarian cells, which generally gave rise to an increase in potency. The structural isomers [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-(4′-fluorophenyl)pyridine)Cl] (2) and [(η5-Cp*)Ir(2-phenyl-5-fluoropyridine)Cl] (4) preferentially localized in the cytosol > membrane and particulate

  1. College Professors' and Instructors' Attitudes toward International Project Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryzhkova, I. V.

    2010-01-01

    The Bologna process, the most successful European project in the field of higher education, calls for colleges and universities to take joint actions to create a unified European educational space. One possible way to accomplish this task is to implement international scientific research projects. In connection with this, it becomes necessary to…

  2. Promoting Enquiry and Active Learning through Project Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Maria

    2011-01-01

    First year undergraduate students at the University of Edinburgh hone their enquiry skills and learn to investigate current environmental issues by carrying out research projects. A list of 60 possible projects has been compiled and is available on a website, to be used directly or adapted to suit the requirements of other educators. This paper…

  3. THE BANANA PROJECT. III. SPIN-ORBIT ALIGNMENT IN THE LONG-PERIOD ECLIPSING BINARY NY CEPHEI

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, Simon; Winn, Joshua N.; Carter, Joshua A.; Snellen, Ignas A. G.; De Mooij, Ernst J. W.

    2011-01-10

    Binaries are not always neatly aligned. Previous observations of the DI Her system showed that the spin axes of both stars are highly inclined with respect to one another and the orbital axis. Here, we report on a measurement of the spin-axis orientation of the primary star of the NY Cep system, which is similar to DI Her in many respects: it features two young early-type stars ({approx}6 Myr, B0.5V+B2V), in an eccentric and relatively long-period orbit (e = 0.48, P = 15fd3). The sky projections of the rotation vector and the spin vector are well aligned ({beta}{sub p} = 2{sup 0} {+-} 4{sup 0}), in strong contrast to DI Her. Although no convincing explanation has yet been given for the misalignment of DI Her, our results show that the phenomenon is not universal, and that a successful theory will need to account for the different outcome in the case of NY Cep.

  4. CS2 activation at uranium(III) siloxide ate complexes: the effect of a Lewis acidic site.

    PubMed

    Camp, Clément; Cooper, Oliver; Andrez, Julie; Pécaut, Jacques; Mazzanti, Marinella

    2015-02-14

    Multimetallic cooperative binding of heteroallenes provides an attractive route to their activation, but the reduction of CS(2) at heterobimetallic sites, associating an electron-rich metal with a main group Lewis acid has not been explored. Here we show that the presence of a heterometallic U, K site plays an important role in the CS(2) reduction by uranium(iii) complexes of the electron-rich and the sterically demanding tris(tert-butoxy)siloxide ligand. Specifically, the ion-pair complex [K(18c6)][U(OSi(O(t)Bu)(3))(4)], 1, leads preferentially to the reductive disproportionation of CS(2) to K(2)CS(3) and CS. The crystal structure of the thiocarbonate intermediate complex [U(OSi(O(t)Bu(3)(4) (μ(3)-κ(2):κ(2):κ(2-)CS(3))K(2)(18c6)(2)], 2, isolated from the toluene reaction mixture has been determined. In contrast, the heterobimetallic complex [U(OSi(O(t)Bu(3)(4)K], 3, promotes preferentially the reductive dimerization of CS(2) to K(2)C(2)S(4) and K(2)C(3)S(5). The [K(2)C(2)S(4)(DMSO)(3)](n), 5, and [U(OSi(O(t)Bu)(3))(4)K(2)(C(3)S(5))](n), 6, polymeric compounds were isolated from this reaction and structurally characterized. PMID:25436831

  5. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. III - NOAA active region 6233 (1990 August)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Canfield, Richard C.; Leka, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between vertical electric currents and flare phenomena in NOAA Active Region 6233, which was observed 1990, August 28-31 at Mees Solar Observatory. The two flares studied are the 1N/M1.8 flare on August 28, 22:30 UT and the 1N/M1.6 flare on August 29, 20:35 UT. Using Stokes polarimetry we make magnetograms of the region and compute the vertical current density. Using H-alpha imaging spectroscopy we identify sites of intense nonthermal electron precipitation or of high coronal pressure. The precipitation in these flares is barely strong enough to be detectable. We find that both precipitation and high pressure tend to occur near vertical currents, but that neither phenomenon is cospatial with current maxima. In contrast with the conclusion of other authors, we argue that these observations do not support a current-interruption model for flares, unless the relevant currents are primarily horizontal. The magnetic morphology and temporal evolution of these flares suggest that an erupting filament model may be relevant, but this model does not explicitly predict the relationship between precipitation, high pressure, and vertical currents.

  6. Urinary coproporphyrin I/(I + III) ratio as a surrogate for MRP2 or other transporter activities involved in methotrexate clearance

    PubMed Central

    Benz-de Bretagne, Isabelle; Zahr, Noël; Le Gouge, Amélie; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Houillier, Caroline; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Gyan, Emmanuel; Lissandre, Séverine; Choquet, Sylvain; Le Guellec, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Aims The urinary coproporphyrin I/(I + III) ratio may be a surrogate for MRP2 activity. We conducted a prospective study in patients receiving methotrexate (MTX) to examine the relationship between this ratio and the pharmacokinetics of a MRP2 substrate. Methods Three urine samples were collected from 81 patients for UCP I/(I + III) ratio determination: one before (P1), one at the end of MTX infusion (P2), and one on the day of hospital discharge (P3). Three polymorphisms of ABCC2 were analysed and their relationships with basal UCP I/(I + III) ratio values assessed. All associated drugs were recorded and a drug interaction score (DIS) was assigned. Population pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to assess whether MTX clearance (MTXCL) was associated with the basal UCP I/(I + III) ratio, its variation during MTX infusion, the DIS or other common covariates. Results The basal UCP I/(I + III) ratio was not associated with ABCC2 polymorphisms and did not differ according to the DIS. Significant changes in the ratio were observed over time, with an increase between P1 and P2 and a decrease at P3 (P < 0.001). No association was found between basal UCP I/(I + III) ratio and MTXCL. The final model indicates that MTXCL was dependent on the change in the ratio between P1 and P3, DIS and creatinine clearance. Conclusion The basal UCP I/(I + III) ratio is not predictive of MTXCL. However, it is sensitive to the presence of MTX, so it is plausible that it reflects a function modified in response to the drug. PMID:24433481

  7. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leads to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO

  8. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leadsmore » to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO₂ insertion steps

  9. World Endometriosis Research Foundation Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonization Project: III. Fluid biospecimen collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research

    PubMed Central

    Rahmioglu, Nilufer; Fassbender, Amelie; Vitonis, Allison F.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Hummelshoj, Lone; D'Hooghe, Thomas M.; Adamson, G. David; Giudice, Linda C.; Becker, Christian M.; Zondervan, Krina T.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Adamson, G.D.; Allaire, C.; Anchan, R.; Becker, C.M.; Bedaiwy, M.A.; Buck Louis, G.M.; Calhaz-Jorge, C.; Chwalisz, K.; D'Hooghe, T.M.; Fassbender, A.; Faustmann, T.; Fazleabas, A.T.; Flores, I.; Forman, A.; Fraser, I.; Giudice, L.C.; Gotte, M.; Gregersen, P.; Guo, S.-W.; Harada, T.; Hartwell, D.; Horne, A.W.; Hull, M.L.; Hummelshoj, L.; Ibrahim, M.G.; Kiesel, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Machens, K.; Mechsner, S.; Missmer, S.A.; Montgomery, G.W.; Nap, A.; Nyegaard, M.; Osteen, K.G.; Petta, C.A.; Rahmioglu, N.; Renner, S.P.; Riedlinger, J.; Roehrich, S.; Rogers, P.A.; Rombauts, L.; Salumets, A.; Saridogan, E.; Seckin, T.; Stratton, P.; Sharpe-Timms, K.L.; Tworoger, S.; Vigano, P.; Vincent, K.; Vitonis, A.F.; Wienhues-Thelen, U.-H.; Yeung, P.P.; Yong, P.; Zondervan, K.T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To harmonize standard operating procedures (SOPs) and standardize the recording of associated data for collection, processing, and storage of fluid biospecimens relevant to endometriosis. Design An international collaboration involving 34 clinical/academic centers and 3 industry collaborators from 16 countries on 5 continents. Setting In 2013, 2 workshops were conducted, followed by global consultation, bringing together 54 leaders in endometriosis research and sample processing worldwide. Patient(s) None. Intervention(s) Consensus SOPs were based on: [1] systematic comparison of SOPs from 18 global centers collecting fluid samples from women with and without endometriosis on a medium/large scale (publication on >100 cases), [2] literature evidence where available, or consultation with laboratory experts otherwise, and [3] several global consultation rounds. Main Outcome Measure(s) Standard recommended and minimum required SOPs for biofluid collection, processing, and storage in endometriosis research. Result(s) We developed recommended standard and minimum required SOPs for the collection, processing, and storage of plasma, serum, saliva, urine, endometrial/peritoneal fluid, and menstrual effluent, and a biospecimen data-collection form necessary for interpretation of sample-derived results. Conclusion(s) The Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project SOPs allow endometriosis research centers to decrease variability in biofluid sample results, facilitating between-center comparisons and collaborations. The procedures are also relevant to research into other female conditions involving biofluid samples subject to cyclic reproductive influences. The consensus SOPs are based on the best available evidence; areas with limited evidence are identified as requiring further pilot studies. The SOPs will be reviewed based on investigator feedback, and through systematic tri-annual follow-up. Updated versions will be made available at

  10. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Cyclopropanation Initiated by C–H Activation: Ligand Development Enables a Diastereoselective [2 + 1] Annulation of N-Enoxyphthalimides and Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    N-Enoxyphthalimides undergo a Rh(III)-catalyzed C–H activation initiated cyclopropanation of electron deficient alkenes. The reaction is proposed to proceed via a directed activation of the olefinic C–H bond followed by two migratory insertions, first across the electron-deficient alkene and then by cyclization back onto the enol moiety. A newly designed isopropylcyclopentadienyl ligand drastically improves yield and diastereoselectivity. PMID:25093811

  11. Binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensins II and III after aminopeptidase inhibition with amastatin and bestatin

    SciTech Connect

    Abhold, R.H.; Sullivan, M.J.; Wright, J.W.; Harding, J.W.

    1987-09-01

    In the metabolism of angiotensin peptides by tissue angiotensinases, aminopeptidases A, B, M and leucine aminopeptidase have been identified as being particularly effective. Because the inhibitory actions of amastatin (AM) and bestatin (BE) are relatively specific for these aminopeptidases, we have examined the effects of these inhibitors on the binding, degradation and pressor activity of angiotensin II (AII) and angiotensin III (AIII). Within 30 min at 37 degrees C, significant metabolism of /sup 125/I-AII and /sup 125/I-AIII by homogenates of a block of tissue containing hypothalamus, thalamus, septum and anteroventral third ventricle regions of the brain was observed. A majority of /sup 125/I-AIII metabolism was due to soluble peptidases, whereas that of /sup 125/I-AII primarily resulted from membrane-bound peptidases. AM, BE and reduced incubation temperatures significantly decreased the metabolism of /sup 125/I-AII and /sup 125/I-AIII. After appropriate adjustments to reflect the proportion of intact radioligand bound, temperature- or inhibitor-induced decreases in metabolism were matched by corresponding increases in specific binding. Heat-treated bovine serum albumin, as a nonspecific peptidase inhibitor, had no effect on either the metabolism or binding of the ligands used. In accordance with their actions in vitro, i.c.v. administration of AM and BE prolonged the pressor activity of subsequently applied AII and AIII. Unexpectedly, the amplitude of the pressor response to AIII was increased by BE, whereas that to AII was decreased by AM. The results of this study indicate that the metabolism of AII and AIII by aminopeptidases is relatively specific and acts to modulate the actions of these peptides.

  12. The VPS-20 Subunit of the Endosomal Sorting Complex ESCRT-III Exhibits an Open Conformation in the Absence of Upstream Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schuh, Amber L.; Hanna, Michael; Quinney, Kyle; Wang, Lei; Sarkeshik, Ali; Yates, John R.; Audhya, Anjon

    2015-01-01

    Members of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery function in membrane remodeling processes during multivesicular endosome biogenesis, cytokinesis, retroviral budding, and plasma membrane repair. During lumenal vesicle formation at endosomes, the ESCRT-II complex and the ESCRT-III subunit VPS-20 play a specific role in regulating assembly of ESCRT-III filaments, which promote vesicle scission. Previous work suggests that Vps20 isoforms, like other ESCRT-III subunits, exhibits an autoinhibited, closed conformation in solution, and its activation depends on an association with ESCRT-II specifically at membranes. However, we show here that C. elegans ESCRT-II and VPS-20 interact directly in solution, both in cytosolic cell extracts and using recombinant proteins in vitro. Moreover, we demonstrate that purified VPS-20 exhibits an open, extended conformation, irrespective of ESCRT-II binding, in contrast with the closed, autoinhibited architecture of another ESCRT-III subunit, VPS-24. Our data argue that individual ESCRT-III subunits adopt distinct conformations, which are tailored for their specific functions during ESCRT-mediated membrane reorganization events. PMID:25588614

  13. 36 CFR 218.25 - Comments on proposed projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.25 Comments on proposed...) Comments on a proposed project or activity to be documented in an environmental assessment shall...

  14. 36 CFR 218.25 - Comments on proposed projects and activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE PROJECT-LEVEL PREDECISIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE REVIEW PROCESS Provisions Specific to Project-Level Proposals Not Authorized Under Healthy Forests Restoration Act § 218.25 Comments on proposed...) Comments on a proposed project or activity to be documented in an environmental assessment shall...

  15. Kynurenine aminotransferase III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes that have cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity and can transaminate L-selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Pinto, John T; Krasnikov, Boris F; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J L

    2014-11-01

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-L-selenocysteine (MSC) and L-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites. PMID:25231977

  16. Kynurenine Aminotransferase III and Glutamine Transaminase L Are Identical Enzymes that have Cysteine S-Conjugate β-Lyase Activity and Can Transaminate l-Selenomethionine*

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, John T.; Krasnikov, Boris F.; Alcutt, Steven; Jones, Melanie E.; Dorai, Thambi; Villar, Maria T.; Artigues, Antonio; Li, Jianyong; Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2014-01-01

    Three of the four kynurenine aminotransferases (KAT I, II, and IV) that synthesize kynurenic acid, a neuromodulator, are identical to glutamine transaminase K (GTK), α-aminoadipate aminotransferase, and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase, respectively. GTK/KAT I and aspartate aminotransferase/KAT IV possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. The gene for the former enzyme, GTK/KAT I, is listed in mammalian genome data banks as CCBL1 (cysteine conjugate beta-lyase 1). Also listed, despite the fact that no β-lyase activity has been assigned to the encoded protein in the genome data bank, is a CCBL2 (synonym KAT III). We show that human KAT III/CCBL2 possesses cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity, as does mouse KAT II. Thus, depending on the nature of the substrate, all four KATs possess cysteine S-conjugate β-lyase activity. These present studies show that KAT III and glutamine transaminase L are identical enzymes. This report also shows that KAT I, II, and III differ in their ability to transaminate methyl-l-selenocysteine (MSC) and l-selenomethionine (SM) to β-methylselenopyruvate (MSP) and α-ketomethylselenobutyrate, respectively. Previous studies have identified these seleno-α-keto acids as potent histone deacetylase inhibitors. Methylselenol (CH3SeH), also purported to have chemopreventive properties, is the γ-elimination product of SM and the β-elimination product of MSC catalyzed by cystathionine γ-lyase (γ-cystathionase). KAT I, II, and III, in part, can catalyze β-elimination reactions with MSC generating CH3SeH. Thus, the anticancer efficacy of MSC and SM will depend, in part, on the endogenous expression of various KAT enzymes and cystathionine γ-lyase present in target tissue coupled with the ability of cells to synthesize in situ either CH3SeH and/or seleno-keto acid metabolites. PMID:25231977

  17. Radiolytic and cellular reduction of a novel hypoxia-activated cobalt(III) prodrug of a chloromethylbenzindoline DNA minor groove alkylator.

