Science.gov

Sample records for activity includes objectives

  1. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  2. Object recognition by active fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prantl, Manfred; Kopp-Borotschnig, Hermann; Ganster, Harald; Sinclair, David; Pinz, Axel J.

    1996-10-01

    Today's computer vision applications often have to deal with multiple, uncertain, and incomplete visual information. In this paper, we apply a new method, termed 'active fusion', to the problem of generic object recognition. Active fusion provides a common framework for active selection and combination of information from multiple sources in order to arrive at a reliable result at reasonable costs. In our experimental setup we use a camera mounted on a 2m by 1.5m x/z-table observing objects placed on a rotating table. Zoom, pan, tilt, and aperture setting of the camera can be controlled by the system. We follow a part-based approach, trying to decompose objects into parts, which are modeled as geons. The active fusion system starts from an initial view of the objects placed on the table and is continuously trying to refine its current object hypotheses by requesting additional views. The implementation of active fusion on the basis of probability theory, Dempster-Shafer's theory of evidence and fuzzy set theory is discussed. First results demonstrating segmentation improvements by active fusion are presented.

  3. Object of Activity and Individual Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Reijo

    2005-01-01

    A. N. Leontiev (1978) introduced the philosophical concept of practice, or "objective activity" into psychology to reconsider its foundations, and in this context he elaborated the concept of the object of activity. This article deals with the co-formation of an object of a collective activity and of the goals, motives and capabilities of…

  4. American Literature: Performance Objectives and Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascher, Hope; And Others

    This guide is a sampler of ideas and activities based on 22 minimum objectives in speech, reading, writing, and research that have been identified for American literature study. Many of the activities involve an integration of several skills that are cross-referenced to other skills in the margins of the guide. A separate section on research…

  5. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information. PMID:27165170

  6. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies. PMID:23335580

  7. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  8. Object features, object locations, and object files: which does selective attention activate and when?

    PubMed

    Lamy, D; Tsal, Y

    2000-08-01

    The representation within which attention operates was investigated in 3 experiments. The task was similar to that of R. Egly, J. Driver, and R. D. Rafal (1994). Participants had to detect the presence of a target at 1 of 4 ends of 2 shapes, differing in color and form. A precue appeared at 1 of the 4 possible corners. The 2 shapes occupied either the same or different locations in the cuing and target displays. The results showed that the cued object location was attended whether or not space was task relevant, whereas the cued object features (color and form) were attended only when these were task relevant. Moreover, when object file continuity was maintained through continuous movement, attention was found to follow the cued object file as it moved while also accruing to the cued location.

  9. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  10. Multiple objective optimization for active sensor management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Page, Scott F.; Dolia, Alexander N.; Harris, Chris J.; White, Neil M.

    2005-03-01

    The performance of a multi-sensor data fusion system is inherently constrained by the configuration of the given sensor suite. Intelligent or adaptive control of sensor resources has been shown to offer improved fusion performance in many applications. Common approaches to sensor management select sensor observation tasks that are optimal in terms of a measure of information. However, optimising for information alone is inherently sub-optimal as it does not take account of any other system requirements such as stealth or sensor power conservation. We discuss the issues relating to developing a suite of performance metrics for optimising multi-sensor systems and propose some candidate metrics. In addition it may not always be necessary to maximize information gain, in some cases small increases in information gain may take place at the cost of large sensor resource requirements. Additionally, the problems of sensor tasking and placement are usually treated separately, leading to a lack of coherency between sensor management frameworks. We propose a novel approach based on a high level decentralized information-theoretic sensor management architecture that unifies the processes of sensor tasking and sensor placement into a single framework. Sensors are controlled using a minimax multiple objective optimisation approach in order to address probability of target detection, sensor power consumption, and sensor survivability whilst maintaining a target estimation covariance threshold. We demonstrate the potential of the approach through simulation of a multi-sensor, target tracking scenario and compare the results with a single objective information based approach.

