Science.gov

Sample records for activity includes detailed

  1. 23. DETAILS, INCLUDING PIER PLAN AND SECTION AND PLACEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. DETAILS, INCLUDING PIER PLAN AND SECTION AND PLACEMENT OF REINFORCING STEEL, DETAIL OF RAILING, FLOOR SYSTEM REINFORCEMENT. February 4, 1922 - Chili Bar Bridge, Spanning South Fork of American River at State Highway 193, Placerville, El Dorado County, CA

  2. 21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. DETAIL VIEW OF MARSICAL WORKS CONDENSERS INCLUDING QUICKSILVER COLLECTION CHANNEL AND COLLECTION BOX, CENTER FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHEAST. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  3. The Consequences of Including Seductive Details during Lecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harp, Shannon F.; Maslich, Amy A.

    2005-01-01

    When text passages include seductive details (i.e., interesting, tangentially related adjuncts that are irrelevant to the lesson), students perform worse on recall (Garner, Gillingham, & White, 1989) and problem-solving tests (Harp & Mayer, 1997, 1998) than students reading the same material without seductive details. To determine whether…

  4. 169. ARAIV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    169. ARA-IV Miscellaneous site details, including contaminated waste tank pit, fence detail, marker posts, berm, and "Caution radiation hazard" sign. Norman Engineering Company 961-area/ML-1-1-501-3. Date: March 1960. Ineel index code no. 066-0501-00-613-102795. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  5. 9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW EAST; EXTERIOR DETAIL OF WEST ELEVATION INCLUDING COLUMBUS HALL. - Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Bowditch Hall, 600 feet east of Smith Street & 350 feet south of Columbia Cove, West bank of Thames River, New London, New London County, CT

  6. 4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW FIXED SPAN INCLUDING TRUSS, MOVEABLE SPAN WHICH THE NEXT UNIT TO THE RIGHT, AND FIRST UNIT OF PONTOON FLOATING SPAN. - Lacey V. Murrow Memorial Floating Bridge, Spanning Lake Washington at I-90, Seattle, King County, WA

  7. 41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. OPERATING CORRIDOR PLAN AND SECTIONS, INCLUDING SOME ISOMETRIC DETAILS. INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106455. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-P-60 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 31. SECTIONS AND DETAILS OF ARVFS FACILITY, INCLUDING RADIATION HAZARD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. SECTIONS AND DETAILS OF ARVFS FACILITY, INCLUDING RADIATION HAZARD SIGN, WOOD RETAINING WALL, TANK COVER, AND DRAIN BOX. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-701-3. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0701 851 151972. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  9. TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRUSS DETAILS. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. Includes crane girder section. No architect noted. Drawn by Penney. Plan no. 2-N-7. March 10, 1942, no revisions. U.S. Navy, Bureau of Yards & Docks, Contract no. bs 76, item no. 22A. Approved for construction October 9, 1943. blueprint - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Warehouse, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  10. Detailed Chromospheric Activity Nature of KIC 9641031

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoldaş, Ezgi; Dal, Hasan Ali

    2016-04-01

    This study depends on KIC 9641031 eclipsing binary with a chromospherically active component. There are three type variations, such as geometrical variations due to eclipses, sinusoidal variations due to the rotational modulations, and also flares, in the light curves. Taking into account results obtained from observations in the Kepler Mission Database, we discuss the details of chromospheric activity. The sinusoidal light variations due to rotational modulation and the flare events were modelled. 92 different data subsets separated using the analytic models were modelled separately to obtain the cool spot configuration. Acording to the model, there are two active regions separated by about 180° longitudinally between the latitudes of +50° and +100°. 240 flares, whose parameters were computed, were detected. Using these parameters, the OPEA model was derived, in which the Plateau value was found to be 1.232±0.069 s, and half-life parameter was found as 2291.7 s. The flare frequency N1 was found as 0.41632 h-1, while the flare frequency N2 was found as 0.00027. Considering these parameters together with the orbital period variations demonstrates that the period variations depend on chromospheric activity. Comparing the system with its analogue, the activity level of KIC 9641031 is remarkably lower than the others.

  11. A&M. TAN607. Special service cubicle (hot cell). Details include Zpipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    A&M. TAN-607. Special service cubicle (hot cell). Details include Z-pipe and stepped plug penetrations through shielding wall. Ralph M. Parsons 902-3-ANP-607-A116. Date: December 1952. Approved by INEEL Classification Office for public release. INEEL index code no. 034-0607-693-106767 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  12. Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3story ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior detail direct view of typical entry steps (including 3-story trash-dump tower) at east side of Building 7, looking south - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. An Alternative Measure of Solar Activity from Detailed Sunspot Datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muraközy, J.; Baranyi, T.; Ludmány, A.

    2016-05-01

    The sunspot number is analyzed by using detailed sunspot data, including aspects of observability, sunspot sizes, and proper identification of sunspot groups as discrete entities of solar activity. The tests show that in addition to the subjective factors there are also objective causes of the ambiguities in the series of sunspot numbers. To introduce an alternative solar-activity measure, the physical meaning of the sunspot number has to be reconsidered. It contains two components whose numbers are governed by different physical mechanisms and this is one source of the ambiguity. This article suggests an activity index, which is the amount of emerged magnetic flux. The only long-term proxy measure is the detailed sunspot-area dataset with proper calibration to the magnetic flux. The Debrecen sunspot databases provide an appropriate source for the establishment of the suggested activity index.

  14. Understanding The GLAST Burst Monitor Detector Calibration: A Detailed Simulation Of The Calibration Including The Environment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinle, Helmut; Kienlin, Andreas von; Bissaldi, Elisabetta; Lichti, Giselher; Diehl, Roland; Greiner, Jochen; Meegan, Charles A.; Fishman, Gerald J.; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Wilson-Hodge, Colleen A.; Kippen, R. Marc; Hoover, Andrew S.

    2007-07-12

    The GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM) is the secondary instrument on NASA's next Gamma-ray mission GLAST. It will enhance the capabilities of GLAST by locating and detecting cosmic gamma-ray bursts at lower energies by the use of 12 NaI detectors (energy range 10 keV to 1 MeV) and 2 BGO-detectors (energy range 150 keV to 30 MeV). GBM was built in a close collaboration between the MPE and the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The angular and energy response of each GBM detector has been calibrated using various radioactive sources at different incidence angles relative to the detector in a laboratory environment at the MPE in 2005. To facilitate the understanding of the reconstruction of the detector response, a detailed simulation of the whole laboratory environment and the setup of the calibration source were performed. A modified version of the CERN GEANT 4 simulation software (provided by collaborators at the Los Alamos National Laboratory) was used.

  15. a Spectroscopy Based P-Chem Lab, Including a Detailed Text and Lab Manual

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muenter, John

    2015-06-01

    Rochester's second semester physical chemistry lab course is based on spectroscopy experiments and follows a full semester of quantum mechanics lectures. The laboratory course is fully separate from the traditional physical chemistry course and has its own lectures. The lab course is constructed to achieve three major goals: provide a detailed knowledge of the instrumentation that acquires data, establish a good understanding of how that data is analyzed, and give students a familiarity with spectroscopic techniques and quantum mechanical models. Instrumentation is emphasized by using common components to construct different experiments. Microwave, modulation and detection components are used for both OCS pure rotation and ESR experiments. Optical components, a monochromator, and PMT detectors are used in a HeNe laser induced fluorescence experiment on I2 {(J. Chem. Ed. 73, 576 (1996)) and a photoluminescence experiment on pyrene {(J. Chem. Ed. 73, 580 (1996)). OCS is studied in both the microwave and infrared regions, and the C=S stretching vibration is identified through microwave intensity measurements. Lecture notes and laboratory instructions are combined in an exhaustive text of more than 400 pages, containing 325 figures, 285 equations and numerous MathCad data analysis programs. This text can be downloaded as a 10 Mbyte pdf file at chem.rochester.edu/˜muenter/CHEM232Manual.

  16. Detail of array panels, Face B, with active and terminated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of array panels, Face B, with active and terminated dipole elements - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  17. 43 CFR 2.31 - What must a submitter include in a detailed Exemption 4 objection statement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include a specific and detailed discussion of why the information is a trade secret or, if the information is not a trade secret, the following three categories must be addressed (unless the bureau informs... the Government required the information to be submitted, and if so, how substantial competitive...

  18. 43 CFR 2.31 - What must a submitter include in a detailed Exemption 4 objection statement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include a specific and detailed discussion of why the information is a trade secret or, if the information is not a trade secret, the following three categories must be addressed (unless the bureau informs... the Government required the information to be submitted, and if so, how substantial competitive...

  19. Broken Detailed Balance of Filament Dynamics in Active Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladrow, J.; Fakhri, N.; MacKintosh, F. C.; Schmidt, C. F.; Broedersz, C. P.

    2016-06-01

    Myosin motor proteins drive vigorous steady-state fluctuations in the actin cytoskeleton of cells. Endogenous embedded semiflexible filaments such as microtubules, or added filaments such as single-walled carbon nanotubes are used as novel tools to noninvasively track equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations in such biopolymer networks. Here, we analytically calculate shape fluctuations of semiflexible probe filaments in a viscoelastic environment, driven out of equilibrium by motor activity. Transverse bending fluctuations of the probe filaments can be decomposed into dynamic normal modes. We find that these modes no longer evolve independently under nonequilibrium driving. This effective mode coupling results in nonzero circulatory currents in a conformational phase space, reflecting a violation of detailed balance. We present predictions for the characteristic frequencies associated with these currents and investigate how the temporal signatures of motor activity determine mode correlations, which we find to be consistent with recent experiments on microtubules embedded in cytoskeletal networks.

  20. Broken detailed balance in active fluctuations of semiflexible filaments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladrow, Jannes; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred C.; Schmidt, Christoph F.; Broedersz, Chase P.

    2015-03-01

    Non-equilibrium microscopic force generation in cells often results in stochastic steady-state fluctuations. In the cell cytoskeleton, for example, cytoplasmic myosins can drive vigorous conformational fluctuations of actin filaments and microtubules. We here present an analytical and numerical analysis of randomly driven shape fluctuations of semiflexible filaments in a viscoelastic environment. To detect and quantify non-equilibrium dynamics, we focus on the breaking of detailed balance in a conformational phase space subtended by eigenmodes of the beam equation. Molecular dynamics simulations reveal a non-zero circulatory flux in phase space induced by motor activity. Furthermore, we derived an analytical expression of nonequilibrium mode correlations that allows us to predict temporal effects of active molecular motors.

  1. Broken Detailed Balance of Filament Dynamics in Active Networks.

    PubMed

    Gladrow, J; Fakhri, N; MacKintosh, F C; Schmidt, C F; Broedersz, C P

    2016-06-17

    Myosin motor proteins drive vigorous steady-state fluctuations in the actin cytoskeleton of cells. Endogenous embedded semiflexible filaments such as microtubules, or added filaments such as single-walled carbon nanotubes are used as novel tools to noninvasively track equilibrium and nonequilibrium fluctuations in such biopolymer networks. Here, we analytically calculate shape fluctuations of semiflexible probe filaments in a viscoelastic environment, driven out of equilibrium by motor activity. Transverse bending fluctuations of the probe filaments can be decomposed into dynamic normal modes. We find that these modes no longer evolve independently under nonequilibrium driving. This effective mode coupling results in nonzero circulatory currents in a conformational phase space, reflecting a violation of detailed balance. We present predictions for the characteristic frequencies associated with these currents and investigate how the temporal signatures of motor activity determine mode correlations, which we find to be consistent with recent experiments on microtubules embedded in cytoskeletal networks. PMID:27367410

  2. Detailed analysis of the promoter activity of an attenuated lentivirus.

    PubMed

    Blatti-Cardinaux, Laure; Sanjosé, Leticia; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Zanoni, Reto; Reina, Ramses; Bertoni, Giuseppe

    2016-07-01

    In spite of an eradication campaign that eliminated clinical cases of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus-induced arthritis in the Swiss goat population, seroconversions are still observed. In the affected flocks, viruses belonging mainly to the small ruminant lentivirus A4 subtype are regularly isolated. These viruses are considered attenuated, except in the mammary gland, where high viral loads and histopathological lesions have been observed. We previously characterized and sequenced such field isolates, detecting several potentially attenuating mutations in their LTR. Here we present a detailed analysis of the promoter activity of these genetic elements, which was comparable to those of virulent isolates. An AP-1 binding site was shown to be crucial for promoter activity in reporter gene assays and also in the context of a replicating molecular clone. Other sites, such as AML(vis) and a conserved E-box, appeared to be less crucial. Analysis of a unique AP-4 site showed a clear discrepancy between results obtained with reporter gene assays and those with mutated viruses. Within the limits of this in vitro study, we did not find evidence pointing to the LTR as the genetic correlate of attenuation for these viruses. Finally, the limited replication of SRLV A4 in mammary cell culture could not explain the suggested mammary tropism. In contrast, and in view of the abundance of macrophages in the mammary gland, it is the striking replication capacity of SRLV A4 in these cells, unaffected by all LTR mutations tested, which may explain the apparent mammary tropism of these viruses. PMID:27114068

  3. Broken detailed balance at mesoscopic scales in active biological systems.

    PubMed

    Battle, Christopher; Broedersz, Chase P; Fakhri, Nikta; Geyer, Veikko F; Howard, Jonathon; Schmidt, Christoph F; MacKintosh, Fred C

    2016-04-29

    Systems in thermodynamic equilibrium are not only characterized by time-independent macroscopic properties, but also satisfy the principle of detailed balance in the transitions between microscopic configurations. Living systems function out of equilibrium and are characterized by directed fluxes through chemical states, which violate detailed balance at the molecular scale. Here we introduce a method to probe for broken detailed balance and demonstrate how such nonequilibrium dynamics are manifest at the mesosopic scale. The periodic beating of an isolated flagellum from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii exhibits probability flux in the phase space of shapes. With a model, we show how the breaking of detailed balance can also be quantified in stationary, nonequilibrium stochastic systems in the absence of periodic motion. We further demonstrate such broken detailed balance in the nonperiodic fluctuations of primary cilia of epithelial cells. Our analysis provides a general tool to identify nonequilibrium dynamics in cells and tissues. PMID:27126047

  4. Benefits of detailed models of muscle activation and mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, S. L.; Stark, L.

    1981-01-01

    Recent biophysical and physiological studies identified some of the detailed mechanisms involved in excitation-contraction coupling, muscle contraction, and deactivation. Mathematical models incorporating these mechanisms allow independent estimates of key parameters, direct interplay between basic muscle research and the study of motor control, and realistic model behaviors, some of which are not accessible to previous, simpler, models. The existence of previously unmodeled behaviors has important implications for strategies of motor control and identification of neural signals. New developments in the analysis of differential equations make the more detailed models feasible for simulation in realistic experimental situations.

  5. Detailed NMR, Including 1,1-ADEQUATE, and Anticancer Studies of Compounds from the Echinoderm Colobometra perspinosa

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Anthony D.; Nielson, Jonathan L.; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Motti, Cherie A.; Ovenden, Simon P. B.; Kearns, Philip S.; Liptrot, Catherine H.

    2009-01-01

    From the dichloromethane/methanol extract of the crinoid Colobometra perspinosa, collected south east of Richards Island (Bedara), Family Islands, Central Great Barrier Reef, Australia, 3-(1′-hydroxypropyl)-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone [one of the two stereoisomers of rhodoptilometrin, (1)], 3-propyl-1,6,8-trihydroxy-9,10-anthraquinone (3), 2-[(phenylacetyl)amino]ethanesulfonic acid (4), and 4-hydroxybutanoic acid (5) were isolated. Comparison of 1H- and 13C-NMR data for rhodoptilometrin (1) with those reported in the literature showed significant differences for some resonances associated with rings A and C. In an attempt to provide accurately assigned 1H- and 13C-NMR data, as well as to confirm the structure of 1, a thorough NMR investigation of this compound was undertaken. Measurements included: concentration dependent 13C, 1D selective NOE, HSQC, HMBC and 1,1-ADEQUATE. The NMR data for 4 and 5 are reported here for the first time, as is their occurrence from the marine environment. The in vitro anticancer activity of the original extract was found to be associated with 1, 3 and 5. PMID:20098598

  6. Glacial and periglacial geomorphology and its paleoclimatological significance in three North Ethiopian Mountains, including a detailed geomorphological map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, Hanne; Jacob, Miro; Frankl, Amaury; Nyssen, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Geomorphological investigations and detailed mapping of past and present (peri)glacial landforms are required in order to understand the impact of climatic anomalies. The Ethiopian Highlands show a great variety in past and contemporary climate, and therefore, in the occurrence of glacial and periglacial landforms. However, only a few mountain areas have been studied, and detailed geomorphological understanding is lacking. In order to allow a fine reconstruction of the impact of the past glacial cycle on the geomorphology, vegetation complexes, and temperature anomalies, a detailed geomorphological map of three mountain areas (Mt. Ferrah Amba, 12°51‧N 39°29‧E; Mt. Lib Amba, 12°04‧N 39°22‧; and Mt. Abuna Yosef, 12°08‧N 39°11‧E) was produced. In all three study areas, inactive solifluction lobes, presumably from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), were found. In the highest study area of Abuna Yosef, three sites were discovered bearing morainic material from small late Pleistocene glaciers. These marginal glaciers occurred below the modeled snowline and existed because of local topo-climatic conditions. Evidence of such Pleistocene avalanche-fed glaciers in Ethiopia (and Africa) has not been produced earlier. Current frost action is limited to frost cracks and small-scale patterned ground phenomena. The depression of the altitudinal belts of periglacial and glacial processes during the last cold period was assessed through periglacial and glacial landform mapping and comparisons with data from other mountain areas taking latitude into account. The depression of glacial and periglacial belts of approximately 600 m implies a temperature drop around 6 °C in the last cold period. This cooling is in line with temperature depressions elsewhere in East Africa during the LGM. This study serves as a case study for all the intermediate mountains (3500-4200 m) of the North Ethiopian highlands.

  7. The effects of seductive details on students' understanding of content in a middle school science activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodenberg, Barbara Anne

    This study examined the role of seductive details, interesting but unimportant additions, in a middle school science activity. Seventh-grade students (N = 119) from a private school system in a large mid-Atlantic urban area were randomly assigned to one of four instructional conditions (control, verbal additions, visual additions and verbal and visual additions). These students were presented with a partially scripted version of a guided discovery lesson on the external anatomy of insects. Free recall measures and an insect line drawing were used to assess learning the day the lesson was taught (immediate recall) and two weeks later (delayed recall). Findings revealed no significant differences when students in the four groups were compared. Learners appeared to have the ability to filter out the seductive details presented verbally and visually by the teacher. In addition, when the data were examined for an interaction between student ability and treatment condition, there was no statistically significant interaction. Previous research has documented the role of seductive details in the context of reading but these results provide an initial examination of interest in a science activity across several instructional conditions and with students in a classroom setting. Because this empirical study reports results contrary to previous research, four issues that impacted the study are discussed. These issues include a change in the way seductive details are presented to students, the presence of a teacher to guide student effort, a well sequenced lesson, and variability in the data.

  8. A study of detailed dosimetry records for a selected group of workers included in the Hanford mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    Detailed dosimetry data from microfiche and microfilm in source records for the years 1944--1978 for 139 Hanford workers were examined. Information on these records was compared with computerized dose equivalent estimates used in mortality analyses. Because of difficulties in reading some early source records, and because of variation in the format of records and in algorithms for calculating whole body dose, this validation was difficult. However, apparent discrepancies in cumulative dose were less than 0.1 rem for 88% of the workers in this study, never exceeded 1.5 rem, and would be unlikely to distort conclusions of dose-response analyses. Most discrepancies occurred in early years of Hanford operations, especially 1944--46, with very few problems with dose estimates from the 1960's and 1970's. The study also provided data dosimetry practices, by calendar year, on frequency of monitoring, the number and proportion of dosimeters yielding positive results, and the magnitude of doses recorded for individual dosimeters. 7 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. 15 CFR 930.71 - Federal license or permit activity described in detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... described in detail. 930.71 Section 930.71 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and... Federal license or permit activity described in detail. The term “federal license or permit activity described in detail” means any activity requiring a federal license or permit, as defined in § 930.51,...

  10. Descriptive statistics tables from a detailed analysis of the National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data

    SciTech Connect

    Tsang, A.M.; Klepeis, N.E.

    1996-07-01

    Detailed results tables are presented from an unweighted statistical analysis of selected portions of the 1992--1994 National Human Activity Pattern Survey (NHAPS) data base. This survey collected data on the potential exposure of Americans to important household pollutants. Randomly selected individuals (9,386) supplied minute-by-minute diaries spanning a 24-hour day as well as follow-up questions on specific exposure types. Selected 24-hour diary locations and activities, selected regroupings of the 24-hour diary locations, activities, and smoker-present categories, and most of the follow-up question variables in the NHAPS data base were statistically analyzed across 12 subgroups (gender, age, Hispanic, education, employment, census region, day-of-week, season, asthma, angina and bronchitis/emphysema). Overall statistics were also generated for the 9,386 total respondents. Tables show descriptive statistics (including frequency distributions) of time spent and frequency of occurrence in each of 39 locations and for 22 activities (that were experienced by more than 50 respondents), along with equivalent tables for 10 regrouped locations (Residence-Indoors, Residence-Outdoors, Inside Vehicle, Near Vehicle, Other Outdoor, Office/Factory, Mall/Store, Public Building, Bar/Restaurant, Other Indoor), seven regrouped activities and smoker present. Tables of frequency distributions of time spent in exposure activities, or the frequency of occurrence of exposure activities, as determined from the follow up questions that were analyzed are also presented. Detailed indices provide page numbers for each table. An Appendix contains a condensed listing of the questionnaires (Versions A and B for adults, child-direct and child-proxy interview types), including the question number, the NHAPS data base variable name, and the verbatim question text.

  11. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  12. Structural details of light activation of the LOV2-based photoswitch PA-Rac1.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Andreas; Barends, Thomas R M; Udvarhelyi, Anikó; Lenherr-Frey, Daniel; Lomb, Lukas; Menzel, Andreas; Schlichting, Ilme

    2015-02-20

    Optical control of cellular processes is an emerging approach for studying biological systems, affording control with high spatial and temporal resolution. Specifically designed artificial photoswitches add an interesting extension to naturally occurring light-regulated functionalities. However, despite a great deal of structural information, the generation of new tools cannot be based fully on rational design yet; in many cases design is limited by our understanding of molecular details of light activation and signal transduction. Our biochemical and biophysical studies on the established optogenetic tool PA-Rac1, the photoactivatable small GTPase Rac1, reveal how unexpected details of the sensor-effector interface, such as metal coordination, significantly affect functionally important structural elements of this photoswitch. Together with solution scattering experiments, our results favor differences in the population of pre-existing conformations as the underlying allosteric activation mechanism of PA-Rac1, rather than the assumed release of the Rac1 domain from the caging photoreceptor domain. These results have implications for the design of new optogenetic tools and highlight the importance of including molecular details of the sensor-effector interface, which is however difficult to assess during the initial design of novel artificial photoswitches. PMID:25368973

  13. 78 FR 29439 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY...: Request for Details of Expenses, VA Form 21-8049. OMB Control Number: 2900-0138. Type of Review:...

  14. 75 FR 45205 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS Proposed Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity: Comment Request AGENCY.... Title: Request for Details of Expenses, VA Form 21-8049. OMB Control Number: 2900-0138. Type of...

  15. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING,...

  16. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43..., PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. D Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of... general condition, apparent and obvious defects, and insecurity of attachment. (d) Each person...

  17. 14 CFR Appendix D to Part 43 - Scope and Detail of Items (as Applicable to the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Particular Aircraft) To Be Included in Annual and 100-Hour Inspections D Appendix D to Part 43..., PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION Pt. 43, App. D Appendix D to Part 43—Scope and Detail of... general condition, apparent and obvious defects, and insecurity of attachment. (d) Each person...

  18. Expenditures for Scientific Activities at Universities and Colleges, Fiscal Year 1975. Detailed Statistical Tables, Appendixes B and C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Div. of Science Resources Studies.

    Provided are detailed statistical tables for the fiscal year 1975 National Science Foundation (NSF) survey of expenditures for scientific activities at universities and colleges. The survey included 540 universities and colleges which account for more than 99% of all academic R&D expenditures. In addition to data reported for 1975, selected…

  19. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  20. Solar power satellite. Concept evaluation. Activities report. Volume 2: Detailed report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Comparative data are presented among various design approaches to thermal engine and photovoltaic SPS (Solar Power System) concepts, to provide criteria for selecting the most promising systems for more detailed definition. The major areas of the SPS system to be examined include solar cells, microwave power transmission, transportation, structure, rectenna, energy payback, resources, and environmental issues.

  1. Assessing wet snow avalanche activity using detailed physics based snowpack simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wever, N.; Vera Valero, C.; Fierz, C.

    2016-06-01

    Water accumulating on microstructural transitions inside a snowpack is often considered a prerequisite for wet snow avalanches. Recent advances in numerical snowpack modeling allow for an explicit simulation of this process. We analyze detailed snowpack simulations driven by meteorological stations in three different climate regimes (Alps, Central Andes, and Pyrenees), with accompanying wet snow avalanche activity observations. Predicting wet snow avalanche activity based on whether modeled water accumulations inside the snowpack locally exceed 5-6% volumetric liquid water content is providing a higher prediction skill than using thresholds for daily mean air temperature, or the daily sum of the positive snow energy balance. Additionally, the depth of the maximum water accumulation in the simulations showed a significant correlation with observed avalanche size. Direct output from detailed snow cover models thereby is able to provide a better regional assessment of dangerous slope aspects and potential avalanche size than traditional methods.

  2. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC).

  3. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  4. Regional and Detailed Survey for Radon Activities in Soil-Gas and Groundwater in the Okchon Zone, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Je, H.-K.; Chon, H.-T.

    2012-04-01

    The Okchon zone in Korea provides a typical example of natural geological materials enriched in potentially toxic elements including uranium which is parent nuclide for radon gas. For the purpose of radon radioactivity risk assessment, making the map of radon risk grade from Okchon zone, regional and detailed field surveys were carried out during 3 years. The study area is located in the central part of Korea, called the Okchon zone (about 5,100 km2), which occur in a 80km wide, northeast-trending belt that extends across the Korean Peninsula. The Okchon zone is underlain by metasedimentary rocks of unknown age that are composed mainly of black slate, phyllite, shale, and limestone. The three research areas (defined as Boeun, Chungju, and Nonsan) for detailed survey were selected from the results of regional survey. Results of detailed radon survey indicated a wide range of radon activities for soil-gases (148-1,843 pCi/L) and ground waters (23-5,540 pCi/L). About 15 percent of soil-gas samples exceeded 1,000 pCi/L and 84 percent of ground water samples exceeded the MCL (maximum contaminant level) of drinking water, 300 pCi/L, which proposed by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in 1999. For detailed survey, radon activities of soil-gas and ground water were classified as bedrock geology, based on 1/50,000 geological map and field research. For soil-gas measurements, mean values of radon activity from black slate-shale (789 pCi/L) were highest among the other base rocks. And for groundwater measurements, mean value of radon activities were decreased in the order of granite (1,345 pCi/L) > black shale-slate (915 pCi/L) > metasediments (617 pCi/L). Result of indoor radon measurement from detailed survey areas showed that about 50% of houses exceeded the indoor guideline, 4 pCi/L. For the radon risk assessment in indoor environment showed that probability of lung cancer risk from the houses located on the granite base rock (3.0×10-2) was highest among the other

  5. 28 CFR 5.210 - Amount of detail required in information relating to registrant's activities and expenditures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Amount of detail required in information relating to registrant's activities and expenditures. 5.210 Section 5.210 Judicial Administration... § 5.210 Amount of detail required in information relating to registrant's activities and...

  6. Detailed Shape and Evolutionary Behavior of the X-Ray Luminosity Function of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyaji, T.; Hasinger, G.; Salvato, M.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Civano, F.; Puccetti, S.; Elvis, M.; Brunner, H.; Fotopoulou, S.; Ueda, Y.; Griffiths, R. E.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Akiyama, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Lanzuisi, G.; Merloni, A.; Vignali, C.

    2015-05-01

    We construct the rest-frame 2-10 keV intrinsic X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from a combination of X-ray surveys from the all-sky Swift BAT survey to the Chandra Deep Field South. We use ˜3200 AGNs in our analysis, which covers six orders of magnitude in flux. The inclusion of XMM and Chandra COSMOS data has allowed us to investigate the detailed behavior of the XLF and evolution. In deriving our XLF, we take into account realistic AGN spectrum templates, absorption corrections, and probability density distributions in photometric redshift. We present an analytical expression for the overall behavior of the XLF in terms of the luminosity-dependent density evolution, smoothed two-power-law expressions in 11 redshift shells, three-segment power-law expression of the number density evolution in four luminosity classes, and binned XLF. We observe a sudden flattening of the low luminosity end slope of the XLF slope at z ≳0.6. Detailed structures of the AGN downsizing have also been revealed, where the number density curves have two clear breaks at all luminosity classes above log {{L}X}\\gt 43. The two-break structure is suggestive of two-phase AGN evolution, consisting of major merger triggering and secular processes.