    PubMed

    Ahn, G-One; Botting, K Jane; Patterson, Adam V; Ware, David C; Tercel, Moana; Wilson, William R

    2006-06-14

    Metabolic reduction can be used to activate prodrugs in hypoxic regions of tumours, but reduction by ionising radiation is also theoretically attractive. Previously, we showed that a cobalt(III) complex containing 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) and cyclen ligands releases 8-HQ efficiently on irradiation in hypoxic solutions [Ahn G-O, Ware DC, Denny WA, Wilson WR. Optimization of the auxiliary ligand shell of cobalt(III)(8-hydroxyquinoline) complexes as model hypoxia-selective radiation-activated prodrugs. Radiat Res 2004;162:315-25]. Here we investigate an analogous Co(III) complex containing the potent DNA minor groove alkylator azachloromethylbenzindoline (azaCBI, 1) to determine whether it releases 1 on radiolytic and/or enzymatic reduction under hypoxia. Monitoring by HPLC, the azaCBI ligand in the Co(III)(cyclen)(azaCBI) complex (2) slowly hydrolysed in aqueous solution, in contrast to the free ligand 1 which readily converted to its reactive cyclopropyl form. Irradiation of 2 (30-50 microM) in hypoxic solutions released 1 with yields of 0.57 micromol/J in formate buffer and 0.13 micromol/J in human plasma. Using bioassay methods, cytotoxic activation by irradiation of 2 at 1 microM in hypoxic plasma was readily detectable at clinically relevant doses (> or = 1 Gy), with a estimated yield of 1 of 0.075 micromol/J. Release of 1 from 2 was also observed in hypoxic HT29 cultures without radiation, with subsequent conversion of 1 to its O-glucuronide. Surprisingly, overexpression of human cytochrome P450 reductase in A549 cells did not increase the rate of metabolic reduction of 2, suggesting that other reductases and/or non-enzymatic reductants are responsible. Thus the cobalt(III) complex 2 is a promising prodrug capable of being activated to release a very potent cytotoxin when reduced by either ionising radiation or cells under hypoxic conditions. PMID:16620789

  18. Effects of Project Activities Based on Multiple Intelligences to Elementary School Children's Science Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Chaeseong; Wang, Kyungsoon

    2001-01-01

    Examines the influence of project activities based on multiple intelligences on the science achievement of elementary school children. Explains the proportions of variance of science achievement by General Intelligence (GI), analyzes Multiple Intelligences (MI), and investigates the influence of project activities that used various aspects of MI.…

  19. 4-H Horticulture Project Activity Guides. Leader's Guide and Units 1-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document, concerning the 4-H horticulture project, includes a leader's guide and three youth activity guides. The leader's guide can be used to plan group project meetings that are both fun and educational. Activities can be adapted to various age groups. The leader's guide includes basic information for growing plants indoors and outdoors,…

  20. A SUPPLEMENT TO THE INVENTORY OF PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES IN READING AND ENGLISH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    BABYLON, SALLY; HAYES, ALFRED S.

    A SUPPLEMENT TO THE INVENTORY OF PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES IN READING AND ENGLISH PUBLISHED IN FEBRUARY 1966 IS PRESENTED. A NEW TOPICAL INDEX WAS ADDED WHICH SHOULD INCREASE THE USEFULNESS OF THE SUPPLEMENT. PROGRAMS, PROJECTS, AND ACTIVITIES DESIGNED TO EVALUATE AND TO IMPROVE THE TEACHING OF READING AND ENGLISH IN SCHOOLS AND COLLEGES ARE…

  1. 34 CFR 403.61 - What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... under the basic programs? 403.61 Section 403.61 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department... the Basic Programs? General § 403.61 What projects, services, and activities are permissible under the basic programs? Projects, services, and activities described in §§ 403.70, 403.71, 403.81, 403.91,...

  2. Mechanism, reactivity, and selectivity in Rh(III)-catalyzed phosphoryl-directed oxidative C-H activation/cyclization: a DFT study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liu; Wu, Yile; Wang, Tao; Gao, Xiang; Zhu, Jun; Zhao, Yufen

    2014-06-01

    Density functional theory calculations (DFT) have been performed on Rh(III)-catalyzed phosphoryl-directed oxidative C-H activation/cyclization to investigate the detailed mechanism, including four basic steps: C-H activation, alkyne insertion, reductive elimination, and catalyst recycling, each of which consists of different steps. Interestingly, the Rh(III)-AgOAc catalyst system was found to be more favorable in the C-H activation step in comparison with the Rh(III)-Ag2CO3 system, whereas the Rh(I)-Ag2CO3 catalyst system was more efficient for catalyst recycling. Importantly, our calculations suggest that the alkyne insertion process is a reversible step. Reductive elimination is the rate-determining step with an activation energy of 25.0 kcal/mol. In addition, the origin of the reactivity and selectivity difference between diarylacetylenes and dialkylacetylenes or electron-rich and electron-deficient diarylacetylenes was probed by means of comparative DFT calculations. The calculation results show that the electronic effects of alkynes play a key role in the reactivity and selectivity, in line with the experimental observations that diarylacetylenes and electron-rich diarylacetylenes are more reactive than dialkylacetylenes and electron-deficient diarylacetylenes, respectively. Our findings should be useful for further developments of transition-metal-catalyzed C-H activation reactions. PMID:24815788

  3. Reduced levels of mitochondrial complex I subunit NDUFB8 and linked complex I + III oxidoreductase activity in the TgCRND8 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Francis, Beverly M; Yang, Jimao; Song, Byung Jun; Gupta, Saurabh; Maj, Mary; Bazinet, Richard P; Robinson, Brian; Mount, Howard T J

    2014-01-01

    Bioenergetic failure is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We examined mitochondrial function in the amyloid-β protein precursor transgenic 'TgCRND8' mouse model of AD. Activities of NADH: cytochrome c reductase (complex I + III) and cytochrome oxidase (complex IV) of the electron transport chain, as well as those of α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (α-KGDH) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) were assessed in brains of 45 week-old mice. Complex I + III activity was reduced by almost 50%, whereas complex IV, α-KGDH, and PDH activities were unaffected. Reduced activity coincided with decreased expression of NDUFB8, a nuclear-DNA encoded subunit integral to the assembly of complex I. The composition and availability of cardiolipin, a major phospholipid in inner mitochondrial membranes, was not altered. To determine whether mitochondrial output is affected by the selective reduction in complex I + III activity, we examined tissue levels of high-energy phosphates. ATP was maintained whereas creatine increased in the cortex and hippocampus. These results suggest disruption of complex I function and the likely role of creatine in sustaining ATP at late stages of dysfunction in TgCRND8 mice. PMID:24217272

  4. An Evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs) as Used for the Diffusion of Bilingual Projects. Volume III: A Prototype Guide to Measuring Achievement Level and Program Impact on Achievement in Bilingual Projects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horst, D. P.; And Others

    This report describes an evaluation of Project Information Packages (PIPs), sets of manuals and other materials intended to help a school district adopt and implement an exemplary education project. Four PIPs were evaluated in a field test, each PIP describing a different bilingual project. It was concluded that the awareness materials produced…

  5. Gold(III) Mediated Activation and Transformation of Methane on Au1-Doped Vanadium Oxide Cluster Cations AuV2O6(.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zi-Yu; Li, Hai-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Xia; He, Sheng-Gui

    2016-08-01

    Gold in the +III oxidation state (Au(III)) has been proposed as a promising species to mediate challenging chemical reactions. However, it is difficult to characterize the chemistry of individual Au(III) species in condensed-phase systems mainly due to the interference from the Au(I) counterpart. Herein, by doping Au atoms into gas-phase vanadium oxide clusters, we demonstrate that the Au(III) cation in the AuV2O6(+) cluster is active for activation and transformation of methane, the most stable alkane molecule, into formaldehyde under mild conditions. In contrast, the AuV2O6(+) cluster isomers with the Au(I) cation can only absorb CH4. The clusters were generated by laser ablation and mass selected to react with CH4, CD4, or CH2D2 in an ion trap reactor. The reactivity was characterized by mass spectrometry and quantum chemistry calculations. The structures of the reactant and product ions were identified by using collision-induced and 425 nm photo-induced dissociation techniques. PMID:27385079

  6. The β2 clamp in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA polymerase III αβ2ε replicase promotes polymerization and reduces exonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Shoujin; Li, Wenjuan; Zhang, Hongtai; Fleming, Joy; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Shihua; Wei, Wenjing; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Guofeng; Deng, Jiaoyu; Hou, Jian; Zhou, Ying; Lin, Shiqiang; Zhang, Xian-En; Bi, Lijun

    2016-01-01

    DNA polymerase III (DNA pol III) is a multi-subunit replication machine responsible for the accurate and rapid replication of bacterial genomes, however, how it functions in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) requires further investigation. We have reconstituted the leading-strand replication process of the Mtb DNA pol III holoenzyme in vitro, and investigated the physical and functional relationships between its key components. We verify the presence of an αβ2ε polymerase-clamp-exonuclease replicase complex by biochemical methods and protein-protein interaction assays in vitro and in vivo and confirm that, in addition to the polymerase activity of its α subunit, Mtb DNA pol III has two potential proofreading subunits; the α and ε subunits. During DNA replication, the presence of the β2 clamp strongly promotes the polymerization of the αβ2ε replicase and reduces its exonuclease activity. Our work provides a foundation for further research on the mechanism by which the replication machinery switches between replication and proofreading and provides an experimental platform for the selection of antimicrobials targeting DNA replication in Mtb. PMID:26822057

  7. Absence of mutagenic activity in Salmonella and of clastogenic activity in CHO cells of Caramel Colours I, II, III and IV.

    PubMed

    Allen, J A; Brooker, P C; Jones, E; Adams, K; Richold, M

    1992-05-01

    A total of 15 caramel colours were examined for genotoxic activity using the Salmonella typhimurium plate incorporation assay (Ames test). Five bacterial strains, TA1535, TA1537, TA1538, TA98 and TA100 were used in all the plate incorporation tests. Caramel colours can be divided into four classes, classification depending on the preparative method used. In this study, representatives of all four classes of caramel colour were tested for genotoxic potential in the Ames test, some of the caramel colours being tested both with and without a pre-incubation stage. None of the 15 caramel colours tested exhibited genotoxic potential in any of the five bacterial tester strains. The last two caramel colours tested, in the series of 15 [203-23-4 (Class II) and 311 (Class III)] were also assessed for clastogenic potential. For this test, cultures of CHO cells were exposed to the two caramel colours and metaphase preparations from these cultures examined for evidence of chromosomal aberrations. No evidence of chromosome damaging activity was observed. PMID:1644380

  8. In Vivo Anti-HIV Activity of the Heparin-Activated Serine Protease Inhibitor Antithrombin III Encapsulated in Lymph-Targeting Immunoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    Asmal, Mohammed; Whitney, James B.; Luedemann, Corinne; Carville, Angela; Steen, Robert; Letvin, Norman L.; Geiben-Lynn, Ralf

    2012-01-01

    Endogenous serine protease inhibitors (serpins) are anti-inflammatory mediators with multiple biologic functions. Several serpins have been reported to modulate HIV pathogenesis, or exhibit potent anti-HIV activity in vitro, but the efficacy of serpins as therapeutic agents for HIV in vivo has not yet been demonstrated. In the present study, we show that heparin-activated antithrombin III (hep-ATIII), a member of the serpin family, significantly inhibits lentiviral replication in a non-human primate model. We further demonstrate greater than one log10 reduction in plasma viremia in the nonhuman primate system by loading of hep-ATIII into anti-HLA-DR immunoliposomes, which target tissue reservoirs of viral replication. We also demonstrate the utility of hep-ATIIII as a potential salvage agent for HIV strains resistant to standard anti-retroviral treatment. Finally, we applied gene-expression arrays to analyze hep-ATIII-induced host cell interactomes and found that downstream of hep-ATIII, two independent gene networks were modulated by host factors prostaglandin synthetase-2, ERK1/2 and NFκB. Ultimately, understanding how serpins, such as hep-ATIII, regulate host responses during HIV infection may reveal new avenues for therapeutic intervention. PMID:23133620

  9. Tanshinone I Activates the Nrf2-Dependent Antioxidant Response and Protects Against As(III)-Induced Lung Inflammation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Shasha; Zheng, Yi; Lau, Alexandria; Jaramillo, Melba C.; Chau, Binh T.; Lantz, R. Clark; Wong, Pak K.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: The NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway regulates the cellular antioxidant response and activation of Nrf2 has recently been shown to limit tissue damage from exposure to environmental toxicants, including As(III). In an attempt to identify improved molecular agents for systemic protection against environmental insults, we have focused on the identification of novel medicinal plant-derived Nrf2 activators. Results: Tanshinones [tanshinone I (T-I), tanshinone IIA, dihydrotanshinone, cryptotanshinone], phenanthrenequinone-based redox therapeutics derived from the medicinal herb Salvia miltiorrhiza, have been tested as experimental therapeutics for Nrf2-dependent cytoprotection. Using a dual luciferase reporter assay overexpressing wild-type or mutant Kelch-like ECH-associated protein-1 (Keap1), we demonstrate that T-I is a potent Keap1-C151-dependent Nrf2 activator that stabilizes Nrf2 by hindering its ubiquitination. In human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to As(III), T-I displays pronounced cytoprotective activity with upregulation of Nrf2-orchestrated gene expression. In Nrf2 wild-type mice, systemic administration of T-I attenuates As(III) induced inflammatory lung damage, a protective effect not observed in Nrf2 knockout mice. Innovation: Tanshinones have been identified as a novel class of Nrf2-inducers for antioxidant tissue protection in an in vivo As(III) inhalation model, that is relevant to low doses of environmental exposure. Conclusion: T-I represents a prototype Nrf2-activator that displays cytoprotective activity upon systemic administration targeting lung damage originating from environmental insults. T-I based Nrf2-directed systemic intervention may provide therapeutic benefit in protecting other organs against environmental insults. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1647–1661. PMID:23394605

  10. Tai Chi as an adjunct physical activity for adults aged 45 years and older enrolled in phase III cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor-Piliae, Ruth E; Silva, Edna; Sheremeta, Sharon Peachey

    2015-01-01

    Background Cardiac rehabilitation improves physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning, yet services are greatly underutilized with increasing patterns of attrition over time. Tai Chi has been suggested as a possible adjunct to cardiac rehabilitation exercise training. Aim To describe differences in physical, cognitive and psychosocial functioning among adults ≥ 45 years old attending phase III cardiac rehabilitation, who have or have not self-selected Tai Chi exercise as an adjunct physical activity. Methods A cross-sectional design compared subjects attending group-based Wu style Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, with cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects had a battery of physical and cognitive functioning tests administered to examine aerobic endurance, balance, strength, and flexibility, verbal retrieval/recall, attention, concentration and tracking. Subjects completed a health survey to ascertain cardiac event information, medical history, and psychosocial functioning (i.e. health-related quality of life, stress, depressive symptoms, social support, and Tai Chi self-efficacy). Results A total of 51 subjects (75% married, 84% college-educated, 96% White/European-American) participated. Subjects were on average 70 (± 8) years old and had attended cardiac rehabilitation for 45 (± 37) months. Approximately 45% (n = 23) attended Tai Chi classes plus cardiac rehabilitation, while 55% (n = 28) attended cardiac rehabilitation only. Subjects attending Tai Chi plus cardiac rehabilitation had better balance, perceived physical health, and Tai Chi self-efficacy compared to those attending cardiac rehabilitation only (p ≤ 0.03). Conclusion Tai Chi can be easily implemented in any community/cardiac rehabilitation facility, and may offer adults additional options after a cardiac event. PMID:21095159

  11. Laser-activated remote phosphor light engine for projection applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Martin; Mehl, Oliver; Hartwig, Ulrich

    2015-09-01

    Recent developments in blue emitting laser diodes enable attractive solutions in projection applications using phosphors for efficient light conversion with very high luminance levels. Various commercially available projectors incorporating this technology have entered the market in the past years. While luminous flux levels are still comparable to lamp-based systems, lifetime expectations of classical lamp systems are exceeded by far. OSRAM GmbH has been exploring this technology for several years and has introduced the PHASER® brand name (Phosphor + laser). State-of-the-art is a rotating phosphor wheel excited by blue laser diodes to deliver the necessary primary colors, either sequentially for single-imager projection engines, or simultaneously for 3-panel systems. The PHASER® technology enables flux and luminance scaling, which allows for smaller imagers and therefore cost-efficient projection solutions. The resulting overall efficiency and ANSI lumen specification at the projection screen of these systems is significantly determined by the target color gamut and the light transmission efficiency of the projection system. With increasing power and flux level demand, thermal issues, especially phosphor conversion related, dominate the opto-mechanical system design requirements. These flux levels are a great challenge for all components of an SSL-projection system (SSL:solid-state lighting). OSRAḾs PHASER® light engine platform is constantly expanded towards higher luminous flux levels as well as higher luminance levels for various applications. Recent experiments employ blue laser pump powers of multiple 100 Watts to excite various phosphors resulting in luminous flux levels of more than 40 klm.

  12. Summary of Session Activities: Coordination of Environmental Education Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeler, Michael; Mahootian, Farzad

    1995-01-01

    In this session, we address four fundamental questions related to environmental fields with emphasis on education. These are: What are the goals, objectives, and practical opportunities for coordinating our projects? How can we improve awareness of, interest in, access to, and support the products of our work? How can we build relationships between projects for scientific, educational, technical, and programmatic benefit? How can we evaluate the effectiveness of coordination efforts. In this working session, we produced answers to these questions and proposed a structure for future collaboration.

  13. Mixed ligand complexes of cobalt(III) and iron(III) containing N2O2-chelating Schiff base: Synthesis, characterisation, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant and DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Harun A. R.; Paul, Pradip C.; Mondal, Paritosh; Bhattacharjee, Chira R.