  11. Conceptual coherence affects phonological activation of context objects during object naming.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jörg D; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-05-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological activation of the context objects was reliably observed if the target and context objects were embedded in a conceptually coherent scene (e.g., if the picture showed a mouse eating some cheese), regardless of whether the target was cued by its thematic role (agent vs. patient) or by color. However, this activation dissipated if the two objects were presented in an arbitrary object array (e.g., if the cheese was presented along with a finger). These findings suggest that conceptual coherence among multiple objects affects the information flow in the conceptual-lexical system during speech planning. PMID:18444758

  12. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  13. Selecting object pairs for action: Is the active object always first?

    PubMed

    Laverick, Rosanna; Wulff, Melanie; Honisch, Juliane J; Chua, Wei Ling; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-08-01

    Perception is linked to action via two routes: a direct route based on affordance information in the environment and an indirect route based on semantic knowledge about objects. The present study explored the factors modulating the recruitment of the two routes, in particular which factors affecting the selection of paired objects. In Experiment 1, we presented real objects among semantically related or unrelated distracters. Participants had to select two objects that can interact. The presence of distracters affected selection times, but not the semantic relations of the objects with the distracters. Furthermore, participants first selected the active object (e.g. teaspoon) with their right hand, followed by the passive object (e.g. mug), often with their left hand. In Experiment 2, we presented pictures of the same objects with no hand grip, congruent or incongruent hand grip. Participants had to decide whether the two objects can interact. Action decisions were faster when the presentation of the active object preceded the presentation of the passive object, and when the grip was congruent. Interestingly, participants were slower when the objects were semantically but not functionally related; this effect increased with congruently gripped objects. Our data showed that action decisions in the presence of strong affordance cues (real objects, pictures of congruently gripped objects) relied on sensory-motor representation, supporting the direct route from perception-to-action that bypasses semantic knowledge. However, in the case of weak affordance cues (pictures), semantic information interfered with action decisions, indicating that semantic knowledge impacts action decisions. The data support the dual-route account from perception-to-action.

  14. Semantic relatedness among objects promotes the activation of multiple phonological codes during object naming.

    PubMed

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D; Schriefers, Herbert; Gorges, Frauke

    2010-02-01

    In a picture-word interference experiment the authors demonstrate that a semantic-categorical relation between a to-be-named target picture and a context picture promotes the phonological activation of the to-be-ignored context picture. No such phonological activation is observed if the objects are semantically unrelated. This finding gives further insight into the mechanisms that modulate the activation flow in the conceptual-lexical system during speech planning. In contrast to recent picture-picture interference studies, the results provide direct evidence that the phonological activation of a context object is dependent on its semantic processing. PMID:19557668

  15. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  16. Active Electric Imaging: Body-Object Interplay and Object's “Electric Texture”

    PubMed Central

    Caputi, Ángel A.; Aguilera, Pedro A.; Pereira, Ana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the role of fish's body and object's geometry on determining the image spatial shape in pulse Gymnotiforms. This problem was explored by measuring local electric fields along a line on the skin in the presence and absence of objects. We depicted object's electric images at different regions of the electrosensory mosaic, paying particular attention to the perioral region where a fovea has been described. When sensory surface curvature increases relative to the object's curvature, the image details depending on object's shape are blurred and finally disappear. The remaining effect of the object on the stimulus profile depends on the strength of its global polarization. This depends on the length of the object's axis aligned with the field, in turn depending on fish body geometry. Thus, fish's body and self-generated electric field geometries are embodied in this “global effect” of the object. The presence of edges or local changes in impedance at the nearest surface of closely located objects adds peaks to the image profiles (“local effect” or “object's electric texture”). It is concluded that two cues for object recognition may be used by active electroreceptive animals: global effects (informing on object's dimension along the field lines, conductance, and position) and local effects (informing on object's surface). Since the field has fish's centered coordinates, and electrosensory fovea is used for exploration of surfaces, fish fine movements are essential to perform electric perception. We conclude that fish may explore adjacent objects combining active movements and electrogenesis to represent them using electrosensory information. PMID:21876730