  7. Detailed Anatomical and Electrophysiological Models of Human Atria and Torso for the Simulation of Atrial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Ferrer, Ana; Sebastián, Rafael; Sánchez-Quintana, Damián; Rodríguez, José F.; Godoy, Eduardo J.; Martínez, Laura; Saiz, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Atrial arrhythmias, and specifically atrial fibrillation (AF), induce rapid and irregular activation patterns that appear on the torso surface as abnormal P-waves in electrocardiograms and body surface potential maps (BSPM). In recent years both P-waves and the BSPM have been used to identify the mechanisms underlying AF, such as localizing ectopic foci or high-frequency rotors. However, the relationship between the activation of the different areas of the atria and the characteristics of the BSPM and P-wave signals are still far from being completely understood. In this work we developed a multi-scale framework, which combines a highly-detailed 3D atrial model and a torso model to study the relationship between atrial activation and surface signals in sinus rhythm. Using this multi scale model, it was revealed that the best places for recording P-waves are the frontal upper right and the frontal and rear left quadrants of the torso. Our results also suggest that only nine regions (of the twenty-one structures in which the atrial surface was divided) make a significant contribution to the BSPM and determine the main P-wave characteristics. PMID:26523732

  8. Detailed Analysis of Starburst and AGN Activity in Blue E/S0 Galaxies in RESOLVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bittner, Ashley; Snyder, Elaine M.; Kannappan, Sheila; Norman, Dara J.; Norris, Mark A.; Moffett, Amanda J.; Hoversten, Erik A.; Stark, David; RESOLVE Team

    2016-01-01

    We identify a population of ~120 blue E/S0 galaxies among the ~1350 galaxies that are targeted for spectroscopy and have measured morphologies in the highly complete REsolved Spectroscopy Of a Local Volume (RESOLVE) survey. Blue E/S0s are identified as being early type objects morphologically classified between E and S0/a that fall on the blue sequence. Most (~85%) of our blue E/S0s have stellar masses <10^10 M_sun. Using pPXF, we have measured the stellar velocity dispersions (sigma values) from high resolution 485 - 550 nm spectroscopy for ~15% of the blue E/S0 sample. Using three variations of the M_BH -- sigma relation, this kinematic subsample is estimated to typically host central black holes within the range log M_BH = 4-6 M_sun. Following up on previous suggestions of nuclear activity in the blue E/S0 population, we investigate nuclear starburst and/or AGN activity occurring within the full sample. Preliminary results from cross-checking known AGN catalogs with the blue E/S0 sample have revealed nuclear activity in ~20 of these galaxies based on heterogeneous criteria (BPT line ratio analysis, spectral line broadening, etc.), some of which may not entirely distinguish starburst from AGN activity. In an attempt to break the degeneracy between AGN and starburst activity, we perform detailed spectral analysis for a few of the galaxies with kinematic data. We also consider the viability of alternate AGN detection methods based on L_Edd estimates calculated from the M_BH estimates. This research has been supported by the National Science Foundation through the CAP REU Program (ACI-1156614) and the RESOLVE Survey (AST-0955368) as well as the National Space Grant College and Fellowship Program and the NC Space Grant Consortium.

  9. Combining active farmer involvement with detailed farm data in Denmark: a promising method for achieving water framework directive targets?

    PubMed

    Wright, Stuart A L; Jacobsen, Brian H

    2010-01-01

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) encourages active involvement during its implementation, although no specific participatory methods are suggested, whilst implementing the target-oriented Directive will require detailed agri-environmental data at catchment and farm level. The paper is a case study of the Danish AGWAplan project, which actively involved farmers in the selection of measures to reduce diffuse nutrient pollution at farm and catchment level, thereby providing an example of how active involvement might be operationalised. Active involvement has been identified as being of central importance to the success of the WFD. The project also entailed the accumulation of extensive agri-environmental data. The aim of the paper is to evaluate AGWAplan to establish the extent to which its expected objectives have been achieved and how, and to determine whether the project approach might facilitate WFD goals if implemented in forthcoming river basin management plans (RBMPs). AGWAplan resulted in advantageous outcomes, including win-win solutions to reduce nutrient leaching and greater acceptance of policy, although the original reduction targets where not fully reached. The paper concludes that actively involving farmers in a similar manner in RBMPs may make an important contribution to the implementation of the WFD, although caveats regarding its potential for transfer to other areas are identified. PMID:20453337

  10. A detailed analysis of theatre training activity in a UK teaching hospital.

    PubMed

    McIndoe, A K; Underwood, S M

    2000-05-01

    We examined the placement of anaesthetists in our department over a 2 yr period. Data were collected from an in-theatre system to provide details of caseload and supervision for 34,856 operations. There was wide variation between anaesthetic sub-specialties with overall supervision levels of 35% of cases for senior house officers (SHOs) and 32% for specialist registrars (SpRs). The consultant data showed the size and areas of teaching reserve in the department. We then examined individual logbooks in order to validate our data, and departmental rotas to put these data into perspective with previous attempts to quantify trainee supervision. Supervision data derived from the rota allocations showed that 86% of SHO lists and 62% of SpR lists were scheduled to be supervised. This study has described our training activity and facilitated departmental changes, as well as highlighting the need for great care in interpreting trainee supervision data acquired from different sources, particularly when comparisons are being made. PMID:10844835

  11. A guide to modelling cardiac electrical activity in anatomically detailed ventricles.

    PubMed

    Clayton, R H; Panfilov, A V

    2008-01-01

    One of the most recent trends in cardiac electrophysiology is the development of integrative anatomically accurate models of the heart, which include description of cardiac activity from sub-cellular and cellular level to the level of the whole organ. In order to construct this type of model, a researcher needs to collect a wide range of information from books and journal articles on various aspects of biology, physiology, electrophysiology, numerical mathematics and computer programming. The aim of this methodological article is to survey recent developments in integrative modelling of electrical activity in the ventricles of the heart, and to provide a practical guide to the resources and tools that are available for work in this exciting and challenging area. PMID:17825362

  12. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  13. Detailed conformation dynamics and activation process of wild type c-Abl and T315I mutant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-Jun; Zhao, Wen-Hua; Liu, Qian

    2014-10-01

    Bcr-Abl is an important target for therapy against chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). The synergistic effect between myristyl pocket and the ATP pocket has been found. But its detailed information based on molecular level still has not been achieved. In this study, conventional molecular dynamics (CMD) and target molecular dynamics (TMD) simulations were performed to explore the effect of T315I mutation on dynamics and activation process of Abl containing the N-terminal cap (Ncap). The CMD simulation results reveal the increasing flexibility of ATP pocket in kinase domain (KD) after T315I mutation which confirms the disability of ATP-pocket inhibitors to the Abl-T315I mutant. On the contrary, the T315I mutation decreased the flexibility of remote helix αI which suggests the synergistic effect between them. The mobility of farther regions containing Ncap, SH3, SH2 and SH2-KD linker were not affected by T315I mutation. The TMD simulation results show that the activation process of wild type Abl and Abl-T315I mutant experienced global conformation change. Their differences were elucidated by the activation motion of subsegments including A-loop, P-loop and Ncap. Besides, the T315I mutation caused decreasing energy barrier and increasing intermediate number in activation process, which results easier activation process. The TMD and CMD results indicate that a drug targeting only the ATP pocket is not enough to inhibit the Abl-T315I mutant. An effective way to inhibit the abnormal activity of Abl-T315I mutant is to combine the ATP-pocket inhibitors with inhibitors binding at non-ATP pockets mainly related to Ncap, SH2-KD linker and myristyl pocket.

  14. Molecular Details of Membrane Fluidity Changes during Apoptosis and Relationship to Phospholipase A2 Activity

    PubMed Central

    Gibbons, Elizabeth; Pickett, Katalyn R.; Streeter, Michael C.; Warcup, Ashley O.; Nelson, Jennifer; Judd, Allan M.; Bell, John D.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Secretory phospholipase A2 exhibits much greater activity toward apoptotic versus healthy cells. Various plasma membrane changes responsible for this phenomenon have been proposed, including biophysical alterations described as “membrane fluidity” and “order.” Understanding of these membrane perturbations was refined by applying studies with model membranes to fluorescence measurements during thapsigargin-induced apoptosis of S49 cells using probes specific for the plasma membrane: Patman and trimethylammonium-diphenylhexatriene. Alterations in emission properties of these probes corresponded with enhanced susceptibility of the cells to hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A2. By applying a quantitative model, additional information was extracted from the kinetics of Patman equilibration with the membrane. Taken together, these data suggested that the phospholipids of apoptotic membranes display greater spacing between adjacent headgroups, reduced interactions between neighboring lipid tails, and increased penetration of water among the heads. The phase transition of artificial bilayers was used to calibrate quantitatively the relationship between probe fluorescence and the energy of interlipid interactions. This analysis was applied to results from apoptotic cells to estimate the frequency with which phospholipids protrude sufficiently at the membrane surface to enter the enzyme’s active site. The data suggested that this frequency increases 50–100-fold as membranes become susceptible to hydrolysis during apoptosis. PMID:22967861

  15. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  16. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  17. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  18. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  19. A biophysically detailed model of neocortical Local Field Potentials predicts the critical role of active membrane currents

    PubMed Central

    Reimann, Michael W.; Anastassiou, Costas A.; Perin, Rodrigo; Hill, Sean; Markram, Henry; Koch, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Summary Brain activity generates extracellular voltage fluctuations recorded as local field potentials (LFPs). While known that the relevant micro-variables, the ionic currents across membranes, jointly generate the macro-variables, the extracellular voltage, neither the detailed biophysical knowledge nor the required computational power has been available to model these processes. We simulated the LFP in a model of the rodent neocortical column composed of >12,000 reconstructed, multi-compartmental and spiking cortical layer 4 and 5 pyramidal neurons and basket cells, including five million dendritic and somatic compartments with voltage- and ion-dependent currents, realistic connectivity and probabilistic AMPA, NMDA and GABA synapses. We found that, depending on a number of factors, the LFP reflects local and cross-layer processing and active currents dominate the generation of LFPs rather than synaptic ones. Spike-related currents impact the LFP not only at higher frequencies but lower than 50 Hz. This work calls for re-evaluating the genesis of LFPs. PMID:23889937

  20. A Detailed Data-Driven Network Model of Prefrontal Cortex Reproduces Key Features of In Vivo Activity.

    PubMed

    Hass, Joachim; Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    The prefrontal cortex is centrally involved in a wide range of cognitive functions and their impairment in psychiatric disorders. Yet, the computational principles that govern the dynamics of prefrontal neural networks, and link their physiological, biochemical and anatomical properties to cognitive functions, are not well understood. Computational models can help to bridge the gap between these different levels of description, provided they are sufficiently constrained by experimental data and capable of predicting key properties of the intact cortex. Here, we present a detailed network model of the prefrontal cortex, based on a simple computationally efficient single neuron model (simpAdEx), with all parameters derived from in vitro electrophysiological and anatomical data. Without additional tuning, this model could be shown to quantitatively reproduce a wide range of measures from in vivo electrophysiological recordings, to a degree where simulated and experimentally observed activities were statistically indistinguishable. These measures include spike train statistics, membrane potential fluctuations, local field potentials, and the transmission of transient stimulus information across layers. We further demonstrate that model predictions are robust against moderate changes in key parameters, and that synaptic heterogeneity is a crucial ingredient to the quantitative reproduction of in vivo-like electrophysiological behavior. Thus, we have produced a physiologically highly valid, in a quantitative sense, yet computationally efficient PFC network model, which helped to identify key properties underlying spike time dynamics as observed in vivo, and can be harvested for in-depth investigation of the links between physiology and cognition. PMID:27203563

  1. A Detailed Data-Driven Network Model of Prefrontal Cortex Reproduces Key Features of In Vivo Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hass, Joachim; Hertäg, Loreen; Durstewitz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prefrontal cortex is centrally involved in a wide range of cognitive functions and their impairment in psychiatric disorders. Yet, the computational principles that govern the dynamics of prefrontal neural networks, and link their physiological, biochemical and anatomical properties to cognitive functions, are not well understood. Computational models can help to bridge the gap between these different levels of description, provided they are sufficiently constrained by experimental data and capable of predicting key properties of the intact cortex. Here, we present a detailed network model of the prefrontal cortex, based on a simple computationally efficient single neuron model (simpAdEx), with all parameters derived from in vitro electrophysiological and anatomical data. Without additional tuning, this model could be shown to quantitatively reproduce a wide range of measures from in vivo electrophysiological recordings, to a degree where simulated and experimentally observed activities were statistically indistinguishable. These measures include spike train statistics, membrane potential fluctuations, local field potentials, and the transmission of transient stimulus information across layers. We further demonstrate that model predictions are robust against moderate changes in key parameters, and that synaptic heterogeneity is a crucial ingredient to the quantitative reproduction of in vivo-like electrophysiological behavior. Thus, we have produced a physiologically highly valid, in a quantitative sense, yet computationally efficient PFC network model, which helped to identify key properties underlying spike time dynamics as observed in vivo, and can be harvested for in-depth investigation of the links between physiology and cognition. PMID:27203563

  2. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  3. 75 FR 62186 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and burden; it includes... life insurance received in order to calculate ] the current rate of pension. Pension is an...

  4. 78 FR 53507 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Details of Expenses) Activity Under OMB Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... submission describes the nature of the information collection and its expected cost and burden; it includes... expenses paid by the claimant and/or commercial life insurance received in order to calculate the...

  5. Active Control of Cell Size Generates Spatial Detail during Plant Organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Schiessl, Katharina; Sablowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Summary How cells regulate their dimensions is a long-standing question [1, 2]. In fission and budding yeast, cell-cycle progression depends on cell size, although it is still unclear how size is assessed [3, 4, 5]. In animals, it has been suggested that cell size is modulated primarily by the balance of external signals controlling growth and the cell cycle [1], although there is evidence of cell-autonomous control in cell cultures [6, 7, 8, 9]. Regardless of whether regulation is external or cell autonomous, the role of cell-size control in the development of multicellular organisms remains unclear. Plants are a convenient system to study this question: the shoot meristem, which continuously provides new cells to form new organs, maintains a population of actively dividing and characteristically small cells for extended periods [10]. Here, we used live imaging and quantitative, 4D image analysis to measure the sources of cell-size variability in the meristem and then used these measurements in computer simulations to show that the uniform cell sizes seen in the meristem likely require coordinated control of cell growth and cell cycle in individual cells. A genetically induced transient increase in cell size was quickly corrected by more frequent cell division, showing that the cell cycle was adjusted to maintain cell-size homeostasis. Genetically altered cell sizes had little effect on tissue growth but perturbed the establishment of organ boundaries and the emergence of organ primordia. We conclude that meristem cells actively control their sizes to achieve the resolution required to pattern small-scale structures. PMID:26526374

  6. Detailed investigation of Long-Period activity at Campi Flegrei by Convolutive Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capuano, P.; De Lauro, E.; De Martino, S.; Falanga, M.

    2016-04-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of seismic signals continuously recorded at Campi Flegrei Caldera (Italy) during the entire year 2006. The radiation pattern associated with the Long-Period energy release is investigated. We adopt an innovative Independent Component Analysis algorithm for convolutive seismic series adapted and improved to give automatic procedures for detecting seismic events often buried in the high-level ambient noise. The extracted waveforms characterized by an improved signal-to-noise ratio allows the recognition of Long-Period precursors, evidencing that the seismic activity accompanying the mini-uplift crisis (in 2006), which climaxed in the three days from 26-28 October, had already started at the beginning of the month of October and lasted until mid of November. Hence, a more complete seismic catalog is then provided which can be used to properly quantify the seismic energy release. To better ground our results, we first check the robustness of the method by comparing it with other blind source separation methods based on higher order statistics; secondly, we reconstruct the radiation patterns of the extracted Long-Period events in order to link the individuated signals directly to the sources. We take advantage from Convolutive Independent Component Analysis that provides basic signals along the three directions of motion so that a direct polarization analysis can be performed with no other filtering procedures. We show that the extracted signals are mainly composed of P waves with radial polarization pointing to the seismic source of the main LP swarm, i.e. a small area in the Solfatara, also in the case of the small-events, that both precede and follow the main activity. From a dynamical point of view, they can be described by two degrees of freedom, indicating a low-level of complexity associated with the vibrations from a superficial hydrothermal system. Our results allow us to move towards a full description of the complexity of

  7. Detailed investigation of the microbial community in foaming activated sludge reveals novel foam formers

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Ke; Zhang, T.

    2015-01-01

    Foaming of activated sludge (AS) causes adverse impacts on wastewater treatment operation and hygiene. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities of foam, foaming AS and non-foaming AS in a sewage treatment plant via deep-sequencing of the taxonomic marker genes 16S rRNA and mycobacterial rpoB and a metagenomic approach. In addition to Actinobacteria, many genera (e.g., Clostridium XI, Arcobacter, Flavobacterium) were more abundant in the foam than in the AS. On the other hand, deep-sequencing of rpoB did not detect any obligate pathogenic mycobacteria in the foam. We found that unknown factors other than the abundance of Gordonia sp. could determine the foaming process, because abundance of the same species was stable before and after a foaming event over six months. More interestingly, although the dominant Gordonia foam former was the closest with G. amarae, it was identified as an undescribed Gordonia species by referring to the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB and, most convincingly, the reconstructed draft genome from metagenomic reads. Our results, based on metagenomics and deep sequencing, reveal that foams are derived from diverse taxa, which expands previous understanding and provides new insight into the underlying complications of the foaming phenomenon in AS. PMID:25560234

  8. Detailed investigation of the microbial community in foaming activated sludge reveals novel foam formers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Ping; Yu, Ke; Zhang, T.

    2015-01-01

    Foaming of activated sludge (AS) causes adverse impacts on wastewater treatment operation and hygiene. In this study, we investigated the microbial communities of foam, foaming AS and non-foaming AS in a sewage treatment plant via deep-sequencing of the taxonomic marker genes 16S rRNA and mycobacterial rpoB and a metagenomic approach. In addition to Actinobacteria, many genera (e.g., Clostridium XI, Arcobacter, Flavobacterium) were more abundant in the foam than in the AS. On the other hand, deep-sequencing of rpoB did not detect any obligate pathogenic mycobacteria in the foam. We found that unknown factors other than the abundance of Gordonia sp. could determine the foaming process, because abundance of the same species was stable before and after a foaming event over six months. More interestingly, although the dominant Gordonia foam former was the closest with G. amarae, it was identified as an undescribed Gordonia species by referring to the 16S rRNA gene, gyrB and, most convincingly, the reconstructed draft genome from metagenomic reads. Our results, based on metagenomics and deep sequencing, reveal that foams are derived from diverse taxa, which expands previous understanding and provides new insight into the underlying complications of the foaming phenomenon in AS.

  9. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  10. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  11. Development of a Detailed Stress Map of Oklahoma for Avoidance of Potentially Active Faults When Siting Wastewater Injection Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alt, R. C., II; Zoback, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    We report progress on a project to create a detailed map of in situ stress orientations and relative magnitudes throughout the state of Oklahoma. It is well known that the past 5 years has seen a remarkable increase in seismicity in much of the state, potentially related to waste water injection. The purpose of this project is to attempt to utilize detailed knowledge of the stress field to identify which pre-existing faults could be potentially active in response to injection-related pore pressure increases. Over 50 new stress orientations have been obtained, principally utilizing wellbore image data provided by the oil and gas industry. These data reveal a very uniform ENE direction of maximum compressive stress through much of the state. As earthquake focal plane mechanisms indicate strike-slip faulting, the stress orientation data indicate which pre-existing faults are potentially active. The data are consistent with slip on the near-vertical, NE-trending fault associated with at least one of the M 5+ earthquakes in the Prague, OK sequence in 2011. If successful, it would demonstrate that combining detailed information about pre-existing faults and the current stress field could be used to guide the siting of injection wells so as to decrease the potential for injection-related seismicity.

  12. Detailed correlation of type III radio bursts with H alpha activity. I - Active region of 22 May 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of observations of type III impulsive radio bursts made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory with high-spatial-resolution cinematographic observations taken at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. Use of the log-periodic radio interferometer makes it possible to localize the radio emission uniquely. This study concentrates on the particularly active region close to the limb on May 22, 1970. Sixteen of the 17 groups were associated with some H alpha activity, 11 of them with the start of such activity.

  13. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  14. Detailed protocol to assess in vivo and ex vivo myeloperoxidase activity in mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease using hydroethidine.

    PubMed

    Talib, Jihan; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Cheng, David; Stocker, Roland

    2016-08-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity contributes to arterial inflammation, vascular dysfunction and disease, including atherosclerosis. Current assessment of MPO activity in biological systems in vivo utilizes 3-chlorotyrosine (3-Cl-Tyr) as a biomarker of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and other chlorinating species. However, 3-Cl-Tyr is formed in low yield and is subject to further metabolism. Recently, we reported a method to selectively assess MPO-activity in vivo by measuring the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-chloroethidium (2-Cl-E(+)) by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) (J. Biol. Chem., 289, 2014, pp. 5580-5595). The hydroethidine-based method has greater sensitivity for MPO activity than measurement of 3-Cl-Tyr. The current methods paper provides a detailed protocol to determine in vivo and ex vivo MPO activity in arteries from mouse models of vascular inflammation and disease by utilizing the conversion of hydroethidine to 2-Cl-E(+). Procedures for the synthesis of standards, preparation of tissue homogenates and the generation of 2-Cl-E(+) are also provided in detail, as are the conditions for LC-MS/MS detection of 2-Cl-E(+). PMID:27184954

  15. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  16. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  17. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  18. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  19. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  20. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  1. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  2. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  5. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  6. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  7. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  8. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  9. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  10. A coupled 3D-1D numerical monodomain solver for cardiac electrical activation in the myocardium with detailed Purkinje network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vergara, Christian; Lange, Matthias; Palamara, Simone; Lassila, Toni; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Quarteroni, Alfio

    2016-03-01

    We present a model for the electrophysiology in the heart to handle the electrical propagation through the Purkinje system and in the myocardium, with two-way coupling at the Purkinje-muscle junctions. In both the subproblems the monodomain model is considered, whereas at the junctions a resistor element is included that induces an orthodromic propagation delay from the Purkinje network towards the heart muscle. We prove a sufficient condition for convergence of a fixed-point iterative algorithm to the numerical solution of the coupled problem. Numerical comparison of activation patterns is made with two different combinations of models for the coupled Purkinje network/myocardium system, the eikonal/eikonal and the monodomain/monodomain models. Test cases are investigated for both physiological and pathological activation of a model left ventricle. Finally, we prove the reliability of the monodomain/monodomain coupling on a realistic scenario. Our results underlie the importance of using physiologically realistic Purkinje-trees with propagation solved using the monodomain model for simulating cardiac activation.

  11. In detail.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2003-06-01

    Two families with twins - one in which adult DZ twins continue to face the risk of frontotemporal dementia, and the other in which a mother copes with brittle bones in a newborn infant MZ pair - are featured. The nature and progress of the disorders are reviewed and personal perspectives from the twins and other family members are variously provided. Next, four current twin studies are briefly summarized. Topics include sex differences in social support systems, new reproductive technologies, comparative twin-singleton frequencies of placenta previa, and the nature and complications of heterotopic pregnancies. This article concludes with a brief sampling of human interest stories involving twins: a different looking DZ pair, newborn sextuplets, conjoined twins and opposite-sex twin athletes. PMID:12855074

  12. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus. PMID:12127709

  13. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  14. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  15. Lateral and feedforward inhibition suppress asynchronous activity in a large, biophysically-detailed computational model of the striatal network

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Jason T.; Halterman, Benjamin L.; Finkel, Leif H.; Wolf, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) receive lateral inhibitory projections from other MSNs and feedforward inhibitory projections from fast-spiking, parvalbumin-containing striatal interneurons (FSIs). The functional roles of these connections are unknown, and difficult to study in an experimental preparation. We therefore investigated the functionality of both lateral (MSN-MSN) and feedforward (FSI-MSN) inhibition using a large-scale computational model of the striatal network. The model consists of 2744 MSNs comprised of 189 compartments each and 121 FSIs comprised of 148 compartments each, with dendrites explicitly represented and almost all known ionic currents included and strictly constrained by biological data as appropriate. Our analysis of the model indicates that both lateral inhibition and feedforward inhibition function at the population level to limit non-ensemble MSN spiking while preserving ensemble MSN spiking. Specifically, lateral inhibition enables large ensembles of MSNs firing synchronously to strongly suppress non-ensemble MSNs over a short time-scale (10–30 ms). Feedforward inhibition enables FSIs to strongly inhibit weakly activated, non-ensemble MSNs while moderately inhibiting activated ensemble MSNs. Importantly, FSIs appear to more effectively inhibit MSNs when FSIs fire asynchronously. Both types of inhibition would increase the signal-to-noise ratio of responding MSN ensembles and contribute to the formation and dissolution of MSN ensembles in the striatal network. PMID:25505406

  16. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  17. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  18. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  19. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  20. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  1. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  2. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  3. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health. PMID:25430599

  4. Details in the catalytic mechanism of mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1 revealed using point mutations and juglone-coupled enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianqiang; Cheng, Qing; Arnér, Elias S J

    2016-05-01

    The mammalian selenoprotein thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a key enzyme in redox regulation, antioxidant defense, and cellular growth. TrxR1 can catalyze efficient reduction of juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone; walnut toxin) in a reaction which, in contrast to reduction of most other substrates of TrxR1, is not dependent upon an intact selenocysteine (Sec, U) residue of the enzyme. Using a number of TrxR1 mutant variants, we here found that a sole Cys residue at the C-terminal tail of TrxR1 is required for high-efficiency juglone-coupled NADPH oxidase activity of Sec-deficient enzyme, occurring with mixed one- and two-electron reactions producing superoxide. The activity also utilizes the FAD and the N-terminal redox active disulfide/dithiol motif of TrxR1. If a sole Cys residue at the C-terminal tail of TrxR1, in the absence of Sec, was moved further towards the C-terminal end of the protein compared to its natural position at residue 497, juglone reduction was, surprisingly, further increased. Ala substitutions of Trp407, Asn418 and Asn419 in a previously described "guiding bar", thought to mediate interactions of the C-terminal tail of TrxR1 with the FAD/dithiol site at the N-terminal domain of the other subunit in the dimeric enzyme, lowered turnover with juglone about 4.5-fold. Four residues of Sec-deficient TrxR1 were found to be easily arylated by juglone, including the Cys residue at position 497. Based upon our observations we suggest a model for involvement of the juglone-arylated C-terminal motif of TrxR1 to explain its high activity with juglone. This study thus provides novel insights into the catalytic mechanisms of TrxR1. One-electron juglone reduction by TrxR1 producing superoxide should furthermore contribute to the well-known prooxidant cytotoxicity of juglone. PMID:26898501

  5. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  6. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  7. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  8. Evaluation of school-based dental health activities including fluoride mouth-rinsing in Hiraizumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Shinada, K; Sasaki, Y

    2000-06-01

    School-based dental health activities conducted in Hiraizumi over the past 20 years have remarkably improved the dental health status of schoolchildren. For example, DMFT index of 12-year-old children decreased to 1.5 in 1998, one-half that of the national average. School dental health activities, which were focused on dental health education, resulted in an increase of filled teeth rates, a decrease in the number of missing teeth, and a decline in incisor caries (1979-1986). In addition, the introduction of a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing program (1986 - ) showed a positive effect on the prevention of dental caries; a significant decrease was observed in the overall prevalence of dental caries, particularly in the molars. In Japan it seems advantageous to promote the dental health of schoolchildren by school-based programs that combine dental health examination, dental health education and fluoride mouth-rinsing program. Especially, to prevent dental caries in the mandibular first molars more effectively, it is recommended to start fluoride mouth-rinsing at age 5. PMID:12160185

  9. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  10. Calcium activated K⁺ channels in the electroreceptor of the skate confirmed by cloning. Details of subunits and splicing.

    PubMed

    King, Benjamin L; Shi, Ling Fang; Kao, Peter; Clusin, William T

    2016-03-01

    Elasmobranchs detect small potentials using excitable cells of the ampulla of Lorenzini which have calcium-activated K(+) channels, first described in 1974. A distinctive feature of the outward current in voltage clamped ampullae is its apparent insensitivity to voltage. The sequence of a BK channel α isoform expressed in the ampulla of the skate was characterized. A signal peptide is present at the beginning of the gene. When compared to human isoform 1 (the canonical sequence), the largest difference was absence of a 59 amino acid region from the S8-S9 intra-cellular linker that contains the strex regulatory domain. The ampulla isoform was also compared with the isoform predicted in late skate embryos where strex was also absent. The BK voltage sensors were conserved in both skate isoforms. Differences between the skate and human BK channel included alternative splicing. Alternative splicing occurs at seven previously defined sites that are characteristic for BK channels in general and hair cells in particular. Skate BK sequences were highly similar to the Australian ghost shark and several other vertebrate species. Based on alignment of known BK sequences with the skate genome and transcriptome, there are at least two isoforms of Kcnma1α expressed in the skate. One of the β subunits (β4), which is known to decrease voltage sensitivity, was also identified in the skate genome and transcriptome and in the ampulla. These studies advance our knowledge of BK channels and suggest further studies in the ampulla and other excitable tissues. PMID:26687710

  11. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. PMID:26476681

  12. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  13. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments including activation energies and mathematical modeling of methyl halide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstein, O.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Buchsteiner, A.; Wischnewski, A.

    2007-09-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out using the multichopper time-of-flight spectrometer V3 at the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Germany and the backscattering spectrometer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Activation energies for CH3X, X =F, Cl, Br, and I, were obtained. In combination with results from previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments the data were taken to describe the dynamics of the halides in terms of two different models, the single particle model and the coupling model. Coupled motions of methyl groups seem to explain the dynamics of the methyl fluoride and chloride; however, the coupling vanishes with the increase of the mass of the halide atom in CH3Br and CH3I.

  14. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  15. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  16. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  17. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  18. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  19. RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-REDSHIFT BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI INCLUDING EXTENDED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-03-15

    We present a study of the extended radio emission in a sample of 8434 low-redshift (z < 0.35) broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To calculate the jet and lobe contributions to the total radio luminosity, we have taken the 846 radio core sources detected in our previous study of this sample and performed a systematic search in the FIRST database for extended radio emission that is likely associated with the optical counterparts. We found that 51 out of 846 radio core sources have extended emission (>4'' from the optical AGN) that is positively associated with the AGN, and we have identified an additional 12 AGNs with extended radio emission but no detectable radio core emission. Among these 63 AGNs, we found 6 giant radio galaxies, with projected emission exceeding 750 kpc in length, and several other AGNs with unusual radio morphologies also seen in higher redshift surveys. The optical spectra of many of the extended sources are similar to those of typical broad-line radio galaxy spectra, having broad H{alpha} emission lines with boxy profiles and large M{sub BH}. With extended emission taken into account, we find strong evidence for a bimodal distribution in the radio-loudness parameter R ({identical_to}{nu}{sub radio} L{sub radio}/{nu}{sub opt} L{sub opt}), where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the extended sources, with a dividing line at log(R) {approx}1.75. This dividing line ensures that these are indeed the most radio-loud AGNs, which may have different or extreme physical conditions in their central engines when compared to the more numerous radio-quiet AGNs.