    2015-11-01

    Six mixed ligand complexes, namely, [Co(acac)L1] (1), [Fe(acac)L1] (2), [Co(acac)L2] (3), [Fe(acac)L2] (4), [Co(acac)L3] (5), and [Fe(acac)L3] (6) (H2L1 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-trans 1,2 diaminocyclohexane, H2L2 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-1,2 phenylenediamine, H2L3 = NN/-bis(salicylidene)-4-methyl-1,2-phenylenediamine) were synthesised and characterized using elemental analysis, IR spectra, UV-Vis spectra, mass spectra, magnetic susceptibility measurements, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis. The molar conductance measurement confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the complexes in DMF solution. Antioxidant activity of the complexes was studied using the 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging method. Biological studies of the complexes have been carried out in vitro for antimicrobial activity against some selected gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. DFT calculations were performed using GAUSSIAN 09 program to ascertain the stable electronic structure, HOMO-LUMO energy gap, chemical hardness and dipole moment of the complexes.

  14. Structure of solvation water around the active and inactive regions of a type III antifreeze protein and its mutants of lowered activity.

    PubMed

    Grabowska, Joanna; Kuffel, Anna; Zielkiewicz, Jan

    2016-08-21

    Water molecules from the solvation shell of the ice-binding surface are considered important for the antifreeze proteins to perform their function properly. Herein, we discuss the problem whether the extent of changes of the mean properties of solvation water can be connected with the antifreeze activity of the protein. To this aim, the structure of solvation water of a type III antifreeze protein from Macrozoarces americanus (eel pout) is investigated. A wild type of the protein is used, along with its three mutants, with antifreeze activities equal to 54% or 10% of the activity of the native form. The solvation water of the ice-binding surface and the rest of the protein are analyzed separately. To characterize the structure of solvation shell, parameters describing radial and angular characteristics of the mutual arrangement of the molecules were employed. They take into account short-distance (first hydration shell) or long-distance (two solvation shells) effects. The obtained results and the comparison with the results obtained previously for a hyperactive antifreeze protein from Choristoneura fumiferana lead to the conclusion that the structure and amino acid composition of the active region of the protein evolved to achieve two goals. The first one is the modification of the properties of the solvation water. The second one is the geometrical adjustment of the protein surface to the specific crystallographic plane of ice. Both of these goals have to be achieved simultaneously in order for the protein to perform its function properly. However, they seem to be independent from one another in a sense that very small antifreeze activity does not imply that properties of water become different from the ones observed for the wild type. The proteins with significantly lower activity still modify the mean properties of solvation water in a right direction, in spite of the fact that the accuracy of the geometrical match with the ice lattice is lost because of the

  15. Update on project determining biologically active compounds in milk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The added health value of raw and pasteurized milk from organic and grass-fed herds is strongly debated because of limited, and often conflicting, scientific data. The Dairy & Functional Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-NAA, Wyndmoor, PA has an ongoing project to identify and compare the levels of bio...

  16. Multiple activities of the plant pathogen type III effector proteins WtsE and AvrE require WxxxE motifs.

    PubMed

    Ham, Jong Hyun; Majerczak, Doris R; Nomura, Kinya; Mecey, Christy; Uribe, Francisco; He, Sheng-Yang; Mackey, David; Coplin, David L

    2009-06-01

    The broadly conserved AvrE-family of type III effectors from gram-negative plant-pathogenic bacteria includes important virulence factors, yet little is known about the mechanisms by which these effectors function inside plant cells to promote disease. We have identified two conserved motifs in AvrE-family effectors: a WxxxE motif and a putative C-terminal endoplasmic reticulum membrane retention/retrieval signal (ERMRS). The WxxxE and ERMRS motifs are both required for the virulence activities of WtsE and AvrE, which are major virulence factors of the corn pathogen Pantoea stewartii subsp. stewartii and the tomato or Arabidopsis pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato, respectively. The WxxxE and the predicted ERMRS motifs are also required for other biological activities of WtsE, including elicitation of the hypersensitive response in nonhost plants and suppression of defense responses in Arabidopsis. A family of type III effectors from mammalian bacterial pathogens requires WxxxE and subcellular targeting motifs for virulence functions that involve their ability to mimic activated G-proteins. The conservation of related motifs and their necessity for the function of type III effectors from plant pathogens indicates that disturbing host pathways by mimicking activated host G-proteins may be a virulence mechanism employed by plant pathogens as well. PMID:19445595

  17. The effect of juvenile hormone III, methyl farnesoate, and methoprene on Na/K-ATPase activity in larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia.

    PubMed

    Ahl, J S; Brown, J J

    1991-01-01

    1. Ion transport enzyme (Na/K-ATPase) activity in stage III larvae of the brine shrimp, Artemia, remains elevated throughout the stadium when populations are exposed to methoprene in artificial seawater. 2. Infusion of methoprene, juvenile hormone, or methyl farnesoate causes increased Na/K-ATPase activity in homogenates of mid-stadium larvae that would otherwise exhibit low activity. 3. The sensitivity of the enzyme system to extremely low concentrations of the juvenoids suggests that this may be a common mode of action of these compounds. Additionally it suggests that the enzyme may be under the influence of a similar compound present in the larvae. PMID:1682091

  18. Water-soluble oxoglaucine-Y(III), Dy(III) complexes: in vitro and in vivo anticancer activities by triggering DNA damage, leading to S phase arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jian-Hua; Chen, Zhen-Feng; Qin, Jiao-Lan; Liu, Yan-Cheng; Li, Zhu-Quan; Khan, Taj-Malook; Wang, Meng; Jiang, Yan-Hua; Shen, Wen-Ying; Liang, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Complexes of yttrium(III) and dysprosium(III) with the traditional Chinese medicine active ingredient oxoglaucine (OG), namely [Y(OG)2(NO3)3]·CH3OH (1) and [Dy(OG)2(NO3)3]·H2O (2), were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, ESI-MS, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. In vitro the complexes exhibited higher anticancer activity than the free ligand OG against the tested cancer cell lines. Among the tested cell lines, HepG2 is the most sensitive to the complexes. Complex 2 can trigger DNA damage in HepG2 cells, resulting in cell cycle arrest in the S phase and leading to cell apoptosis. The S phase cell-cycle arrest is caused via the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutated)-Chk2-Cdc25A pathway. Chk2 is phosphorylated and activated in an ATM-dependent manner. It, in turn, phosphorylates Cdc25A phosphatise on serine124, causing the inactivation of Cdc25A in ubiquitin-mediated proteolytic degradation. The cyclin-Cdk complexes of the S phase could also be inhibited by limited supply of cyclins A and E. This irreversible cell cycle arrest process ultimately induces mitochondria-involved apoptotic cell death via the activation of Bcl-2 protein. Complex e2 ffectively inhibited tumour growth in the BEL-7402 xenograft mouse model and exhibited higher safety in vivo than cisplatin. PMID:26017376

  19. Multifunctionality in bimetallic Ln(III)[W(V)(CN)8]3- (Ln = Gd, Nd) coordination helices: optical activity, luminescence, and magnetic coupling.

    PubMed

    Chorazy, Szymon; Nakabayashi, Koji; Arczynski, Mirosław; Pełka, Robert; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi; Sieklucka, Barbara

    2014-06-01

    Two chiral luminescent derivatives of pyridine bis(oxazoline) (Pybox), (SS/RR)-iPr-Pybox (2,6-bis[4-isopropyl-2-oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine) and (SRSR/RSRS)-Ind-Pybox (2,6-bis[8H-indeno[1,2-d]oxazolin-2-yl]pyridine), have been combined with lanthanide ions (Gd(3+), Nd(3+)) and octacyanotungstate(V) metalloligand to afford a remarkable series of eight bimetallic CN(-)-bridged coordination chains: {[Ln(III)(SS/RR-iPr-Pybox)(dmf)4]3[W(V)(CN)8]3}n ⋅dmf⋅4 H2O (Ln = Gd, 1-SS and 1-RR; Ln = Nd, 2-SS and 2-RR) and {[Ln(III)(SRSR/RSRS-Ind-Pybox)(dmf)4][W(V)(CN)8]}n⋅5 MeCN⋅4 MeOH (Ln = Gd, 3-SRSR and 3-RSRS; Ln = Nd, 4-SRSR and 4-RSRS). These materials display enantiopure structural helicity, which results in strong optical activity in the range 200-450 nm, as confirmed by natural circular dichroism (NCD) spectra and the corresponding UV/Vis absorption spectra. Under irradiation with UV light, the Gd(III)-W(V) chains show dominant ligand-based red phosphorescence, with λmax ≈660 nm for 1-(SS/RR) and 680 nm for 3-(SRSR/RSRS). The Nd(III)-W(V) chains, 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS), exhibit near-infrared luminescence with sharp lines at 986, 1066, and 1340 nm derived from intra-f (4)F3/2 → (4)I9/2,11/2,13/2 transitions of the Nd(III) centers. This emission is realized through efficient ligand-to-metal energy transfer from the Pybox derivative to the lanthanide ion. Due to the presence of paramagnetic lanthanide(III) and [W(V)(CN)8](3-) moieties connected by cyanide bridges, 1-(SS/RR) and 3-(SRSR/RSRS) are ferrimagnetic spin chains originating from antiferromagnetic coupling between Gd(III) (SGd = 7/2) and W(V) (SW = 1/2) centers with J1-(SS) = -0.96(1) cm(-1), J1-(RR) =-0.95(1) cm(-1), J3-(SRSR) = -0.91(1) cm(-1), and J3-(RSRS) =-0.94(1) cm(-1). 2-(SS/RR) and 4-(SRSR/RSRS) display ferromagnetic coupling within their Nd(III)-NC-W(V) linkages. PMID:24740567

  20. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Wilkins, D.W.; Keltch, B.; Saradji, B.; Salamy, S.P.

    1988-04-01

    This report is the second volume of the Recovery Efficiency Test Phase I Report of Activities. Volume 1 covered selection, well planning, drilling, coring, logging and completion operations. This volume reports on well testing activities, reclamation activities on the drilling site and access roads, and the results of physical and mechanical properties tests on the oriented core material obtained from a horizontal section of the well. 3 refs., 21 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Hermes III endpoint energy calculation from photonuclear activation of 197Au and 58Ni foils

    SciTech Connect

    Parzyck, Christopher Thomas

    2014-09-01

    A new process has been developed to characterize the endpoint energy of HERMES III on a shot-to-shot basis using standard dosimetry tools from the Sandia Radiation Measurements Laboratory. Photonuclear activation readings from nickel and gold foils are used in conjunction with calcium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters to derive estimated electron endpoint energies for a series of HERMES shots. The results are reasonably consistent with the expected endpoint voltages on those shots.

  2. Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation/Alkyne Annulation by Weak Coordination of Peresters with O-O Bond as an Internal Oxidant.

    PubMed

    Mo, Jiayu; Wang, Lianhui; Cui, Xiuling

    2015-10-16

    A redox-economic strategy has been developed, involved in an efficient Rh(III)-catalyzed oxidative C-H activation and alkyne annulation with perester as the oxidizing directing group. In this process, the cleavage of an oxidizing O-O bond as an internal oxidant is described for the first time. This reaction could be carried out under mild conditions and exhibits excellent regioselectivity and wide functional groups tolerance. PMID:26414431

  3. A luminescence switch-on probe for terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) activity detection by using an iridium(III)-based i-motif probe.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lihua; Wang, Modi; Liu, Li-Juan; Wong, Chun-Yuen; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-06-21

    An iridium(III) complex exhibiting higher responce towards i-motif DNA over dsDNA and ssDNA was employed for the construction of a TdT activity detection platform. The assay exhibited a linear signal enhancement for TdT in the concentration range of 0 to 8 U mL(-1), and the limit of detection for TdT was 0.25 U mL(-1). PMID:25999030

  4. Synthesis of Conjugated Polycyclic Quinoliniums by Rhodium(III)-Catalyzed Multiple C-H Activation and Annulation of Arylpyridiniums with Alkynes.

    PubMed

    Ge, Qingmei; Hu, Yang; Li, Bin; Wang, Baiquan

    2016-05-20

    A simple method for the efficient synthesis of highly substituted pyrido[1,2-a]quinolinium- and quinolizino[3,4,5,6-ija]quinolinium-based polyheteroaromatic compounds via rhodium(III)-catalyzed multiple C-H activation annulation reactions has been developed. Moreover, some of the quinolizino[3,4,5,6-ija]quinolinium salts exhibit intense fluorescence and have potential application in optoelectronic materials. PMID:27137134

  5. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Justine M; Foda, Bardees; Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  6. A Single RNaseIII Domain Protein from Entamoeba histolytica Has dsRNA Cleavage Activity and Can Help Mediate RNAi Gene Silencing in a Heterologous System

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Upinder

    2015-01-01

    Dicer enzymes process double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) into small RNAs that target gene silencing through the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway. Dicer enzymes are complex, multi-domain RNaseIII proteins, however structural minimalism of this protein has recently emerged in parasitic and fungal systems. The most minimal Dicer, Saccharomyces castellii Dicer1, has a single RNaseIII domain and two double stranded RNA binding domains. In the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica 27nt small RNAs are abundant and mediate silencing, yet no canonical Dicer enzyme has been identified. Although EhRNaseIII does not exhibit robust dsRNA cleavage in vitro, it can process dsRNA in the RNAi-negative background of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and in conjunction with S. castellii Argonaute1 can partially reconstitute the RNAi pathway. Thus, although EhRNaseIII lacks the domain architecture of canonical or minimal Dicer enzymes, it has dsRNA processing activity that contributes to gene silencing via RNAi. Our data advance the understanding of small RNA biogenesis in Entamoeba as well as broaden the spectrum of non-canonical Dicer enzymes that contribute to the RNAi pathway. PMID:26230096

  7. Dialogic Activity Structures for Project-Based Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.

    2004-01-01

    Activity structures such as classroom lessons and initiation-reply-evaluation sequences are important cultural tools that help students and teachers accomplish everyday activity, but they are not well adapted to open-ended inquiry conducted by students in small groups with teacher guidance. In this research, I identified alternative activity…

  8. Albeni Falls Wildlife Mitigation Project : Annual Report of Mitigation Activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Entz, Ray D.

    2001-04-01

    The Albeni Falls Interagency Work Group was actively involved in implementing wildlife mitigation activities in 2000. The Work Group met each quarter to discuss management and budget issues affecting Albeni Falls wildlife mitigation. Members of the Work Group protected a total of 1,242 acres of wetland habitat in 2000. The total amount of wildlife habitat protected for Albeni Falls mitigation is approximately 4,190 acres (4,630 Habitat Units). Approximately 16% of the total wildlife habitat lost has been mitigated. Land management activities were limited in 2000 as protection opportunities took up most staff time. Administrative activities increased in 2000 as funding was more evenly distributed among Work Group members. As a result, implementation is expected to continue to increase in the coming year. Land management and monitoring and evaluation activities will increase in 2001 as site-specific management plans are completed and implemented.

  9. Experimental determination of water activity for binary aqueous cerium(III) ionic solutions: application to an assessment of the predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation model.

    PubMed

    Ruas, Alexandre; Simonin, Jean-Pierre; Turq, Pierre; Moisy, Philippe

    2005-12-01

    This work is aimed at a description of the thermodynamic properties of actinide salt solutions at high concentration. The predictive capability of the binding mean spherical approximation (BIMSA) theory to describe the thermodynamic properties of electrolytes is assessed in the case of aqueous solutions of lanthanide(III) nitrate and chloride salts. Osmotic coefficients of cerium(III) nitrate and chloride were calculated from other lanthanide(III) salts properties. In parallel, concentrated binary solutions of cerium nitrate were prepared in order to measure experimentally its water activity and density as a function of concentration, at 25 degrees C. Water activities of several binary solutions of cerium chloride were also measured to check existing data on this salt. Then, the properties of cerium chloride and cerium nitrate solutions were compared within the BIMSA model. Osmotic coefficient values for promethium nitrate and promethium chloride given by this theory are proposed. Finally, water activity measurements were made to examine the fact that the ternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/H2O and the quaternary system Ce(NO3)3/HNO3/N2H5NO3/H2O may be regarded as "simple solutions" (in the sense of Zdanovskii and Mikulin). PMID:16854002

  10. Synergistic Effect of Dual Electron-Cocatalysts for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activity: rGO as Electron-Transfer Mediator and Fe(III) as Oxygen-Reduction Active Site

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Huogen; Tian, Jing; Chen, Feng; Wang, Ping; Wang, Xuefei

    2015-01-01

    For a high-performance cocatalyst-modified photocatalyst, an effective interfacial separation of photogenerated electron from its corresponding holes and its following reduction reaction at the active sites are highly required. However, it is difficult for a single-component cocatalyst to simultaneously realize the crucial functions. In this study, an effective interfacial transfer of photogenerated electrons and its following rapid oxygen-reduction can be easily realized in a dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst, where the rGO nanosheets function as an electron-transfer mediator for the effective transfer of photogenerated electrons from the TiO2 surface while the Fe(III) cocatalyst serves as an electron-reduction active site to promote the following interfacial oxygen reduction. In this case, the rGO nanosheets were firstly loaded on the TiO2 nanoparticle surface by a hydrothermal method and then the Fe(III) cocatalyst was further modified on the rGO nanosheets by an impregnation method to prepare the Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst. It was found that the dual electron-cocatalyst modified Fe(III)/rGO-TiO2 photocatalyst showed an obviously higher photocatalytic performance than the naked TiO2 and single-cocatalyst modified photocatalysts (such as Fe(III)/TiO2 and rGO-TiO2) owing to the synergistic effect of rGO and Fe(III) bi-cocatalysts. The present work can provide some new insights for the smart design of high-efficiency photocatalytic materials. PMID:26272870

  11. Physics and Science Education through Project Activities of University Students and Regional Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Makoto

    A project team "Rika-Kobo" organized by university students has actively performed various science education activities at primary and secondary schools and other educational facilities as well as in science events in local areas. The activities of this student project team are related to various fields of physics and sciences. In order to provide more attractive activities, the student members prepare original experiment tools and easily-understandable presentation and explanation. Through such activities, the members can have opportunities of obtaining new knowledge and refreshing their already-obtained understandings in related fields of physics and sciences. They can also have chances of improving their skills and abilities such as presentation, problem-finding and solving, which are useful for realizing their career development. The activities of the student project team have been also welcomed by children, parents, teachers and other people in local areas because the activities provide them with opportunities of knowing and learning new knowledge in physics and sciences.

  12. Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III Year 6 - Activity 1.10 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Stanislowski, Joshua; Azenkeng, Alexander; McCollor, Donald; Galbreath, Kevin; Jensen, Robert; Lahr, Brent

    2012-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been conducting research on gasification for six decades. One of the objectives of this gasification research has been to maximize carbon conversion and the water–gas shift process for optimal hydrogen production and syngas quality. This research focus and experience were a perfect fit for the National Center for Hydrogen Technology ® (NCHT®) Program at the EERC for improving all aspects of coal gasification, which ultimately aids in the production and purification of hydrogen. A consortia project was developed under the NCHT Program to develop an improved predictive model for ash formation and deposition under the project entitled “Coal Ash Behavior in Reducing Environments (CABRE) III: Development of the CABRE III Model.” The computer-based program is now applicable to the modeling of coal and ash behavior in both entrained-flow and fluidized-bed gasification systems to aid in overall gasification efficiency. This model represents a significant improvement over the CABRE II model and runs on a Microsoft Windows PC platform. The major achievements of the CABRE III model are partitioning of inorganic transformations between various phases for specific gas cleanup equipment; slag property predictions, including standard temperature–viscosity curves and slag flow and thickness; deposition rates in gasification cleanup equipment; provision for composition analysis for all input and output streams across all process equipment, including major elements and trace elements of interest; composition analysis of deposit streams for various deposit zones, including direct condensation on equipment surfaces (Zone A), homogeneous particulate deposition (Zone B), and entrained fly ash deposition (Zone C); and physical removal of ash in cyclones based on D50 cut points. Another new feature of the CABRE III model is a user-friendly interface and detailed reports that are easily exportable into Word documents, Excel

  13. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, DFT calculation and biological activities of Fe(III) and Co(II)-omeprazole complexes. Potential application in the Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Marcos G.; Vega Hissi, Esteban G.; Rizzi, Alberto C.; Brondino, Carlos D.; Salinas Ibañez, Ángel G.; Vega, Alba E.; Silva, Humberto J.; Mercader, Roberto; Narda, Griselda E.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between the antiulcer agent omeprazole (OMZ) with Fe(III) and Co(II) ions was studied, observing a high ability to form metal complexes. The isolated microcrystalline solid complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements, thermal study, FTIR, UV-Visible, Mössbauer, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and DFT calculations. The metal-ligand ratio for both complexes was 1:2 determined by elemental and thermal analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed that OMZ acts as a neutral bidentate ligand through the pyridinic nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and the oxygen atom of the sulfoxide group, forming a five-membered ring chelate. Electronic, Mössbauer, and EPR spectra together with magnetic measurements indicate a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ions, where the coordination sphere is completed by two water molecules. SEM and XRPD were used to characterize the morphology and the crystal nature of the complexes. The most favorable conformation for the Fe(III)-OMZ and Co(II)-OMZ complexes was obtained by DFT calculations by using B3LYP/6-31G(d)&LanL2DZ//B3LYP/3-21G(d)&LanL2DZ basis set. Studies of solubility along with the antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori for OMZ and its Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes are also reported. Free OMZ and both metal complexes showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Co(II)-OMZ presented a minimal inhibitory concentration ˜32 times lower than that of OMZ and ˜65 lower than Fe(III)-OMZ, revealing its promising potential use for the treatment of gastric pathologies associated with the Gram negative bacteria. The morphological changes observed in the cell membrane of the bacteria after the incubation with the metal-complexes were also analyzed by SEM microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes was proved by the viability test.

  14. Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project: water-resources activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robson, Stanley G.; Heiny, Janet S.

    1998-01-01

    Infrastructure, such as roads, buildings, airports, and dams, is built and maintained by use of large quantities of natural resources such as aggregate (sand and gravel), energy, and water. As urban area expand, local sources of these resource are becoming inaccessible (gravel cannot be mined from under a subdivision, for example), or the cost of recovery of the resource becomes prohibitive (oil and gas drilling in urban areas is costly), or the resources may become unfit for some use (pollution of ground water may preclude its use as a water supply). Governmental land-use decision and environmental mandates can further preclude development of natural resources. If infrastructure resources are to remain economically available. current resource information must be available for use in well-reasoned decisions bout future land use. Ground water is an infrastructure resource that is present in shallow aquifers and deeper bedrock aquifers that underlie much of the 2,450-square-mile demonstration area of the Colorado Front Range Infrastructure Resources Project. In 1996, mapping of the area's ground-water resources was undertaken as a U.S. Geological Survey project in cooperation with the Colorado Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Resources, and the Colorado Water Conservation Board.

  15. Anti-activator ExsD Forms a 1:1 Complex with ExsA to Inhibit Transcription of Type III Secretion Operons*

    PubMed Central

    Thibault, Julie; Faudry, Eric; Ebel, Christine; Attree, Ina; Elsen, Sylvie

    2009-01-01

    The ExsA protein is a Pseudomonas aeruginosa transcriptional regulator of the AraC/XylS family that is responsible for activating the type III secretion system operons upon host cell contact. Its activity is known to be controlled in vivo through interaction with its negative regulator ExsD. Using a heterologous expression system, we demonstrated that ExsD is sufficient to inhibit the transcriptional activity of ExsA. Gel shift assays with ExsA- and ExsD-containing cytosolic extracts revealed that ExsD does not block DNA target sites but affects the DNA binding activity of the transcriptional activator. The ExsA-ExsD complex was purified after coproduction of the two partners in Escherichia coli. Size exclusion chromatography and ultracentrifugation analysis revealed a homogeneous complex with a 1:1 ratio. When in interaction with ExsD, ExsA is not able to bind to its specific target any longer, as evidenced by gel shift assays. Size exclusion chromatography further showed a partial dissociation of the complex in the presence of a specific DNA sequence. A model of the molecular inhibitory role of ExsD toward ExsA is proposed, in which, under noninducing conditions, the anti-activator ExsD sequesters ExsA and hinders its binding to DNA sites, preventing the transcription of type III secretion genes. PMID:19369699

  16. Antibacterial activity of peptides derived from the C-terminal region of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Tomomitsu; Suenaga, Tomoko; Eto, Seiichiro; Niidome, Takuro; Aoyagi, Haruhiko

    2004-01-01

    Several synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal domain sequence of a hemolytic lectin, CEL-III, were examined as to their action on bacteria and artificial lipid membranes. Peptide P332 (KGVIFAKASVSVKVTASLSK-NH(2)), corresponding to the sequence from residue 332, exhibited strong antibacterial activity toward Gram-positive bacteria. Replacement of each Lys in P332 by Ala markedly decreased the activity. However, when all Lys were replaced by Arg, the antibacterial activity increased, indicating the importance of positively charged residues at these positions. Replacement of Val by Leu also led to higher antibacterial activity, especially toward Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of these peptides was correlated with their membrane-permeabilizing activity toward the bacterial inner membrane and artificial lipid vesicles, indicating that the antibacterial action is due to perturbation of bacterial cell membranes, leading to enhancement of their permeability. These results also suggest that the hydrophobic region of CEL-III, from which P332 and its analogs were derived, may play some role in the interaction with target cell membranes to trigger hemolysis. PMID:14999010

  17. Learning Outcomes of Project-Based and Inquiry-Based Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panasan, Mookdaporn; Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2010-01-01

    Problem statement: Organization of science learning activities is necessary to rely on various methods of organization of learning and to be appropriate to learners. Organization of project-based learning activities and inquiry-based learning activities are teaching methods which can help students understand scientific knowledge. It would be more…

  18. Subsurface mass migration at active volcanoes: what we learnt from the VOLUME project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saccorotti, G.; Volume Team

    2009-04-01

    Movements of multiphase fluids beneath active volcanoes are generally detected at the surface in terms of changes in geophysical and geochemical observables. The prompt detection and interpretation of such signals thus represent a crucial step toward the short-term evaluation of volcanic hazard. Funded through the European 6th framework program, the VOLUME project joined 19 institutions from 6 EU and 5 extra-european countries under the common goal of improving our understanding of how subsurface mass movement manifests itself at the surface, in turn revealing the significance of such movements as precursors to impending eruptions. We integrated high-end experimental procedures with a robust modeling framework to address some of the most relevant issues of modern, quantitative volcanology. In particular, our studies focused on: (i) Unrevealing the complex interplay between hydrothermal and magmatic fluids in generating the observed geophysical / geochemical signals, (ii) Detailing the location, geometry and dynamics of magma pathways and storage zones (iii) Probing variations of the elastic parameters of volcanic media in response to stress changes induced by mass migration, and (iv) Developing a robust computational framework for forward-modelling the geophysical observables resulting from the dynamics of multiphase magmatic systems. VOLUME activities developed at both european and extra-european volcanoes. We present here the most striking results obtained at two italian test-sites, namely Etna and Campi Flegrei, for which we had available data sets of unprecedented sensitivity and temporal resolution. Results from Etna include a) mapping of the shallow plumbing system from Moment-Tensor inversion of broadband seismic signal, b) the detection of deep magma intrusion from inversion of joint gravity-tremor anomalies; c) the measurement of changes in both elastic anisotropy and seismic velocity concomitant to the waning stage of the 2002 NE flank lava effusion; and

  19. YopN and TyeA Hydrophobic Contacts Required for Regulating Ysc-Yop Type III Secretion Activity by Yersinia pseudotuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Amer, Ayad A. A.; Gurung, Jyoti M.; Costa, Tiago R. D.; Ruuth, Kristina; Zavialov, Anton V.; Forsberg, Åke; Francis, Matthew S.

    2016-01-01

    Yersinia bacteria target Yop effector toxins to the interior of host immune cells by the Ysc-Yop type III secretion system. A YopN-TyeA heterodimer is central to controlling Ysc-Yop targeting activity. A + 1 frameshift event in the 3-prime end of yopN can also produce a singular secreted YopN-TyeA polypeptide that retains some regulatory function even though the C-terminal coding sequence of this YopN differs greatly from wild type. Thus, this YopN C-terminal segment was analyzed for its role in type III secretion control. Bacteria producing YopN truncated after residue 278, or with altered sequence between residues 279 and 287, had lost type III secretion control and function. In contrast, YopN variants with manipulated sequence beyond residue 287 maintained full control and function. Scrutiny of the YopN-TyeA complex structure revealed that residue W279 functioned as a likely hydrophobic contact site with TyeA. Indeed, a YopNW279G mutant lost all ability to bind TyeA. The TyeA residue F8 was also critical for reciprocal YopN binding. Thus, we conclude that specific hydrophobic contacts between opposing YopN and TyeA termini establishes a complex needed for regulating Ysc-Yop activity. PMID:27446813

  20. Rationale and Activities of Project on Television in Early Education: Progress Report, July - December 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Margaret E.; Williams, Frederick

    This progress report discusses the rationale and activities of the Project on Television in Early Childhood Education at the University of Southern California. Since January 1975, the Annenberg School and the School for Early Childhood Education have cooperated in a program of faculty and student interaction and informal research projects aimed at…

  1. Using Collaborative Research Projects to Facilitate Active Learning in Methods Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeWitt, Jeff R.

    2010-01-01

    This article proposes facilitation of active learning in methods courses using collaborative survey research projects. Students form groups in which they develop and administer questionnaires that explore public attitudes and behaviors. Each step requires they apply key concepts toward completion of the project. Collaborative research project…

  2. Quality assurance project plan for ground water monitoring activities managed by Westinghouse Hanford Company. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, M.

    1995-11-01

    This quality assurance project plan (QAPP) applies specifically to the field activities and laboratory analysis performed for all RCRA groundwater projects conducted by Hanford Technical Services. This QAPP is generic in approach and shall be implemented in conjunction with the specific requirements of individual groundwater monitoring plans.

  3. Emergency Medical Services for Children: Abstracts of Active Projects FY 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education in Maternal and Child Health, Arlington, VA.

    This publication provides abstracts of 58 active and 42 completed projects designed to improve emergency medical services for children (EMSC). The projects were funded by the United States Department of Health and Human Services' Maternal and Child Health Bureau, in collaboration with the United States Department of Transportation's National…

  4. Project IMPACT. Improve Minimal Proficiences by Activating Critical Thinking. Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orange County Dept. of Education, Santa Ana, CA.

    The major goal of Project IMPACT (Improve Minimal Proficiencies by Activating Critical Thinking) is to improve student achievement on district tests of basic skill competency. The program seeks to improve student performance on tests requiring critical thinking with emphasis on reading and mathematics. Students involved in Project IMPACT work in a…

  5. Development and Evaluation of an Undergraduate Multidisciplinary Project Activity in Engineering and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Cole, Joanne

    2012-01-01

    The School of Engineering and Design Multidisciplinary Project (MDP) at Brunel University is a one week long project based activity involving first year undergraduate students from across the School subject areas of Electronic and Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Civil Engineering and Design. This paper describes the main aims of the…

  6. Chromospheres of late-type active and quiescent dwarfs. III - Variability of CA II H emission profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia Lopez, R. J.; Crivellari, L.; Beckman, J. E.; Rebolo, R.

    1992-08-01

    We have used high-resolution spectra of the Ca II H resonance line in late-type dwarfs, obtained with high S:N ratios, over a period of four years to widen our understanding of the dynamical behavior of the Ca II emission cores. All of the stars dealt with in this article, which are chromospherically active, show variability both in core emission flux and line width. They also show significant wavelength shifts with time of order hundreds of meters per second in the mean core wavelength, and with lower amplitude in the H3 self-absorption, compared to the photospheric rest wavelength of Ca II H. Comparing the emission core shifts with those observed in the H3 features, we find, for the first time, direct prima facie evidence for vertical chromospheric velocity fields, which show stability in sense over periods of years in a given star, with notable modulation in gradient, and which differ in gradient from star to star. We present evidence to show that the observed effects are almost certainly not due to projected rotational modulation, and offer new prospects, given spectral measurements closely sampled in time, for investigating the vertical velocity structures of chromospheres.

  7. Evidence That the [beta] Subunit of Chlamydia trachomatis Ribonucleotide Reductase Is Active with the Manganese Ion of Its Manganese(IV)/Iron(III) Cofactor in Site 1

    SciTech Connect

    Dassama, Laura M.K.; Boal, Amie K.; Krebs, Carsten; Rosenzweig, Amy C.; Bollinger, Jr., J. Martin

    2014-10-02

    The reaction of a class I ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) begins when a cofactor in the {beta} subunit oxidizes a cysteine residue {approx}35 {angstrom} away in the {alpha} subunit, generating a thiyl radical. In the class Ic enzyme from Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct), the cysteine oxidant is the Mn{sup IV} ion of a Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} cluster, which assembles in a reaction between O{sub 2} and the Mn{sup II}/Fe{sup II} complex of {beta}. The heterodinuclear nature of the cofactor raises the question of which site, 1 or 2, contains the Mn{sup IV} ion. Because site 1 is closer to the conserved location of the cysteine-oxidizing tyrosyl radical of class Ia and Ib RNRs, we suggested that the Mn{sup IV} ion most likely resides in this site (i.e., {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}), but a subsequent computational study favored its occupation of site 2 ({sup 1}Fe{sup III}/{sup 2}Mn{sup IV}). In this work, we have sought to resolve the location of the Mn{sup IV} ion in Ct RNR-{beta} by correlating X-ray crystallographic anomalous scattering intensities with catalytic activity for samples of the protein reconstituted in vitro by two different procedures. In samples containing primarily Mn{sup IV}/Fe{sup III} clusters, Mn preferentially occupies site 1, but some anomalous scattering from site 2 is observed, implying that both {sup 1}Mn{sup II}/{sup 2}Fe{sup II} and {sup 1}Fe{sup II}/{sup 2}Mn{sup II} complexes are competent to react with O{sub 2} to produce the corresponding oxidized states. However, with diminished Mn{sup II} loading in the reconstitution, there is no evidence for Mn occupancy of site 2, and the greater activity of these 'low-Mn' samples on a per-Mn basis implies that the {sup 1}Mn{sup IV}/{sup 2}Fe{sup III}-{beta} is at least the more active of the two oxidized forms and may be the only active form.

  8. Seeing the Sky: 100 Projects, Activities, and Explorations in Astronomy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Fred

    1990-01-01

    Fourteen astronomy activities are presented including classroom procedures and questions. Topics include different investigations of the moon, planets, stars, sunsets, light pollution, and rainbows and halos. Additional information on measurements used for observations in astronomy, and rainbow characteristics is included. (CW)

  9. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth Space Project, Learning Activities Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    Learning Activity Packages (LAP) relating to the earth and space are presented for use in sampling a new type of learning for a whole year. Eighteen topics are incorporated into five units: (1) introduction to individualized learning, (2) observation versus interpretation, (3) chemistry in the space age, (4) the space age interdisciplines, and (5)…

  10. Apollo 11 Facts Project: Earth Views and Crew Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil Armstrong, Lunar Module Pilot Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, are seen performing various on-orbit activities, including systems identification and Lunar Module checkout. The Earth is seen from space.