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  3. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  4. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  5. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  6. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  7. Do Overweight Adolescents Adhere to Dietary Intervention Messages? Twelve-Month Detailed Dietary Outcomes from Curtin University's Activity, Food and Attitudes Program.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kyla L; Kerr, Deborah A; Howie, Erin K; Straker, Leon M

    2015-06-01

    Dietary components of adolescent obesity interventions are rarely evaluated with comprehensive reporting of dietary change. The objective was to assess dietary change in overweight adolescents, including adherence to dietary intervention. The dietary intervention was part of a multi-component intervention (CAFAP) targeting the physical activity, sedentary and healthy eating behaviors of overweight adolescents (n = 69). CAFAP was a staggered entry, within-subject, waitlist controlled clinical trial with 12 months of follow up. Diet was assessed using three-day food records and a brief eating behavior questionnaire. Changes in dietary outcomes were assessed using linear mixed models, adjusted for underreporting. Food record data suggested reduced adherence to dietary intervention messages over time following the intervention, despite conflicting information from the brief eating behavior questionnaire. During the intervention, energy intake was stable but favorable nutrient changes occurred. During the 12 month maintenance period; self-reported eating behaviors improved, energy intake remained stable but dietary fat and saturated fat intake gradually returned to baseline levels. Discrepancies between outcomes from brief dietary assessment methods and three-day food records show differences between perceived and actual intake, highlighting the need for detailed dietary reporting. Further, adherence to dietary intervention principles reduces over time, indicating a need for better maintenance support. PMID:26043035

  8. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  9. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  10. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  12. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  13. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  14. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  15. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  16. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  17. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  18. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for Oak Ridge National Laboratory liquid low-level waste active tanks

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a plan and schedule for leak testing a portion of the Liquid Low-Level Waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee. It is a concise version of a more general leak testing plan that was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) for the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). This plan includes a schedule for the initial reporting of the leak test results from the various tanks that will be tested. The FFA distinguishes four categories of tank and pipeline systems: new systems (Category A), doubly contained systems (Category B), singly contained systems (Category C), and inactive systems (Category D). The FFA specifically requires leak testing of the Category C systems; there are 14 such tanks addressed in this plan, plus one tank (W-12) that has been temporarily returned to service based on EPA and TDEC concurrence. A schedule for testing these tanks is also included. The plan and schedule also addresses an additional 15 Category B tanks have been demonstrated to meet secondary containment requirements. While these 15 tanks are addressed in this plan for the sake of completeness, they have been removed from the leak testing program based on the design demonstrations that show secondary containment. It is noted that the general plan included 42 tanks. Since that report was issued, 26 of those tanks have passed secondary containment design demonstrations and subsequently have been removed from this leak testing plan. In addition, one tank (LA-104) has been removed from service. Accordingly, this document addresses 15 of the LLLW tanks in the system; plans for testing the pipelines will be described in a separate document.

  19. Detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory LLLW active tanks. Waste Management and Environmental Restoration Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, D.G.; Maresca, J.W. Jr.

    1993-03-01

    This document provides a detailed leak detection test plan and schedule for leak testing many of the tanks that comprise the active portion of the liquid low-level waste (LLLW) system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). This plan was prepared in response to the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) between the US Department of Energy (DOE) and two other agencies, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation (TDEC).

  20. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  1. Modified agar dilution susceptibility testing method for determining in vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Jono, K; Okonogi, K

    1997-01-01

    In vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds, against yeasts were easily determined by using RPMI-1640 agar medium and by incubating the plates in the presence of 20% CO2. The end point of inhibition was clear by this method, even in the case of azole compounds, because of the almost complete inhibition of yeast growth at high concentrations which permitted weak growth of some Candida strains by traditional methods. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were similar to those obtained by the broth dilution method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:9174197

  2. DETAILED ANALYSIS OF THE MOST PROMISING ALTERNATIVES TO USING GRANULAR ACTIVATED CARBON TO TREAT 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER AND 200-PW-1 SOIL VAPOR

    SciTech Connect

    BYRNES ME, KALMAR JA

    2007-11-26

    This document presents a detailed evaluation of selected alternative treatment options to granular activated carbon (GAC) for removing carbon tetrachloride generated from the groundwater pump-and-treat system at the 200-ZP-I Operable Unit (OU) in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. This evaluation of alternative treatment options to GAC is also applicable to the vadose zone soil vapor extraction (SVE) system at the 200-PW-l OU, which is also located in the Hanford Site's 200 West Area.

  3. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  4. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  5. The protonation state of catalytic residues in the resting state of KasA revisited: detailed mechanism for the activation of KasA by its own substrate.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wook; Engels, Bernd

    2014-02-11

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the causative pathogen of tuberculosis, the second leading cause of death from an infectious disease globally. β-Ketoacyl ACP synthase I (KasA) is essential for the survival of M. tuberculosis, because it is one of the key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of mycolic acid, the building block of the cell wall in M. tuberculosis. To distinguish among the various suggested mechanisms of KasA that are based on different protonation states of the active site, we characterize its resting state by various theoretical approaches ranging from first-principle-based quantum mechanical/molecular mechanical molecular dynamics simulations (QM/MM MD) with large QM parts to force field-based MD and free energy perturbation computations. In contrast to a previous study that used less reliable semiempirical approaches in combination with smaller QM parts, our improved computations predict that the most important active site residues, Cys171 and His311, are neutral. Because the neutral catalytic residues are too unreactive to attack the substrate, the question of how their activation is achieved arises. Combining our computed results with structural information about the malonyl binding pocket, we devised a detailed model about the activation mechanism. A conformational change of Phe404 possibly triggered by the substrate is central for the activation because it switches KasA to the sufficiently reactive zwitterionic state. PMID:24479625

  6. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  7. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  8. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing. PMID:19306198

  9. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  10. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  11. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  12. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp., Including Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤0.12 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. PMID:25691627

  13. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  14. Bispyrimidines as potent histamine H(4) receptor ligands: delineation of structure-activity relationships and detailed H(4) receptor binding mode.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, Harald; Schultes, Sabine; de Graaf, Chris; Nijmeijer, Saskia; Vischer, Henry F; Zuiderveld, Obbe P; Dobler, Julia; Stachurski, Katharina; Mayer, Moriz; Arnhof, Heribert; Scharn, Dirk; Haaksma, Eric E J; de Esch, Iwan J P; Leurs, Rob

    2013-06-13

    The basic methylpiperazine moiety is considered a necessary substructure for high histamine H4 receptor (H4R) affinity. This moiety is however also the metabolic hot spot for various classes of H4R ligands (e.g., indolcarboxamides and pyrimidines). We set out to investigate whether mildly basic 2-aminopyrimidines in combination with the appropriate linker can serve as a replacement for the methylpiperazine moiety. In the series of 2-aminopyrimidines, the introduction of an additional 2-aminopyrimidine moiety in combination with the appropriate linker lead to bispyrimidines displaying pKi values for binding the human H4R up to 8.2. Furthermore, the methylpiperazine replacement results in compounds with improved metabolic properties. The attempt to transfer the knowledge generated in the class of bispyrimidines to the indolecarboxamides failed. Combining the derived structure-activity relationships with homology modeling leads to new detailed insights in the molecular aspects of ligand-H4R binding in general and the binding mode of the described bispyrimidines in specific. PMID:23668417

  15. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  16. Alpine re-activation of pre-Alpine structures: details from a large-scale shear zone in the Aar massif (Central Alps)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehrens, Philip; Baumberger, Roland; Herwegh, Marco

    2013-04-01

    The Aar massif belongs to the external massifs of the Alps and is mainly composed of granitoids and gneisses. Post-Variscan granitoid rocks have intruded old gneisses belonging to the pre-Variscan basement. Despite numerous detailed studies in the past decades, the overall exhumation history and the associated massif internal deformation (internal strain distribution and its evolution in time, kinematics etc.) are largely unknown at present. In this project, we aim to investigate the role of shear zones in the deformation history at a variety of scales. In this context it is important to understand their microstructural evolution, the involved deformation processes, kinematics and relative ages as well as the associated changes in rheology. A detailed study was conducted along a major shear zone located at the southern margin of the Aar massif (running from Furka to Grimsel Pass and Oberaar Glacier), where the Grimsel Granodiorite (GrGr) is juxtapositioned to strongly foliated gneisses. Preliminary results show that a crenulation of these gneisses predates the age of the granitoid intrusion, meaning they must be older than 298 Ma. The crenulation and a related axial plane foliation (145/80°) define mechanical anisotropies within these Pre-Variscan rocks. The intruding granite has exploited these anisotropies a first time during its emplacement in post-Variscan times. The lithological boundary between the intruded GrGr and Pre-Variscan rocks causes strain again to localize during Alpine deformation and results in a 40 m wide large-scale shear zone. The older part of the shear zone shows cm-scale shear zones with vertical lineations shearing off the aforementioned pre-Alpine axial plane foliation. Hence the contact is reactivated, now as Alpine normal/ reverse fault, a second time. Towards the youngest parts of the shear zone the stretching lineation on the shear surfaces turns from vertical towards a subhorizontal position, indicating a change from initial vertical

  17. Evidence for Ultra-fast Outflows in Radio-quiet Active Galactic Nuclei. II. Detailed Photoionization Modeling of Fe K-shell Absorption Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tombesi, F.; Cappi, M.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.; Dadina, M.

    2011-11-01

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s-1 and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from ~10,000 km s-1 (~0.03c) up to ~100,000 km s-1 (~0.3c), with a peak and mean value of ~42,000 km s-1 (~0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log ξ ~ 3-6 erg s-1 cm, with a mean value of log ξ ~ 4.2 erg s-1 cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N H ~ 1022-1024 cm-2, with a mean value of N H ~ 1023 cm-2. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of AGNs. This also suggests that UFOs may potentially play a significant role in the expected cosmological feedback from AGNs and their study can

  18. EVIDENCE FOR ULTRA-FAST OUTFLOWS IN RADIO-QUIET ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI. II. DETAILED PHOTOIONIZATION MODELING OF Fe K-SHELL ABSORPTION LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Tombesi, F.; Reeves, J. N.; Palumbo, G. G. C.; Braito, V.

    2011-11-20

    X-ray absorption line spectroscopy has recently shown evidence for previously unknown Ultra-fast Outflows (UFOs) in radio-quiet active galactic nuclei (AGNs). These have been detected essentially through blueshifted Fe XXV/XXVI K-shell transitions. In the previous paper of this series we defined UFOs as those highly ionized absorbers with an outflow velocity higher than 10,000 km s{sup -1} and assessed the statistical significance of the associated blueshifted absorption lines in a large sample of 42 local radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. The present paper is an extension of that work. First, we report a detailed curve of growth analysis of the main Fe XXV/XXVI transitions in photoionized plasmas. Then, we estimate an average spectral energy distribution for the sample sources and directly model the Fe K absorbers in the XMM-Newton spectra with the detailed Xstar photoionization code. We confirm that the frequency of sources in the radio-quiet sample showing UFOs is >35% and that the majority of the Fe K absorbers are indeed associated with UFOs. The outflow velocity distribution spans from {approx}10,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.03c) up to {approx}100,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.3c), with a peak and mean value of {approx}42,000 km s{sup -1} ({approx}0.14c). The ionization parameter is very high and in the range log {xi} {approx} 3-6 erg s{sup -1} cm, with a mean value of log {xi} {approx} 4.2 erg s{sup -1} cm. The associated column densities are also large, in the range N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 22}-10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}, with a mean value of N{sub H} {approx} 10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. We discuss and estimate how selection effects, such as those related to the limited instrumental sensitivity at energies above 7 keV, may hamper the detection of even higher velocities and higher ionization absorbers. We argue that, overall, these results point to the presence of extremely ionized and possibly almost Compton-thick outflowing material in the innermost regions of

  19. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  20. Chitosan-Based Film of Tyrothricin for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Common Skin Pathogens Including Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Duk; Sung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-05-28

    Chitosan-based film-forming gel is regarded as a promising vehicle for topical delivery of antimicrobial agents to skin wounds, since it protects from microbial infection and the cationic polymer itself possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, possible synergistic interaction against common skin pathogens between the cationic polymer and tyrothricin (TRC), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, was investigated, by determining the concentration to inhibit 90% of bacterial isolates (MIC). The addition of the polysaccharide to TRC dramatically reduced the MIC values of TRC by 1/33 and 1/4 against both methicillin-resistant and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The synergism of TRC and chitosan combination against both strains was demonstrated by the checkerboard method, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index below 0.5. Moreover, co-treatment of TRC and chitosan exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the antibacterial activity of chitosan, whereas TRC itself did not inhibit the gram-negative bacterial growth. These findings suggested that the use of chitosan-based film for topical delivery of TRC could be an alternative to improve TRC antimicrobial activity against strains that are abundant in skin wounds. PMID:26907760

  1. The Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA gene: identification of upstream-activating sequences including a new element, the 'anaerobox'.

    PubMed Central

    Nees, D W; Stein, P A; Ludwig, R A

    1988-01-01

    From nucleotide sequencing analyses, the A. caulinodans nifA gene seems to be under dual control by the Ntr (in response to available N) and Fnr (in response to available O2) transcriptional activation/repression systems. Because it fixes N2 in two contexts, the Ntr system might regulate A. caulinodans nif gene expression ex planta, while the Fnr system might similarly regulate in planta. As nifA upstream-activating elements, we have identified: (i) a gpNifA binding site allowing autogenous nifA regulation, (ii) an Ntr-dependent transcription start, presumably the target of gpNifA activation, and (iii) an "anaerobox" tetradecameric nucleotide sequence that is precisely conserved among O2 regulated enteric bacterial genes controlled by the gpFnr transcriptional activator. Because it is precisely positioned upstream of enteric bacterial transcriptional starts, the "anaerobox" sequence may constitute the gpFnr DNA binding site. If so, then a second, Ntr-independent nifA transcription start may exist. We have also deduced the A. caulinodans nifA open reading frame and have compared the gene product (gpNifA) with those of other N2-fixing organisms. These proteins exhibit strongly conserved motifs: (i) sites conserved among ATP-binding proteins, (ii) an interdomain linker region, and (iii) a C-terminal alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA binding site. PMID:3186446

  2. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-03-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  3. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. PMID:25457424

  4. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  5. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  6. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  7. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  8. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  9. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  10. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  11. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  12. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  13. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  14. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  15. Seductive Details in Multimedia Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but irrelevant adjuncts are excluded rather than included. However, critics could argue that studies about this principle contain methodological problems. The recent experiment attempts to overcome these problems. Students (N = 108)…

  16. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  17. Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan of Floor Beams & Bottom Truss Cord, Detail at A Plan, Detail at B Plan - Covered Bridge, Spanning Darby Creek, North Lewisburg, Champaign County, OH

  18. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  19. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  20. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  1. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  2. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  4. A radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, R G; Seidler, J; Schneider, H H

    1982-01-01

    1 A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. 2 The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1 mg lormetazepam (Noctamid, 2 mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, and 10 mg diazepam (Valium, and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154 h after treatment. 3 Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines on vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r = 0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. 4 Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8 +/- 1 ng/ml at 2 h after lormetazepam, 7.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 8 h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml at 15 h after diazepam. Plasma elimination half-lives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63 h, respectively. 5 Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites. PMID:6121579

  5. Science and Engineering State Profiles: Fall 1996. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennof, Richard J.

    This document contains data from the National Science Foundation (NSF) that detail the geographic distribution of the 1993 U.S. research and development (R&D) spending total ($165 billion). The data include R&D performance by industry, academia, and the Federal Government and the federally funded activities of nonprofit institutions. Substantial…

  6. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  7. Cydonia Region - detail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Detail cut out of PIA01235, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a 4.42 by 82.94 km area of the Cydonia Region. The left image is raw, the right has been filtered and contrast enhanced.

    Orbit: 220

    Range: 444.21 km

    Resolution: 4.32 m/pixel

    Emission angle: 44.66 degrees

    Incidence angle: 64.96 degrees

    Phase angle: 61.97 degrees

    Scan rate: 0.1 degree/sec

    Start time: periapsis + 375 sec

    Sequence submitted to JPL: Sat 04/04/98 15:15 PST

    Image acquired by MOC: Sun 04/05/98 00:39:37 PST

    Data retrieved from JPL: Mon 04/06/98 09:05 PDT

  8. South Polar Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows details among some of the eroded layer outcrops of the martian south polar region. Much of the south polar region of Mars is covered by a thick unit of layered material. For decades, the layers have been assumed to consist of a mixture of dust and ice, but it is equally possible that the materials are sedimentary rocks. This image was captured during southern spring, at a time when some of the surface was still covered by seasonal carbon dioxide (CO2) frost.

    Location near: 86.5oS, 116.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  9. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  10. Projectile Motion Details.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnick, Jeffrey W.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an exercise that attempts to correct for the common discrepancies between theoretical and experimental predictions concerning projectile motion using a spring-loaded projectile ball launcher. Includes common correction factors for student use. (MVL)

  11. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  12. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  13. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  14. The Crystal Structure of the Ivy delta4-16:0-ACP Desaturase Reveals Structural Details of the Oxidized Active Site and Potential Determinants of Regioselectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Guy,J.; Whittle, E.; Kumaran, D.; Lindqvist, Y.; Shanklin, J.

    2007-01-01

    The multifunctional acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase from Hedera helix (English ivy) catalyzes the {Delta}{sup 4} desaturation of 16:0-ACP and the{Delta}{sup 9} desaturation of 18:0-ACP and further desaturates{Delta}{sup 9}-16:1 or {Delta}{sup 9}-18:1 to the corresponding {Delta}{sup 4,9} dienes. The crystal structure of the enzyme has been solved to 1.95{angstrom} resolution, and both the iron-iron distance of 3.2{angstrom} and the presence of a {mu}-oxo bridge reveal this to be the only reported structure of a desaturase in the oxidized FeIII-FeIII form. Significant differences are seen between the oxidized active site and the reduced active site of the Ricinus communis (castor) desaturase; His{sup 227} coordination to Fe2 is lost, and the side chain of Glu{sup 224}, which bridges the two iron ions in the reduced structure, does not interact with either iron. Although carboxylate shifts have been observed on oxidation of other diiron proteins, this is the first example of the residue moving beyond the coordination range of both iron ions. Comparison of the ivy and castor structures reveal surface amino acids close to the annulus of the substrate-binding cavity and others lining the lower portion of the cavity that are potential determinants of their distinct substrate specificities. We propose a hypothesis that differences in side chain packing explains the apparent paradox that several residues lining the lower portion of the cavity in the ivy desaturase are bulkier than their equivalents in the castor enzyme despite the necessity for the ivy enzyme to accommodate three more carbons beyond the diiron site.

  15. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  16. Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

    2013-01-01

    Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the

  17. Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin−dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. 56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of south side of the winding sheaves. These sheaves drive the California Street cable. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  2. 22. PIER NO. IV DETAIL, WITH DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIER NO. IV DETAIL, WITH DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHEAST WEB OF THROUGH TRUSS; VIEW TO NORTH - Nebraska City Bridge, Spanning Missouri River near Highway 2 between Nebraska & Iowa, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  3. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-06-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  4. Detailed fuel spray analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mularz, E. J.; Bosque, M. A.; Humenik, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Detailed fuel spray analyses are a necessary input to the analytical modeling of the complex mixing and combustion processes which occur in advanced combustor systems. It is anticipated that by controlling fuel-air reaction conditions, combustor temperatures can be better controlled, leading to improved combustion system durability. Thus, a research program is underway to demonstrate the capability to measure liquid droplet size, velocity, and number density throughout a fuel spray and to utilize this measurement technique in laboratory benchmark experiments. The research activities from two contracts and one grant are described with results to data. The experiment to characterize fuel sprays is also described. These experiments and data should be useful for application to and validation of turbulent flow modeling to improve the design systems of future advanced technology engines.

  5. A Generalized Detailed Balance Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruelle, David

    2016-08-01

    Given a system M in a thermal bath we obtain a generalized detailed balance relation for the ratio r=π _τ (K→ J)/π _τ (J→ K) of the transition probabilities M:J→ K and M:K→ J in time τ . We assume an active bath, containing solute molecules in metastable states. These molecules may react with M and the transition J→ K occurs through different channels α involving different reactions with the bath. We find that r=sum p^α r^α , where p^α is the probability that channel α occurs, and r^α depends on the amount of heat (more precisely enthalpy) released to the bath in channel α.

  6. Shocking Detail of Superstar's Activity Revealed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1999-10-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has imaged Eta Carinae and revealed a hot inner core around this mysterious superstar. The new X-ray observation shows three distinct structures: an outer, horseshoe shaped ring about two light years in diameter, a hot inner core about 3 light months in diameter, and a hot central source less than a light month in diameter which may contain the superstar. All three structures are thought to represent shock waves produced by matter rushing away from the superstar at supersonic speeds. The temperature of the shock-heated gas ranges from 60 million degrees Celsius in the central regions to 3 million degrees Celsius on the outer structure. An earlier image of Eta Carinae by the Hubble Space Telescope revealed two spectacular bubbles of gas expanding in opposite directions away from a central bright region at speeds in excess of a million miles per hour. The inner region visible in the Chandra image has never been resolved before, and appears to be associated with a central disk of high velocity gas rushing out at much higher speeds perpendicular to the bipolar optical nebula. "It is not what I expected," said Dr. Fred Seward of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics. "I expected to see a strong point source with a little diffuse emission cloud around it. Instead, we see just the opposite- a bright cloud of diffuse emission, and much less radiation from the center." "The Chandra image contains some puzzles for existing ideas of how a star can produce such hot and intense X-rays," agreed Prof. Kris Davidson of the University of Minnesota. "In the most popular theory, X-rays are made by colliding gas streams from two stars so close together that they'd look like a point source to us. But what happens to gas streams that escape to farther distances? The extended hot stuff in the middle of the new image gives demanding new conditions for any theory to meet." Eta Carinae is one of the most enigmatic and intriguing objects in our galaxy. Between 1837 and 1856 it increased dramatically in brightness to become the brightest star in the sky except for Sirius, even though it is 7,500 light years away, more than eighty times the distance to Sirius. This "Great Eruption," as it is called, had an energy comparable to a supernova, yet did not destroy the star, which faded to become a dim star, invisible to the naked eye. Since 1940, Eta Carinae has begun to brighten again, becoming visible to the naked eye. Modern day observations of Eta Carinae have shown it to be the most luminous object known in our galaxy. It radiates at the rate of several million times that of the Sun. Most of the radiation is at infrared wavelengths, from dust in the bipolar nebula. Astronomers still do not know what lies at the heart of Eta Carinae. Most believe that it is powered by an extremely massive star that may be a hundred times as massive as the Sun. Such stars produce intense amounts of radiation that cause violent instabilities before they explode as a supernova. The Chandra X-ray image gives a glimpse deep into the nebula where the fastest material being thrown off by Eta Carinae is found. The outer ring provides evidence of another large explosion that occurred over a thousand years ago. Further Chandra observations of Eta Carinae are planned for the near future and should give astronomers deeper insight into this cryptic colossus. To follow Chandra's progress, visit the Chandra site at: http://chandra.harvard.edu AND http://chandra.nasa.gov NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL, manages the Chandra program. TRW, Inc., Redondo Beach, CA, is the prime contractor for the spacecraft. The Smithsonian's Chandra X-ray Center controls science and flight operations from Cambridge, MA. This image will be available on NASA Video File which airs at noon, 3:00 p.m., 6:00 p.m., 9:00 p.m. and midnight Eastern Time. NASA Television is available on GE-2, transponder 9C at 85 degrees West longitude, with vertical polarization. Frequency is on 3880.0 megahertz, with audio on 6.8 megahertz. High resolution digital versions of the X-ray image (JPG, 300 dpi TIFF) and other information associated with this release are available on the Internet at: http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/0099/index.html or via links in: http://chandra.harvard.edu

  7. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  8. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  9. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  10. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  11. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Petersson, George A; Malick, David K; Frisch, Michael J; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-28

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N(2) with the sequence of n-tuple-zeta augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e(-),8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the R(e), omega(e), omega(e)X(e), T(e), and D(e) for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006 Angstrom, 4.43 cm(-1), 0.35 cm(-1), 0.063 eV, and 0.018 eV, respectively. PMID:16942134

  12. A time dependent anatomically detailed model of cardiac conduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxberg, B. E.; Grumbach, M. P.; Cohen, R. J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to understand the determinants of transitions in cardiac electrical activity from normal patterns to dysrhythmias such as ventricular fibrillation, we are constructing an anatomically and physiologically detailed finite element simulation of myocardial electrical propagation. A healthy human heart embedded in paraffin was sectioned to provide a detailed anatomical substrate for model calculations. The simulation of propagation includes anisotropy in conduction velocity due to fiber orientation as well as gradients in conduction velocities, absolute and relative refractory periods, action potential duration and electrotonic influence of nearest neighbors. The model also includes changes in the behaviour of myocardial tissue as a function of the past local activity. With this model, we can examine the significance of fiber orientation and time dependence of local propagation parameters on dysrhythmogenesis.

  13. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  14. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  15. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  16. Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK.

    PubMed

    Gosling, J; Dairaghi, D J; Wang, Y; Hanley, M; Talbot, D; Miao, Z; Schall, T J

    2000-03-15

    Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand assignment, where immobilized chemokines constructed on stalks (stalkokines) were used as bait for adhesion of cells expressing CCX CKR. These cells adhered to stalkokines representing ELC, a chemokine previously thought to bind only CCR7. Adhesion was abolished in the presence of soluble ELC, SLC (CCR7 ligands), and TECK (a CCR9 ligand). Complete ligand profiles were further determined by radiolabeled ligand binding and competition with >80 chemokines. ELC, SLC, and TECK comprised high affinity ligands (IC50 <15 nM); lower affinity ligands include BLC and vMIP-II (IC50 <150 nM). With its high affinity for CC chemokines and homology to CC receptors, we provisionally designate this new receptor CCR10. PMID:10706668

  17. The fine details of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-08-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was based on studies of biology at the species level. In the time since his death, studies at the molecular level have confirmed his ideas about the kinship of all life on Earth and have provided a wealth of detail about the evolutionary relationships between different species and a deeper understanding of the finer workings of natural selection. We now have a wealth of data, including the genome sequences of a wide range of organisms, an even larger number of protein sequences, a significant knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins, DNA and other biological molecules, and a huge body of information about the operation of these molecules as systems in the molecular machinery of all living things. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers from oral presentations given at a Biochemical Society Focused Meeting to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, held on 26-27 January 2009 at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge. The talks reported on some of the insights into evolution which have been obtained from the study of protein sequences, structures and systems. PMID:19614583

  18. 5 CFR 2635.104 - Applicability to employees on detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Applicability to employees on detail... Applicability to employees on detail. (a) Details to other agencies. Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this section, an employee on detail, including a uniformed officer on assignment, from his employing agency...