  11. Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity. Interim Project Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manion, Raymond C.

    This interim report discusses progress toward three major goals of the Pupil Inquiry Behavior Analysis and Change Activity: increased pupil inquiry, changed teacher behavior to facilitate pupil inquiry, and the development of a 32-week course of instruction to provide for these behavioral changes. Data currently available deals with the emotional…

  12. Made in USA: Project Ethnic Heritage: Activity and Discussion Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Gary R.

    The teaching guide suggests a variety of discussion and activity strategies relating to ethnicity for secondary and continuing education students. Objectives include helping people understand the nature and significance of their own heritage as well as that of each ethnic group, and encouraging participants to realize and deal with the impact…

  13. Novel Ideas for Young Readers! Projects and Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuta, Katherine Wiesolek; Zernial, Susan

    This book offers 60 stimulating, classroom-tested activities to instill a love of literature and help young learners develop as readers, writers, and speakers. By using picture books, novels, or even nonfiction readings as starting points, the reproducible worksheets in the book can be implemented to strengthen students' entire spectrum of…

  14. Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. 1998 annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.

    1998-06-01

    'Understanding factors which control the long-term survival and activity of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) in subsurface sedimentary environments is important for predicting their ability to serve as agents for bioremediation of organic and inorganic contaminants. This project seeks to refine the authors quantitative understanding of microbiological and geochemical controls on bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction and growth of FeRB, using laboratory reactor systems which mimic to varying degrees the physical and chemical conditions of subsurface sedimentary environments. Methods for studying microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction and FeRB growth in experimental systems which incorporate advective aqueous phase flux are being developed for this purpose. These methodologies, together with an accumulating database on the kinetics of Fe(III) reduction and bacterial growth with various synthetic and natural Fe(III) oxide minerals, will be applicable to experimental and modeling studies of subsurface contaminant transformations directly coupled to or influenced by bacterial Fe(III) oxide reduction and FeRB activity. This report summarizes research accomplished after approximately 1.5 yr of a 3-yr project. A central hypothesis of the research is that advective elimination of the primary end-product of Fe(III) oxide reduction, Fe(II), will enhance the rate and extent of microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction in open experimental systems. This hypothesis is based on previous studies in the laboratory which demonstrated that association of evolved Fe(II) with oxide and FeRB cell surfaces (via adsorption or surface precipitation) is a primary cause for cessation of Fe(III) oxide reduction activity in batch culture experiments. Semicontinuous culturing was adopted as a first approach to test this basic hypothesis. Synthetic goethite or natural Fe(III) oxide-rich subsoils were used as Fe(III) sources, with the Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella alga as the test organism.'

  15. Permitting plan for the immobilized low-activity waste project

    SciTech Connect

    Deffenbaugh, M.L.

    1997-09-04

    This document addresses the environmental permitting requirements for the transportation and interim storage of the Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) produced during Phase 1 of the Hanford Site privatization effort. Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) Milestone M-90 establishes a new major milestone, and associated interim milestones and target dates, governing acquisition and/or modification of facilities necessary for: (1) interim storage and disposal of Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) immobilized low-activity tank waste (ILAW) and (2) interim storage of TWRS immobilized HLW (IHLW) and other canistered high-level waste forms. Low-activity waste (LAW), low-level waste (LLW), and high-level waste (HLW) are defined by the TWRS, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) DOE/EIS-0189, August 1996 (TWRS, Final EIS). By definition, HLW requires permanent isolation in a deep geologic repository. Also by definition, LAW is ``the waste that remains after separating from high-level waste as much of the radioactivity as is practicable that when solidified may be disposed of as LLW in a near-surface facility according to the NRC regulations.`` It is planned to store/dispose of (ILAW) inside four empty vaults of the five that were originally constructed for the Group Program. Additional disposal facilities will be constructed to accommodate immobilized LLW packages produced after the Grout Vaults are filled. The specifications for performance of the low-activity vitrified waste form have been established with strong consideration of risk to the public. The specifications for glass waste form performance are being closely coordinated with analysis of risk. RL has pursued discussions with the NRC for a determination of the classification of the Hanford Site`s low-activity tank waste fraction. There is no known RL action to change law with respect to onsite disposal of waste.

  16. Self-assembly of Terbium(III)-based metal-organic complexes with two-photon absorbing active

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dandan; Shao, Nanqi; Sun, Xianshun; Zhang, Guocui; Li, Shengli; Zhou, Hongping; Wu, Jieying; Tian, Yupeng

    2014-12-01

    Hybrid complexes based on D-π-A type dyes p-aminostyryl-pyridinum and Terbium(III) complex anion (1, 2) have been synthesized by ionic exchange reaction. Meanwhile two different alkyl-substituted amino groups were used as electron donors in organic dyes cations. The synthesized complexes were characterized by element analysis. In addition, the structural features of them were systematic studied by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Their linear properties have been systematically investigated by absorption spectra and fluorescence, the results show that the energy transfer takes place from the trans-4-[4‧-(N,N-diethylamino)styryl]-N-methyl pyridinium (2‧) cation to Tb(III). In addition, complex 2 exhibit a large two-photon absorption coefficient β: 0.044 cm/GW at 710 nm.

  17. EMSP project summary (Project ID: 60077): Development of nuclear analysis capabilities for DOE waste management activities

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, C.V.; Rearden, B.T.; DeHart, M.D.; Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.; Petrie, L.M.

    2000-02-01

    The objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate prototypical analysis capabilities that can be used by nuclear safety analysis practitioners to: (1) demonstrate a more thorough understanding of the underlying physics phenomena that can lead to improved reliability and defensibility of safety evaluations; and (2) optimize operations related to the handling, storage, transportation, and disposal of fissile material and DOE spent fuel. To address these problems, this project has been investigating the implementation of sensitivity and uncertainty methods within existing Monte Carlo codes used for criticality safety analyses. It is also investigating the use of a new deterministic code that allows for specification of arbitrary grids to accurately model geometric details required in a criticality safety analysis. This capability can facilitate improved estimations of the required subcritical margin and potentially enable the use of a broader range of experiments in the validation process. The new arbitrary-grid radiation transport code will also enable detailed geometric modeling valuable for improved accuracy in application to a myriad of other problems related to waste characterization. Application to these problems will also be explored.

  18. Novel transition metal complexes of 4-hydroxy-coumarin-3-thiocarbohydrazone: Pharmacodynamic of Co(III) on rats and antimicrobial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosa, A. I.; Emara, Adel A. A.; Yousef, J. M.; Saddiq, A. A.

    2011-10-01

    A new series of stable transition metal complexes of the formula M(L)X·S, where M = Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(III), Cr(III) and Fe(III) and L is the deprotonated ligand of 4-hydroxy-coumarin-3-thiocarbohydrazone, X = Cl -, NO 3- or CH 3COO - and S = H 2O and/or EtOH. The HL ligand was prepared by the reaction of 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-coumarine with thiocarbohydrazide in the molar ratio 1:1. The HL ligand and its metal complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H NMR, IR and electronic spectra, and molar conductance and magnetic measurements and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The HL ligand acts as a monobasic tridentate ONS donor in all metal complexes, and coordinated through the phenolic OH, azomethine nitrogen and thione sulfur. Electronic spectra with magnetic moments suggested varieties of geometries around the central metal atoms. Thermal gravimetric analysis indicates that the complexes are stable up to 300 °C, and release the uncoordinated and/or coordinated H 2O/solvent molecules, which is accompanied by a color change. The formed complexes after releasing the solvent were investigated and their structures are suggested to have square planar or octahedral arrangement. Pharmacodynamic of cobalt(III) complex on some biochemical parameters and histological studies in serum and heart tissue in rats have been studied. Although the complexes demonstrated a significant effect at low dose than the high dose, the ligand showed significant good effects in both high and low doses on the biochemical analysis in serum and heart tissue. Cobalt complex was screened in order to evaluate its antifungal activity against the filamentous fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, and Aspergillus flavus, and antibacterial activity against the Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Klebseilla pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  19. Abundance, Distribution, and Activity of Fe(II)-Oxidizing and Fe(III)-Reducing Microorganisms in Hypersaline Sediments of Lake Kasin, Southern Russia

    PubMed Central

    Emmerich, Maren; Bhansali, Ankita; Lösekann-Behrens, Tina; Schröder, Christian; Kappler, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The extreme osmotic conditions prevailing in hypersaline environments result in decreasing metabolic diversity with increasing salinity. Various microbial metabolisms have been shown to occur even at high salinity, including photosynthesis as well as sulfate and nitrate reduction. However, information about anaerobic microbial iron metabolism in hypersaline environments is scarce. We studied the phylogenetic diversity, distribution, and metabolic activity of iron(II)-oxidizing and iron(III)-reducing Bacteria and Archaea in pH-neutral, iron-rich salt lake sediments (Lake Kasin, southern Russia; salinity, 348.6 g liter−1) using a combination of culture-dependent and -independent techniques. 16S rRNA gene clone libraries for Bacteria and Archaea revealed a microbial community composition typical for hypersaline sediments. Most-probable-number counts confirmed the presence of 4.26 × 102 to 8.32 × 103 iron(II)-oxidizing Bacteria and 4.16 × 102 to 2.13 × 103 iron(III)-reducing microorganisms per gram dry sediment. Microbial iron(III) reduction was detected in the presence of 5 M NaCl, extending the natural habitat boundaries for this important microbial process. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that 16S rRNA gene copy numbers of total Bacteria, total Archaea, and species dominating the iron(III)-reducing enrichment cultures (relatives of Halobaculum gomorrense, Desulfosporosinus lacus, and members of the Bacilli) were highest in an iron oxide-rich sediment layer. Combined with the presented geochemical and mineralogical data, our findings suggest the presence of an active microbial iron cycle at salt concentrations close to the solubility limit of NaCl. PMID:22504804

  20. The MicroActive project: automatic detection of disease-related molecular cell activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuberg, Liv; Mielnik, Michal; Johansen, Ib-Rune; Voitel, Jörg; Gulliksen, Anja; Solli, Lars; Karlsen, Frank; Bayer, Tobias; Schönfeld, Friedhelm; Drese, Klaus; Keegan, Helen; Martin, Cara; O'Leary, John; Riegger, Lutz; Koltay, Peter

    2007-05-01

    The aim of the MicroActive project is to develop an instrument for molecular diagnostics. The instrument will first be tested for patient screening for a group of viruses causing cervical cancer. Two disposable polymer chips with reagents stored on-chip will be inserted into the instrument for each patient sample. The first chip performs sample preparation of the epithelial cervical cells while mRNA amplification and fluorescent detection takes place in the second chip. More than 10 different virus markers will be analysed in one chip. We report results on sub-functions of the amplification chip. The sample is split into smaller droplets, and the droplets move in parallel channels containing different dried reagents for the different analyses. We report experimental results on parallel droplet movement control using one external pump only, combined with hydrophobic valves. Valve burst pressures are controlled by geometry. We show droplet control using valves with burst pressures between 800 and 4500 Pa. We also monitored the re-hydration times for two necessary dried reagents. After sample insertion, uniform concentration of the reagents in the droplet was reached after respectively 60 s and 10 min. These times are acceptable for successful amplification. Finally we have shown positive amplification of HPV type 16 using dried enzymes stored in micro chambers.

  1. Synthesis, Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry of Fe(II) and Fe(III) Quinonemonooxime Complexes and Their DNA Cleaving Activities

    PubMed Central

    Murugkar, Anupa; Deobagkar, Deepti

    1999-01-01

    Iron(II) and iron(III) complexes of 3,5-di-tert-butyl-o-benzoquinonemonooxime were synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic and electrochemical studies. Their ability to cleave DNA has been investigated under aerobic conditions at room temperature and in the presence and absence of H2 O2. The plasmid DNA pBR322 was effectively cleaved by these complexes in a concentration dependant manner. PMID:18475885

  2. Cobalt(III) complexes as potential anticancer agents: Physicochemical, structural, cytotoxic activity and DNA/protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Thamilarasan, V; Sengottuvelan, N; Sudha, A; Srinivasan, P; Chakkaravarthi, G

    2016-09-01

    Cobalt(III) complexes (1-3) such as [Co(acac)(bpy)(N3)2·H2O] 1, [Co(acac)(en)(N3)2] 2, and [Co(acac)(2-pic)(N3)2] 3 (where, acac=acetylacetone, bpy=2.2'-bipyridine, en=ethylenediamine, 2-pic=2-picolylamine and NaN3=sodium azide) were synthesized and characterized. The structure of complexes (1-3) has been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies and the configuration around cobalt(III) ion was distorted octahedral coordination geometry. Density functional theory calculations were performed to examine the molecular geometry and frontier molecular orbital properties of complexes (1-3). DNA binding properties of the cobalt(III) complexes with calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) were investigated by UV-visible absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and viscosity measurements. The docking studies showed the preferred orientation of sterically acceptable Co(III) complexes (1, 2) inside the DNA through the mode of intercalation, whereas complex 3 exhibited minor groove binding modes. The intrinsic binding constants Kb of complexes (1-3) with CT-DNA were in the following order 1>3>2. Complexes (1-3) exhibit a good binding propensity to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gel electrophoresis assay demonstrated that the complexes (1-3) promote the cleavage of the pBR322 DNA in the presence of 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and cleavage process was found to proceed by singlet oxygen cleavage mechanism. Further, the in vitro cytotoxicity studies of complexes (1-3) were tested on human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). PMID:27475779

  3. Expedient Access to 2,3-Dihydropyridines from Unsaturated Oximes by Rh(III)-Catalyzed C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Romanov-Michailidis, Fedor; Sedillo, Kassandra F; Neely, Jamie M; Rovis, Tomislav

    2015-07-22

    α,β-Unsaturated oxime pivalates are proposed to undergo reversible C(sp(2))-H insertion with cationic Rh(III) complexes to furnish five-membered metallacycles. In the presence of 1,1-disubstituted olefins, these species participate in irreversible migratory insertion to give, after reductive elimination, 2,3-dihydropyridine products in good yields. Catalytic hydrogenation can then be used to convert these molecules into piperidines, which are important structural components of numerous pharmaceuticals. PMID:26154248

  4. Advanced experimental analysis of controls on microbial Fe(III) oxide reduction. First year progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, E.E.; Urrutia, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    'The authors have made considerable progress toward a number of project objectives during the first several months of activity on the project. An exhaustive analysis was made of the growth rate and biomass yield (both derived from measurements of cell protein production) of two representative strains of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaalga strain BrY and Geobactermetallireducens) growing with different forms of Fe(III) as an electron acceptor. These two fundamentally different types of Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (FeRB) showed comparable rates of Fe(III) reduction, cell growth, and biomass yield during reduction of soluble Fe(III)-citrate and solid-phase amorphous hydrous ferric oxide (HFO). Intrinsic growth rates of the two FeRB were strongly influenced by whether a soluble or a solid-phase source of Fe(III) was provided: growth rates on soluble Fe(III) were 10--20 times higher than those on solid-phase Fe(III) oxide. Intrinsic FeRB growth rates were comparable during reduction of HF0 and a synthetic crystalline Fe(III) oxide (goethite). A distinct lag phase for protein production was observed during the first several days of incubation in solid-phase Fe(III) oxide medium, even though Fe(III) reduction proceeded without any lag. No such lag between protein production and Fe(III) reduction was observed during growth with soluble Fe(III). This result suggested that protein synthesis coupled to solid-phase Fe(III) oxide reduction in batch culture requires an initial investment of energy (generated by Fe(III) reduction), which is probably needed for synthesis of materials (e.g. extracellular polysaccharides) required for attachment of the cells to oxide surfaces. This phenomenon may have important implications for modeling the growth of FeRB in subsurface sedimentary environments, where attachment and continued adhesion to solid-phase materials will be required for maintenance of Fe(III) reduction activity. Despite considerable differences in the rate and pattern

  5. Activities of the Pilot Land Data System project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sircar, J. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1985-01-01

    The University of Maryland's Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory submitted to NASA/Goddard an interim progress report on the work being conducted within its Pilot Land Data System IPLDS project. The Remote Sensing Systems Laboratory addressed the following tasks: (1) identify data types and data sources needed to describe the selected test sites in collaboration with Goddard's Hydrological Sciences Branch; (2) define the procedures necessary to access/acquire this data; (3) conduct meetings with the PLDS Systems Engineering Group to identify functional specification priorities for PLDS development; (4) assemble documentation on historical remotely sensed imagery and transfer of such information to the PLDS Data Management Group; (5) collect data identified by Goodard's Hydrological Sciences Branch for data set inventory in PLD; (6) develop a Workstation-PLDS system interface over high speed lines, (7) develop and test through a Phase 1 demonstration of a micro workstation to access PLDS; and (8) establish interdepartmental agreement of development of computer link for electronic access of water resources data from USGS.

  6. The ULTRA Experiment: A Supporting Activity for the Euso Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallania, P.; Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Berat, C.; Biondo, B.; Brogueira, P.; Cappa, A.; Catalano, O.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Espirito-Santo, M.C.; Fava, L.; Gabriele, M.; Galeotti, P.; Giarrusso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Lebrun, D.; Mangano, A.; Melo, L.; Pimenta, M.; Pusso, F.; Saavedra, O.; Scarsi, P.; Silva, J.C.; Stassi, P.; Teyssier, D.; Tome, B.; Vallania, P.; Vigorito, C.

    2003-07-01

    The ULTRA experiment [4] has been designed in the framework of the EUSO project to measure the reflected/diffused signal produced by the EAS impacting on the Earth surface. EUSO will detect the EECRs measuring the fluorescent light produced by the interaction with the Earth atmosphere. With this method, the particle track can be measured together with its relative depth, ˇ but not its absolute position. Cerenkov light associated to the EAS is emitted in a narrow cone and hits the Earth surface, being partially absorb ed and partially diffused. This signal will give an absolute reference for the track, allowing the measurement of the shower maximum and making also easier the separation ˇ between neutrino and hadronic showers. Moreover, Cerenkov light can give an indep endent estimation of the shower energy if the reflectivity of the shower impinging surface is known. The ULTRA detector includes a UV optical device to ˇ collect the Cerenkov light diffused by various surfaces and an array of scintillators to detect, in coincidence, cosmic ray showers. First tests have been done last October in Mont-Cenis (France, 1970 m a.s.l.); next measurement campaign is scheduled for June 2003.

  7. Recovery Efficiency Test Project: Phase 1, Activity report

    SciTech Connect

    Overbey, W.K. Jr.; Carden, R.S.; Kirr, J.N.

    1987-04-01

    The recovery Efficiency Test well project addressed a number of technical issues. The primary objective was to determine the increased efficiency gas recovery of a long horizontal wellbore over that of a vertical wellbore and, more specifically, what improvements can be expected from inducing multiple hydraulic fractures from such a wellbore. BDM corporation located, planned, and drilled a long radius turn horizontal well in the Devonian shale Lower Huron section in Wayne County, West Virginia, demonstrating that state-of-the-art technology is capable of drilling such wells. BDM successfully tested drilling, coring, and logging in a horizontal well using air as the circulating medium; conducted reservoir modeling studies to protect flow rates and reserves in advance of drilling operations; observed two phase flow conditions in the wellbore not observed previously; cored a fracture zone which produced gas; observed that fractures in the core and the wellbore were not systematically spaced (varied from 5 to 68 feet in different parts of the wellbore); observed that highest gas show rates reported by the mud logger corresponded to zone with lowest fracture spacing (five feet) or high fracture frequency. Four and one-half inch casting was successfully installed in the borehole and was equipped to isolate the horizontal section into eight (8) zones for future testing and stimulation operations. 6 refs., 48 figs., 10 tabs.

  8. Proposed scientific activities for the Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    The Salton Sea Scientific Drilling Project (SSSDP) has been organized for the purpose of investigating a hydrothermal system at depths and temperatures greater than has been done before. Plans are to deepen an existing well or to drill a new well for research purposes for which temperatures of 300/sup 0/C will be reached at a depth of less than 3.7 km and then deepen that well a further 1.8 km. This report recounts the Congressional history of the appropriation to drill the hole and other history through March 1984, gives a review of the literature on the Salton Sea Geothermal Field and its relationship to other geothermal systems of the Salton Trough, and describes a comprehensive series of investigations that have been proposed either in the well or in conjunction with the SSSDP. Investigations in geophysics, geochemistry and petrology, tectonics and rock mechanics, and geohydrology are given. A tabulation is given of current commercial and state-of-the-art downhole tools and their pressure, temperature, and minimum hole size limitations.

  9. Welding III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allegheny County Community Coll., Pittsburgh, PA.

    Instructional objectives and performance requirements are outlined in this course guide for Welding III, an advanced course in arc welding offered at the Community College of Allegheny County to provide students with the proficiency necessary for industrial certification. The course objectives, which are outlined first, specify that students will…

  10. LANDVIEW III

    EPA Science Inventory

    LandView III is a desktop mapping system that includes database extracts from the Environmental Protection Agency, the Bureau of the Census, The U.S. Geological Survey, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Transportation, and the Federal Emergency Management Agenc...

  11. An Overview of Follow-On Testing Activities of the A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryan, James E.

    2009-01-01

    An overview of NASA Stennis Space Center's (SSC) A-3 Subscale Diffuser Test (SDT) Project is presented. The original scope of the SDT Project, conducted from April 2007 to January 2008, collected data to support mitigation of risk associated with design and procurement activities of the A-3 Test Stand Project, an effort to construct a simulated altitude test facility at SSC in support of NASA's Constellation Program. Follow-on tests were conducted from May 2008 through August 2009, utilizing the SDT test setup as a testbed for additional risk mitigation activities. Included are descriptions of the Subscale Diffuser (SD) test article, the test facility configuration, and test approaches.

  12. Support of an Active Science Project by a Large Information System: Lessons for the EOS Era

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Angelici, Gary L.; Skiles, J. W.; Popovici, Lidia Z.

    1993-01-01

    The ability of large information systems to support the changing data requirements of active science projects is being tested in a NASA collaborative study. This paper briefly profiles both the active science project and the large information system involved in this effort and offers some observations about the effectiveness of the project support. This is followed by lessons that are important for those participating in large information systems that need to support active science projects or that make available the valuable data produced by these projects. We learned in this work that it is difficult for a large information system focused on long term data management to satisfy the requirements of an on-going science project. For example, in order to provide the best service, it is important for all information system staff to keep focused on the needs and constraints of the scientists in the development of appropriate services. If the lessons learned in this and other science support experiences are not applied by those involved with large information systems of the EOS (Earth Observing System) era, then the final data products produced by future science projects may not be robust or of high quality, thereby making the conduct of the project science less efficacious and reducing the value of these unique suites of data for future research.

  13. Key programmatic steps and activities for implementing the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-07-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA) was enacted based upon findings by Congress that uranium mill tailings located at active and inactive hazard to the public, and that protection of the public health, safety and welfare, and the regulations of interstate commerce, require that every reasonable effort be made to provide for the stabilization, disposal, and control in a safe and environmentally sound manner of such tailings in order to prevent or minimize radon diffusion into the environment and to prevent or minimize other environmental hazards from such tailings.'' A general understanding of the steps leading to elimination of the hazards associated with designated uranium mill tailings sites, and the parties involved in that effort, are presented in this document. A representative schedule is also presented in this document to show both program sequence and activity interdependence. Those activities that have the most potential to influence program duration, because of the significant amount of additional time that may be required, include identification and selection of a suitable site, field data collection delays due to weather, actual acquisition of the designated or alternate disposal site, construction delays due to weather, and site licensing. This document provides an understanding of the steps, the sequence, the parties involved, and a representative duration of activities leading to remedial action and cleanup at the designated inactive uranium mill tailings sites. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Apollo 11 Facts Project [Pre-Launch Activities and Launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The crewmembers of Apollo 11, Commander Neil A. Armstrong, Command Module Pilot Michael Collins, and Lunar Module Pilot Edwin E. Aldrin, Jr., are seen during various stages of preparation for the launch of Apollo 11, including suitup, breakfast, and boarding the spacecraft. They are also seen during mission training, including preparation for extravehicular activity on the surface of the Moon. The launch of Apollo 11 is shown. The ground support crew is also seen as they wait for the spacecraft to approach the Moon.

  15. LUSI LAB: a multidisciplinary project in a natural active laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Lusi Lab Team

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a strike-slip fault (Watukosek fault system) in the NE of Java, Indonesia. The eruption occurred almost two days after a 6.3 M earthquake striking the island of Java. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of ~7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". LUSI LAB (ERC grant n° 308126) focuses on five main aspects in order to complete a comprehensive regional investigation of this impressive event: 1) sampling and monitoring the active Lusi eruption site; 2) monitoring and sampling the neighbouring volcanic arc; 3) monitoring the local micro-seismicity and its relationship with regional seismicity; 4) monitoring the fault system originating from the volcanic arc, crossing Lusi and extending to the NE of Java island; 5) numerical modelling of Lusi activity and the strike-slip/magmatic complex system. We completed several field expeditions. Our studies investigated the mechanisms of reactivation of the Watukosek fault system that crosses Lusi locality and continues to the NE of Java. Results show that after the 27-05-2009 earthquake it was activated the lateral movement of this strike-slip system resulting in these several aligned eruptions sites including Lusi. Further, our geochemical studies of the erupted fluids reveal a mantle signature and point to a connection with the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex indicating that Lusi is a sedimentary hosted geothermal system. We have designed, developed and constructed the Lusi drone. This is a remote controlled hexacopter developed and assembled in order to complete multidisciplinary studies in extreme and

  16. LUSI LAB: a multidisciplinary project in a natural active laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, Adriano; Lusi Lab Team

    2016-04-01

    The 29th of May 2006 several gas and mud eruption sites suddenly appeared along a strike-slip fault (Watukosek fault system) in the NE of Java, Indonesia. The eruption occurred almost two days after a 6.3 M earthquake striking the island of Java. Within weeks several villages were submerged by boiling mud. The most prominent eruption site was named Lusi. To date Lusi is still active. This disaster has forced 50.000 people to be evacuated and an area of ~7 km2 is covered by mud. The social impact of the eruption and its spectacular dimensions still attract the attention of international media reporting on the "largest mud eruption site on Earth". LUSI LAB (ERC grant n° 308126) focuses on five main aspects in order to complete a comprehensive regional investigation of this impressive event: 1) sampling and monitoring the active Lusi eruption site; 2) monitoring and sampling the neighbouring volcanic arc; 3) monitoring the local micro-seismicity and its relationship with regional seismicity; 4) monitoring the fault system originating from the volcanic arc, crossing Lusi and extending to the NE of Java island; 5) numerical modelling of Lusi activity and the strike-slip/magmatic complex system. We completed several field expeditions. Our studies investigated the mechanisms of reactivation of the Watukosek fault system that crosses Lusi locality and continues to the NE of Java. Results show that after the 27-05-2009 earthquake it was activated the lateral movement of this strike-slip system resulting in these several aligned eruptions sites including Lusi. Further, our geochemical studies of the erupted fluids reveal a mantle signature and point to a connection with the neighboring Arjuno-Welirang volcanic complex indicating that Lusi is a sedimentary hosted geothermal system. We have designed, developed and constructed the Lusi drone. This is a remote controlled hexacopter developed and assembled in order to complete multidisciplinary studies in extreme and

  17. A new approach to determine the ratio of redox active species such as Se(IV)/Se(VI) and As(III)/As(V) in marine systems.

    PubMed

    Aksu, A; Balkis, N; Salihoglu, I

    2013-02-15

    The ratio of redox active species contributes to the researches about marine systems in many ways. Are marine systems reductant or oxidant? For this purpose, redox active species are analyzed by using high technology instrumental analyzers such as AAS, ICP, and HPLC. Then, all ion pair species are compared to each by calculating their ratios. These technologies are very expensive, and it takes long time to obtain the results. In this study, we suggested a basic method by using pH and Eh. Therefore, the Nernst equation expression was rearranged by using relative hydrogen (rH) and electrostatic activity coefficient (F(el)). Additionally, the ratio of the redox active ion pair species Se(IV)/Se(VI) and As(III)/As(V) was calculated. PMID:23201393

  18. Thermodynamics, Kinetics, and Activation energy Studies of the sorption of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) to a Mn3O4 nanomaterial

    PubMed Central

    Cantu, Yvette; Remes, Abril; Reyna, Alejandra; Martinez, Denise; Villarreal, Jahaziel; Ramos, Hilda; Trevino, Samantha; Tamez, C.; Martinez, A.; Eubanks, T.; Parsons, J. G.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a manganese oxide, Mn3O4 was used to remove chromium(III) and chromium(VI) from aqueous solutions. The Mn3O4 nanomaterial was synthesized through a precipitation method, and was characterized using XRD, which confirmed the material had a crystal structure similar to hausmannite. In addition, using Scherrer’s equation it was determined that the nanomaterial had an average grain size of 19.5 ± 1.10 nm. A study of the effects of pH on the binding of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) showed that the optimum binding pH was 4 and 3 respectively. Batch isotherm studies were performed to determine the binding capacity of chromium(III), which was determined to be 18.7 mg/g, 41.7 mg/g, and 54.4 mg/g respectively for 4°C, 21°C, and 45°C. Chromium(VI) on the other hand had lower binding capacities of 2.5 mg/g, 4.3 mg/g, and 5.8 mg/g for 4°C, 21°C, 45°C, respectively. Thermodynamic studies performed indicated the sorption process was for the most part controlled by physisorption. The ΔG for the sorption of chromium(III) and Chromium(VI) ranged from −0.9 to −13 kJ/mol, indicating a spontaneous reaction was occurring. The enthalpy indicated a endothermic reaction was occurring during the binding and show ΔH values of 70.6 and 19.1 kJ.mol for chromium(III) and Chromium(VI), respectively. In addition, ΔS for the reaction had positive values of 267 and 73 J/mol for chromium(III) and chromium(VI) which indicate a spontaneous reaction. In addition, the sorption process was found to follow pseudo second order kinetic and the activation energy studies indicated the binding process occurred through chemisorption. PMID:25097453

  19. Nowcasting and forecasting of lightning activity: the Talos project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagouvardos, Kostas; Kotroni, Vassiliki; Kazadzis, Stelios; Giannaros, Theodore; Karagiannidis, Athanassios; Galanaki, Elissavet; Proestakis, Emmanouil

    2015-04-01

    Thunder And Lightning Observing System (TALOS) is a research program funded by the Greek Ministry of Education with the aim to promote excellence in the field of lightning meteorology. The study focuses on exploring the real-time observations provided by the ZEUS lightning detection system, operated by the National Observatory of Athens since 2005, as well as the 10-year long database of the same system. More precisely the main research issues explored are: - lightning climatology over the Mediterranean focusing on lightning spatial and temporal distribution, on the relation of lightning with topographical features and instability and on the importance of aerosols in lightning initiation and enhancement. - nowcasting of lightning activity over Greece, with emphasis on the operational aspects of this endeavour. The nowcasting tool is based on the use of lightning data complemented by high-time resolution METEOSAT imagery. - forecasting of lightning activity over Greece based on the use of WRF numerical weather prediction model. - assimilation of lightning with the aim to improve the model precipitation forecast skill. In the frame of this presentation the main findings of each of the aforementioned issues are highlighted.

  20. To test dual supermassive black hole model for broad line active galactic nucleus with double-peaked narrow [O III] lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue-Guang; Feng, Long-Long

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we proposed an interesting method to test the dual supermassive black hole model for active galactic nucleus (AGN) with double-peaked narrow [O III] lines (double-peaked narrow emitters) through their broad optical Balmer line properties. Under the dual supermassive black hole model for double-peaked narrow emitters, we could expect statistically smaller virial black hole masses estimated by observed broad Balmer line properties than true black hole masses (total masses of central two black holes). Then, we compare the virial black hole masses between a sample of 37 double-peaked narrow emitters with broad Balmer lines and samples of Sloan Digital Sky Survey selected normal broad line AGN with single-peaked [O III] lines. However, we can find clearly statistically larger calculated virial black hole masses for the 37 broad line AGN with double-peaked [O III] lines than for samples of normal broad line AGN. Therefore, we give our conclusion that the dual supermassive black hole model is probably not statistically preferred to the double-peaked narrow emitters, and more efforts should be necessary to carefully find candidates for dual supermassive black holes by observed double-peaked narrow emission lines.

  1. TYPE 2 ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI WITH DOUBLE-PEAKED [O III] LINES: NARROW-LINE REGION KINEMATICS OR MERGING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE PAIRS?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xin; Shen Yue; Strauss, Michael A.; Greene, Jenny E.

    2010-01-01

    We present a sample of 167 type 2 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with double-peaked [O III] lambdalambda4959,5007 narrow emission lines, selected from the Seventh Data Release of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The double-peaked profiles can be well modeled by two velocity components, blueshifted and redshifted from the systemic velocity. Half of these objects have a more prominent redshifted component. In cases where the Hbeta emission line is strong, it also shows two velocity components whose line-of-sight (LOS) velocity offsets are consistent with those of [O III]. The relative LOS velocity offset between the two components is typically a few hundred km s{sup -1}, larger by a factor of approx1.5 than the line full width at half maximum of each component. The offset correlates with the host stellar velocity dispersion sigma{sub *}. The host galaxies of this sample show systematically larger sigma{sub *}, stellar masses, and concentrations, and older luminosity-weighted mean stellar ages than a regular type 2 AGN sample matched in redshift, [O III] lambda5007 equivalent width, and luminosity; they show no significant difference in radio properties. These double-peaked features could be due to narrow-line region kinematics, or binary black holes. The statistical properties do not show strong preference for or against either scenario, and spatially resolved optical imaging, spectroscopy, radio or X-ray follow-up are needed to draw firm conclusions.