  19. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  20. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  1. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  2. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  4. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  5. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  6. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  7. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  8. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  9. 18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. DETAIL OF SHAFT COLLAR AND CAGE GUIDES. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH INCLUDES DETAIL OF RIVETED STEEL CONSTRUCTION OF HEADFRAME. - Butte Mineyards, Stewart Mine, Intersection of Main & Woolman Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  10. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the M(w)5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, Nicholas V

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  11. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  12. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  13. Characterization of Novel Paternal ncRNAs at the Plagl1 Locus, Including Hymai, Predicted to Interact with Regulators of Active Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Cirillo, Davide; Court, Franck; Guillaumet-Adkins, Amy; Camprubi, Cristina; Bourc’his, Deborah; Hata, Kenichiro; Feil, Robert; Tartaglia, Gian; Arnaud, Philippe; Monk, David

    2012-01-01

    Genomic imprinting is a complex epigenetic mechanism of transcriptional control that utilizes DNA methylation and histone modifications to bring about parent-of-origin specific monoallelic expression in mammals. Genes subject to imprinting are often organised in clusters associated with large non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs), some of which have cis-regulatory functions. Here we have undertaken a detailed allelic expression analysis of an imprinted domain on mouse proximal chromosome 10 comprising the paternally expressed Plagl1 gene. We identified three novel Plagl1 transcripts, only one of which contains protein-coding exons. In addition, we characterised two unspliced ncRNAs, Hymai, the mouse orthologue of HYMAI, and Plagl1it (Plagl1 intronic transcript), a transcript located in intron 5 of Plagl1. Imprinted expression of these novel ncRNAs requires DNMT3L-mediated maternal DNA methylation, which is also indispensable for establishing the correct chromatin profile at the Plagl1 DMR. Significantly, the two ncRNAs are retained in the nucleus, consistent with a potential regulatory function at the imprinted domain. Analysis with catRAPID, a protein-ncRNA association prediction algorithm, suggests that Hymai and Plagl1it RNAs both have potentially high affinity for Trithorax chromatin regulators. The two ncRNAs could therefore help to protect the paternal allele from DNA methylation by attracting Trithorax proteins that mediate H3 lysine-4 methylation. Submitted GenBank nucleotides sequences: Plagl1it: JN595789 Hymai: JN595790 PMID:22723905

  14. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  15. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  16. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  17. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  18. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  19. Chimeric Beta-Defensin Analogs, Including the Novel 3NI Analog, Display Salt-Resistant Antimicrobial Activity and Lack Toxicity in Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, Olga; Galdiero, Stefania; Nigro, Ersilia; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Di Noto, Rosa; Cantisani, Marco; Colavita, Irene; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Daniele, Aurora; Pedone, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial peptides for the innate immune response and are thus prime candidates as therapeutic agents directed against infective diseases. Based on the properties of wild-type hBD1 and hBD3 and of previously synthesized analogs (1C, 3I, and 3N), we have designed a new analog, 3NI, and investigated its potential as an antimicrobial drug. Specifically, we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of 3NI versus those of hBD1, hBD3, 1C, 3I, and 3N. Our results show that 3NI exerted greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis than did hBD1 and hBD3, even with elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, its antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 was greater than that of hBD1 and similar to that of hBD3. Subsequently, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of all peptides in three human epithelial carcinoma cell lines: A549 from lung, CaCo-2 from colon, and Capan-1 from pancreas. None of the analogs significantly reduced cell viability versus wild-type hBD1 and hBD3. They did not induce genotoxicity or cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Using confocal microscopy, we also investigated the localization of the peptides during their incubation with epithelial cells and found that they were distributed on the cell surface, from which they were internalized. Finally, we show that hBD1 and hBD3 are characterized by high resistance to serum degradation. In conclusion, the new analog 3NI seems to be a promising anti-infective agent, particularly given its high salt resistance—a feature that is relevant in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23357761

  20. Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-β-Lactamase Producers

    PubMed Central

    Crandon, Jared L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-β-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≤32 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≥128 μg/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ≤16 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ≤16 μg/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ≥32 μg/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive

  1. Estrogenic Activity Including Bone Enhancement and Effect on Lipid Profile of Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum L. in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N M; El-Hawary, S S; Mohamed, D A; El-Halawany, A M; El-Anssary, A A; El-Kassem, L T Abou; Hussein, R A; Jaleel, G A Abdel; El-Dosoky, A H

    2016-05-01

    Luteolin-7-O-glycoside (LG), an abundant component in many edible plants, was found to be one of the major constituents of the aqueous methanol extract of Trifolium alexandrinum L. family Fabaceae, a fodder plant widely cultivated in Egypt. The estrogenic activity of LG concerning the effect on uterotrophy, lipid profile, weight gain and bone enhancement activity was determined in ovariectomized rat model at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Luteolin-7-O-glycoside showed significant estrogenic effect through the preservation of normal uterine weight and plasma estradiol level. It also significantly inhibited the bone turnover markers plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, plasma osteocalsin, type I procollagen N-terminal, and C-telopeptide of type II collagen levels. It induced a significant improvement in plasma lipid profile. The effect of LG was comparable with estradiol with lower effect on uterine weight. Liver and kidney functions revealed a wide safety of LG at this dose level. The present study revealed that LG may be a promising hormone replacement therapy after being examined thoroughly on human. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145225

  2. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  3. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  4. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  5. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research. PMID:25385071

  6. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  7. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  8. CD161++CD8+ T cells, including the MAIT cell subset, are specifically activated by IL-12+IL-18 in a TCR-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ussher, James E; Bilton, Matthew; Attwod, Emma; Shadwell, Jonathan; Richardson, Rachel; de Lara, Catherine; Mettke, Elisabeth; Kurioka, Ayako; Hansen, Ted H; Klenerman, Paul; Willberg, Christian B

    2014-01-01

    CD161++CD8+ T cells represent a novel subset that is dominated in adult peripheral blood by mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells, as defined by the expression of a variable-α chain 7.2 (Vα7.2)-Jα33 TCR, and IL-18Rα. Stimulation with IL-18+IL-12 is known to induce IFN-γ by both NK cells and, to a more limited extent, T cells. Here, we show the CD161++ CD8+ T-cell population is the primary T-cell population triggered by this mechanism. Both CD161++Vα7.2+ and CD161++Vα7.2− T-cell subsets responded to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation, demonstrating this response was not restricted to the MAIT cells, but to the CD161++ phenotype. Bacteria and TLR agonists also indirectly triggered IFN-γ expression via IL-12 and IL-18. These data show that CD161++ T cells are the predominant T-cell population that responds directly to IL-12+IL-18 stimulation. Furthermore, our findings broaden the potential role of MAIT cells beyond bacterial responsiveness to potentially include viral infections and other inflammatory stimuli. PMID:24019201

  9. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  10. Detailed scour measurements around a debris accumulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, David S.; Parola, Arthur C.

    1998-01-01

    Detailed scour measurements were made at Farm-Market 2004 over the Brazos River near Lake Jackson, Tex. during flooding in October 1994. Woody debris accumulations on bents 6, 7, and 8 obstructed flow through the bridge, causing scour of the streambed. Measurements at the site included three-dimensional velocities, channel bathymetry, water-surface elevations, water-surface slope, and discharge. Channel geometry upstream from the bridge caused approach conditions to be nonuniform.

  11. Detail in architecture: Between arts & crafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulencin, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    Architectural detail represents an important part of architecture. Not only can it be used as an identifier of a specific building but at the same time enhances the experience of the realized project. Within it lie the signs of a great architect and clues to understanding his or her way of thinking. It is therefore the central topic of a seminar offered to architecture students at the Brno University of Technology. During the course of the semester-long class the students acquaint themselves with atypical architectural details of domestic and international architects by learning to read them, understand them and subsequently draw them by creating architectural blueprints. In other words, by general analysis of a detail the students learn theoretical thinking of its architect who, depending on the nature of the design, had to incorporate a variety of techniques and crafts. Students apply this analytical part to their own architectural detail design. The methodology of the seminar consists of experiential learning by project management and is complemented by a series of lectures discussing a diversity of details as well as materials and technologies required to implement it. The architectural detail design is also part of students' bachelors thesis, therefore, the realistic nature of their blueprints can be verified in the production process of its physical counterpart. Based on their own documentation the students choose the most suitable manufacturing process whether it is supplied by a specific technology or a craftsman. Students actively participate in the production and correct their design proposals in real scale with the actual material. A student, as a future architect, stands somewhere between a client and an artisan, materializes his or her idea and adjusts the manufacturing process so that the final detail fulfills aesthetic consistency and is in harmony with its initial concept. One of the very important aspects of the design is its economic cost, an

  12. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  13. Aircraft empennage structural detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meholic, Greg; Brown, Rhonda; Hall, Melissa; Harvey, Robert; Singer, Michael; Tella, Gustavo

    1993-01-01

    This project involved the detailed design of the aft fuselage and empennage structure, vertical stabilizer, rudder, horizontal stabilizer, and elevator for the Triton primary flight trainer. The main design goals under consideration were to illustrate the integration of the control systems devices used in the tail surfaces and their necessary structural supports as well as the elevator trim, navigational lighting system, electrical systems, tail-located ground tie, and fuselage/cabin interface structure. Accommodations for maintenance, lubrication, adjustment, and repairability were devised. Weight, fabrication, and (sub)assembly goals were addressed. All designs were in accordance with the FAR Part 23 stipulations for a normal category aircraft.

  14. Detailed mechanism of benzene oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1987-01-01

    A detailed quantitative mechanism for the oxidation of benzene in both argon and nitrogen diluted systems is presented. Computed ignition delay time for argon diluted mixtures are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results for a wide range of initial conditions. An experimental temperature versus time profile for a nitrogen diluted oxidation was accurately matched and several concentration profiles were matched qualitatively. Application of sensitivity analysis has given approximate rate constant expressions for the two dominant heat release reactions, the oxidation of C6H5 and C5H5 radicals by molecular oxygen.

  15. "Influence Method". Detailed mathematical description

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rios, I. J.; Mayer, R. E.

    2015-07-01

    A new method for the absolute determination of nuclear particle flux in the absence of known detector efficiency, the "Influence Method", was recently published (I.J. Rios and R.E. Mayer, Nuclear Instruments & Methods in Physics Research A 775 (2015) 99-104). The method defines an estimator for the population and another estimator for the efficiency. In this article we present a detailed mathematical description which yields the conditions for its application, the probability distributions of the estimators and their characteristic parameters. An analysis of the different cases leads to expressions of the estimators and their uncertainties.

  16. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  17. Ligand binding studies, preliminary structure-activity relationship and detailed mechanistic characterization of 1-phenyl-6,6-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine derivatives as inhibitors of Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Bharath; Tonddast-Navaei, Sam; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2015-10-20

    Gram-negative bacteria are implicated in the causation of life-threatening hospital-acquired infections. They acquire rapid resistance to multiple drugs and available antibiotics. Hence, there is the need to discover new antibacterial agents with novel scaffolds. For the first time, this study explores the 1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine and 1,2,4-triazine-2,4-diamine group of compounds as potential inhibitors of Escherichia coli DHFR, a pivotal enzyme in the thymidine and purine synthesis pathway. Using differential scanning fluorimetry, DSF, fifteen compounds with various substitutions on either the 3rd or 4th positions on the benzene group of 6,6-dimethyl-1-(benzene)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine were shown to bind to the enzyme with varying affinities. Then, the dose dependence of inhibition by these compounds was determined. Preliminary quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis and docking studies implicate the alkyl linker group and the sulfonyl fluoride group in increasing the potency of inhibition. 4-[4-[3-(4,6-diamino-2,2-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazin-1-yl)phenyl]butyl]benzenesulfonyl fluoride (NSC120927), the best hit from the study and a molecule with no reported inhibition of E. coli DHFR, potently inhibits the enzyme with a Ki value of 42.50 ± 5.34 nM, followed by 4-[6-[4-(4,6-diamino-2,2-dimethyl-1,3,5-triazin-1-yl)phenyl]hexyl]benzenesulfonyl fluoride (NSC132279), with a Ki value of 100.9 ± 12.7 nM. Detailed kinetic characterization of the inhibition brought about by five small-molecule hits shows that these inhibitors bind to the dihydrofolate binding site with preferential binding to the NADPH-bound binary form of the enzyme. Furthermore, in search of novel diaminotriazine scaffolds, it is shown that lamotrigine, a 1,2,4-triazine-3,5-diamine and a sodium-ion channel blocker class of antiepileptic drug, also inhibits E. coli DHFR. This is the first comprehensive study on the binding and inhibition brought about by diaminotriazines of a gram

  18. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  19. Revealing Small-Scale Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, Ken

    Astrophotographers face amazing challenges in their pursuit of acquiring high quality data and then turn that data into beautiful images that viewers admire. We carefully set up our imaging systems with amazing precision so each exposure contains well focused sharp sub frames. For every exposure there exist a myriad of variables that can work against us to potentially degrade the details of the celestial objects we record. Some of these variables are within our control and some are not. Even the variables beyond our control can often be compensated for by processing adjustments for maximizing the potential of our images. My goal is to share some of the methods I have found useful in recovering those elements that bring clarity to our pictures.

  20. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    PubMed

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. PMID:25437904

  1. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  2. Langevin dynamics neglecting detailed balance condition.

    PubMed

    Ohzeki, Masayuki; Ichiki, Akihisa

    2015-07-01

    An improved method for driving a system into a desired distribution, for example, the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution, is proposed, which makes use of an artificial relaxation process. The standard techniques for achieving the Gibbs-Boltzmann distribution involve numerical simulations under the detailed balance condition. In contrast, in the present study we formulate the Langevin dynamics, for which the corresponding Fokker-Planck operator includes an asymmetric component violating the detailed balance condition. This leads to shifts in the eigenvalues and results in the acceleration of the relaxation toward the steady state. The numerical implementation demonstrates faster convergence and shorter correlation time, and the technique of biased event sampling, Nemoto-Sasa theory, further highlights the efficacy of our method. PMID:26274123

  3. Detailed Studies of Electron Cooling Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Abell, D. T.; Sidorin, A. O.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORPAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  4. Finding Meaning in the Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Sharon McKittrick

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the work of the Canadian artist, Calvin Nicholls, who makes amazing low-relief sculptures from archival paper. Student works include owls in flight, a hawk, a kingfisher, a rat on a chain, a moth, and other creatures. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  6. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  7. Ideas and Details: A Guide to College Writing. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, M. Garrett

    The goal of this guidebook is to help writers activate their brains to stir up more and better ideas and details. The guide's thesis is that "good writing combines fresh ideas energized by vivid details." Chapters 1, 2, and 3 are devoted to providing thinking options for writers. Chapters 4 and 5 discuss options for paragraphing and organization.…

  8. BP details new recycling process

    SciTech Connect

    Chynoweth, E.

    1992-04-22

    BP Chemicals (London) is developing a preprocessing thermal cracker for recycling mixed plastics waste as an add-on to existing petrochemicals or refinery complexes. The company is currently discussing the technology with other plastic producers to {open_quotes}move forward together,{close_quotes} say Serge Huybrechts, branch R&D manager at BP Chemicals at Grangemouth. He says the unit would be able to deliver an intermediate feed of similar composition to chemical naphtha for chemical or refinery processes including steam cracking, catalytic cracking, coking, gasification, and hydrocracking. In comparison, pyrolysis gives a range of products, from light gas to heavy aromatics, that are difficult to integrate into existing equipment.

  9. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Hydrazine Decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meagher, Nancy E.; Bates, Kami R.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this research project is to develop and validate a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. Hydrazine is used extensively in aerospace propulsion, and although liquid hydrazine is not considered detonable, many fuel handling systems create multiphase mixtures of fuels and fuel vapors during their operation. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of the decomposition chemistry of hydrazine under a variety of conditions can be of value in assessing potential operational hazards in hydrazine fuel systems. To gain such knowledge, a reasonable starting point is the development and validation of a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for gas-phase hydrazine decomposition. A reasonably complete mechanism was published in 1996, however, many of the elementary steps included had outdated rate expressions and a thorough investigation of the behavior of the mechanism under a variety of conditions was not presented. The current work has included substantial revision of the previously published mechanism, along with a more extensive examination of the decomposition behavior of hydrazine. An attempt to validate the mechanism against the limited experimental data available has been made and was moderately successful. Further computational and experimental research into the chemistry of this fuel needs to be completed.

  10. Optomechanical details in injection-molded assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Raymond T.

    1995-12-01

    With the advent of low-cost electro-optic components such as LEDs, laser diodes and CCD imaging devices, the cost and performance demands now fall upon the optical subsystems in order to achieve realistic marketing targets for many emerging commercial and consumer products. One of the many benefits of injection-molded plastic optics is the diversity of features that are available to the design team. Once designed and incorporated into the tooling, many features are virtually free in high-volume production. These features can include mechanical details as well as optical functions. Registration features can be included for precisely positioning optical elements to one another or to other assemblies such as printed circuit boards or housings. Snaps, compression features, spring-loading elements, standoffs, self-tapping screws or ultrasonically weldable features can greatly facilitate ease of assembly.

  11. 21. INTERIOR VIEW OF 1908 NO. 2 SHAFTROCKHOUSE WHICH DETAILS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW OF 1908 NO. 2 SHAFT-ROCKHOUSE WHICH DETAILS THE SKIP ROAD LEADING UP FROM GROUND LEVEL. LEVER ON LEFT CONTROLS SLIDING TRACK SECTION AND ACTIVATES THE LOWEST SKIP DUMP. - Quincy Mining Company, Hancock, Houghton County, MI

  12. 19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTHSOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. DETAILED OBLIQUE VIEW SOUTH-SOUTHEAST OF FURNACE 2, SHOWING PLATFORM AT UPPER LEFT HOLDING PULLEY SYSTEM AND ELECTRIC MOTOR TO ACTIVATE DOORS. - Vulcan Crucible Steel Company, Building No. 3, 100 First Street, Aliquippa, Beaver County, PA

  13. Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  14. Some articulatory details of emotional speech

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sungbok; Yildirim, Serdar; Bulut, Murtaza; Kazemzadeh, Abe; Narayanan, Shrikanth

    2005-09-01

    Differences in speech articulation among four emotion types, neutral, anger, sadness, and happiness are investigated by analyzing tongue tip, jaw, and lip movement data collected from one male and one female speaker of American English. The data were collected using an electromagnetic articulography (EMA) system while subjects produce simulated emotional speech. Pitch, root-mean-square (rms) energy and the first three formants were estimated for vowel segments. For both speakers, angry speech exhibited the largest rms energy and largest articulatory activity in terms of displacement range and movement speed. Happy speech is characterized by largest pitch variability. It has higher rms energy than neutral speech but articulatory activity is rather comparable to, or less than, neutral speech. That is, happy speech is more prominent in voicing activity than in articulation. Sad speech exhibits longest sentence duration and lower rms energy. However, its articulatory activity is no less than neutral speech. Interestingly, for the male speaker, articulation for vowels in sad speech is consistently more peripheral (i.e., more forwarded displacements) when compared to other emotions. However, this does not hold for female subject. These and other results will be discussed in detail with associated acoustics and perceived emotional qualities. [Work supported by NIH.

  15. Constructive episodic simulation: temporal distance and detail of past and future events modulate hippocampal engagement.

    PubMed

    Addis, Donna Rose; Schacter, Daniel L

    2008-01-01

    Behavioral, lesion and neuroimaging evidence show striking commonalities between remembering past events and imagining future events. In a recent event-related fMRI study, we instructed participants to construct a past or future event in response to a cue. Once an event was in mind, participants made a button press, then generated details (elaboration) and rated them. The elaboration of past and future events recruited a common neural network. However, regions within this network may respond differentially to event characteristics, such as the amount of detail generated and temporal distance, depending on whether the event is in the past or future. To investigate this further, we conducted parametric modulation analyses, with temporal distance and detail as covariates, and focused on the medial temporal lobes and frontopolar cortex. The analysis of detail (independent of temporal distance) showed that the left posterior hippocampus was responsive to the amount of detail comprising both past and future events. In contrast, the left anterior hippocampus responded differentially to the amount of detail comprising future events, possibly reflecting the recombination of details into a novel future event. The analysis of temporal distance revealed that the increasing recency of past events correlated with activity in the right parahippocampus gyrus (Brodmann area (BA) 35/36), while activity in the bilateral hippocampus was significantly correlated with the increasing remoteness of future events. We propose that the hippocampal response to the distance of future events reflects the increasing disparateness of details likely included in remote future events, and the intensive relational processing required for integrating such details into a coherent episodic simulation of the future. These findings provide further support for the constructive episodic simulation hypothesis (Schacter and Addis (2007) Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 362:773-786) and highlight the

  16. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design, construction... this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering systems. Power for going...

  17. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design, construction... this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering systems. Power for going...

  18. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design, construction... this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering systems. Power for going...

  19. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design, construction... this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering systems. Power for going...

  20. 46 CFR 77.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 77.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of design, construction... this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering systems. Power for going...

  1. 46 CFR 195.03-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CONTROL AND MISCELLANEOUS SYSTEMS AND EQUIPMENT Marine Engineering Systems § 195.03-1 Installation and details. (a) The installation of all systems of a marine engineering nature, together with the details of... (Marine Engineering) of this chapter. Systems of this type include the following: Steering Systems....

  2. Initial detailed designs for intermediate photovoltaic systems: Office building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, J.; Obrien, G.

    1982-07-01

    A detailed design is presented for a 140 kW ground mounted flat plate array photovoltaic system to serve a three story office building. The design is analyzed for performance and economics. Building architectural features and load demands are defined. Photovoltaic array, electrical system design, and system installation are discussed, along with alternative design choices. Specifications and installation details are included.

  3. Initial detailed designs for intermediate photovoltaic systems: Branch bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrien, G.; Herz, J.

    1981-12-01

    The first of four detailed PV system designs for intermediate applications with a peak electrical load of 20 to 500 kW is presented. The initial design for a 6 kW direct roof mount, fixed tilt, flat plate array is analyzed for performance and economics. A drawing set, specifications, and installation details are included for procurement and construction bids.

  4. Software For Drawing Design Details Concurrently

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crosby, Dewey C., III

    1990-01-01

    Software system containing five computer-aided-design programs enables more than one designer to work on same part or assembly at same time. Reduces time necessary to produce design by implementing concept of parallel or concurrent detailing, in which all detail drawings documenting three-dimensional model of part or assembly produced simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Keeps various detail drawings consistent with each other and with overall design by distributing changes in each detail to all other affected details.

  5. Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood DoubleHung ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cornice Detail of Rake, Cornice Detail of Eave, Wood Double-Hung Window Details, Wood Door Details - Boxley Grist Mill, Boxley vicinity on State Route 43, Buffalo National River, Ponca, Newton County, AR

  6. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall be... of this type include the following: Ship's Service Generating Systems. Ship's Service Power... Lighting and Power Systems. Electric Lifeboat Winch Systems. Electric Steering Gear and Steering...

  7. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall be... of this type include the following: Ship's Service Generating Systems. Ship's Service Power... Lighting and Power Systems. Electric Lifeboat Winch Systems. Electric Steering Gear and Steering...

  8. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall.... Systems of this type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power... lighting and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  9. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be in... type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power distribution... and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  10. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be in... type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power distribution... and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  11. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall be... of this type include the following: Ship's Service Generating Systems. Ship's Service Power... Lighting and Power Systems. Electric Lifeboat Winch Systems. Electric Steering Gear and Steering...

  12. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall.... Systems of this type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power... lighting and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  13. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be in... type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power distribution... and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  14. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall be... of this type include the following: Ship's Service Generating Systems. Ship's Service Power... Lighting and Power Systems. Electric Lifeboat Winch Systems. Electric Steering Gear and Steering...

  15. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall.... Systems of this type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power... lighting and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  16. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be in... type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power distribution... and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  17. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall.... Systems of this type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power... lighting and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  18. 46 CFR 77.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... communications nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall be in... type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power distribution... and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  19. 46 CFR 96.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation, shall.... Systems of this type include the following: Ship's service generating systems. Ship's service power... lighting and power systems. Electric lifeboat winch systems. Electric steering gear and steering...

  20. 46 CFR 195.05-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... interior communication nature, together with the details of design, construction, and installation shall be... of this type include the following: Ship's Service Generating Systems. Ship's Service Power... Lighting and Power Systems. Electric Lifeboat Winch Systems. Electric Steering Gear and Steering...

  1. 15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL, UNDERSIDE OF DECK, FROM BELOW AND WEST, SHOWING STRUCTURAL CONFIGURATION, INCLUDING FLOOR BEAMS, STRINGERS, BRACING, AND STEEL MESH DECK - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  2. DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CROCKETT BARN WALL CONSTRUCTION, UPPER LEVEL. The wall construction of the Crockett barn includes a layer of diagonal sheathing that is exposed on the interior. - Crockett Farm, Barn, 1056 Fort Casey Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  3. Detail, center pier, showing rigidlyfixed arch ribs, starpattern balustrade, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, center pier, showing rigidly-fixed arch ribs, star-pattern balustrade, and simple ornamentation including molded treatment of concrete, pyramidal pier cap, and stylized pilaster - Horner Street Bridge, Horner Street over Stonycreek River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  4. Hi-C: A Detailed View of the Sun

    NASA Video Gallery

    This 10-second movie includes imagery collected from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly instrument flying on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory and Hi-C. Hi-C’s resolution is five times more detaile...

  5. Initial detailed designs for intermediate photovoltaic systems: Warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herz, J.; Obrien, G.

    1982-02-01

    This initial design for a 30 kW ground mounted, 2-axis tracking concentrator is analyzed for performance and economics. A drawing set, specifications, and installation details are included for procurement and construction bids.

  6. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT

    2015-12-01

    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  7. Detailed Chemical Kinetic Modeling of Cyclohexane Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Silke, E J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K; Ribaucour, M

    2006-11-10

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of cyclohexane at both low and high temperatures. Reaction rate constant rules are developed for the low temperature combustion of cyclohexane. These rules can be used for in chemical kinetic mechanisms for other cycloalkanes. Since cyclohexane produces only one type of cyclohexyl radical, much of the low temperature chemistry of cyclohexane is described in terms of one potential energy diagram showing the reaction of cyclohexyl radical + O{sub 2} through five, six and seven membered ring transition states. The direct elimination of cyclohexene and HO{sub 2} from RO{sub 2} is included in the treatment using a modified rate constant of Cavallotti et al. Published and unpublished data from the Lille rapid compression machine, as well as jet-stirred reactor data are used to validate the mechanism. The effect of heat loss is included in the simulations, an improvement on previous studies on cyclohexane. Calculations indicated that the production of 1,2-epoxycyclohexane observed in the experiments can not be simulated based on the current understanding of low temperature chemistry. Possible 'alternative' H-atom isomerizations leading to different products from the parent O{sub 2}QOOH radical were included in the low temperature chemical kinetic mechanism and were found to play a significant role.

  8. 5 CFR 532.411 - Details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details. 532.411 Section 532.411 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PREVAILING RATE SYSTEMS Pay Administration § 532.411 Details. An appropriated fund employee detailed to a position other than the position...

  9. 49 CFR 176.102 - Supervisory detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervisory detail. 176.102 Section 176.102... Requirements for Class 1 (Explosive) Materials § 176.102 Supervisory detail. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, the COTP may assign a USCG supervisory detail to any vessel to supervise...

  10. Multi-targeted neuroprotection by the HSV-2 gene ICP10PK includes robust bystander activity through PI3-K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK-dependent neuronal release of vascular endothelial growth factor and fractalkine

    PubMed Central

    Laing, Jennifer M.; Smith, Cynthia C.; Aurelian, Laure

    2013-01-01

    Hippocampal cultures infected with the ΔRR vector for the HSV-2 anti-apoptotic gene ICP10PK survive cell death triggered by a wide variety of insults. Survival includes robust protection of uninfected neurons, but the mechanism of this bystander activity is still unclear. Here we report that ICP10PK+ neurons release soluble factors that protect uninfected neurons from NMDA and MPP+-induced apoptosis. Release depends on ICP10PK-mediated activation of the Ras signaling pathways MEK/ERK and PI3-K/Akt, and it was not seen for cultures infected with the ICP10PK negative vector ΔPK. The released neuroprotective factors include vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and fractalkine, the levels of which were significantly higher in conditioned media from hippocampal cultures infected with ΔRR (NCMΔRR) than ΔPK or phosphate-buffered saline (mock infection). VEGF neutralization inhibited the neuroprotective activity of NCMΔRR, indicating that the VEGF protective function is through neuron-neuron cross-talk. NCMΔRR also stimulated microglia to release increased levels of IL-10 and decreased levels of TNF-α that were protective for uninfected neurons. These release patterns were not seen for microglia given NCMΔRR in which fractalkine was neutralized, indicating that the fractalkine protective function is through bidirectional neuron-microglia communication. Collectively, the data indicate that ΔRR is a multiple target strategy to rescue neurons from excitotoxic injury. PMID:19891735

  11. The level of intracellular glutathione is a key regulator for the induction of stress-activated signal transduction pathways including Jun N-terminal protein kinases and p38 kinase by alkylating agents.

    PubMed Central

    Wilhelm, D; Bender, K; Knebel, A; Angel, P

    1997-01-01

    Monofunctional alkylating agents like methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) are potent inducers of cellular stress leading to chromosomal aberrations, point mutations, and cell killing. We show that these agents induce a specific cellular stress response program which includes the activation of Jun N-terminal kinases/stress-activated protein kinases (JNK/SAPKs), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, and the upstream kinase SEK1/MKK4 and which depends on the reaction mechanism of the alkylating agent in question. Similar to another inducer of cellular stress, UV irradiation, damage of nuclear DNA by alkylation is not involved in the MMS-induced response. However, in contrast to UV and other inducers of the JNK/SAPKs and p38 pathways, activation of growth factor and G-protein-coupled receptors does not play a role in the MMS response. We identified the intracellular glutathione (GSH) level as critical for JNK/SAPK activation by MMS: enhancing the GSH level by pretreatment of the cells with GSH or N-acetylcysteine inhibits, whereas depletion of the cellular GSH pool causes hyperinduction of JNK/SAPK activity by MMS. In light of the JNK/SAPK-dependent induction of c-jun and c-fos transcription, and the Jun/Fos-induced transcription of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes, these data provide a potential critical role of JNK/SAPK and p38 in the induction of a cellular defense program against cytotoxic xenobiotics such as MMS. PMID:9234735

  12. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 85Sr to include the 2009 result of the POLATOM (Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Dziel, T.; Listkowska, A.

    2015-01-01

    Since 1975, ten laboratories have submitted 27 samples of known activity of 85Sr to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85. The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.2 MBq and 19 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the primary standardization result for the POLATOM, Poland. There are now four results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Sr-85 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  13. Rhinoscleroma: a detailed histopathological diagnostic insight

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Ahmed RH; El-badawy, Zeinab H; Mohamed, Ibrahim R; Abdelhameed, Waleed AM

    2015-01-01

    Rhinoscleroma (RS) is a chronic specific disease of nose and upper respiratory passages caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis bacilli. It is endemic in Egypt and in sporadic areas worldwide. Diagnosis of RS depends on identification of the pathognomonic Mickulicz cells (MCs) which is most prominent during granulomatous phase but spares or absent during catarrhal or sclerotic phases of the disease. This study aimed to identify the potential diagnostic features of nasal RS when MCs are absent. Nasal biopsies from 125 patients complaining of chronic nasal symptoms were retrieved for this study; including 72 chronic non specific inflammatory lesions and 53 RS diagnosed by PAS and Geimsa stains. The detailed histological differences among the two groups were measured statistically. RS was frequently a bilateral disease (P < 0.05) of young age (P < 0.001) with a female predominance (P < 0.05) and usually associated with nasal crustations (P < 0.001). Five strong histological indicators of RS were specified by univariate binary logistic regression analyses including squamous metaplasia (OR 27.2, P < 0.0001), dominance of plasma cells (OR 12.75, P < 0.0001), Russell bodies (OR 8.83, P < 0.0001), neutrophiles (OR 3.7, P < 0.001) and absence of oesinophiles (OR 12.0, P < 0.0001). According to Multivariate analysis, the diagnostic features of RS in absence of MCs can be classified into major criteria including dominance of plasma cells infiltration and absence of oesinophiles and minor criteria including young age, female gender, bilateral nasal involvement, nasal crustation, squamous metaplasia, Russell bodies, and neutrophiles. The diagnostic model using the two major criteria confirmed or excluded RS in 84.3% of the investigated cases. PMID:26339415

  14. Acoustic emission monitoring for assessment of steel bridge details

    SciTech Connect

    Kosnik, D. E.; Corr, D. J.; Hopwood, T.

    2011-06-23

    Acoustic emission (AE) testing was deployed on details of two large steel Interstate Highway bridges: one cantilever through-truss and one trapezoidal box girder bridge. Quantitative measurements of activity levels at known and suspected crack locations were made by monitoring AE under normal service loads (e.g., live traffic and wind). AE indications were used to direct application of radiography, resulting in identification of a previously unknown flaw, and to inform selection of a retrofit detail.

  15. Accurate determination of chlorine, bromine, and iodine in sedimentary rock reference samples by radiochemical neutron activation analysis and a detailed comparison with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry literature data.

    PubMed

    Sekimoto, Shun; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2013-07-01

    Trace amounts of three halogens (chlorine, bromine, and iodine) were determined using radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) for nine sedimentary rocks and three rhyolite samples. To obtain high-quality analytical data, the radiochemical procedure of RNAA was improved by lowering the background in gamma-ray spectrometry and completing the chemical procedure more rapidly than in conventional procedures. A comparison of the RNAA data of Br and I with corresponding inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) literature data revealed that the values obtained by ICPMS coupled with pyrohydrolysis preconcentration were systematically lower than the RNAA data for some reference samples, suggesting that the quantitative collection of Br and I cannot always be achieved by the pyrohydrolysis for some solid samples. The RNAA data of three halogens can classify sedimentary rock reference samples into two groups (the samples from inland water and those from seawater), implying the geochemical significance of halogen data. PMID:23710630

  16. Description of Axial Detail for ROK Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Trellue, Holly R; Galloway, Jack D

    2012-04-20

    For the purpose of NDA simulations of the ROK fuel assemblies, we have developed an axial burnup distribution to represent the pins themselves based on gamma scans of rods in the G23 assembly. For the purpose of modeling the G23 assembly (both at ORNL and LANL), the pin-by-pin burnup map as simulated by ROK is being assumed to represent the radial burnup distribution. However, both DA and NDA results indicate that this simulated estimate is not 100% correct. In particular, the burnup obtained from the axial gamma scan of 7 pins does not represent exactly the same 'average' pin burnup as the ROK simulation. Correction for this discrepancy is a goal of the well-characterized assembly task but will take time. For now, I have come up with a correlation for 26 axial points of the burnup as obtained by gamma scans of 7 different rods (C13, G01, G02, J11, K10, L02, and M04, neglecting K02 at this time) to the average burnup given by the simulation for each of the rods individually. The resulting fraction in each axial zone is then averaged for the 7 different rods so that it can represent every fuel pin in the assembly. The burnup in each of the 26 axial zones of rods in all ROK assemblies will then be directly adjusted using this fraction, which is given in Table 1. Note that the gamma scan data given by ROK for assembly G23 included a length of {approx}3686 mm, so the first 12 mm and the last 14 mm were ignored to give an actual rod length of {approx}366 cm. To represent assembly F02 in which no pin-by-pin burnup distribution is given by ROK, we must model it using infinitely-reflected geometry but can look at the effects of measuring in different axial zones by using intermediate burnup files (i.e. smaller burnups than 28 GWd/MTU) and determining which axial zone(s) each burnup represents. Details for assembly F02 are then given in Tables 2 and 3, which is given in Table 1 and has 44 total axial zones to represent the top meter in explicit detail in addition to the

  17. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - FY 1999/011

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A; Thorne, Paul D; Newcomer, Darrell R

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  18. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A; Thorne, Paul D; Newcomer, Darrell R

    2001-05-15

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  19. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 1999

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-01-19

    This report provides the results of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within newly constructed Hanford Site wells during FY 1999. Detailed characterization tests performed during FY 1999 included: groundwater flow characterization, barometric response evaluation, slug tests, single-well tracer tests, constant-rate pumping tests, and in-well vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include: transmissivity, hydraulic conductivity, specific yield, effective porosity, in-well lateral flow velocity, aquifer flow velocity, vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section) and in-well vertical flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  20. Results of Detailed Hydrologic Characterization Tests - Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Spane, Frank A.; Thorne, Paul D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2001-05-15

    This report provides the resluts of detailed hydrologic characterization tests conducted within eleven Hanford Site wells during fiscal year 2000. Detailed characterization tests performed included groundwater-flow characterization; barometric response evaluation; slug tests; single-well tracer tests; constant-rate pumping tests; and in-well, vertical flow tests. Hydraulic property estimates obtained from the detailed hydrologic tests include transmissivity; hydraulic conductivity; specific yield; effective porosity; in-well, lateral flow velocity; aquifer-flow velocity; vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity (within the well-screen section); and in-well, verticla flow velocity. In addition, local groundwater-flow characteristics (i.e., hydraulic gradient and flow direction) were determined for four sites where detailed well testing was performed.

  1. The Amarillo National Resource Center for Plutonium. Quarterly progress detailed report, 1 November 1996--31 January 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Progress for this quarter is given for each of the following Center programs: (1) plutonium information resource; (2) advisory function (DOE and state support); (3) environmental, public health and safety; (3) communication, education, and training; and (4) nuclear and other material studies. Both summaries of the activities and detailed reports are included.

  2. The refined 1.9-A X-ray crystal structure of D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone-inhibited human alpha-thrombin: structure analysis, overall structure, electrostatic properties, detailed active-site geometry, and structure-function relationships.

    PubMed Central

    Bode, W.; Turk, D.; Karshikov, A.

    1992-01-01

    Thrombin is a multifunctional serine proteinase that plays a key role in coagulation while exhibiting several other key cellular bioregulatory functions. The X-ray crystal structure of human alpha-thrombin was determined in its complex with the specific thrombin inhibitor D-Phe-Pro-Arg chloromethylketone (PPACK) using Patterson search methods and a search model derived from trypsinlike proteinases of known spatial structure (Bode, W., Mayr, I., Baumann, U., Huber, R., Stone, S.R., & Hofsteenge, J., 1989, EMBO J. 8, 3467-3475). The crystallographic refinement of the PPACK-thrombin model has now been completed at an R value of 0.156 (8 to 1.92 A); in particular, the amino- and the carboxy-termini of the thrombin A-chain are now defined and all side-chain atoms localized; only proline 37 was found to be in a cis-peptidyl conformation. The thrombin B-chain exhibits the characteristic polypeptide fold of trypsinlike serine proteinases; 195 residues occupy topologically equivalent positions with residues in bovine trypsin and 190 with those in bovine chymotrypsin with a root-mean-square (r.m.s.) deviation of 0.8 A for their alpha-carbon atoms. Most of the inserted residues constitute novel surface loops. A chymotrypsinogen numbering is suggested for thrombin based on the topological equivalences. The thrombin A-chain is arranged in a boomeranglike shape against the B-chain globule opposite to the active site; it resembles somewhat the propeptide of chymotrypsin(ogen) and is similarly not involved in substrate and inhibitor binding. Thrombin possesses an exceptionally large proportion of charged residues. The negatively and positively charged residues are not distributed uniformly over the whole molecule, but are clustered to form a sandwichlike electrostatic potential; in particular, two extended patches of mainly positively charged residues occur close to the carboxy-terminal B-chain helix (forming the presumed heparin-binding site) and on the surface of loop segment 70

  3. Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Plot plan & miscellaneous details. San Bernardino Valley Union Junior College, Classics Building. Includes map drawers, surveying equipment lockers, counters, platforms, etc. Howard E. Jones, Architect, San Bernardino, California. Sheet 8, job no. 312. Scales 1/2 inch to the foot (details) and 1/64 inch to the foot (plot plan). February 15, 1927. - San Bernardino Valley College, Classics Building, 701 South Mount Vernon Avenue, San Bernardino, San Bernardino County, CA

  4. Detailed surveys of offshore Peru margin

    SciTech Connect

    Hussong, D.M.; Taylor, B.; Kulm, L.D.; Hilde, T.W.C.

    1986-07-01

    The complex and highly variable structure of the submarine continental margin of central Peru is revealed by geophysical surveys and geologic sampling completed in 1985. The surveys were conducted in preparation for deep scientific drilling to be undertaken by the Ocean Drilling Program in November-December 1986. More than 11,000 km/sup 2/ of sea floor were mapped using the SeaMARC II side-scan sonar and bathymetry system; 1500 km of multichannel seismic reflection profiles and 4000 km of single-channel seismic data were shot; and many coring, dredging, and heat-flow stations were obtained. The data permit construction of detailed three-dimensional geologic maps of the region. These maps show that the ancient metamorphic rocks of South America extend close to the trench axis and apparently have undergone a history of truncation and subsidence related to the subduction of the Nazca oceanic plate. Adjacent segments of the Peru forearc have dramatically different structure and appear to have had differing tectonic histories. The margin is disrupted by extensive (primarily tensional) faulting; the larger faults extend perpendicular to the strike of the trench and often serve as conduits for diapirs and mud volcanoes. Living chemosynthetic clams were dredged from 3800-m depth along one of these fault trends, suggesting that active fluid venting occurs at depth on the continental wall of the Peru Trench.

  5. Detailed sensory memory, sloppy working memory.

    PubMed

    Sligte, Ilja G; Vandenbroucke, Annelinde R E; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F

    2010-01-01

    Visual short-term memory (VSTM) enables us to actively maintain information in mind for a brief period of time after stimulus disappearance. According to recent studies, VSTM consists of three stages - iconic memory, fragile VSTM, and visual working memory - with increasingly stricter capacity limits and progressively longer lifetimes. Still, the resolution (or amount of visual detail) of each VSTM stage has remained unexplored and we test this in the present study. We presented people with a change detection task that measures the capacity of all three forms of VSTM, and we added an identification display after each change trial that required people to identify the "pre-change" object. Accurate change detection plus pre-change identification requires subjects to have a high-resolution representation of the "pre-change" object, whereas change detection or identification only can be based on the hunch that something has changed, without exactly knowing what was presented before. We observed that people maintained 6.1 objects in iconic memory, 4.6 objects in fragile VSTM, and 2.1 objects in visual working memory. Moreover, when people detected the change, they could also identify the pre-change object on 88% of the iconic memory trials, on 71% of the fragile VSTM trials and merely on 53% of the visual working memory trials. This suggests that people maintain many high-resolution representations in iconic memory and fragile VSTM, but only one high-resolution object representation in visual working memory. PMID:21897823

  6. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: Detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagadeesh, M.; Kalangi, Suresh K.; Sivarama Krishna, L.; Reddy, A. Varada

    2014-01-01

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1 = 2.1228, g2 = 2.0706 and g3 = 2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM.

  7. Halo-substituted thiosemicarbazones and their copper(II), nickel(II) complexes: detailed spectroscopic characterization and study of antitumour activity against HepG2 human hepatoblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesh, M; Kalangi, Suresh K; Sivarama Krishna, L; Reddy, A Varada

    2014-01-24

    Copper(II) and nickel(II) complexes of two different halogen substituted thiosemicarbazone ligands were synthesized. The ligands 3,4-difluoroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (1) and 2-bromo-4'-chloroacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (2) were characterized and confirmed spectroscopically by FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-vis and fluorescence spectral analysis, while the respective copper(II) complexes [Cu(C9H9N3F2S)2Cl2] (1a), [Cu(C9H9N3ClBrS)2Cl2] (2a) and nickel(II) complexes [Ni(C9H9N3F2S)2] (1b), [Ni(C9H9N3ClBrS)2] (2b) were characterized by FT-IR, UV-vis and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy (EPR). The EPR spectra of the Cu(II) complexes provided the rhombic octahedral and axial symmetry of the complexes 1a and 2a respectively. For the complex 1a, the g values calculated as g1=2.1228, g2=2.0706 and g3=2.001 between 2900 and 3300 G. While for the complex 2a, a set of two resonance absorptions were observed. The synthesized compounds were tested for antitumor activity and showed that the ability to kill liver cancer cells significantly. Out of all the synthesized compounds, copper(II) complexes 1a and 2a showed high cytotoxic effect on liver cancer cells with 67.51% and 42.77% of cytotoxicity respectively at 100 μM. PMID:24084484

  8. Detailed structural characterization of the grafting of [Ta(=CHtBu)(CH2tBu)3] and [Cp*TaMe4] on silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 C and the activity of the grafted complexes toward alkane metathesis

    SciTech Connect

    Le Roux, Erwan; Chabanas, Mathieu; Baudouin, Anne; de Mallmann, Aimery; Coperet, Christophe; Quadrelli, E. Allesandra; Thivolle-Cazat, Jean; Basset, Jean-Marie; Lukens, Wayne; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon; Sunley, Glenn J.

    2004-08-30

    The reaction of [Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 3}] or [Cp*Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}] with a silica partially dehydroxylated at 700 C gives the corresponding monosiloxy surface complexes [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}] and [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*] by eliminating a {sigma}-bonded ligand as the corresponding alkane (H-CH{sub 2}tBu or H-CH{sub 3}). EXAFS data show that an adjacent siloxane bridge of the surface plays the role of an extra surface ligand, which most likely stabilizes these complexes as in [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (1a') and [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (2a'). In the case of [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})], the structure is further stabilized by an additional interaction: a C-H agostic bond as evidenced by the small J coupling constant for the carbenic C-H (H{sub C-H} = 80 Hz), which was measured by J-resolved 2D solid-state NMR spectroscopy. The product selectivity in propane metathesis in the presence of [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta({double_bond}CHtBu)-(CH{sub 2}tBu){sub 2}({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (1a') as a catalyst precursor and the inactivity of the surface complex [({triple_bond}SiO)Ta-(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}Cp*({triple_bond}SiOSi{triple_bond})] (2a') show that the active site is required to be highly electrophilic and probably involves a metallacyclobutane intermediate.

  9. Optoelectronic pH Meter: Further Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeevarajan, Antony S.; Anderson, Mejody M.; Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2009-01-01

    A collection of documents provides further detailed information about an optoelectronic instrument that measures the pH of an aqueous cell-culture medium to within 0.1 unit in the range from 6.5 to 7.5. The instrument at an earlier stage of development was reported in Optoelectronic Instrument Monitors pH in a Culture Medium (MSC-23107), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 9 (September 2004), page 4a. To recapitulate: The instrument includes a quartz cuvette through which the medium flows as it is circulated through a bioreactor. The medium contains some phenol red, which is an organic pH-indicator dye. The cuvette sits between a light source and a photodetector. [The light source in the earlier version comprised red (625 nm) and green (558 nm) light-emitting diodes (LEDs); the light source in the present version comprises a single green- (560 nm)-or-red (623 nm) LED.] The red and green are repeatedly flashed in alternation. The responses of the photodiode to the green and red are processed electronically to obtain the ratio between the amounts of green and red light transmitted through the medium. The optical absorbance of the phenol red in the green light varies as a known function of pH. Hence, the pH of the medium can be calculated from the aforesaid ratio.

  10. Detailed Aerosol Characterization using Polarimetric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasekamp, Otto; di Noia, Antonio; Stap, Arjen; Rietjens, Jeroen; Smit, Martijn; van Harten, Gerard; Snik, Frans

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols are believed to cause the second most important anthropogenic forcing of climate change after greenhouse gases. In contrast to the climate effect of greenhouse gases, which is understood relatively well, the negative forcing (cooling effect) caused by aerosols represents the largest reported uncertainty in the most recent assessment of the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). To reduce the large uncertainty on the aerosol effects on cloud formation and climate, accurate satellite measurements of aerosol optical properties (optical thickness, single scattering albedo, phase function) and microphysical properties (size distribution, refractive index, shape) are essential. There is growing consensus in the aerosol remote sensing community that multi-angle measurements of intensity and polarization are essential to unambiguously determine all relevant aerosol properties. This presentations adresses the different aspects of polarimetric remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols, including retrieval algorithm development, validation, and data needs for climate and air quality applications. During past years, at SRON-Netherlands Instite for Space Research retrieval algorithms have been developed that make full use of the capabilities of polarimetric measurements. We will show results of detailed aerosol properties from ground-based- (groundSPEX), airborne- (NASA Research Scanning Polarimeter), and satellite (POLDER) measurements. Also we will discuss observational needs for future instrumentation in order to improve our understanding of the role of aerosols in climate change and air quality.

  11. 18 CFR 401.122 - Supplementary details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Supplementary details. 401.122 Section 401.122 Conservation of Power and Water Resources DELAWARE RIVER BASIN COMMISSION ADMINISTRATIVE MANUAL RULES OF PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE General Provisions § 401.122 Supplementary details....

  12. 24. 'HANGAR SHEDS ELEVATIONS DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. 'HANGAR SHEDS - ELEVATIONS - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Partial elevations, and details of sliding doors and ventilator flaps, as built. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/81, revision B, dated April 6, 1943. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. 5 CFR 317.903 - Details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., detail means the temporary assignment of an SES member to another position (within or outside of the SES) or the temporary assignment of a non-SES member to an SES position, with the expectation that the... agency may not detail an SES employee to unclassified duties for more than 240 days. (3) An agency...

  14. SEPAC flight software detailed design specifications, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The detailed design specifications (as built) for the SEPAC Flight Software are defined. The design includes a description of the total software system and of each individual module within the system. The design specifications describe the decomposition of the software system into its major components. The system structure is expressed in the following forms: the control-flow hierarchy of the system, the data-flow structure of the system, the task hierarchy, the memory structure, and the software to hardware configuration mapping. The component design description includes details on the following elements: register conventions, module (subroutines) invocaton, module functions, interrupt servicing, data definitions, and database structure.

  15. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  16. 25. 'HANGAR SHEDS TRUSSES DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. 'HANGAR SHEDS - TRUSSES - DETAILS; ARCHITECTURAL PLANS - PLANT AREA; MODIFICATION CENTER NO. 1, DAGGETT, CALIFORNIA.' Sections and details of trusses, ironwork, and joints, as modified to show ridge joint detail. As built. This blueline also shows the fire suppression system, added in orange pencil for 'Project 13: Bldgs. T-30, T-50, T-70, T-90' at a later, unspecified date. Contract no. W509 Eng. 2743; File no. 555/84, revision B, dated August 24, 1942. No sheet number. - Barstow-Daggett Airport, Hangar Shed No. 4, 39500 National Trails Highway, Daggett, San Bernardino County, CA

  17. DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET AUTOMATIC LOCKING MECHANISM ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF TRAM BUCKET AUTOMATIC LOCKING MECHANISM ON LOWER TRAM TERMINAL, LOOKING WEST. AS EMPTY BUCKETS PASSED THROUGH THIS MECHANISM, A LEVER ON THE BUCKET WAS ACTIVATED THAT LOCKED THE BUCKET TO THE MOVING CABLE, CARRYING IT ALONG BACK UP TO THE MINES. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  18. Ancillary-service details: Dynamic scheduling

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamic scheduling (DS) is the electronic transfer from one control area to another of the time-varying electricity consumption associated with a load or the time-varying electricity production associated with a generator. Although electric utilities have been using this technique for at least two decades, its use is growing in popularity and importance. This growth is a consequence of the major changes under way in US bulk-power markets, in particular efforts to unbundle generation from transmission and to increase competition among generation providers. DS can promote competition and increase choices. It allows consumers to purchase certain services from entities outside their physical-host area and it allows generators to sell certain services to entities other than their physical host. These services include regulation (following minute-to-minute variations in load) and operating reserves, among others. Such an increase in the number of possible suppliers and customers should encourage innovation and reduce the costs and prices of providing electricity services. The purpose of the project reported here was to collect and analyze data on utility experiences with DS. Chapter 2 provides additional details and examples of the definitions of DS. Chapter 3 explains why DS might be an attractive service that customers and generators, as well as transmission providers, might wan to use. Chapter 4 presents some of the many current DS examples the authors uncovered in their interviews. Chapter 5 discusses the costs and cost-effectiveness of DS. Chapter 6 explains what they believe can and cannot be electronically moved from one control area to another, primarily in terms of the six ancillary services that FERC defined in Order 888. Chapter 7 discusses the need for additional research on DS.

  19. Detailed Globes Enhance Education and Recreation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Orbis World Globes creates inflatable globes-Earthballs-in many sizes that depict Earth as it is seen from space, complete with atmospheric cloud cover. Orbis designs and produces the most visually authentic replicas of Earth ever created, and NASA took notice of Orbis globes and employed a 16-inch diameter EarthBall for an educational film it made aboard the STS-45 shuttle mission. Orbis later collaborated with NASA to create two 16-foot diameter world globes for display at the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City, using more detailed satellite imagery. The satellite image now printed on all Orbis globes displays 1-kilometer resolution and is 21,600 by 43,200 pixels in size, and Orbis globes are otherwise meteorologically accurate, though the cloud cover has been slightly reduced in order for most of the landforms to be visible. Orbis also developed the exclusive NightGlow Cities feature, enabling EarthBalls to display the world's cities as they appear as the Earth revolves from daylight into night. Orbis inflatable globes are available in sizes from 1 to 100 feet in diameter, with the most common being the standard 16-inch and 1-meter diameter EarthBalls. Applications include educational uses from preschools to universities, games, and for a variety of display purposes at conferences, trade shows, festivals, concerts, and parades. A 16-foot diameter Orbis globe was exhibited at the United Nations' World Urban Forum, in Vancouver, Canada; the Space 2006 conference, in San Jose, California; and the X-Prize Cup Personal Spaceflight Exposition in Las Cruces, New Mexico.

  20. Detailed modelling of the 21-cm forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semelin, B.

    2016-01-01

    The 21-cm forest is a promising probe of the Epoch of Reionization. The local state of the intergalactic medium (IGM) is encoded in the spectrum of a background source (radio-loud quasars or gamma-ray burst afterglow) by absorption at the local 21-cm wavelength, resulting in a continuous and fluctuating absorption level. Small-scale structures (filaments and minihaloes) in the IGM are responsible for the strongest absorption features. The absorption can also be modulated on large scales by inhomogeneous heating and Wouthuysen-Field coupling. We present the results from a simulation that attempts to preserve the cosmological environment while resolving some of the small-scale structures (a few kpc resolution in a 50 h-1 Mpc box). The simulation couples the dynamics and the ionizing radiative transfer and includes X-ray and Lyman lines radiative transfer for a detailed physical modelling. As a result we find that soft X-ray self-shielding, Ly α self-shielding and shock heating all have an impact on the predicted values of the 21-cm optical depth of moderately overdense structures like filaments. A correct treatment of the peculiar velocities is also critical. Modelling these processes seems necessary for accurate predictions and can be done only at high enough resolution. As a result, based on our fiducial model, we estimate that LOFAR should be able to detect a few (strong) absorptions features in a frequency range of a few tens of MHz for a 20 mJy source located at z = 10, while the SKA would extract a large fraction of the absorption information for the same source.

  1. Bacteria repelling poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide) coatings for biomedical devices† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Polymer microarray screening, including analysis of bacterial adhesion by fluorescence microscopy and SEM, and chemical composition of bacteria repelling polymers identified in the screen; polymer synthesis and characterisation; preparation of catheter pieces and solvent studies, and details for confocal imaging/analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4tb01129e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Venkateswaran, Seshasailam; Wu, Mei; Gwynne, Peter J.; Hardman, Ailsa; Lilienkampf, Annamaria; Pernagallo, Salvatore; Blakely, Garry; Swann, David G.

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial infections due to bacteria have serious implications on the health and recovery of patients in a variety of medical scenarios. Since bacterial contamination on medical devices contributes to the majority of nosocomical infections, there is a need for redesigning the surfaces of medical devices, such as catheters and tracheal tubes, to resist the binding of bacteria. In this work, polyurethanes and polyacrylates/acrylamides, which resist binding by the major bacterial pathogens underpinning implant-associated infections, were identified using high-throughput polymer microarrays. Subsequently, two ‘hit’ polymers, PA13 (poly(methylmethacrylate-co-dimethylacrylamide)) and PA515 (poly(methoxyethylmethacrylate-co-diethylaminoethylacrylate-co-methylmethacrylate)), were used to coat catheters and substantially shown to decrease binding of a variety of bacteria (including isolates from infected endotracheal tubes and heart valves from intensive care unit patients). Catheters coated with polymer PA13 showed up to 96% reduction in bacteria binding in comparison to uncoated catheters. PMID:25580245

  2. POSITIVE EMOTIONS ENHANCE RECALL OF PERIPHERAL DETAILS

    PubMed Central

    Talarico, Jennifer M.; Berntsen, Dorthe; Rubin, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Emotional arousal and negative affect enhance recall of central aspects of an event. However, the role of discrete emotions in selective memory processing is understudied. Undergraduates were asked to recall and rate autobiographical memories of eight emotional events. Details of each memory were rated as central or peripheral to the event. Significance of the event, vividness, reliving and other aspects of remembering were also rated for each event. Positive affect enhanced recall of peripheral details. Furthermore, the impairment of peripheral recall was greatest in memories of anger, not of fear. Reliving the experience at retrieval was negatively correlated with recall of peripheral details for some emotions (e.g., anger) but not others (e.g., fear), irrespective of similarities in affect and intensity. Within individuals, recall of peripheral details was correlated with less belief in the memory’s accuracy and more likelihood to recall the memory from one’s own eyes (i.e., a field perspective). PMID:21359127

  3. Global detailed geoid computation and model analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, J. G.; Vincent, S.

    1974-01-01

    Comparisons and analyses were carried out through the use of detailed gravimetric geoids which we have computed by combining models with a set of 26,000 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies. The accuracy of the detailed gravimetric geoid computed using the most recent Goddard earth model (GEM-6) in conjunction with the set of 1 deg x 1 deg mean free air gravity anomalies is assessed at + or - 2 meters on the continents of North America, Europe, and Australia, 2 to 5 meters in the Northeast Pacific and North Atlantic areas, and 5 to 10 meters in other areas where surface gravity data are sparse. The R.M.S. differences between this detailed geoid and the detailed geoids computed using the other satellite gravity fields in conjuction with same set of surface data range from 3 to 7 meters.

  4. Principle of Detailed Balance in Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the detailed balance on chemical kinetics on the chemical monomolecular triangle reactions are illustrated. A simple experiment that illustrates oscillations, limit cycles, bifurcations and noise are illustrated along with the oscillating reactions.

  5. Memory’s Aging Echo: Age-related Decline in Neural Reactivation of Perceptual Details During Recollection

    PubMed Central

    McDonough, Ian M.; Cervantes, Sasha N.; Gray, Stephen J.; Gallo, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Episodic memory decline is a hallmark of normal cognitive aging. Here, we report the first event-related fMRI study to directly investigate age differences in the neural reactivation of qualitatively rich perceptual details during recollection. Younger and older adults studied pictures of complex scenes at different presentation durations along with descriptive verbal labels, and these labels subsequently were used during fMRI scanning to cue picture recollections of varying perceptual detail. As expected from prior behavioral work, the two groups subjectively rated their recollections as containing similar amounts of perceptual detail, despite objectively measured recollection impairment in older adults. In both age groups, comparisons of retrieval trials that varied in recollected detail revealed robust activity in brain regions previously linked to recollection, including hippocampus and both medial and lateral regions of the prefrontal and posterior parietal cortex. Critically, this analysis also revealed recollection-related activity in visual processing regions that were active in an independent picture-perception task, and these regions showed age-related reductions in activity during recollection that cannot be attributed to age differences in response criteria. These fMRI findings provide new evidence that aging reduces the absolute quantity of perceptual details that are reactivated from memory, and they help to explain why aging reduces the reliability of subjective memory judgments. PMID:24828546

  6. Zebrafish homologs of genes within 16p11.2, a genomic region associated with brain disorders, are active during brain development, and include two deletion dosage sensor genes

    PubMed Central

    Blaker-Lee, Alicia; Gupta, Sunny; McCammon, Jasmine M.; De Rienzo, Gianluca; Sive, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Deletion or duplication of one copy of the human 16p11.2 interval is tightly associated with impaired brain function, including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), intellectual disability disorder (IDD) and other phenotypes, indicating the importance of gene dosage in this copy number variant region (CNV). The core of this CNV includes 25 genes; however, the number of genes that contribute to these phenotypes is not known. Furthermore, genes whose functional levels change with deletion or duplication (termed ‘dosage sensors’), which can associate the CNV with pathologies, have not been identified in this region. Using the zebrafish as a tool, a set of 16p11.2 homologs was identified, primarily on chromosomes 3 and 12. Use of 11 phenotypic assays, spanning the first 5 days of development, demonstrated that this set of genes is highly active, such that 21 out of the 22 homologs tested showed loss-of-function phenotypes. Most genes in this region were required for nervous system development – impacting brain morphology, eye development, axonal density or organization, and motor response. In general, human genes were able to substitute for the fish homolog, demonstrating orthology and suggesting conserved molecular pathways. In a screen for 16p11.2 genes whose function is sensitive to hemizygosity, the aldolase a (aldoaa) and kinesin family member 22 (kif22) genes were identified as giving clear phenotypes when RNA levels were reduced by ∼50%, suggesting that these genes are deletion dosage sensors. This study leads to two major findings. The first is that the 16p11.2 region comprises a highly active set of genes, which could present a large genetic target and might explain why multiple brain function, and other, phenotypes are associated with this interval. The second major finding is that there are (at least) two genes with deletion dosage sensor properties among the 16p11.2 set, and these could link this CNV to brain disorders such as ASD and IDD. PMID

  7. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ∼ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  8. Toward the Standard Population Synthesis Model of the X-Ray Background: Evolution of X-Ray Luminosity and Absorption Functions of Active Galactic Nuclei Including Compton-thick Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Günther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-01

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ~ 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ≈0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  9. Interior building details of Building C, Room C203: detail decorative ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior building details of Building C, Room C-203: detail decorative radiator and four-over-four windows; southwesterly view - San Quentin State Prison, Building 22, Point San Quentin, San Quentin, Marin County, CA

  10. 4. Detail of inner side of northernmost door of Bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of inner side of northernmost door of Bunker 103 (seen from outside in photo WA-203-B-2). Stenciling on door includes warning: 'CAUTION: Do not drag or pull powder kegs over deck or other cans. Tanks must be lifted or carried.' - Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, Munitions Storage Bunker, Naval Ammunitions Depot, North of Campbell Trail, Bremerton, Kitsap County, WA

  11. Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior direct detail view of revised entry handicap ramp at east side of Building 7 (including 3-story trash dump tower), looking north - North Beach Place, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, 431 Bay Street, 530 Francisco Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 11. Detail view of an archring, struttie beams, and buttress ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Detail view of an arch-ring, strut-tie beams, and buttress walls included in one bay of the dam. View is looking down from dam's walkway on the downstream side. - Little Rock Creek Dam, Little Rock Creek, Littlerock, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Research and Development in Industry: 1999. Detailed Statistical Tables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Raymond M.