  2. Designing Citizen Science Projects in the Era of Mega-Information and Connected Activism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pompea, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The design of citizen science projects must take many factors into account in order to be successful. Currently, there are a wide variety of citizen science projects with different aims, audiences, reporting methods, and degrees of scientific rigor and usefulness. Projects function on local, national, and worldwide scales and range in time from limited campaigns to around the clock projects. For current and future projects, advanced cell phones and mobile computing allow an unprecedented degree of connectivity and data transfer. These advances will greatly influence the design of citizen science projects. An unprecedented amount of data is available for data mining by interested citizen scientists; how can projects take advantage of this? Finally, a variety of citizen scientist projects have social activism and change as part of their mission and goals. How can this be harnessed in a constructive and efficient way? The design of projects must also select the proper role for experts and novices, provide quality control, and must motivate users to encourage long-term involvement. Effective educational and instructional materials design can be used to design responsive and effective projects in a more highly connected age with access to very large amounts of information.

  3. Rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex with NNS donor thioether containing Schiff base ligand: Synthesis, spectra, electrochemistry and catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Sujan; Sarkar, Deblina; Kundu, Subhankar; Roy, Puspendu; Mondal, Tapan Kumar

    2015-11-01

    New rhodium(III)-triphenylphosphine complex, [Rh(PPh3)(L)Cl2](PF6) (1) with thioether containing NNS donor ligand (L) (L = 2-(methylthio)-N-((pyridine-2-yl)methylene)benzenamine) has been synthesized and characterized. The pseudo octahedral geometry of the complex has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray analysis. The electronic structure, redox properties, absorption and emission properties of the complexes have been interpreted by DFT and TDDFT calculations. The complex effectively catalyzed the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketones in 2-propanol and oxidation of alcohols in presence of NMO.

  4. Evidence of active tectonics on a Roman aqueduct system (II-III century A.D.) near Rome, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Fabrizio; Montone, Paola; Pirro, Mario; Boschi, Enzo

    2004-04-01

    In this paper we describe evidence of strong tectonic deformation affecting two aqueducts of Roman age (II-III century A.D.). The channels are located approximately 20 km northeast of Rome along the ancient Via Tiburtina. Brittle and ductile deformation affects these two structures, including extensional joint systems, NE-oriented faults, and horizontal distortion. This deformation is consistent with right-lateral movement on major N-striking faults, and represents the first evidence that tectonic deformation took place in historical times in the vicinity of Rome, with local strike-slip movement superimposed on a regional extensional fault system.

  5. Magnetic nanoparticles-cooperated fluorescence sensor for sensitive and accurate detection of DNA methyltransferase activity coupled with exonuclease III-assisted target recycling.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingwang; Zhang, Youna; Xu, Shuling; Li, Haibo; Wang, Lei; Li, Rui; Zhang, Yuanfu; Yue, Qiaoli; Gu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Shuqiu; Liu, Jifeng; Wang, Huaisheng

    2015-11-21

    A fluorescence magnetic biosensor for the DNA methyltransferase activity was developed based on the cooperative amplification by combining the magnetic nanoparticles synergistic exonuclease III (Exo III)-assisted circular exponential amplification and a supramolecular structure ZnPPIX/G-quadruplex. First, a duplex DNA probe, which was constructed by the hybridization of a quadruplex-forming oligomer with a molecular beacon, was assembled on the magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) as a reporter. A hairpin probe (HP)-containing sequence of GATC was used as the methylation substrate of DNA adenine methyltransferase (DAM). Once HP was methylated by DAM, it could be recognized and cleaved by Dpn I, which allows the release of a single-stranded DNA. The DNA (tDNA1) then hybridizes to the MNP probe, which then triggers the exonuclease III-mediated target exponential recycling reaction. Simultaneously, numerous quadruplex forming oligomers are liberated and folded into the G-quadruplex-ZnPPIX complexes with the help of zinc(ii)-protoporphyrin IX(ZnPPIX) on the MNP surface to give a remarkable fluorescence response. In the developed sensor, a small amount of target DAM can be converted to a large number of stable DNA triggers, leading to remarkable amplification of the target. Moreover, using MNPs as a vector of the sensor may reduce the interference from the real samples, which increases the anti-interference of the sensing system. Based on this unique amplification strategy, a very low detection limit down to 2.0 × 10(-4) U mL(-1) was obtained. Furthermore, the sensor could be used to evaluate the DAM activity in different growth stages of E. coli cells and screen Dam MTase inhibitors. Therefore, the strategy proposed here provides a promising platform for monitoring the activity and inhibition of DNA MTases and has great potential to be applied further in early clinical diagnostics and medical research. PMID:26421322

  6. Individualized Instruction in Science, Earth-Space Project, Self-Directed Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczma, R. M.

    As a supplement to Learning Activity Packages (LAP) of the earth-space project, this manual presents self-directed activities especially designed for individualized instruction. Besides an introduction to LAP characteristics, sets of instructions are given in connection with the metric system, the earth's dimensions, indirect evidence for atomic…

  7. Activity Structures for Project-Based Teaching and Learning: Design and Adaptation of Cultural Tools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polman, Joseph L.

    This paper discusses research on activity structure design in a project-based science classroom and efforts to adapt designs from this setting to an after-school program involving historical inquiry. Common activity structures such as classroom lessons and Initiation-Reply-Evaluation (I-R-E) sequences are important cultural tools that help…

  8. A Student Activity for the James Bay Hydro Project. The Geography Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green-Milberg, Patricia

    1999-01-01

    Provides activities for grades 6 to 8 that will promote student awareness and understanding of the use of hydropower in Canada, the benefits and drawbacks to hydropower, and also the drawbacks of electricity transmission lines. Explains that the activities focus on the James Bay Hydro Project in Canada. (CMK)

  9. Newspaper Content Analysis in Evaluation of a Community-Based Participatory Project to Increase Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granner, Michelle L.; Sharpe, Patricia A.; Burroughs, Ericka L.; Fields, Regina; Hallenbeck, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This study conducted a newspaper content analysis as part of an evaluation of a community-based participatory research project focused on increasing physical activity through policy and environmental changes, which included activities related to media advocacy and media-based community education. Daily papers (May 2003 to December 2005) from both…

  10. Communicating Astronomy in a Metropolis and Disaster Area - Activities of the Tenpla Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamegai, K.; Takanashi, N.; Hiramatsu, M.; Naito, S.

    2015-03-01

    We present recent activities delivering astronomy to the public by the Tenpla project in Japan. One is voluntary activities in the disaster area of the Great East Japan Earthquake. The other is holding tens of star parties and public lectures in the central area of Tokyo.

  11. SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION PROJECTS AND ACTIVITIES, A GUIDE FOR 4-H CLUB LEADERS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FOSTER, ALBERT B.; FOX, ADRIAN C.

    THIS PUBLICATION WAS PREPARED BY THE SOIL CONSERVATION SERVICE FOR USE WITH YOUTH GROUPS. VARIOUS ACTIVITIES AND PROJECTS ARE PRESENTED WHICH CAN BE USED TO DEVELOP CONCEPTS ABOUT SOIL AND WATER CONSERVATION. IN ORDER TO SIMPLIFY THE PROCESS OF DEMONSTRATING THESE ACTIVITIES, MANY OF THE CONCEPTS ARE PICTORIALLY ILLUSTRATED. THE ACTIVITIES…

  12. 34 CFR 646.4 - What activities and services may a project provide?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What activities and services may a project provide? 646.4 Section 646.4 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF POSTSECONDARY EDUCATION, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION STUDENT SUPPORT SERVICES PROGRAM General § 646.4 What activities and services may a...

  13. Focused Campaign Increases Activity among Participants in "Nature's Notebook," a Citizen Science Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crimmins, Theresa M.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Rosemartin, Alyssa H.; Surina, Echo M.; Marsh, Lee; Denny, Ellen G.

    2014-01-01

    Science projects, which engage non-professional scientists in one or more stages of scientific research, have been gaining popularity; yet maintaining participants' activity level over time remains a challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential for a short-term, focused campaign to increase participant activity in a…

  14. Skills, Activities, Matrixing System: Project SAMS. A Curriculum Process for Students with Profound Disabilities. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Kent R.; And Others

    Project SAMS (Skills, Activities, Matrixing System) was designed to develop and validate a curriculum process for educating students with profound disabilities. Central to the 3-year curriculum process was matrixing, or integrating, basic developmental skills across multiple functional, age-appropriate, and integrated activities. Components…

  15. ISS Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Coolant Remediation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Russell H.; Holt, Mike

    2005-01-01

    The IATCS coolant has experienced a number of anomalies in the time since the US Lab was first activated on Flight 5A in February 2001. These have included: 1) a decrease in coolant pH, 2) increases in inorganic carbon, 3) a reduction in phosphate buffer concentration, 4) an increase in dissolved nickel and precipitation of nickel salts, and 5) increases in microbial concentration. These anomalies represent some risk to the system, have been implicated in some hardware failures and are suspect in others. The ISS program has conducted extensive investigations of the causes and effects of these anomalies and has developed a comprehensive program to remediate the coolant chemistry of the on-orbit system as well as provide a robust and compatible coolant solution for the hardware yet to be delivered. The remediation steps include changes in the coolant chemistry specification, development of a suite of new antimicrobial additives, and development of devices for the removal of nickel and phosphate ions from the coolant. This paper presents an overview of the anomalies, their known and suspected system effects, their causes, and the actions being taken to remediate the coolant.

  16. Solvent-Controlled, Tunable β-OAc and β-H Elimination in Rh(III)-Catalyzed Allyl Acetate and Aryl Amide Coupling via C-H Activation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Huimin; Yu, Chao; Wang, Zihao; Yan, Hong; Lu, Changsheng

    2016-07-15

    The Heck reaction between arenes and allyl acetate has led to cinnamyl derivatives and allyl products depending on the regioselectivity of β-elimination. The regioselectivity can be controlled by the solvent in the Rh(III)-catalyzed arene-allyl acetate coupling via C-H activation: (1) in THF, cinnamyl derivatives via β-H elimination were generated; (2) in MeOH, allyl products via β-OAc elimination were produced. Both routes have advantages such as excellent γ-selectivity toward allyl acetate, good to excellent yields, and broad substrate scope. PMID:27351917

  17. Light coupling between vertical III-As nanowires and planar Si photonic waveguides for the monolithic integration of active optoelectronic devices on a Si platform.

    PubMed

    Giuntoni, Ivano; Geelhaar, Lutz; Bruns, Jürgen; Riechert, Henning

    2016-08-01

    We present a new concept for the optical interfacing between vertical III-As nanowires and planar Si waveguides. The nanowires are arranged in a two-dimensional array which forms a grating structure on top of the waveguide. This grating enables light coupling in both directions between the components made from the two different material classes. Numerical simulations show that this concept permits a light extraction efficiency from the waveguide larger than 45% and a light insertion efficiency larger than 35%. This new approach would allow the monolithic integration of nanowire-based active optoelectronics devices, like photodetectors and light sources, on the Si photonics platform. PMID:27505805

  18. Rh(III)-Catalyzed Synthesis of N-Unprotected Indoles from Imidamides and Diazo Ketoesters via C-H Activation and C-C/C-N Bond Cleavage.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Yu, Songjie; Li, Xingwei

    2016-02-19

    The synthesis of N-unprotected indoles has been realized via Rh(III)-catalyzed C-H activation/annulation of imidamides with α-diazo β-ketoesters. The reaction occurs with the release of an amide coproduct, which originates from both the imidamide and the diazo as a result of C═N cleavage of the imidamide and C-C(acyl) cleavage of the diazo. A rhodacyclic intermediate has been isolated and a plausible mechanism has been proposed. PMID:26824751

  19. The N-terminal propeptide of collagen type III in serum reflects activity and degree of fibrosis in patients with chronic liver disease.

    PubMed

    Frei, A; Zimmermann, A; Weigand, K

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the diagnostic significance of the collagen Type III (Col 1-3) N-terminal propeptide of procollagen Type III, with respect to activity and degree of liver fibrosis, Col 1-3 serum concentrations were measured in 111 patients with chronic liver diseases and in 60 patients were correlated with liver histology and morphometry. Col 1-3 was measured by a specific radioimmunoassay. Biopsies were read without knowledge of diagnosis. Periportal and intralobular lesions were assessed semiquantitatively by allocating 1 of 4 severity grades to each parameter. All portal areas were measured morphometrically. Compared to 27 normal controls, Col 1-3 concentrations were significantly elevated in patients with untreated chronic active hepatitis, cirrhosis and primary biliary cirrhosis, but not in chronic persistent hepatitis or fatty liver. Morphometrically measured portal tract area significantly correlated with Col 1-3 plasma levels. Among the semiquantitatively measured periportal lesions, the number of fibroblasts exhibited the closest relationship with Col 1-3 levels; there was no relationship between Col 1-3 levels and intralobular lesions. These data suggest that Col 1-3 serum levels reliably reflect the activity and degree of liver fibrosis and are useful along with liver biopsy in follow-up of patients with chronic liver disease. PMID:6479851

  20. Transcriptional activation of RNA polymerase III-dependent genes by the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 tax protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gottesfeld, J M; Johnson, D L; Nyborg, J K

    1996-01-01

    The human T-cell leukemia virus-encoded tax protein is a potent activator of many viral and cellular genes transcribed by RNA polymerase II. We find that both chromatin and cell extracts derived from human T-cell leukemia virus type 1-infected human T lymphocytes support higher levels of 5S rRNA and tRNA gene transcription than chromatin or extracts from uninfected T lymphocytes. The viral protein Tax was likely responsible for this higher level of class II gene transcription, as purified Tax was found to stimulate both genes when added to the uninfected cell extract or in reconstituted systems. Both limiting-component transcription assays and DNA binding assays identified the class III gene transcription factor TFIIIB as the principle target of Tax activity. Surprisingly, we find that Tax increases the effective concentration of active TFIIIB molecules. These data suggest that Tax stimulates RNA polymerase III-dependent gene expression by accelerating the rate and/or extent of transcription initiation complex assembly. PMID:8657153

  1. Dissociation from DNA of Type III Restriction–Modification enzymes during helicase-dependent motion and following endonuclease activity

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Júlia; van Aelst, Kara; Salmons, Hannah; Szczelkun, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    DNA cleavage by the Type III Restriction–Modification (RM) enzymes requires the binding of a pair of RM enzymes at two distant, inversely orientated recognition sequences followed by helicase-catalysed ATP hydrolysis and long-range communication. Here we addressed the dissociation from DNA of these enzymes at two stages: during long-range communication and following DNA cleavage. First, we demonstrated that a communicating species can be trapped in a DNA domain without a recognition site, with a non-specific DNA association lifetime of ∼200 s. If free DNA ends were present the lifetime became too short to measure, confirming that ends accelerate dissociation. Secondly, we observed that Type III RM enzymes can dissociate upon DNA cleavage and go on to cleave further DNA molecules (they can ‘turnover’, albeit inefficiently). The relationship between the observed cleavage rate and enzyme concentration indicated independent binding of each site and a requirement for simultaneous interaction of at least two enzymes per DNA to achieve cleavage. In light of various mechanisms for helicase-driven motion on DNA, we suggest these results are most consistent with a thermally driven random 1D search model (i.e. ‘DNA sliding’). PMID:22523084

  2. Thermal and optical properties of Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) co-complexed silicone fluorinated acrylate copolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yinfeng; Xie, Hongde; Cai, Haijun; Cai, Peiqing; Seo, Hyo Jin

    2015-07-01

    Tb(III), Eu(III) and Tb(III)/Eu(III) activated silicone fluorinated acrylate (SFA) have been successfully synthesized using the method of semi-continuous emulsion polymerization. The copolymers are characterized by flourier transform infrared (FT-IR), thermal gravity analysis (TGA), photoluminescence excitation (PLE) and emission (PL) spectroscopy. The copolymer containing Tb(III) and Eu(III) ions display green and red luminescent colors under UV light excitation, respectively. The TGA curves show the thermal decomposition temperatures of the copolymers are up to about 300 °C. The PL spectra show a strong green emission at 546 nm (5D4 → 7F5) of Tb(III) complexed copolymers, and show a prominent red emission at 615 nm (5D0 → 7F2) of Eu(III) complexed copolymers. Different concentrations of Eu(III) and Tb(III) ions are introduced into the copolymer and the energy transfer from Tb(III) to Eu(III) ions in the copolymer was found. Thus, based on the results it can be suggested that SFA:Eu(III), SFA:Tb(III) and SFA:Tb(III)/Eu(III) can be used potentially as luminescent materials.

  3. Annual DOE active solar heating and cooling contractors' review meeting. Premeeting proceedings and project summaries

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1981-09-01

    Ninety-three project summaries are presented which discuss the following aspects of active solar heating and cooling: Rankine solar cooling systems; absorption solar cooling systems; desiccant solar cooling systems; solar heat pump systems; solar hot water systems; special projects (such as the National Solar Data Network, hybrid solar thermal/photovoltaic applications, and heat transfer and water migration in soils); administrative/management support; and solar collector, storage, controls, analysis, and materials technology. (LEW)

  4. The SPARX Project: R & D Activity Towards X-Rays FEL Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Castellano, M.; Clozza, A.; Di Pirro, G.; Drago, A.; Esposito, A.; Ferrario, M.; Filippetto, D.; Fusco, V.; Gallo, A.; Ghigo, A.; Guiducci, S.; Incurvati, M.; Ligi, C.; Marcellini, F.; Migliorati, M.; /Frascati /ENEA, Frascati /INFN, Milan /INFN, Rome /INFN, Rome2 /Milan Polytechnic /UCLA /SLAC

    2005-08-05

    SPARX is an evolutionary project proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata aiming at the construction of a FELSASE X-ray source in the Tor Vergata Campus. The first phase of the SPARX project, funded by Government Agencies, will be focused on R&D activity on critical components and techniques for future X-ray facilities as described in this paper.

  5. Type III secretion system expression in oxygen-limited Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultures is stimulated by isocitrate lyase activity

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jade C. S.; Rzhepishevska, Olena; Ramstedt, Madeleine; Welch, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen and a common cause of chronic infections in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). Oxygen limitation was recently reported to regulate the expression of a major virulence determinant in P. aeruginosa, the type III secretion system (T3SS). Here, we show that expression of the T3SS in oxygen-limited growth conditions is strongly dependent on the glyoxylate shunt enzyme, isocitrate lyase (ICL; encoded by aceA), which was previously shown to be highly expressed in CF isolates. ICL-dependent regulation of the T3SS did not alter the expression level of the master transcriptional regulator, ExsA, but did affect expression of the T3 structural proteins, effectors and regulators (ExsC, ExsD and ExsE). An aceA mutant displayed enhanced biofilm formation during anaerobic growth, which suggested that AceA-dependent modulation of type III secretion might impinge upon the RetS/LadS signalling pathways. Indeed, our data suggest that RetS is able to mediate some of its effects through AceA, as expression of aceA in trans partially restored T3SS expression in a retS mutant. Our findings indicate that AceA is a key player in the metabolic regulation of T3SS expression during oxygen-limited growth of P. aeruginosa. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that the T3SS can be regulated by factors that do not affect ExsA expression levels. PMID:23363478

  6. 36 CFR 218.23 - Proposed projects and activities not subject to legal notice and opportunity to comment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... process set out in 36 CFR part 219, subpart B; (c) Proposed plan amendments associated with a project or... projects and activities (see 36 CFR 219.59(b)); (d) Proposed projects and activities not subject to the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and the implementing regulations at 40 CFR parts...

  7. 36 CFR 218.23 - Proposed projects and activities not subject to legal notice and opportunity to comment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... process set out in 36 CFR part 219, subpart B; (c) Proposed plan amendments associated with a project or... projects and activities (see 36 CFR 219.59(b)); (d) Proposed projects and activities not subject to the provisions of the National Environmental Policy Act and the implementing regulations at 40 CFR parts...

  8. Retooling Manganese(III) Porphyrin-Based Peroxynitrite Decomposition Catalysts for Selectivity and Oral Activity: A Potential New Strategy for Treating Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Rausaria, Smita; Ghaffari, Mahsa M.E.; Kamadulski, Andrew; Rodgers, Kenny; Bryant, Leesa; Chen, Zhoumou; Doyle, Tim; Shaw, Michael J.; Salvemini, Daniela; Neumann, William L.

    2011-01-01

    Redox-active metalloporphyrins represent the most well characterized class of catalysts capable of attenuating oxidative stress in vivo through the direct interception and decomposition of superoxide and peroxynitrite. While many interesting pharmacological probes have emerged from these studies, few catalysts have been developed with pharmaceutical properties in mind. Herein we describe our efforts to identify new Mn(III)-porphyrin systems with enhanced membrane solubilizing properties. To this end seven new Mn(III)-tetracyclohexenylporphyin (TCHP) analogues 7, 10, 12, 15, 16a–c have been prepared in which the beta-fused cyclohexenyl rings provide a means to shield the charged metal center from the membrane during passive transport. Compounds 7, 15, and 16a–c have been shown to be orally active and potent analgesics in a model of carrageenan-induced thermal hyperalgesia. In addition oral administration of compound 7 (10–100 mg/kg, n = 5) has been shown to dose dependently reverse mechano-allodynia in the CCI model of chronic neuropathic pain. PMID:22082008

  9. Aquasoluble iron(III)-arylhydrazone-β-diketone complexes: structure and catalytic activity for the peroxidative oxidation of C5-C8 cycloalkanes.

    PubMed

    Kopylovich, Maximilian N; Mac Leod, Tatiana C O; Haukka, Matti; Amanullayeva, Gunel I; Mahmudov, Kamran T; Pombeiro, Armando J L

    2012-10-01

    The aquasoluble Fe(III) complexes [Fe(H(2)O)(3)(L(1))]∙4H(2)O (3) and [Fe(H(2)O)(3)(L(2))]∙3H(2)O (4), bearing the basic forms of 5-chloro-3-(2-(4,4-dimethyl-2,6-dioxocyclohexylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-hydroxy-benzenesulfonic acid (H(3)L(1), 1) and 3-(2-(2,4-dioxopentan-3-ylidene)hydrazinyl)-2-hydroxy-5-nitrobenzenesulfonic acid (H(3)L(2), 2), were synthesized and fully characterized including by X-ray crystal structural analysis. In the channels of the water-soluble 3D networks of 3 and 4, the uncoordinated water molecules are held by oxygen atoms of the carbonyl and sulfonyl groups, and by the water ligands. The Fe(III) coordination environment resembles that in the active sites of some mononuclear non-heme iron-containing enzymes. The complexes show a high catalytic activity for the peroxidative oxidation (with aqueous H(2)O(2)) of C(5)-C(8) cycloalkanes to the corresponding alcohols and ketones under mild conditions. The effects of various factors, such as amounts of oxidant, catalyst and HNO(3) additive, were investigated allowing to reach overall yields of ca. 25% and turnover numbers (TONs) up to 290. The catalytic reactions proceed via both oxygen- and carbon-radicals as shown by radical trap experiments. PMID:22926026

  10. The TFIIF-like Rpc37/53 dimer lies at the center of a protein network to connect TFIIIC, Bdp1, and the RNA polymerase III active center.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chih-Chien; Lin, Yu-Chun; Chen, Hung-Ta

    2011-07-01

    Eukaryotic RNA polymerase III (Pol III) relies on a transcription factor TFIIF-like Rpc37/53 subcomplex for promoter opening, elongation, termination, and reinitiation. By incorporating the photoreactive amino acid p-benzoyl-L-phenylalanine (BPA) into Rpc37, Rpc53, and the Rpc2 subunit of Pol III, we mapped protein-protein interactions, revealing the position of Rpc37/53 within the Pol III preinitiation complex (PIC). BPA photo-cross-linking was combined with site-directed hydroxyl radical probing to localize the Rpc37/53 dimerization module on the lobe/external 2 domains of Rpc2, in similarity to the binding of TFIIF on Pol II. N terminal to the dimerization domain, Rpc53 binds the Pol III-specific subunits Rpc82 and Rpc34, the Pol III stalk, and the assembly factor TFIIIC, essential for PIC formation. The C-terminal domain of Rpc37 interacts extensively with Rpc2 and Rpc34 and contains binding sites for initiation factor Bdp1. We also located the C-terminal domain of Rpc37 within the Pol III active center in the ternary elongation complex, where it likely functions in accurate termination. Our work explains how the Rpc37/53 dimer is anchored on the Pol III core and acts as a hub to integrate a protein network for initiation and termination. PMID:21536656

  11. Make Math Merry - III: An Instructional Activity Guide for Teaching Remedial Mathematics in Grades 9-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Clem; And Others

    These materials were designed to help remedial students increase mathematics proficiency on topics found in the Regents Competency Testing Program. The activities developed come complete with questions, "cards," and/or sample gameboards. Included in each activity is a list of materials needed. Several different activities often use the same…

  12. On the representation of elements of a von Neumann algebra in the form of finite sums of products of projections. III. Commutators in C*-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Bikchentaev, A M

    2008-04-30

    It is proved that every skew-Hermitian element of any properly infinite von Neumann algebra can be represented in the form of a finite sum of commutators of projections in this algebra. A new commutation condition for projections in terms of their upper (lower) bound in the lattice of all projections of the algebra is obtained. For the full matrix algebra the set of operators with canonical trace zero is described in terms of finite sums of commutators of projections and the domain in which the trace is positive is described in terms of finite sums of pairwise products of projections. Applications to AF-algebras are obtained. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  13. ExsD Inhibits Expression of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Type III Secretion System by Disrupting ExsA Self-Association and DNA Binding Activity

    PubMed Central

    Brutinel, Evan D.; Vakulskas, Christopher A.; Yahr, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes a type III secretion system (T3SS) to damage eukaryotic host cells and evade phagocytosis. Transcription of the T3SS regulon is controlled by ExsA, a member of the AraC/XylS family of transcriptional regulators. ExsA-dependent transcription is coupled to type III secretory activity through a cascade of three interacting proteins (ExsC, ExsD, and ExsE). Genetic data suggest that ExsD functions as an antiactivator by preventing ExsA-dependent transcription, ExsC functions as an anti-antiactivator by binding to and inhibiting ExsD, and ExsE binds to and inhibits ExsC. T3SS gene expression is activated in response to low-calcium growth conditions or contact with host cells, both of which trigger secretion of ExsE. In the present study we reconstitute the T3SS regulatory cascade in vitro using purified components and find that the ExsD·ExsA complex lacks DNA binding activity. As predicted by the genetic data, ExsC addition dissociates the ExsD·ExsA complex through formation of an ExsD·ExsC complex, thereby releasing ExsA to bind T3SS promoters and activate transcription. Addition of ExsE to the purified system results in formation of the ExsE·ExsC complex and prevents ExsC from dissociating the ExsD·ExsA complex. Although purified ExsA is monomeric in solution, bacterial two-hybrid analyses demonstrate that ExsA can self-associate and that ExsD inhibits self-association of ExsA. Based on these data we propose a model in which ExsD regulates ExsA-dependent transcription by inhibiting the DNA-binding and self-association properties of ExsA. PMID:20008065

  14. NIF Title III engineering plan

    SciTech Connect

    Deis, G

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of this document is to define the work that must be accomplished by the NIF Project during Title III Engineering. This definition is intended to be sufficiently detailed to provide a framework for yearly planning, to clearly identify the specific deliverables so that the Project teams can focus on them, and to provide a common set of objectives and processes across the Project. This plan has been preceded by similar documents for Title I and Title II design and complements the Site Management Plan, the Project Control Manual, the Quality Assurance Program Plan, the RM Parsons NIF Title III Configuration Control Plan, the Integrated Project Schedule, the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report, the Configuration Management Plan, and the Transition Plan.

  15. Structure and activity of the RNA-targeting Type III-B CRISPR-Cas complex of Thermus thermophilus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yifan; Taylor, David W.; van Duijn, Esther; Barendregt, Arjan; Vlot, Marnix; Koehorst, Jasper J.; Sakamoto, Keiko; Masuda, Akiko; Dohmae, Naoshi; Schaap, Peter J.; Doudna, Jennifer A.; Heck, Albert J.R.; Yonekura, Koji; van der Oost, John; Shinkai, Akeo

    2014-01-01

    Summary The CRISPR-Cas system is a prokaryotic host defense system against genetic elements. The Type III-B CRISPR-Cas system of the bacterium Thermus thermophilus, the TtCmr complex, is composed of six different protein subunits (Cmr1-6) and one crRNA with a stoichiometry of Cmr112131445361:crRNA1. The TtCmr complex co-purifies with crRNA species of 40 and 46 nt, originating from a distinct subset of CRISPR loci and spacers. The TtCmr complex cleaves the target RNA at multiple sites with 6 nt intervals via a 5’ ruler mechanism. Electron microscopy revealed that the structure of TtCmr resembles a ‘sea worm’ and is composed of a Cmr2-3 heterodimer ‘tail’, a helical backbone of Cmr4 subunits capped by Cmr5 subunits, and a curled ‘head’ containing Cmr1 and Cmr6. Despite having a backbone of only four Cmr4 subunits and being both longer and narrower, the overall architecture of TtCmr resembles that of Type I Cascade complexes. PMID:24119403

  16. Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon projections.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kong-Yan; He, Miao; Hou, Qiong-Qiong; Sheng, Ai-Li; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Wen-Wen; Li, Guangpu; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2014-01-01

    Axon guidance (pathfinding) wires the brain during development and is regulated by various attractive and repulsive cues. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a repulsive cue, inducing the collapse of axon growth cones. In the mammalian forebrain, the corpus callosum is the major commissure that transmits information flow between the two hemispheres, and contralateral axons assemble into well-defined tracts. We found that the patterning of callosal axon projections in rodent layer II and III (L2/3) cortical neurons in response to Sema3A was mediated by the activation of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates endocytosis, through the membrane fusion protein Rabaptin-5 and the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Rabex-5. Rabaptin-5 bound directly to Plexin-A1 in the Sema3A receptor complex [an obligate heterodimer formed by Plexin-A1 and neuropilin 1 (NP1)]; Sema3A enhanced this interaction in cultured neurons. Rabaptin-5 bridged the interaction between Rab5 and Plexin-A1. Sema3A stimulated endocytosis from the cell surface of callosal axon growth cones. In utero electroporation to reduce Rab5 or Rabaptin-5 impaired axon fasciculation or caused mistargeting of L2/3 callosal projections in rats. Overexpression of Rabaptin-5 or Rab5 rescued the defective callosal axon fasciculation or mistargeting of callosal axons caused by the loss of Sema3A-Plexin-A1 signaling in rats expressing dominant-negative Plexin-A1 or in NP1-deficient mice. Thus, our findings suggest that Rab5, its effector Rabaptin-5, and its regulator Rabex-5 mediate Sema3A-induced axon guidance during brain development. PMID:25161316

  17. Semaphorin 3A activates the guanosine triphosphatase Rab5 to promote growth cone collapse and organize callosal axon projections

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Kong-Yan; He, Miao; Hou, Qiong-Qiong; Sheng, Ai-Li; Yuan, Lei; Liu, Fei; Liu, Wen-Wen; Li, Guangpu; Jiang, Xing-Yu; Luo, Zhen-Ge

    2015-01-01

    Axon guidance (pathfinding) wires the brain during development and is regulated by various attractive and repulsive cues. Semaphorin 3A (Sema3A) is a repulsive cue, inducing the collapse of axon growth cones. In the mammalian forebrain, the corpus callosum is the major commissure that transmits information flow between the two hemispheres, and contralateral axons assemble into well-defined tracts. We found that the patterning of callosal axon projections in rodent layer II and III (L2/3) cortical neurons in response to Sema3A was mediated by the activation of Rab5, a small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) that mediates endocytosis, through the membrane fusion protein Rabaptin-5 and the Rab5 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Rabex-5. Rabaptin-5 bound directly to Plexin-A1 in the Sema3A receptor complex [an obligate heterodimer formed by Plexin-A1 and neuropilin 1 (NP1)]; Sema3A enhanced this interaction in cultured neurons. Rabaptin-5 bridged the interaction between Rab5 and Plexin-A1. Sema3A stimulated endocytosis from the cell surface of callosal axon growth cones. In utero electroporation to reduce Rab5 or Rabaptin-5 impaired axon fasciculation or caused mistargeting of L2/3 callosal projections in rats. Over-expression of Rabaptin-5 or Rab5 rescued the defective callosal axon fasciculation or mistargeting of callosal axons caused by the loss of Sema3A–Plexin-A1 signaling in rats expressing dominant-negative Plexin-A1 or in NP1-deficient mice. Thus, our findings suggest that Rab5, its effector Rabaptin-5, and its regulator Rabex-5 mediate Sema3A-induced axon guidance during brain development. PMID:25161316

  18. Immobilized low-activity waste interim storage facility, Project W-465 conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickett, W.W.

    1997-12-30

    This report outlines the design and Total Estimated Cost to modify the four unused grout vaults for the remote handling and interim storage of immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW). The grout vault facilities in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site were constructed in the 1980s to support Tank Waste disposal activities. The facilities were to serve project B-714 which was intended to store grouted low-activity waste. The existing 4 unused grout vaults, with modifications for remote handling capability, will provide sufficient capacity for approximately three years of immobilized low activity waste (ILAW) production from the Tank Waste Remediation System-Privatization Vendors (TWRS-PV). These retrofit modifications to the grout vaults will result in an ILAW interim storage facility (Project W465) that will comply with applicable DOE directives, and state and federal regulations.

  19. Learning about Animals. Superific Science Book III. A Good Apple Science Activity Book for Grades 5-8+.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Lorraine

    Designed to arouse interest in students about animals, this document was developed to provide teachers with a variety of information and teaching activities. The booklet is intended to enable students to become knowledgeable about science concepts relating to animals without the use of expensive equipment. The teaching activities deal with: (1)…

  20. Long-term behaviour of starspots. III - Active longitudes on the long-period RS CVn star HK Lacertae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olah, K.; Hall, D. S.; Henry, G. W.

    1991-01-01

    Thirteen years of photometry were used to study active longitudes on the surface of HK Lacertae. The decaying and forming phenomena of active areas in the years of 1980-1981, 1983-1984, and 1988-1989 are shown. New activity centers suddenly occur near the same orbital phase (0.6) and have lifetimes of several (greater than 6) years. The average rotational period of HK Lac is 24.2852 d; compared to the orbital period of 24.4284 d, this implies a 32 degree/year drift of the active areas on the stellar surface. Two possible interpretations for the period difference are discussed: pseudosynchronism and rigidity of magnetic patterns. The active longitudes on HK Lac are compared with similar phenomena found on the sun.