    This report presents results from the 1999 Survey of Industrial Research and Development. It contains a full set of statistics produced from the survey, trends in industrial research and development (R&D) since 1953, and statistics on employment since 1989. Contents include: (1) "Note to Users of Historical Statistics"; (2) "Detailed Statistical…

  14. Engaging Pediatricians in Developmental Screening: The Effectiveness of Academic Detailing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honigfeld, Lisa; Chandhok, Laura; Spiegelman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Use of formal developmental screening tools in the pediatric medical home improves early identification of children with developmental delays and disorders, including Autism Spectrum Disorders. A pilot study evaluated the impact of an academic detailing module in which trainers visited 43 pediatric primary care practices to provide education about…

  15. Care Staff Perceptions of Choking Incidents: What Details Are Reported?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guthrie, Susan; Lecko, Caroline; Roddam, Hazel

    2015-01-01

    Background: Following a series of fatal choking incidents in one UK specialist service, this study evaluated the detail included in incident reporting. This study compared the enhanced reporting system in the specialist service with the national reporting and learning system. Methods: Eligible reports were selected from a national organization and…

  16. Detail, U, connection of south span (west truss), from southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, U, connection of south span (west truss), from southeast and below, showing pin connection at vertical member U-L top chord, inclined endpoint U-L diagonal eyebars, and lateral bracing including portion of portal strut with lattice bars and brace - Castle Garden Bridge, Township Route 343 over Bennetts Branch of Sinnemahoning Creek, Driftwood, Cameron County, PA

  17. 5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. DETAIL VIEW OF THE EGYPTIAN MOTIF DECORATIVE ELEMENTS OF BUILDING 1'S MAIN ENTRY TOWER (INCLUDING THE ENGAGED COLUMN CAPITALS, PILASTERS & CAPITALS, CORNICES, AND TERRA COTTA EAGLES); LOOKING SW FROM THE E WING ROOF. (Ryan) - Veterans Administration Medical Center, Building No. 1, Old State Route 13 West, Marion, Williamson County, IL

  18. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  19. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  20. Surfactants on cleanup detail in paper mills

    SciTech Connect

    Longhini, D.

    1996-06-01

    From pulp production to paper coating, surfactants are involved in almost every facet of pulp and paper manufacturing. Within the industry, the role of surface-active agents is growing every larger with the demand for recycled paper. In the US, for example, The American Forest and Paper Assn. has established an ambitious goal of recovering 50% of the paper used in the US by 2000. By then, paper producers in North America are expected to have invested more than $10 billion in recycling equipment, and be spending more than $300 million/yr on drinking chemicals, including surfactants. Surfactants will also serve the industry indirectly, as additives in the production and formulation of products sold to the paper industry, including biocides, retention aids and water-treatment polymers. Providing higher-quality paper while reducing dependence on virgin pulp, requires manufacturing technologies and process chemicals that can restore wastepaper to its original state. Achieving those goals will depend on the development of novel surfactants through close collaboration with mill customers, and pioneering research in surface science, polymer engineering and organic chemistry.

  1. Eros details enhanced by computer processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NEAR camera's ability to show details of Eros's surface is limited by the spacecraft's distance from the asteroid. That is, the closer the spacecraft is to the surface, the more that details are visible. However mission scientists regularly use computer processing to squeeze an extra measure of information from returned data. In a technique known as 'superresolution', many images of the same scene acquired at very, very slightly different camera pointing are carefully overlain and processed to bright out details even smaller than would normally be visible. In this rendition constructed out of 20 image frames acquired Feb. 12, 2000, the images have first been enhanced ('high-pass filtered') to accentuate small-scale details. Superresolution was then used to bring out features below the normal ability of the camera to resolve.

    Built and managed by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, Maryland, NEAR was the first spacecraft launched in NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost, small-scale planetary missions. See the NEAR web page at http://near.jhuapl.edu for more details.

  2. Making detailed predictions makes (some) predictions worse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Theresa F.

    In this paper, we investigate whether making detailed predictions about an event makes other predictions worse. Across 19 experiments, 10,895 participants, and 415,960 predictions about 724 professional sports games, we find that people who made detailed predictions about sporting events (e.g., how many hits each baseball team would get) made worse predictions about more general outcomes (e.g., which team would win). We rule out that this effect is caused by inattention or fatigue, thinking too hard, or a differential reliance on holistic information about the teams. Instead, we find that thinking about game-relevant details before predicting winning teams causes people to give less weight to predictive information, presumably because predicting details makes information that is relatively useless for predicting the winning team more readily accessible in memory and therefore incorporated into forecasts. Furthermore, we show that this differential use of information can be used to predict what kinds of games will and will not be susceptible to the negative effect of making detailed predictions.

  3. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  4. 3. Photographic copy of roof truss construction details for Building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Photographic copy of roof truss construction details for Building 4505, Taylor & Barnes, Architects & Engineers, 803 W. Third Street, Los Angeles California, O.C.E. Office of Civil Engineer Job No. A(9-10), Military Construction: Materiel Command Flight Test Base, Muroc, California, Hangar and Auxiliary Buildings: Hangar Type P-A, Detail of Trusses T-2, T-3, T-4, T-5 & T6, Sheet No. 9, March 1944. A similar drawing for truss T-l is included in project field notes. Reproduced from the holdings of the National Archives, Pacific Southwest Region - Edwards Air Force Base, North Base, Hangar, End of North Base Road, Boron, Kern County, CA

  5. VLBA Movies Reveal New Details of Cosmic Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-01-01

    Astronomers have known for decades that supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies can shoot out jets of subatomic particles at tremendous speeds. However, details about the physics of such jets, including how they are generated, how the high-speed flows are shaped into jets, and how fast the particles are moving, among many others, have remained elusive. An international team of researchers now is making an unprecedented long-term study of the motions of these giant jets, using the super-sharp imaging capabilities of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). "We're making images of 200 galactic jets at regular intervals, tracking their motions and studying their magnetic-field properties. This is making major contributions to our understanding of such jets," said Matthew Lister, of Purdue University. MOJAVE Poster Click image for high-resolution file (11.9 MB) The research team has produced time-lapse movies of 100 of the jets, allowing measurement of the speed and direction of motion. "The results of these VLBA observations are going into a rich and still-growing set of data that is available to the entire astronomical research community as a tool for understanding the many unresolved questions we have about these jets," Lister said. The jet study is called MOJAVE -- Monitoring Of Jets in Active galactic nuclei with VLBA Experiments -- and began in 2002. It is a successor to an earlier VLBA study that regularly made images of nearly 200 jets from 1994 to 2002. The jets are powered by the gravitational energy of black holes containing hundreds of millions times more mass than the Sun. Black holes are concentrations of mass so dense that not even light can escape them. As these monsters draw material toward them, the material falls into a circular disk orbiting the black hole. The jets are propelled outward along the poles of the disk. The MOJAVE movies have given astronomers some surprises and also have spurred follow-on studies of

  6. Details Of Collision-Avoidance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report provides background information on and detailed description of study of pilots' use of traffic-alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated flights. Described in article, "Evaluation of an Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System" (ARC-12367). Plans, forms, training narratives, scripts, questionnaires, and other information compiled.

  7. Occupation Competency Profile: Steel Detailer Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    This document presents information about the apprenticeship training program of Alberta, Canada, in general and the steel detailer program in particular. The first part of the document discusses the following items: Alberta's apprenticeship and industry training system; the apprenticeship and industry training committee structure; local…

  8. Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaina, Alex

    2003-04-01

    Details on the biography of Jerzy Neyman (1894-1981) and a short outline of the native town Tighina in Basarabia (the Republic of Moldova) of the outstanding mathematician and statistician, astronomer, meteorologist, biologist, philosopher and sociologist, founder of the mathematical theory of selection has been given.

  9. 33 CFR 116.20 - Detailed investigation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Bridge Administration Program determines that a Detailed Investigation should be conducted, the District Commander will initiate an investigation that addresses all of the pertinent data regarding the bridge... will discuss: the obstructive character of the bridge in question; the impact of that bridge...

  10. States Anxious to Get Details about Stimulus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2009-01-01

    As Congress began debate last week over the size and scope of more than $120 billion in proposed emergency education aid, state leaders were anxiously awaiting the details so they could make specific plans to spend the economic-stimulus money. Governors, state legislators, and state schools chiefs have yet to learn what rules Congress will attach…

  11. Big Heads, Small Details and Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Sarah; O'Reilly, Helen; Frith, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Autism is thought to be associated with a bias towards detail-focussed processing. While the cognitive basis remains controversial, one strong hypothesis is that there are high processing costs associated with changing from local into global processing. A possible neural mechanism underlying this processing style is abnormal neural connectivity;…

  12. A detailed kinetic model for the hydrothermal decomposition process of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yin, Fengjun; Chen, Hongzhen; Xu, Guihua; Wang, Guangwei; Xu, Yuanjian

    2015-12-01

    A detailed kinetic model for the hydrothermal decomposition (HTD) of sewage sludge was developed based on an explicit reaction scheme considering exact intermediates including protein, saccharide, NH4(+)-N and acetic acid. The parameters were estimated by a series of kinetic data at a temperature range of 180-300°C. This modeling framework is capable of revealing stoichiometric relationships between different components by determining the conversion coefficients and identifying the reaction behaviors by determining rate constants and activation energies. The modeling work shows that protein and saccharide are the primary intermediates in the initial stage of HTD resulting from the fast reduction of biomass. The oxidation processes of macromolecular products to acetic acid are highly dependent on reaction temperature and dramatically restrained when temperature is below 220°C. Overall, this detailed model is meaningful for process simulation and kinetic analysis. PMID:26409104

  13. Characteristics of Academic Detailing: Results of a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Harrison, Lisa G.; Miller, Nicole E.; Pappas, Maryanne S.; Fischer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Academic detailing is an evidence-based strategy to improve patient care. Efforts to understand the intervention and to use it strategically require an understanding of its important characteristics. A recent systematic review and a subsequent reporting framework call for more accurate and complete reporting of continuing medical education interventions. Objectives Building on a previously published systematic review of 69 studies, we sought to determine how an expanded set of 106 academic detailing studies, including many recently published articles, fared with respect to reporting of important data about this intervention. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (clinical) database, and Scopus, from which we identified 38 additional randomized controlled trials published from August 2007 through March 2013. Including the original 69 studies, we abstracted 106 available English-language studies and quantitatively analyzed information about 4 important characteristics of academic detailing: content of visits, clinicians being visited, communication process underlying visits, and outreach workers making visits. Results We found considerable variation (36.5%-100%) in the extent of reporting intervention characteristics, especially about the communication process underlying visits and the outreach workers making visits. The best overall documentation of intervention characteristics of any single study was 68%. Results also demonstrate wide variation in the approach to academic detailing. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a standardized approach to collecting and reporting data about academic detailing interventions. Our findings also highlight opportunities for using academic detailing more effectively in research and quality-improvement efforts. PMID:26702333

  14. (-)-Carbodine: enantiomeric synthesis and in vitro antiviral activity against various strains of influenza virus including H5N1 (avian influenza) and novel 2009 H1N1 (swine flu).

    PubMed

    Rao, Jagadeeshwar R; Jha, Ashok K; Rawal, Ravindra K; Sharon, Ashoke; Day, Craig W; Barnard, Dale L; Smee, Donald F; Chu, Chung K

    2010-04-15

    Enantiomerically pure cyclopentyl cytosine [(-)-carbodine 1] was synthesized from d-ribose and evaluated for its anti-influenza activity in vitro in comparison to the (+)-carbodine, (+/-)-carbodine and ribavirin. (-)-Carbodine 1 exhibited potent antiviral activity against various strains of influenza A and B viruses. PMID:20231094

  15. A Review of Research and a Meta-Analysis of the Seductive Detail Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Seductive details constitute interesting but irrelevant information that are not necessary to achieve the instructional objective. The seductive detail effect occurs when people learn more deeply from instructional messages that exclude rather than include these details. This effect is mainly explained by assuming an overloading of the working…

  16. Crystal structure of listeriolysin O reveals molecular details of oligomerization and pore formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köster, Stefan; van Pee, Katharina; Hudel, Martina; Leustik, Martin; Rhinow, Daniel; Kühlbrandt, Werner; Chakraborty, Trinad; Yildiz, Özkan

    2014-04-01

    Listeriolysin O (LLO) is an essential virulence factor of Listeria monocytogenes that causes listeriosis. Listeria monocytogenes owes its ability to live within cells to the pH- and temperature-dependent pore-forming activity of LLO, which is unique among cholesterol-dependent cytolysins. LLO enables the bacteria to cross the phagosomal membrane and is also involved in activation of cellular processes, including the modulation of gene expression or intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. Neither the pore-forming mechanism nor the mechanisms triggering the signalling processes in the host cell are known in detail. Here, we report the crystal structure of LLO, in which we identified regions important for oligomerization and pore formation. Mutants were characterized by determining their haemolytic and Ca2+ uptake activity. We analysed the pore formation of LLO and its variants on erythrocyte ghosts by electron microscopy and show that pore formation requires precise interface interactions during toxin oligomerization on the membrane.

  17. Neural Correlates of Animacy Attribution Include Neocerebellum in Healthy Adults.

    PubMed

    Jack, Allison; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2015-11-01

    Recent work suggests that biological motion perception is supported by interactions between posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and regions of the posterior lobe of the cerebellum. However, insufficient attention has been given to cerebellar contributions to most other social cognitive functions, including ones that rely upon the use of biological motion cues for making mental inferences. Here, using adapted Heider and Simmel stimuli in a passive-viewing paradigm, we present functional magnetic resonance imaging evidence detailing cerebellar contributions to animacy attribution processes in healthy adults. We found robust cerebellar activity associated with viewing animate versus random movement in hemispheric lobule VII bilaterally as well as in vermal and paravermal lobule IX. Stronger activity in left Crus I and lobule VI was associated with a greater tendency to describe the stimuli in social-affective versus motion-related terms. Psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated preferential effective connectivity between right pSTS and left Crus II during the viewing of animate than random stimuli, controlling for individual variance in social attributions. These findings indicate that lobules VI, VII, and IX participate in social functions even when no active response is required. This cerebellar activity may also partially explain individual differences in animacy attribution. PMID:24981794

  18. Bolivia-Brazil gas line route detailed

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that state oil companies of Brazil and Bolivia have signed an agreement outlining the route for a 2,270 km pipeline system to deliver natural gas from Bolivian fields to Southeast Brazil. The two sides currently are negotiating details about construction costs as well as contract volumes and prices. Capacity is projected at 283-565 MMcfd. No official details are available, but Roberto Y. Hukai, a director of the Sao Paulo engineering company Jaako Poyry/Technoplan, estimates transportation cost of the Bolivian gas at 90 cents/MMBTU. That would be competitive with the price of gas delivered to the Sao Paulo gas utility Comgas, he the. Brazil's Petroleos Brasileiro SA estimates construction of the pipeline on the Brazilian side alone with cost $1.2-1.4 billion. Bolivia's Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales Bolivianos (YPFB) is negotiating with private domestic and foreign investors for construction of the Bolivian portion of the project.

  19. Detailed Jet Dynamics in a Collapsing Bubble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supponen, Outi; Obreschkow, Danail; Kobel, Philippe; Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-12-01

    We present detailed visualizations of the micro-jet forming inside an aspherically collapsing cavitation bubble near a free surface. The high-quality visualizations of large and strongly deformed bubbles disclose so far unseen features of the dynamics inside the bubble, such as a mushroom-like flattened jet-tip, crown formation and micro-droplets. We also find that jetting near a free surface reduces the collapse time relative to the Rayleigh time.

  20. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  1. Lightning climatology in the Congo Basin: detailed analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soula, Serge; Kigotsi, Jean; Georgis, Jean-François; Barthe, Christelle

    2016-04-01

    The lightning climatology of the Congo Basin including several countries of Central Africa is analyzed in detail for the first time. It is based on World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) data for the period from 2005 to 2013. A comparison of these data with the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) data for the same period shows the WWLLN detection efficiency (DE) in the region increases from about 1.70 % in the beginning of the period to 5.90 % in 2013, relative to LIS data, but not uniformly over the whole 2750 km × 2750 km area. Both the annual flash density and the number of stormy days show sharp maximum values localized in eastern of Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and west of Kivu Lake, regardless of the reference year and the period of the year. These maxima reach 12.86 fl km-2 and 189 days, respectively, in 2013, and correspond with a very active region located at the rear of the Virunga mountain range characterised with summits that can reach 3000 m. The presence of this range plays a role in the thunderstorm development along the year. The estimation of this local maximum of the lightning density by taking into account the DE, leads to a value consistent with that of the global climatology by Christian et al. (2003) and other authors. Thus, a mean maximum value of about 157 fl km-2 y-1 is found for the annual lightning density. The zonal distribution of the lightning flashes exhibits a maximum between 1°S and 2°S and about 56 % of the flashes located below the equator in the 10°S - 10°N interval. The diurnal evolution of the flash rate has a maximum between 1400 and 1700 UTC, according to the reference year, in agreement with previous works in other regions of the world.

  2. Revisiting the Seductive Details Effect in Multimedia Learning: Context-Dependency of Seductive Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Devrim; Doolittle, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of context-dependency of seductive details on recall and transfer in multimedia learning environments. Seductive details were interesting yet irrelevant sentences in the instructional text. Two experiments were conducted. The purpose of Experiment 1 was to identify context-dependent and…

  3. SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, FIRST FLOOR FRAMING AND DETAILS, BUILDING NO. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, FIRST FLOOR FRAMING AND DETAILS, BUILDING NO. 726 (Also includes a foundation plan). Navy Yard, Mare Island, CA. Y & D (Yards & Docks) drawing no. 282852, approved October 22, 194_ (year not given); file no. 726-S-1; stamped "Record drawing to accompany technical report on contract no. 4550, project no. 16." Various scales. 71 cm x 86 cm. Ink on vellum. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  4. 29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. DETAIL: View from the west bay to the south corner of the gate pivot area, showing the brace area, including the metal pivot, wood supports and wear (in a circular pattern surrounding the pivot) from the gate post. The view is looking northeast, from the bay west of the west gate sill. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  5. 31. DETAIL: A view of the south breast wall of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. DETAIL: A view of the south breast wall of the west lock gate. A prototypical crib is shown immediately behind the wall in the center of the photograph and includes the first rear wall, with rough timbers, and ties within the crib. Some remaining stone ballast is also visible, wedged between the ties. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  6. SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, PLANS AND DETAILS, BUILDING NO. 726 (Also ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH FIRE HOUSE, PLANS AND DETAILS, BUILDING NO. 726 (Also includes a plot plan). Navy Yard, Mare Island, CA. Y & D (Yards and Docks) drawing no. 282850, approved October 23, 194_ (year not given); file no. 726-CR-1; stamped "Record drawing to accompany technical report on contract no. 4550, project no. 16." Various scales. 71 cm x 86 cm. Ink on vellum. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, South Fire Station, Railroad Avenue near Eighteenth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  7. Violation of detailed balance accelerates relaxation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichiki, Akihisa; Ohzeki, Masayuki

    2013-08-01

    Recent studies have experienced the acceleration of convergence in Markov chain Monte Carlo methods implemented by the systems without detailed balance condition (DBC). However, such advantage of the violation of DBC has not been confirmed in general. We investigate the effect of the absence of DBC on the convergence toward equilibrium. Surprisingly, it is shown that the DBC violation always makes the relaxation faster. Our result implies the existence of a kind of thermodynamic inequality that connects the nonequilibrium process relaxing toward steady state with the relaxation process which has the same probability distribution as its equilibrium state.

  8. A detailed phylogeny for the Methanomicrobiales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rouviere, P.; Mandelco, L.; Winker, S.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The small subunit rRNA sequence of twenty archaea, members of the Methanomicrobiales, permits a detailed phylogenetic tree to be inferred for the group. The tree confirms earlier studies, based on far fewer sequences, in showing the group to be divided into two major clusters, temporarily designated the "methanosarcina" group and the "methanogenium" group. The tree also defines phylogenetic relationships within these two groups, which in some cases do not agree with the phylogenetic relationships implied by current taxonomic names--a problem most acute for the genus Methanogenium and its relatives. The present phylogenetic characterization provides the basis for a consistent taxonomic restructuring of this major methanogenic taxon.

  9. Instrumentation for detailed bridge-scour measurements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landers, Mark N.; Mueller, David S.; Trent, Roy E.

    1993-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is being developed to obtain channel bathymetry during floods for detailed bridge-scour measurements. Portable scour measuring systems have four components: sounding instrument, horizontal positioning instrument, deployment mechanisms, and data storage device. The sounding instrument will be a digital fathometer. Horizontal position will be measured using a range-azimuth based hydrographic survey system. The deployment mechanism designed for this system is a remote-controlled boat using a small waterplane area, twin-hull design. An on-board computer and radio will monitor the vessel instrumentation, record measured data, and telemeter data to shore.

  10. Details of extensive movements by Minnesota wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merrill, S.B.; Mech, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    We used VHF, GPS, and satellite radiocollars to study details of long distance movements by four Minnesota wolves (Canis lupus). Number of locations during our tracking ranged from 14 to 274. Farthest distances reached ranged from 183-494 km, and minimum distances traveled (sums of line segments) ranged from 490-4251 km. Numbers of times wolves crossed state, provincial or interstate highways ranged from 1 to 215. All four of the wolves returned to or near their natal territories after up to 179 d and at least two left again.

  11. Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Detail in Plan; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Plan; Chord Joining Detail in Plan & Elevation; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail in Section; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar & Horizontal Brace Joint Detail - Narrows Bridge, Spanning Sugar Creek at Old County Road 280 East, Marshall, Parke County, IN

  12. Designing Design Challenges: Getting the Details Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    In looking at successful inquiry activities, patterns in pedagogical approach emerge (Meyer et al. 2011). This article discusses one such approach--the design challenge. A design challenge can be defined as an activity in which students are given an explicit task to create a product that meets a defined goal. However, simply asking students to…

  13. An Integrated Biochemistry Laboratory, Including Molecular Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Adele J. Wolfson Mona L.; Branham, Thomas R.

    1996-11-01

    ) experience with methods of protein purification; (iii) incorporation of appropriate controls into experiments; (iv) use of basic statistics in data analysis; (v) writing papers and grant proposals in accepted scientific style; (vi) peer review; (vii) oral presentation of results and proposals; and (viii) introduction to molecular modeling. Figure 1 illustrates the modular nature of the lab curriculum. Elements from each of the exercises can be separated and treated as stand-alone exercises, or combined into short or long projects. We have been able to offer the opportunity to use sophisticated molecular modeling in the final module through funding from an NSF-ILI grant. However, many of the benefits of the research proposal can be achieved with other computer programs, or even by literature survey alone. Figure 1.Design of project-based biochemistry laboratory. Modules (projects, or portions of projects) are indicated as boxes. Each of these can be treated independently, or used as part of a larger project. Solid lines indicate some suggested paths from one module to the next. The skills and knowledge required for protein purification and design are developed in three units: (i) an introduction to critical assays needed to monitor degree of purification, including an evaluation of assay parameters; (ii) partial purification by ion-exchange techniques; and (iii) preparation of a grant proposal on protein design by mutagenesis. Brief descriptions of each of these units follow, with experimental details of each project at the end of this paper. Assays for Lysozyme Activity and Protein Concentration (4 weeks) The assays mastered during the first unit are a necessary tool for determining the purity of the enzyme during the second unit on purification by ion exchange. These assays allow an introduction to the concept of specific activity (units of enzyme activity per milligram of total protein) as a measure of purity. In this first sequence, students learn a turbidimetric assay

  14. Detailed balance of the Feynman micromotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, Derek; Davis, Bruce R.; Parrondo, Juan M. R.

    1999-09-01

    One existing implication of micromotors is that they can be powered by rectifying non-equilibrium thermal fluctuations or mechanical vibrations via the so-called Feynman- micromotor. An example of mechanical rectification is found in the batteryless wristwatch. The original concept was described in as early as 1912 by Smoluchowski and was later revisited in 1963 by Feynman, in the context of rectifying thermal fluctuations to obtain useful motion. It has been shown that, although rectification is impossible at equilibrium, it is possible for the Feynman-micromotor to perform work under non-equilibrium conditions. These concepts can now be realized by MEMS technology and may have exciting implications in biomedicine - where the Feynman- micromotor can be used to power a smart pill, for example. Previously, Feynman's analysis of the motor's efficiency has been shown to be flawed by Parrondo and Espanol. We now show there are further problems in Feynman's treatment of detailed balance. In order to design and understand this device correctly, the equations of detailed balance must be found. Feynman's approach was to use probabilities based on energies and we show that this is problematic. In this paper, we demonstrate corrected equations using level crossing probabilities instead. A potential application of the Feynman-micromotor is a batteryless nanopump that consists of a small MEMS chip that adheres to the skin of a patient and dispense nanoliter quantities of medication. Either mechanical or thermal rectification via a Feynman- micromotor, as the power source, is open for possible investigation.

  15. HUBBLE CAPTURES DETAILED IMAGE OF URANUS' ATMOSPHERE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere. Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail. The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere. Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal. This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2. CREDIT: Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Lab) and NASA

  16. A Detailed Chemical Kinetic Model for TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2005-01-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism for 2,4,6-tri-nitrotoluene (TNT) has been developed to explore problems of explosive performance and soot formation during the destruction of munitions. The TNT mechanism treats only gas-phase reactions. Reactions for the decomposition of TNT and for the consumption of intermediate products formed from TNT are assembled based on information from the literature and on current understanding of aromatic chemistry. Thermodynamic properties of intermediate and radical species are estimated by group additivity. Reaction paths are developed based on similar paths for aromatic hydrocarbons. Reaction-rate constant expressions are estimated from the literature and from analogous reactions where the rate constants are available. The detailed reaction mechanism for TNT is added to existing reaction mechanisms for RDX and for hydrocarbons. Computed results show the effect of oxygen concentration on the amount of soot precursors that are formed in the combustion of RDX and TNT mixtures in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} mixtures.

  17. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the 2010 result of the LNE-LNHB (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Cassette, P.; Moune, M.

    2016-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMI) have submitted seven samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), with comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. The values of the activity submitted were between about 1 MBq and 18 MBq. The primary standardization result for the LNE-LNHB, France, replaces their earlier result of 2002 and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated. In the frame of the BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F18 comparison, the NPL updated their result in the KCDB. Consequently there are now five results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 comparison. The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the updated KCRV have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a table. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  18. Including Ligand Induced Protein Flexibility into Protein Tunnel Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Laura J.; Lill, Markus A.

    2014-01-01

    In proteins with buried active sites, understanding how ligands migrate through the tunnels that connect the exterior of the protein to the active site can shed light on substrate specificity and enzyme function. A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of protein flexibility in the binding site upon ligand binding; however, the influence of protein flexibility throughout the body of the protein during ligand entry and egress is much less characterized. We have developed a novel tunnel prediction and evaluation method named IterTunnel, which includes the influence of ligand-induced protein flexibility, guarantees ligand egress, and provides detailed free energy information as the ligand proceeds along the egress route. IterTunnel combines geometric tunnel prediction with steered MD in an iterative process to identify tunnels that open as a result of ligand migration and calculates the potential of mean force (PMF) of ligand egress through a given tunnel. Applying this new method to cytochrome P450 2B6 (CYP2B6), we demonstrate the influence of protein flexibility on the shape and accessibility of tunnels. More importantly, we demonstrate that the ligand itself, while traversing through a tunnel, can reshape tunnels due to its interaction with the protein. This process results in the exposure of new tunnels and the closure of pre-existing tunnels as the ligand migrates from the active site. PMID:25043499

  19. Further investigation of the spontaneous and evoked activity of the primary neurons of statoreceptors (and other receptors) of the labyrinth of the bullfrog before, during and after an extended period of weightlessness, including alternative intervals of artificial gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Vestibular neuron activity was examined by studying nerve stimulation and evoked response. A cooling element, applied to the nerve consisted of a silver hook through which a coolant fluid flowed. Temperature changes were recorded via microtermistors on an eight channel brush recorder, together with response. Diffusion of the cooling effect was measured, recovery time was assessed, and the nerve was then studied hystologically and ultrastructurally. Problems in frog preparation were discussed along with problems in maintaining healthy specimens and bacteria controlled aquaria.

  20. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-56 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 56Co to include the result of the CMI-IIR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michotte, C.; Courte, S.; Ratel, G.; Sochorová, J.

    2010-01-01

    In 2006, the Ceský Metrologický Institut/Czech Metrological Institute - Inspectorate for Ionizing Radiation (CMI-IIR) submitted an ampoule of known activity of 56Co to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. The activity was about 6.7 MBq. The degrees of equivalence between each of the four national metrology institute results now measured in the SIR and the re-evaluated key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. The comparison identifier is BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Co-56. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  1. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-17

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO2 production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  2. Detailed chemical kinetic oxidation mechanism for a biodiesel surrogate

    SciTech Connect

    Herbinet, O; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2007-09-20

    A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism has been developed and used to study the oxidation of methyl decanoate, a surrogate for biodiesel fuels. This model has been built by following the rules established by Curran et al. for the oxidation of n-heptane and it includes all the reactions known to be pertinent to both low and high temperatures. Computed results have been compared with methyl decanoate experiments in an engine and oxidation of rapeseed oil methyl esters in a jet stirred reactor. An important feature of this mechanism is its ability to reproduce the early formation of carbon dioxide that is unique to biofuels and due to the presence of the ester group in the reactant. The model also predicts ignition delay times and OH profiles very close to observed values in shock tube experiments fueled by n-decane. These model capabilities indicate that large n-alkanes can be good surrogates for large methyl esters and biodiesel fuels to predict overall reactivity, but some kinetic details, including early CO{sub 2} production from biodiesel fuels, can be predicted only by a detailed kinetic mechanism for a true methyl ester fuel. The present methyl decanoate mechanism provides a realistic kinetic tool for simulation of biodiesel fuels.

  3. Including Students with Visual Impairments: Softball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Haegele, Justin A.

    2014-01-01

    Research has shown that while students with visual impairments are likely to be included in general physical education programs, they may not be as active as their typically developing peers. This article provides ideas for equipment modifications and game-like progressions for one popular physical education unit, softball. The purpose of these…

  4. Detailed assays conducted on Vietnamese crude oils

    SciTech Connect

    Du, P.Q. )

    1990-07-16

    More oil property data, in the form of recent crude oil assays, have been made available for two Vietnamese crude oils, Bach Ho (White Tiger) and Dai Hung (Big Bear). Crude oil data presented earlier gave limited properties of the crudes,which are from the Miocene formations. Further analyses have been conducted on Bach Ho crude from the Oligocene formations. Production from Oligocene is far more representative of the oils produced from the Bach Ho field and marketed worldwide. Currently, Bach Ho is the only producing field. Dai Hung is expected to be in production during the next few years. Bach Ho is currently producing at the rate of 20,000 b/d. That figure is projected to grow to 100,000 b/d by 1992 and to 120,000 b/d by 1995. Detailed assays of both crude oils are presented.

  5. Most Detailed Image of the Crab Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This new Hubble image -- one among the largest ever produced with the Earth-orbiting observatory -- shows the most detailed view so far of the entire Crab Nebula ever made. The Crab is arguably the single most interesting object, as well as one of the most studied, in all of astronomy. The image is the largest image ever taken with Hubble's WFPC2 workhorse camera.

    The Crab Nebula is one of the most intricately structured and highly dynamical objects ever observed. The new Hubble image of the Crab was assembled from 24 individual exposures taken with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope and is the highest resolution image of the entire Crab Nebula ever made.

  6. Detailed mechanism for oxidation of benzene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, David A.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of benzene is presented and used to compute experimentally obtained concentration profiles and ignition delay times over a wide range of equivalence ratio and temperature. The computed results agree qualitatively with all the experimental trends. Quantitative agreement is obtained with several of the composition profiles and for the temperature dependence of the ignition delay times. There are indications, however, that some important reactions are as yet undiscovered in this mechanism. Recent literature expressions have been used for the rate coefficients of most important reactions, except for some involving phenol. The discrepancy between the phenol pyrolysis rate coefficient used in this work and a recent literature expression remains to be explained.

  7. Report Details Solar Radiation Alert and Recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staedter, Tracy

    2006-06-01

    High-energy particles from the Sun and from regions beyond the solar system constantly bombard Earth. Thanks to the planet's atmosphere and magnetic field, comsic radiation is not a significant threat to those rooted on terra firma. But airline crew and passengers flying at high altitudes, or over the poles where the Earth's magnetic field provides no protection, are particularly vulnerable to unpredictable flares on the Sun's surface that launch streams of sub-atomic particles toward Earth. The report, ``Solar Radiation Alert System,'' published by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CIRES) at the University of Colorado, Boulder, in July 2005 (www.faa.gov/library/reports/medical/oamtechreports/2000s/media/0514.pdf) details in alert system designed to estimate the ionizing radiation at aircraft flight altitudes and, depending on the resulting dose rate, issue a warning.

  8. Picornavirus uncoating intermediate captured in atomic detail

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Jingshan; Wang, Xiangxi; Hu, Zhongyu; Gao, Qiang; Sun, Yao; Li, Xuemei; Porta, Claudine; Walter, Thomas S.; Gilbert, Robert J.; Zhao, Yuguang; Axford, Danny; Williams, Mark; McAuley, Katherine; Rowlands, David J.; Yin, Weidong; Wang, Junzhi; Stuart, David I.; Rao, Zihe; Fry, Elizabeth E.

    2013-01-01

    It remains largely mysterious how the genomes of non-enveloped eukaryotic viruses are transferred across a membrane into the host cell. Picornaviruses are simple models for such viruses, and initiate this uncoating process through particle expansion, which reveals channels through which internal capsid proteins and the viral genome presumably exit the particle, although this has not been clearly seen until now. Here we present the atomic structure of an uncoating intermediate for the major human picornavirus pathogen CAV16, which reveals VP1 partly extruded from the capsid, poised to embed in the host membrane. Together with previous low-resolution results, we are able to propose a detailed hypothesis for the ordered egress of the internal proteins, using two distinct sets of channels through the capsid, and suggest a structural link to the condensed RNA within the particle, which may be involved in triggering RNA release. PMID:23728514

  9. Capture barrier distributions: Some insights and details

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, N.; Grar, N.; Trotta, M.

    2007-10-15

    The 'experimental barrier distribution' provides a parameter-free representation of experimental heavy-ion capture cross sections that highlights the effects of entrance-channel couplings. Its relation to the s-wave transmission is discussed, and in particular it is shown how the full capture cross section can be generated from an l=0 coupled-channels calculation. Furthermore, it is shown how this transmission can be simply exploited in calculations of quasifission and evaporation-residue cross sections. The system {sup 48}Ca+{sup 154}Sm is studied in detail. A calculation of the compound-nucleus spin distribution reveals a possible energy dependence of barrier weights due to polarization arising from target and projectile quadrupole phonon states; this effect also gives rise to an entrance-channel 'extra-push'.

  10. Capabilities and limitations of detailed hillslope hydrological modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstert, Axel

    1999-01-01

    Hillslope hydrological modelling is considered to be of great importance for the understanding and quantification of hydrological processes in hilly or mountainous landscapes. In recent years a few comprehensive hydrological models have been developed at the hillslope scale which have resulted in an advanced representation of hillslope hydrological processes (including their interactions), and in some operational applications, such as in runoff and erosion studies at the field scale or lateral flow simulation in environmental and geotechnical engineering. An overview of the objectives of hillslope hydrological modelling is given, followed by a brief introduction of an exemplary comprehensive hillslope model, which stimulates a series of hydrological processes such as interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration into the soil matrix and into macropores, lateral and vertical subsurface soil water flow both in the matrix and preferential flow paths, surface runoff and channel discharge. Several examples of this model are presented and discussed in order to determine the model's capabilities and limitations. Finally, conclusions about the limitations of detailed hillslope modelling are drawn and an outlook on the future prospects of hydrological models on the hillslope scale is given.The model presented performed reasonable calculations of Hortonian surface runoff and subsequent erosion processes, given detailed information of initial soil water content and soil hydraulic conditions. The vertical and lateral soil moisture dynamics were also represented quite well. However, the given examples of model applications show that quite detailed climatic and soil data are required to obtain satisfactory results. The limitations of detailed hillslope hydrological modelling arise from different points: difficulties in the representations of certain processes (e.g. surface crusting, unsaturated-saturated soil moisture flow, macropore flow), problems of small-scale variability

  11. Hubble Captures Detailed Image of Uranus' Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    Hubble Space Telescope has peered deep into Uranus' atmosphere to see clear and hazy layers created by a mixture of gases. Using infrared filters, Hubble captured detailed features of three layers of Uranus' atmosphere.

    Hubble's images are different from the ones taken by the Voyager 2 spacecraft, which flew by Uranus 10 years ago. Those images - not taken in infrared light - showed a greenish-blue disk with very little detail.

    The infrared image allows astronomers to probe the structure of Uranus' atmosphere, which consists of mostly hydrogen with traces of methane. The red around the planet's edge represents a very thin haze at a high altitude. The haze is so thin that it can only be seen by looking at the edges of the disk, and is similar to looking at the edge of a soap bubble. The yellow near the bottom of Uranus is another hazy layer. The deepest layer, the blue near the top of Uranus, shows a clearer atmosphere.

    Image processing has been used to brighten the rings around Uranus so that astronomers can study their structure. In reality, the rings are as dark as black lava or charcoal.

    This false color picture was assembled from several exposures taken July 3, 1995 by the Wide Field Planetary Camera-2.

    The Wide Field/Planetary Camera 2 was developed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and managed by the Goddard Spaced Flight Center for NASA's Office of Space Science.

    This image and other images and data received from the Hubble Space Telescope are posted on the World Wide Web on the Space Telescope Science Institute home page at URL http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/

  12. Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Weather support area, floor plan and details. ("Alter COC, Bldg. 2605, Weather Support Area, Floor Plan & Details" Also includes a site plan and a finish schedule. The exact location of this construction is obscure, but it appears to be the enclosure of space at the north end of room 101, the "Display Area" or "War Room") Strategic Air Command, Civil Engineering. Drawing no. B-1081, sheet no. 1 of 2, 9 July 1968; project no. MAR-132-8; CE-562; file drawer 2605-9, also 1315. Various scales. 29x41 inches. pencil on paper - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  13. Towards a detailed soot model for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Mosbach, Sebastian; Celnik, Matthew S.; Raj, Abhijeet; Kraft, Markus; Zhang, Hongzhi R.; Kubo, Shuichi; Kim, Kyoung-Oh

    2009-06-15

    In this work, we present a detailed model for the formation of soot in internal combustion engines describing not only bulk quantities such as soot mass, number density, volume fraction, and surface area but also the morphology and chemical composition of soot aggregates. The new model is based on the Stochastic Reactor Model (SRM) engine code, which uses detailed chemistry and takes into account convective heat transfer and turbulent mixing, and the soot formation is accounted for by SWEEP, a population balance solver based on a Monte Carlo method. In order to couple the gas-phase to the particulate phase, a detailed chemical kinetic mechanism describing the combustion of Primary Reference Fuels (PRFs) is extended to include small Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) such as pyrene, which function as soot precursor species for particle inception in the soot model. Apart from providing averaged quantities as functions of crank angle like soot mass, volume fraction, aggregate diameter, and the number of primary particles per aggregate for example, the integrated model also gives detailed information such as aggregate and primary particle size distribution functions. In addition, specifics about aggregate structure and composition, including C/H ratio and PAH ring count distributions, and images similar to those produced with Transmission Electron Microscopes (TEMs), can be obtained. The new model is applied to simulate an n-heptane fuelled Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine which is operated at an equivalence ratio of 1.93. In-cylinder pressure and heat release predictions show satisfactory agreement with measurements. Furthermore, simulated aggregate size distributions as well as their time evolution are found to qualitatively agree with those obtained experimentally through snatch sampling. It is also observed both in the experiment as well as in the simulation that aggregates in the trapped residual gases play a vital role in the soot

  14. Orbiter active thermal control system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laubach, G. E.

    1975-01-01

    A brief description of the Orbiter Active Thermal Control System (ATCS) including (1) major functional requirements of heat load, temperature control and heat sink utilization, (2) the overall system arrangement, and (3) detailed description of the elements of the ATCS.

  15. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Greiner, A.; Moxon, L.; Robinson, A.; Tamura, L.

    2001-04-01

    This is an annual report, detailing activities at the Advanced Light Source for the year 2000. It includes highlights of scientific research by users of the facility as well as information about the development of the facility itself.

  16. STEREOLOGICAL ESTIMATES OF THE BASAL FOREBRAIN CELL POPULATION IN THE RAT, INCLUDING NEURONS CONTAINING CHOLINE ACETYLTRANSFERASE (ChAT), GLUTAMIC ACID DECARBOXYLASE (GAD) OR PHOSPHATE-ACTIVATED GLUTAMINASE (PAG) AND COLOCALIZING VESICULAR GLUTAMATE TRANSPORTERS (VGluTs)

    PubMed Central

    GRITTI, I.; HENNY, P.; GALLONI, F.; MAINVILLE, L.; MARIOTTI, M.; JONES, B. E.

    2006-01-01

    The basal forebrain (BF) plays an important role in modulating cortical activity and influencing attention, learning and memory. These activities are fulfilled importantly yet not entirely by cholinergic neurons. Noncholinergic neurons also contribute and are comprised by GABAergic neurons and other possibly glutamatergic neurons. The aim of the present study was to estimate the total number of cells in the BF of the rat and the proportions of that total represented by cholinergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons. For this purpose, cells were counted using unbiased stereological methods within the medial septum, diagonal band, magnocellular preoptic nucleus, substantia innominata and globus pallidus in sections stained for Nissl substance and/or the neurotransmitter enzymes, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) or phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG). In Nissl-stained sections, the total number of neurons in the BF was estimated as ~355,000 and the numbers of ChAT-immuno-positive (+) as ~22,000, GAD+ ~119,000 and PAG+ ~316,000, corresponding to ~5%, ~35% and ~90% of the total. Thus, of the large population of BF neurons, only a small proportion has the capacity to synthesize acetylcholine (ACh), one third to synthesize GABA and the vast majority to synthesize glutamate (Glu). Moreover, through the presence of PAG, a proportion of ACh- and GABA-synthesizing neurons also have the capacity to synthesize Glu. In sections dual fluorescent immunostained for vesicular transporters, VGluT3 and not VGluT2 was present in the cell bodies of most PAG+ and ChAT+ and half the GAD+ cells. Given previous results showing that VGluT2 and not VGluT3 was present in BF axon terminals and not colocalized with VAChT or VGAT, we conclude that the BF cell population influences cortical and subcortical regions through neurons which release ACh, GABA or Glu from their terminals but which in part can also synthesize and release Glu from their soma or

  17. The Mechanism of Release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP by Viral and Cellular Activators Includes a Conformational Change in 7SK

    PubMed Central

    Krueger, Brian J.; Varzavand, Katayoun; Cooper, Jeffrey J.; Price, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The positive transcription elongation factor, P-TEFb, is required for the production of mRNAs, however the majority of the factor is present in the 7SK snRNP where it is inactivated by HEXIM1. Expression of HIV-1 Tat leads to release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP in vivo, but the release mechanisms are unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings We developed an in vitro P-TEFb release assay in which the 7SK snRNP immunoprecipitated from HeLa cell lysates using antibodies to LARP7 was incubated with potential release factors. We found that P-TEFb was directly released from the 7SK snRNP by HIV-1 Tat or the P-TEFb binding region of the cellular activator Brd4. Glycerol gradient sedimentation analysis was used to demonstrate that the same Brd4 protein transfected into HeLa cells caused the release of P-TEFb and HEXIM1 from the 7SK snRNP in vivo. Although HEXIM1 binds tightly to 7SK RNA in vitro, release of P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP is accompanied by the loss of HEXIM1. Using a chemical modification method, we determined that concomitant with the release of HEXIM1, 7SK underwent a major conformational change that blocks re-association of HEXIM1. Conclusions/Significance Given that promoter proximally paused polymerases are present on most human genes, understanding how activators recruit P-TEFb to those genes is critical. Our findings reveal that the two tested activators can extract P-TEFb from the 7SK snRNP. Importantly, we found that after P-TEFb is extracted a dramatic conformational change occurred in 7SK concomitant with the ejection of HEXIM1. Based on our findings, we hypothesize that reincorporation of HEXIM1 into the 7SK snRNP is likely the regulated step of reassembly of the 7SK snRNP containing P-TEFb. PMID:20808803

  18. Neoclassical Transport Including Collisional Nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J.; Belli, E. A.

    2011-06-10

    In the standard {delta}f theory of neoclassical transport, the zeroth-order (Maxwellian) solution is obtained analytically via the solution of a nonlinear equation. The first-order correction {delta}f is subsequently computed as the solution of a linear, inhomogeneous equation that includes the linearized Fokker-Planck collision operator. This equation admits analytic solutions only in extreme asymptotic limits (banana, plateau, Pfirsch-Schlueter), and so must be solved numerically for realistic plasma parameters. Recently, numerical codes have appeared which attempt to compute the total distribution f more accurately than in the standard ordering by retaining some nonlinear terms related to finite-orbit width, while simultaneously reusing some form of the linearized collision operator. In this work we show that higher-order corrections to the distribution function may be unphysical if collisional nonlinearities are ignored.

  19. Families classification including multiopposition asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milani, Andrea; Spoto, Federica; Knežević, Zoran; Novaković, Bojan; Tsirvoulis, Georgios

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of our new classification of asteroid families, upgraded by using catalog with > 500,000 asteroids. We discuss the outcome of the most recent update of the family list and of their membership. We found enough evidence to perform 9 mergers of the previously independent families. By introducing an improved method of estimation of the expected family growth in the less populous regions (e.g. at high inclination) we were able to reliably decide on rejection of one tiny group as a probable statistical fluke. Thus we reduced our current list to 115 families. We also present newly determined ages for 6 families, including complex 135 and 221, improving also our understanding of the dynamical vs. collisional families relationship. We conclude with some recommendations for the future work and for the family name problem.

  20. Large-scale violation of detailed balance in biological systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broedersz, Chase; Battle, Christopher; Fakhri, Nikta; Mackintosh, Fred; Schmidt, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    Living systems are out of equilibrium. A fundamental manifestation of non-equilibrium dynamics in biological systems is the violation of detailed balance: at the microscopic level, enzymatic processes such as kinetic proofreading or molecular motor activity clearly violate detailed balance. We study how such non-equilibrium dynamics emerge at macroscopic scales in cellular assemblies. We measure the steady-state dynamics of two systems, beating flagella of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and mechanosensitive primary cilia protruding from epithelial kidney cells. The flagellum exhibits clear non-equilibrium driving, whereas fluctuations in the primary cilium are difficult to differentiate from Brownian motion. We parameterize the shapes of the flagellum and primary cilium using a low-dimensional representation of their configuration phase space, and use the measured dynamics to infer the steady-state probability distributions and probability currents. For both the flagellum and the primary cilium we find significant, coherent circulating probability currents, demonstrating that these systems violate detailed balance at the mesoscopic scale.

  1. The ACPMAPS system: A detailed overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes the ACPMAPS computing system -- its purpose, its hardware architecture, how the system is used, and relevant programming paradigms and concepts. Features of the hardware and software will be discussed in some detail, both quantitative and qualitative. This should give some perspective as to the suitability of the ACPMAPS system for various classes of applications, and as to where this system stands in the spectrum of today`s supercomputers. The ACPMAPS project at Fermilab was initiated in 1987 as a collaborations between the Advanced Computer Program (now the Computer R&D department) and the lattice gauge physicists in the Theory department. ACPMAPS is an acronym for Advanced Computer Program Multiple Array Processor System -- this acronym is no longer accurate, but the name has stuck. Although research physics computations were done on ACPMAPS as early as 1989, the full-scale system was commissioned as a reliable physics tool in early 1991. The original ACPMAPS was a 5 Gflop (peak) system. An upgrade by a factor of ten in computer power and memory size, but substituting a new CPU board, will occur during early 1991 -- this is referred to as the new ACPMAPS Upgrade or 50 GF ACPMAPS. The appellation ACPMAPS II has also been applied to the upgrade; this is somewhat of a misnomer, since only one of five major components was changed.

  2. Inverse sequential simulation: Performance and implementation details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Teng; Gómez-Hernández, J. Jaime

    2015-12-01

    For good groundwater flow and solute transport numerical modeling, it is important to characterize the formation properties. In this paper, we analyze the performance and important implementation details of a new approach for stochastic inverse modeling called inverse sequential simulation (iSS). This approach is capable of characterizing conductivity fields with heterogeneity patterns difficult to capture by standard multiGaussian-based inverse approaches. The method is based on the multivariate sequential simulation principle, but the covariances and cross-covariances used to compute the local conditional probability distributions are computed by simple co-kriging which are derived from an ensemble of conductivity and piezometric head fields, in a similar manner as the experimental covariances are computed in an ensemble Kalman filtering. A sensitivity analysis is performed on a synthetic aquifer regarding the number of members of the ensemble of realizations, the number of conditioning data, the number of piezometers at which piezometric heads are observed, and the number of nodes retained within the search neighborhood at the moment of computing the local conditional probabilities. The results show the importance of having a sufficiently large number of all of the mentioned parameters for the algorithm to characterize properly hydraulic conductivity fields with clear non-multiGaussian features.

  3. The ACPMAPS system: A detailed overview

    SciTech Connect

    Fischler, M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the ACPMAPS computing system -- its purpose, its hardware architecture, how the system is used, and relevant programming paradigms and concepts. Features of the hardware and software will be discussed in some detail, both quantitative and qualitative. This should give some perspective as to the suitability of the ACPMAPS system for various classes of applications, and as to where this system stands in the spectrum of today's supercomputers. The ACPMAPS project at Fermilab was initiated in 1987 as a collaborations between the Advanced Computer Program (now the Computer R D department) and the lattice gauge physicists in the Theory department. ACPMAPS is an acronym for Advanced Computer Program Multiple Array Processor System -- this acronym is no longer accurate, but the name has stuck. Although research physics computations were done on ACPMAPS as early as 1989, the full-scale system was commissioned as a reliable physics tool in early 1991. The original ACPMAPS was a 5 Gflop (peak) system. An upgrade by a factor of ten in computer power and memory size, but substituting a new CPU board, will occur during early 1991 -- this is referred to as the new ACPMAPS Upgrade or 50 GF ACPMAPS. The appellation ACPMAPS II has also been applied to the upgrade; this is somewhat of a misnomer, since only one of five major components was changed.

  4. Details of tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjerg; Gorman, Gerard

    2016-04-01

    We have implemented tetrahedral anisotropic mesh adaptation using the local operations of coarsening, swapping, refinement and smoothing in MATLAB without the use of any for- N loops, i.e. the script is fully vectorised. In the process of doing so, we have made three observations related to details of the implementation: 1. restricting refinement to a single edge split per element not only simplifies the code, it also improves mesh quality, 2. face to edge swapping is unnecessary, and 3. optimising for the Vassilevski functional tends to give a little higher value for the mean condition number functional than optimising for the condition number functional directly. These observations have been made for a uniform and a radial shock metric field, both starting from a structured mesh in a cube. Finally, we compare two coarsening techniques and demonstrate the importance of applying smoothing in the mesh adaptation loop. The results pertain to a unit cube geometry, but we also show the effect of corners and edges by applying the implementation in a spherical geometry.

  5. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after the failure of conventional therapy (including a review of TA140 and TA262): clinical effectiveness systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Rachel; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Harvey, Rebecca; Basarir, Hasan; Stevens, John; Carroll, Christopher; Cantrell, Anna; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key research priorities. DATA SOURCES Peer-reviewed publications, European Public Assessment Reports and manufacturers' submissions. The following databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for clinical effectiveness searches and from inception to January 2014 for cost-effectiveness searches for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and NHS Economic Evaluation Database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Bioscience Information Service Previews. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency website were also searched, as were research registers, conference proceedings and key journals. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review [including network meta-analysis (NMA)] was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of named interventions. The health economic analysis included a review of published economic evaluations and the development of a de novo model. RESULTS Ten randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The trials suggest that adult patients receiving infliximab (IFX) [Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd (MSD)], adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), Abb

  6. 142. ARAIII General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    142. ARA-III General plan of GCRE area, including electrical distribution plan for power and lighting. Includes detail of floodlight and security lighting poles and fixtures. Aerojet-general 880-area/GCRE-406-1. Date: February 1958. Ineel index code no. 063-0406-00-013-102539. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. Cloud Imagers Offer New Details on Earth's Health

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    A stunning red sunset or purple sunrise is an aesthetic treat with a scientific explanation: The colors are a direct result of the absorption or reflectance of solar radiation by atmospheric aerosols, minute particles (either solid or liquid) in the Earth s atmosphere that occur both naturally and because of human activity. At the beginning or end of the day, the Sun s rays travel farther through the atmosphere to reach an observer s eyes and more green and yellow light is scattered, making the Sun appear red. Sunset and sunrise are especially colorful when the concentration of atmospheric particles is high. This ability of aerosols to absorb and reflect sunlight is not just pretty; it also determines the amount of radiation and heat that reaches the Earth s surface, and can profoundly affect climate. In the atmosphere, aerosols are also important as nuclei for the condensation of water droplets and ice crystals. Clouds with fewer aerosols cannot form as many water droplets (called cloud particles), and consequently, do not scatter light well. In this case, more sunlight reaches the Earth s surface. When aerosol levels in clouds are high, however, more nucleation points can form small liquid water droplets. These smaller cloud particles can reflect up to 90 percent of visible radiation to space, keeping the heat from ever reaching Earth s surface. The tendency for these particles to absorb or reflect the Sun s energy - called extinction by astronomers - depends on a number of factors, including chemical composition and the humidity and temperature in the surrounding air; because cloud particles are so small, they are affected quickly by minute changes in the atmosphere. Because of this sensitivity, atmospheric scientists study cloud particles to anticipate patterns and shifts in climate. Until recently, NASA s study of atmospheric aerosols and cloud particles has been focused primarily on satellite images, which, while granting large-scale atmospheric analysis

  8. An Assessment of Hazards Caused by Electromagnetic Interaction on Humans Present near Short-Wave Physiotherapeutic Devices of Various Types Including Hazards for Users of Electronic Active Implantable Medical Devices (AIMD)

    PubMed Central

    Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both—GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662

  9. An assessment of hazards caused by electromagnetic interaction on humans present near short-wave physiotherapeutic devices of various types including hazards for users of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMD).

    PubMed

    Karpowicz, Jolanta; Gryz, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Leakage of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from short-wave radiofrequency physiotherapeutic diathermies (SWDs) may cause health and safety hazards affecting unintentionally exposed workers (W) or general public (GP) members (assisting patient exposed during treatment or presenting there for other reasons). Increasing use of electronic active implantable medical devices (AIMDs), by patients, attendants, and workers, needs attention because dysfunctions of these devices may be caused by electromagnetic interactions. EMF emitted by 12 SWDs (with capacitive or inductive applicators) were assessed following international guidelines on protection against EMF exposure (International Commission on Nonionizing Radiation Protection for GP and W, new European directive 2013/35/EU for W, European Recommendation for GP, and European Standard EN 50527-1 for AIMD users). Direct EMF hazards for humans near inductive applicators were identified at a distance not exceeding 45 cm for W or 62 cm for GP, but for AIMD users up to 90 cm (twice longer than that for W and 50% longer than that for GP because EMF is pulsed modulated). Near capacitive applicators emitting continuous wave, the corresponding distances were: 120 cm for W or 150 cm for both-GP or AIMD users. This assessment does not cover patients who undergo SWD treatment (but it is usually recommended for AIMD users to be careful with EMF treatment). PMID:24089662

  10. The Borrelia burgdorferi flaB promoter has an extended -10 element and includes a T-rich -35/-10 spacer sequence that is essential for optimal activity

    PubMed Central

    Gautam, Aarti; Hathaway, Marianne; Ramamoorthy, Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the functional elements of the flaB promoter of Borrelia burgdorferi. Promoter function was examined in a high-passage variant of strain JD1 using a set of 5′ deletions and mutations within the flaB promoter. Expression from the modified flaB promoters was assayed using the gene for green fluorescent protein (gfp) as a reporter. Although the -35 element of the promoter stimulated promoter activity, its disruption did not negate expression. Sequence upstream of the -35 had no effect on expression. The -35/-10 spacer region composed of a T-rich sequence was critical for optimal promoter function. Surprisingly, a Cytosine at the -13 site was found to be more favorable for transcription compared to a Guanosine at the same site. Based on these results and other characteristics, we propose that the B. burgdorferi flaB promoter is an example of an extended -10 promoter. Further, the T-rich spacer is a key element of the flaB promoter that contributes to the abundance of the flagellar core protein in Borrelia species. PMID:19260969

  11. Ruthenium(III) S-methylisothiosemicarbazone Schiff base complexes bearing PPh3/AsPh3 coligand: synthesis, structure and biological investigations, including antioxidant, DNA and protein interaction, and in vitro anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Govindan; Manikandan, Rajendran; Viswanathamurthi, Periasamy; Velmurugan, Krishnaswamy; Nandhakumar, Raju

    2014-09-01

    New Ru(III) isothiosemicarbazone complexes [RuCl(EPh3)L(1-4)] (E=P or As) were obtained from the reactions between [RuCl3(EPh3)3] and bis(salicylaldehyde)-S-methylisothiosemicarbazone (H2L(1-3))/bis(2-hydroxy-naphthaldehyde)-S-methylisothiosemicarbazone (H2L(4)) ligands. The new complexes were characterized by using elemental analyses and various spectral (UV-Vis, IR, (1)H NMR, FAB-Mass and EPR) methods. The redox properties of the complexes were studied by using cyclic voltammetric method. The new complexes were subjected to various biological investigations such as antioxidant assays involving DPPH radical, hydroxyl radical, nitric oxide radical and hydrogen peroxide, DNA/protein interaction studies and in vitro cytotoxic studies against human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). New complexes showed excellent free radicals scavenging ability and could bind with DNA via intercalation. Protein binding studies using fluorescence spectroscopy showed that the new complexes could bind strongly with bovine serum albumin (BSA). Photo cleavage experiments using DNA of E-coli bacterium exhibited the DNA cleavage ability of the complexes. Further, the in vitro anticancer activity studies on the new complexes against MCF-7 cell line exhibited the ability of Ru(III) isothiosemicarbazone complexes to suppress the development of malignant neoplastic disease cells. PMID:24911273

  12. Structural details, pathways, and energetics of unfolding apomyoglobin.

    PubMed

    Onufriev, Alexey; Case, David A; Bashford, Donald

    2003-01-17

    Protein folding is often difficult to characterize experimentally because of the transience of intermediate states, and the complexity of the protein-solvent system. Atomistic simulations, which could provide more detailed information, have had to employ highly simplified models or high temperatures, to cope with the long time scales of unfolding; direct simulation of folding is even more problematic. We report a fully atomistic simulation of the acid-induced unfolding of apomyoglobin in which the protonation of acidic side-chains to simulate low pH is sufficient to induce unfolding at room temperature with no added biasing forces or other unusual conditions; and the trajectory is validated by comparison to experimental characterization of intermediate states. Novel insights provided by their analysis include: characterization of a dry swollen globule state forming a barrier to initial unfolding or final folding; observation of cooperativity in secondary and tertiary structure formation and its explanation in terms of dielectric environments; and structural details of the intermediate and the completely unfolded states. These insights involve time scales and levels of structural detail that are presently beyond the range of experiment, but come within reach through the simulation methods described here. An implicit solvation model is used to analyze the energetics of protein folding at various pH and ionic strength values, and a reasonable estimate of folding free energy is obtained. Electrostatic interactions are found to disfavor folding. PMID:12498802

  13. "Reading First" Details Sought by Lawmakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoff, David J.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports how two prominent Democrats are demanding to know more about the problems identified in the implementation of the federal Reading First program, including whether criminal violations may have occurred and what Secretary of Education Margaret Spellings may have known about the problems while she was a White House aide. In the…

  14. Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of the interior of the flight deck looking forward showing the overhead control panels. Note that the flight deck windows have protective covers over them in this view. This images can be digitally stitched with image HAER No. TX-116-A-19 to expand the view to include the Commander and Pilot positions during ascent and reentry and landing. This view was taken in the Orbiter Processing Facility at the Kennedy Space Center. - Space Transportation System, Orbiter Discovery (OV-103), Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, 2101 NASA Parkway, Houston, Harris County, TX

  15. NTP system simulation and detailed nuclear engine modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anghaie, Samim

    1993-01-01

    The topics are presented in viewgraph form and include the following: nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) & detailed nuclear engine modeling; modeling and engineering simulation of nuclear thermal rocket systems; nuclear thermal rocket simulation system; INSPI-NTVR core axial flow profiles; INSPI-NTRV core axial flow profiles; specific impulse vs. chamber pressure; turbine pressure ratio vs. chamber pressure; NERVA core axial flow profiles; P&W XNR2000 core axial flow profiles; pump pressure rise vs. chamber pressure; streamline of jet-induced flow in cylindrical chamber; flow pattern of a jet-induced flow in a chamber; and radiative heat transfer models.

  16. A New Detailed Term Accounting Opacity Code: TOPAZ

    SciTech Connect

    Iglesias, C A; Chen, M H; Isaacs, W; Sonnad, V; Wilson, B G

    2004-04-28

    A new opacity code, TOPAZ, which explicitly includes configuration term structure in the bound-bound transitions is being developed. The goal is to extend the current capabilities of detailed term accounting opacity codes such as OPAL that are limited to lighter elements of astrophysical interest. At present, opacity calculations of heavier elements use statistical methods that rely on the presence of myriad spectral lines for accuracy. However, statistical approaches have been shown to be inadequate for astrophysical opacity calculations. An application of the TOPAZ code will be to study the limits of statistical methods. Comparisons of TOPAZ to other opacity codes as well as experiments are presented.

  17. Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord, Horizontal Tie Bar & Crossbracing Joint Details; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Posts, Braces & Counterbrace Joint Detail - Brownsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River (moved to Eagle Creek Park, Indianapolis), Brownsville, Union County, IN

  18. 5 CFR 352.305 - Eligibility for detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RIGHTS Detail and Transfer of Federal Employees to International Organizations § 352.305 Eligibility for detail. An employee is eligible for detail to an international organization with the rights provided...

  19. A highly acid-resistant novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 has antibacterial activity, including that against Helicobacter pylori, and inhibits gastrin-mediated acid production in mice

    PubMed Central

    Aiba, Yuji; Nakano, Yasuhiro; Koga, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Kenji; Komatsu, Yasuhiko

    2015-01-01

    A novel strain of Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was isolated from the gastric juice of a healthy Japanese male volunteer, and characterized for its effectiveness in the stomach environment. Lactobacillus johnsonii No. 1088 was found to have the strongest acid resistance among several lactobacilli examined (>10% of cells survived at pH 1.0 after 2 h), and such a high acid resistance property was a specific characteristic of this strain of L. johnsonii. When cultured with various virulent bacteria, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of Helicobacter pylori,Escherichia coli O-157, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Clostridium difficile, in which case its effectiveness was more potent than that of a type strain of L. johnsonii,JCM2012. In addition to its effect in vitro, L. johnsonii No. 1088 inhibited the growth of H. pylori in human intestinal microbiota-associated mice in both its live and lyophilized forms. Moreover, L. johnsonii No. 1088 suppressed gastric acid secretion in mice via decreasing the number of gastrin-positive cells in the stomach. These results taken together suggest that L. johnsonii No. 1088 is a unique lactobacillus having properties beneficial for supporting H. pylori eradication by triple therapy including the use of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and also for prophylaxis of gastroesophageal reflux disease possibly caused after H. pylori eradication as a side effect of PPI. PMID:25771812

  20. A Detailed Spectroscopic Analysis of The EQ Pegasi System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlieder, Joshua E.; Murphy, Simon; Riedel, Adric R.

    2015-01-01

    EQ Pegasi (GJ 896, HIP 116132 ) is a resolved binary system comprised of mid-M dwarfs at a distance of only 6.2 pc. The system has been studied extensively over a broad range of wavelengths from the X-ray to the radio. These observations reveal both components are variable, flare, and exhibit high levels of magnetic activity. The pair were recently proposed as members of a nearby young kinematic association on the basis of consistent Galactic kinematics, strong X-ray emission, and color-magnitude diagram position. Thus, they may be the closest pre-main-sequence system to the Sun. Here we present a detailed analysis of EQ Peg A and B using medium resolution spectra covering ~0.5-2.5 microns. We investigate spectral types, chromospheric activity indicators, lithium depletion, and gravity sensitive alkali lines and molecular bands to characterize the system and place constraints on its age.

  1. 39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. CLOSE UP DETAIL OF THE FEEDER AND STAMP CONNECTION. THE STAMP AN MORTAR BOX ARE ON THE LEFT AND THE FEEDER WITH ITS FEEDER DISK IS ON THE RIGHT. NOTE THE COLLAR ON THE CENTER STAMP STEM (UPPER LEFT CORNER OF THE IMAGE) THAT ACTIVATES THE LEVER IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTO. THE COLLAR IS POSITIONED SUCH THAT WHEN THE LEVEL OF THE MATERIAL REACHES A LOW POINT IN THE MORTAR BOX IT PUSHES DOWN ON THE LEVER WHICH IN TURN ACTIVATES THE AUTOMATIC FEEDER DRIVE MECHANISM WHICH THEM DELIVERS ORE INTO THE BACKSIDE OF THE MORTAR BOX. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  2. 11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Exterior detail view of northeast corner, showing stucco finish and woodwork details - American Railway Express Company Freight Building, 1060 Northeast Division Street, Bend, Deschutes County, OR

  3. Online mass storage system detailed requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The requirements for an online high density magnetic tape data storage system that can be implemented in a multipurpose, multihost environment is set forth. The objective of the mass storage system is to provide a facility for the compact storage of large quantities of data and to make this data accessible to computer systems with minimum operator handling. The results of a market survey and analysis of candidate vendor who presently market high density tape data storage systems are included.

  4. The National Association of Geology Teachers Earth Science Activities Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Victor J.

    1982-01-01

    Describes activities in the "Earth Science Activities" book (available from the author). Activities range from simple to complex, with detailed instructions/information for the teacher to conduct the activity as is or with modification to meet individual class/student needs. Includes sample activity: "Ashfall in Washington-Courtesy of Mount St.…

  5. Detailed Burnup Calculations for Testing Nuclear Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, F.

    2005-05-01

    A general method (MCQ) has been developed by introducing a microscopic burnup scheme that uses the Monte Carlo calculated fluxes and microscopic reaction rates of a complex system and a depletion code for burnup calculations as a basis for solving nuclide material balance equations for each spatial region in which the system is divided. Continuous energy-dependent cross-section libraries and full 3D geometry of the system can be input for the calculations. The resulting predictions for the system at successive burnup time steps are thus based on a calculation route where both geometry and cross sections are accurately represented, without geometry simplifications and with continuous energy data, providing an independent approach for benchmarking other methods and nuclear data of actinides, fission products, and other burnable absorbers. The main advantage of this method over the classical deterministic methods currently used is that the MCQ System is a direct 3D method without the limitations and errors introduced on the homogenization of geometry and condensation of energy of deterministic methods. The Monte Carlo and burnup codes adopted until now are the widely used MCNP and ORIGEN codes, but other codes can be used also. For using this method, there is need of a well-known set of nuclear data for isotopes involved in burnup chains, including burnable poisons, fission products, and actinides. For fixing the data to be included in this set, a study of the present status of nuclear data is performed, as part of the development of the MCQ method. This study begins with a review of the available cross-section data of isotopes involved in burnup chains for power and research nuclear reactors. The main data needs for burnup calculations are neutron cross sections, decay constants, branching ratios, fission energy, and yields. The present work includes results of selected experimental benchmarks and conclusions about the sensitivity of different sets of cross

  6. Provenance management in Swift with implementation details.

    SciTech Connect

    Gadelha, L. M. R; Clifford, B.; Mattoso, M.; Wilde, M.; Foster, I.

    2011-04-01

    The Swift parallel scripting language allows for the specification, execution and analysis of large-scale computations in parallel and distributed environments. It incorporates a data model for recording and querying provenance information. In this article we describe these capabilities and evaluate interoperability with other systems through the use of the Open Provenance Model. We describe Swift's provenance data model and compare it to the Open Provenance Model. We also describe and evaluate activities performed within the Third Provenance Challenge, which consisted of implementing a specific scientific workflow, capturing and recording provenance information of its execution, performing provenance queries, and exchanging provenance information with other systems. Finally, we propose improvements to both the Open Provenance Model and Swift's provenance system.

  7. Detailed Kinetic Modeling of Gasoline Surrogate Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Mehl, M; Curran, H J; Pitz, W J; Westbrook, C K

    2009-03-09

    Real fuels are complex mixtures of thousands of hydrocarbon compounds including linear and branched paraffins, naphthenes, olefins and aromatics. It is generally agreed that their behavior can be effectively reproduced by simpler fuel surrogates containing a limited number of components. In this work, a recently revised version of the kinetic model by the authors is used to analyze the combustion behavior of several components relevant to gasoline surrogate formulation. Particular attention is devoted to linear and branched saturated hydrocarbons (PRF mixtures), olefins (1-hexene) and aromatics (toluene). Model predictions for pure components, binary mixtures and multi-component gasoline surrogates are compared with recent experimental information collected in rapid compression machine, shock tube and jet stirred reactors covering a wide range of conditions pertinent to internal combustion engines. Simulation results are discussed focusing attention on the mixing effects of the fuel components.

  8. Ancillary-service details: operating reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1997-11-01

    Operating reserves are the front lines in the defense of bulk-power systems against major generation and transmission outages. Operating reserves are provided by generating units that can increase their output rapidly to restore the system to generation/load balance after a major disturbance occurs. Dramatic changes are under way in the U.S. electricity sector, in particular the unbundling of generation from transmission and the increasingly competitive nature of bulk-power markets. Therefore, it is important to revisit the industry`s definitions of, procurement of, and payment for operating reserves. The procedures traditionally used by vertically integrated utilities may not serve the needs of an increasingly fragmented and competitive electricity industry. This report examines the past and current functions of, as well as the national and regional requirements for, operating reserves. We examine the data and analysis that support minimum-operating-reserve requirements. We obtained data on the number and severity of generator outages for three large U.S. electrical systems, including a power pool, a regional reliability council, and a utility. These limited data sets show a range of 15 to 40 major (>500 MW) outages a year for systems ranging in size from 20, 000 MW to 48,000 MW of peak demand. Finally, we discuss several emerging issues related to the underlying technical support for minimum operating-reserve requirements, alternative ways to pay for these reserves, the data needed to support the analysis of these requirements, and the mix of functions that are currently included within operating reserves.

  9. Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Panel Post & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie Bar, & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Tie Bar, & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Medora Bridge, Spanning East Fork of White River at State Route 235, Medora, Jackson County, IN

  10. 5 CFR 930.106 - Details in the competitive service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Details in the competitive service. 930... Operators § 930.106 Details in the competitive service. An agency may detail an employee to an operator... details exceeding 30 days, the employee must meet all the requirements of § 930.105 and any applicable...

  11. Transfer Effects of Adding Seductive Details to Case-Based Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara

    2013-01-01

    The current research investigates the efficacy of the case-based instructional method for teacher education when seductive details (i.e. interesting but extraneous details) are included or removed. Aspiring teachers (n = 108) learned about principles of writing effective feedback in a text-based lesson without a description of a classroom case (C…

  12. Increased Interestingness of Extraneous Details in a Multimedia Science Presentation Leads to Decreased Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Griffith, Emily; Jurkowitz, Ilana T. N.; Rothman, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In Experiment 1, students received an illustrated booklet, PowerPoint presentation, or narrated animation that explained 6 steps in how a cold virus infects the human body. The material included 6 high-interest details mainly about the role of viruses in sex or death (high group) or 6 low-interest details consisting of facts and health tips about…

  13. 36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. ARCHITECTURAL AND STRUCTURAL DETAILS OF ELEVATOR HOUSING, NaK HEATER STACK ROOF FLASHING, HOOD ELEVATION DETAIL. INCLUDES PARTIAL 'BILL OF MATERIAL.' INEEL DRAWING NUMBER 200-0633-00-287-106361. FLUOR NUMBER 5775-CPP-633-A-11. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Old Waste Calcining Facility, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  14. Verbal Ability and the Processing of Scientific Text with Seductive Detail Sentences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCrudden, Matthew T.; Corkill, Alice J.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the influence of seductive detail sentences (i.e., highly interesting, yet unimportant sentences) on reading time and recall for readers with higher and lower verbal ability. College students (n = 81) read a 967-word text that included seductive detail sentences. Participants with higher and lower verbal ability displayed similar…

  15. [Approach to academic detailing as a hospital pharmacist].

    PubMed

    Nishikori, Atsumi

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a new medical fee system was introduced for the clinical activities of hospital pharmacists responsible for in-patient pharmacotherapy monitoring in medical institutions in Japan. The new medical system demands greater efforts to provide the most suitable and safest medicine for each patient. By applying the concept of academic detailing to clinical pharmacists' roles in hospitals, I present drug use evaluation in three disease states (peptic ulcer, insomnia, and osteoporosis). To analyze these from multiple aspects, we not only need knowledge of drug monographs (clinical and adverse drug effects), but also the ability to evaluate a patient's adherence and cost-effectiveness. If we combine the idea of academic detailing with a clinical pharmacist's role, it is necessary to strengthen drug information skills, such as guideline or literature search skills and journal evaluation. Simultaneously, it is important to introduce new pharmaceutical education curriculums regarding evidence-based medicine (EBM), pharmacoeconomics, and professional communication in order to explore pharmacists' roles in the future. PMID:24584015

  16. CSI: An Engaging Online Classroom Introduction Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Geralyn E.

    2015-01-01

    All course activities should be aimed at moving students towards the learning outcomes, including class introductions. This article provides detailed instructions for implementing an online Class Session Introductions (CSI) activity that immediately engages students with their peers, the content and the instructor. The activity may be useful to…

  17. Detailed analysis of methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, T.; Saeki, T.; Inamori, T.; Fujii, T.; Shimoda, N.

    2007-12-01

    Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation (hereinafter called JOGMEC), as a member of MH21 Research Consortium, takes charge of a study of the Research for Resources Assessment, and is pursuing a possibility that methane hydrate, which is presumed to be distributed around ocean area of Japan, will be energy resources. JOGMEC is currently conducting analysis of seismic data which was acquired by 3D seismic survey conducted from Tokai-Oki to Kumano-nada in the eastern Nankai Trough by METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry) in 2002 under the national program of assessment for methane hydrates as energy resources. It was understood that methane hydrate was correlated to high resistivity and high velocity based on the results of drilling surveys and velocity analysis, and that methane hydrate concentrated zones can be roughly classified into the channels and lobes in seismic geomorphology because they were characterized with reserves consisting turbidite sand bodies. In this study, the detailed analysis of the inner structure of the methane hydrate concentrated zone of lobe type was conducted to understand the occurrence configurations of methane hydrates. The reflected waves that construct the methane hydrate concentrated zones in the seismic data were extracted and those reflected waves were classified into some groups every one reflector. As the result, some reflectors that construct the methane hydrate concentrated zones were revealed. Those reflectors show the layers including methane hydrates, and the detailed distribution of the methane hydrates in those layers was revealed by the intensity distribution of the amplitude. This time, we introduce the example of the detailed analysis of the methane hydrate concentrated zone in the lobe of submarine fan.

  18. Visitor center flight room,detail of modern soffit and original ribbedconcrete ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Visitor center flight room,detail of modern soffit and original ribbed-concrete including original integrated duct work, view to northwest - Wright Brothers National Memorial Visitor Center, Highway 158, Kill Devil Hills, Dare County, NC

  19. 46 CFR 178.230 - Stability letter or Certificate of Inspection stability details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... an emergency; (6) Location, type and amount of fixed ballast; (7) Location and details of foam flotation material; and (8) Maximum weight of portable equipment permitted on the vessel including...

  20. The Devil's Hole Is In The Details

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    As the granularity of Quaternary paleoclimatic proxy signatures from continental and oceanic sources continues to resolve, increasingly integrated studies such as Shakun et. al. (2012), and Kohfeld and Ridgewell (2009) have emerged, with far-reaching but sometimes conflicting paleo-global climate interpretations. Accordingly, none of the competing empirical and phenomenological narratives regarding the time series of Quaternary temperature patterns fit with sufficient fidelity to the observational record. Among other examples, the Shakun et al. study reviewed and processed 80 proxy sites worldwide for paleotemperature reconstruction, but left out the premier Devil's Hole poxy site in the continental Southwestern U.S. The Devil's Hole site presents a nominally earlier record of an interglacial warming signal (Landwehr and Winograd 2012). Both cite similar data (NOAA, 2005) as confirmation of their competing interpretations. Clearly both cannot be right. Epistemic origins of this apparent conflict may be rooted on the ongoing controversy concerning the importance of orbital forcings to the 100K year Quaternary glacial oscillations. Orbital forcings had been intrinsically posited as the only possible extraterrestrial driver of global temperature cycles over the Quaternary time frame. Yet other extraterrestrial climate forcing parameters are now conceivable. This paper reexamines past 3He marine core measurements conducted on two oceans and two hemispheres, and alternatives to the associated interpretations of researchers Patterson and Farley (1998). This study includes a new phenomenological and empirical exploration of an alternate extraterrestrial Quaternary global climate forcing model. This new interpretation is possible based on improved mapping of the Local Interstellar Medium (ISM), as documented in recent works such as those by Frisch and Mueller (2011). References: Frisch, P.C., and HR Mueller, 2011, Time-Variability in the Interstellar Boundary Conditions of

  1. Detailed Physical Trough Model for NREL's Solar Advisor Model: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, M. J.; Blair, N.; Dobos, A.

    2010-10-01

    Solar Advisor Model (SAM) is a free software package made available by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Sandia National Laboratory, and the US Department of Energy. SAM contains hourly system performance and economic models for concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, photovoltaic, solar hot-water, and generic fuel-use technologies. Versions of SAM prior to 2010 included only the parabolic trough model based on Excelergy. This model uses top-level empirical performance curves to characterize plant behavior, and thus is limited in predictive capability for new technologies or component configurations. To address this and other functionality challenges, a new trough model; derived from physical first principles was commissioned to supplement the Excelergy-based empirical model. This new 'physical model' approaches the task of characterizing the performance of the whole parabolic trough plant by replacing empirical curve-fit relationships with more detailed calculations where practical. The resulting model matches the annual performance of the SAM empirical model (which has been previously verified with plant data) while maintaining run-times compatible with parametric analysis, adding additional flexibility in modeled system configurations, and providing more detailed performance calculations in the solar field, power block, piping, and storage subsystems.

  2. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results achieved during a study of the Detail Content of Apollo Orbital Photography are reported. The effect of residual motion smear or image reproduction processes upon the detail content of lunar surface imagery obtained from the orbiting command module are assessed. Data and conclusions obtained from the Apollo 8, 12, 14 and 15 missions are included. For the Apollo 8, 12 and 14 missions, the bracket-mounted Hasselblad camera had no mechanism internal to the camera for motion compensation. If the motion of the command module were left totally uncompensated, these photographs would exhibit a ground smear varying from 12 to 27 meters depending upon the focal length of the lens and the exposure time. During the photographic sequences motion compensation was attempted by firing the attitude control system of the spacecraft at a rate to compensate for the motion relative to the lunar surface. The residual smear occurring in selected frames of imagery was assessed using edge analyses methods to obtain and achieved modulation transfer function (MTF) which was compared to a baseline MTF.

  3. Including Diverse Women in the Undergraduate Curriculum: Reasons and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    The inclusion of diversity in the teaching of undergraduate psychology, as is presented here, can transform both the discipline of psychology and the larger society it influences. Details of why the lack of representation is a problem are outlined. These problems include exclusion, misrepresentation, methodology, disengagement, stagnation, and…

  4. DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF WATER TANKS AND PIPELINE TO WATER SOURCE. LOOKING NORTHWEST FROM LARGE TAILINGS PILE. THE TANK ON THE LEFT IS A WATER TANK, POSSIBLY ASSOCIATED WITH A WATER SHAFT THAT IS SEEN AS A RAISED SPOT ON THE GROUND JUST TO THE RIGHT OF IT. THE TANK ON THE RIGHT IS IN DIRECT CONNECTION WITH THE PIPELINE CARRYING WATER FROM A NEARBY SPRING IN THE DISTANCE AT CENTER. THE WATER WAS THEN PUMPED UP TO ALL PARTS OF THE MINING OPERATION, INCLUDING THE UPPER MINES ONE MILE NORTH, THE MILL, AND THE CYANIDE PLANT. THE PIPELINE ITSELF IS DISMANTLED, WITH PARTS OF IT MISSING OR SCATTERED ALONG THE GROUND, AS SEEN IN THE CENTER DISTANCE. THE SPRING IS APPROX. A QUARTER MILE DISTANT, AND IS NOT PROMINENT IN THIS PHOTOGRAPH. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. Detailed Configuration Calculations for Non-LTE Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Christopher J.; Abdallah, Joseph, Jr.; Clark, Robert E. H.; Kilcrease, David P.

    1998-11-01

    We continue our work to explore the feasibility of creating detailed atomic models for radiation-hydrodynamics simulations of ICF applications. By further optimizing our atomic data codes we are able to create non-LTE models with a level of complexity approximately one order of magnitude greater (in size) than previously obtained. We present emissivities for gold which include on the order of 75,000 configurations per temperature-density point. The inclusion of additional configurations has yielded improved results for quantities such as the ion fraction distributions, but the question of spectral convergence is yet unanswered. The creation of still larger models will be discussed as well as comparison with experiment and other theories. The possibility of using these models for in-line simulations will also be discussed.

  6. In Brief: Report details climate change effects on cultural sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Sarah

    2007-04-01

    A new report from UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization) details how 26 World Heritage sites could be affected by coming climate changes. The 26 examples, which are meant to be representative of the range of threats to the 830 sites inscribed in the World Heritage List, are divided into five types: archaeological sites, glaciers, historic cities and settlements, marine biodiversity, and terrestrial biodiversity. Some of the examples include the Great Barrier Reef, which is expected to experience more frequent episodes of coral bleaching; Timbuktu in Mali, threatened by desertification; and the Chavín Archaeological Site in the Peruvian Central Andes, one of the earliest and best-known pre-Columbian sites, which could be affected by glacier melting and flooding. The report, ``Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage,'' is available at http://whc.unesco.org/documents/publi_climatechange.pdf

  7. Detailed ultraviolet asymptotics for AdS scalar field perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evnin, Oleg; Jai-akson, Puttarak

    2016-04-01

    We present a range of methods suitable for accurate evaluation of the leading asymptotics for integrals of products of Jacobi polynomials in limits when the degrees of some or all polynomials inside the integral become large. The structures in question have recently emerged in the context of effective descriptions of small amplitude perturbations in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. The limit of high degree polynomials corresponds in this situation to effective interactions involving extreme short-wavelength modes, whose dynamics is crucial for the turbulent instabilities that determine the ultimate fate of small AdS perturbations. We explicitly apply the relevant asymptotic techniques to the case of a self-interacting probe scalar field in AdS and extract a detailed form of the leading large degree behavior, including closed form analytic expressions for the numerical coefficients appearing in the asymptotics.

  8. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment. PMID:12287744

  9. Transient Catalytic Combustor Model With Detailed Gas and Surface Chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Mellish, Benjamin P.; Miller, Fletcher J.; Tien, James S.

    2005-01-01

    In this work, we numerically investigate the transient combustion of a premixed gas mixture in a narrow, perfectly-insulated, catalytic channel which can represent an interior channel of a catalytic monolith. The model assumes a quasi-steady gas-phase and a transient, thermally thin solid phase. The gas phase is one-dimensional, but it does account for heat and mass transfer in a direction perpendicular to the flow via appropriate heat and mass transfer coefficients. The model neglects axial conduction in both the gas and in the solid. The model includes both detailed gas-phase reactions and catalytic surface reactions. The reactants modeled so far include lean mixtures of dry CO and CO/H2 mixtures, with pure oxygen as the oxidizer. The results include transient computations of light-off and system response to inlet condition variations. In some cases, the model predicts two different steady-state solutions depending on whether the channel is initially hot or cold. Additionally, the model suggests that the catalytic ignition of CO/O2 mixtures is extremely sensitive to small variations of inlet equivalence ratios and parts per million levels of H2.

  10. Photocopy of "sheet 4 of 8" showing window details, door ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of "sheet 4 of 8" showing window details, door sill detail, vertical wall sections, and cross sections thru front, side and rear elevations. - Badger Mountain Lookout, .125 mile northwest of Badger Mountain summit, East Wenatchee, Douglas County, WA

  11. 9. South abutment, detail of collapsed east wing wall; also ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. South abutment, detail of collapsed east wing wall; also detail of bottom lateral bracing and stringers; looking southeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  12. 3. East side, details of north half of east web; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. East side, details of north half of east web; also details of roadway, railing and overhead bracing; looking northeast - Dodd Ford Bridge, County Road 147 Spanning Blue Earth River, Amboy, Blue Earth County, MN

  13. PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD DETAILS. DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD DETAILS. DOOR TYPES & DETAILS." OCTOBER 31, 1942. - Madigan Hospital, Standard & Combination Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  14. PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD DETAILS, SOLARIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF A 1942 ARCHITECTURAL DRAWING TITLED: "STANDARD DETAILS, SOLARIUM DETAILS." OCTOBER 31, 1942. - Madigan Hospital, Standard & Combination Wards, Bounded by Wilson & McKinley Avenues & Garfield & Lincoln Streets, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  15. Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lock 1 (Savannah River Lock), Elevation of North Wall, Detail of Wall Foundation, Detail of Gate Pocket - Savannah & Ogeechee Barge Canal, Between Ogeechee & Savannah Rivers, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  16. 9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. DETAIL, OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST APPROACH SPAN. NOTE PIN CONNECTIONS, UNDERSIDE DETAILS, SHADOW PATTERN CAST BY STEEL OPEN GRATE DECK. - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  17. 6. HOUSE NO. 2. DETAIL AT EAST END OF FRONT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. HOUSE NO. 2. DETAIL AT EAST END OF FRONT SHOWING SIDING AND ROOF-WALL JUNCTURE DETAILS. VIEW TO SOUTHWEST. - Holter Hydroelectric Facility, House No. 2, End of Holter Dam Road, Wolf Creek, Lewis and Clark County, MT

  18. 3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Detail of north loading dock area showing column, insulated doors, and detail of underside of canopy - Fort Hood, World War II Temporary Buildings, Cold Storage Building, Seventeenth Street, Killeen, Bell County, TX

  19. Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wallconstruction ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Morning view, brick post detail; view also shows dimensional wall-construction detail. North wall, with the camera facing northwest. - Beaufort National Cemetery, Wall, 1601 Boundary Street, Beaufort, Beaufort County, SC

  20. 5 CFR 370.104 - Length of details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Length of details. 370.104 Section 370.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY EXCHANGE PROGRAM § 370.104 Length of details. (a) Details may be for a period of between 3...

  1. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  2. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with subchapter...

  3. 46 CFR 188.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 188.25-1 Section 188.25... GENERAL PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 188.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) The electrical engineering details shall be in accordance with subchapter J...

  4. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  5. 46 CFR 188.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 188.20-1 Section 188.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 188.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) The marine engineering details shall be in accordance with Subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  6. 46 CFR 90.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 90.20-1 Section 90.20-1... PROVISIONS General Marine Engineering Requirements § 90.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details such as piping, valves, fittings, boilers, pressure vessels, etc., and their...

  7. 14 CFR 29.685 - Control system details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Control system details. 29.685 Section 29.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Control Systems § 29.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of...

  8. 5 CFR 352.905 - Employees on detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Employees on detail. 352.905 Section 352.905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS Reemployment Rights After Service With the Panama Canal Commission § 352.905 Employees on detail. (a) An employee detailed to the Commission...

  9. Brief Review on Details in Educational Management and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Yuqin

    2009-01-01

    In reality, quite lots of details are frequently neglected intentionally or unintentionally. Usually, failure is accumulated when one is careless, while success is also accumulated by several details. We human beings often have the exclamation of "Success owing to details, and failure too". We should, from time to time, alarm or remind…

  10. 34 CFR 5.16 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of identifying details. 5.16 Section 5.16... details. Whenever any final opinion, order, or other materials required to be made available pursuant to... other identifying details will constitute a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, the...

  11. 14 CFR 25.685 - Control system details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 25.685 Section 25.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be designed and installed to prevent...

  12. 14 CFR 23.685 - Control system details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Control system details. 23.685 Section 23.685 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT... Control Systems § 23.685 Control system details. (a) Each detail of each control system must be...

  13. 44 CFR 5.27 - Deletion of identifying details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... details. 5.27 Section 5.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY... identifying details. To the extent required to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, FEMA may delete identifying details when making available or publishing an opinion, statement of...

  14. 46 CFR 32.45-1 - Installation and details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installation and details. 32.45-1 Section 32.45-1... REQUIREMENTS Electrical Installations § 32.45-1 Installation and details. The installation of all electrical engineering or interior communications systems, together with the details of design, construction,...

  15. 49 CFR 7.6 - Deletion of identifying detail.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Deletion of identifying detail. 7.6 Section 7.6... To Be Made Public by DOT § 7.6 Deletion of identifying detail. Whenever it is determined to be necessary to prevent a clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy, identifying details will be...

  16. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...

  17. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. All marine engineering details relative to the... in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  18. 46 CFR 24.20-1 - Marine engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marine engineering details. 24.20-1 Section 24.20-1... Engineering Requirements § 24.20-1 Marine engineering details. (a) All marine engineering details relative to... 40 feet in length will be found in subchapter F (Marine Engineering) of this chapter....

  19. 46 CFR 70.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 70.25-1 Section 70.25-1... General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 70.25-1 Electrical engineering details. All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance with subchapter...

  20. 46 CFR 90.25-1 - Electrical engineering details.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Electrical engineering details. 90.25-1 Section 90.25-1... PROVISIONS General Electrical Engineering Requirements § 90.25-1 Electrical engineering details. (a) All electrical engineering details and installations shall be designed and installed in accordance...