  17. Active electric imaging: body-object interplay and object's "electric texture".

    PubMed

    Caputi, Angel A; Aguilera, Pedro A; Pereira, Ana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the role of fish's body and object's geometry on determining the image spatial shape in pulse Gymnotiforms. This problem was explored by measuring local electric fields along a line on the skin in the presence and absence of objects. We depicted object's electric images at different regions of the electrosensory mosaic, paying particular attention to the perioral region where a fovea has been described. When sensory surface curvature increases relative to the object's curvature, the image details depending on object's shape are blurred and finally disappear. The remaining effect of the object on the stimulus profile depends on the strength of its global polarization. This depends on the length of the object's axis aligned with the field, in turn depending on fish body geometry. Thus, fish's body and self-generated electric field geometries are embodied in this "global effect" of the object. The presence of edges or local changes in impedance at the nearest surface of closely located objects adds peaks to the image profiles ("local effect" or "object's electric texture"). It is concluded that two cues for object recognition may be used by active electroreceptive animals: global effects (informing on object's dimension along the field lines, conductance, and position) and local effects (informing on object's surface). Since the field has fish's centered coordinates, and electrosensory fovea is used for exploration of surfaces, fish fine movements are essential to perform electric perception. We conclude that fish may explore adjacent objects combining active movements and electrogenesis to represent them using electrosensory information. PMID:21876730

  18. Automatic activity estimation based on object behaviour signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Pérez, F. E.; González-Fraga, J. A.; Tentori, M.

    2010-08-01

    Automatic estimation of human activities is a topic widely studied. However the process becomes difficult when we want to estimate activities from a video stream, because human activities are dynamic and complex. Furthermore, we have to take into account the amount of information that images provide, since it makes the modelling and estimation activities a hard work. In this paper we propose a method for activity estimation based on object behavior. Objects are located in a delimited observation area and their handling is recorded with a video camera. Activity estimation can be done automatically by analyzing the video sequences. The proposed method is called "signature recognition" because it considers a space-time signature of the behaviour of objects that are used in particular activities (e.g. patients' care in a healthcare environment for elder people with restricted mobility). A pulse is produced when an object appears in or disappears of the observation area. This means there is a change from zero to one or vice versa. These changes are produced by the identification of the objects with a bank of nonlinear correlation filters. Each object is processed independently and produces its own pulses; hence we are able to recognize several objects with different patterns at the same time. The method is applied to estimate three healthcare-related activities of elder people with restricted mobility.

  19. Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetsenko, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of human development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material…

  20. Environmental Education, Objectives and Field Activities, Fourth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Major, James M.; Cissell, Charles A.

    Contained in this teacher's guide are educational objectives and numerous field activity suggestions for environmental education. Part One deals with the total environmental education program, primarily developed for fifth grade students, but adaptable to any level, age six to adult. Sample objectives of an environmental education program, general…

  1. Wet STEM: a new development in environmental SEM for imaging nano-objects included in a liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Bogner, A; Thollet, G; Basset, D; Jouneau, P-H; Gauthier, C

    2005-10-01

    Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) enables wet samples to be observed without potentially damaging sample preparation through the use of partial water vapour pressure in the microscope specimen chamber. However, in the case of latices in colloidal state or microorganisms, samples are not only wet, but made of objects totally submerged in a liquid phase. In this case, under classical ESEM imaging conditions only the top surface of the liquid is imaged, with poor contrast, and possible drifting of objects. The present paper describes experiments using a powerful new Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) imaging system, that allows transmission observations of wet samples in an ESEM. A special device, designed to observe all sorts of objects submerged in a liquid under annular dark-field imaging conditions, is described. Specific features of the device enable to avoid drifting of floating objects which occurs in the case of a large amount of water, thus allowing slow-scan high-definition imaging of particles with a diameter down to few tens of nm. The large potential applications of this new technique are then illustrated, including the imaging of different nano-objects in water. The particular case of grafted latex particles is discussed, showing that it is possible to observe details on their surface when submerged in water. All the examples demonstrate that images acquired in wet STEM mode show particularly good resolution and contrast, without adding enhancing contrast objects, and without staining.

  2. Active object programming for military autonomous mobile robot software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-10-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge panel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  3. Active objects programming for military autonomous mobile robots software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-09-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge pannel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  4. The relation between infants' activity with objects and attention to object appearance.

    PubMed

    Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action. Infants robustly responded to changes in action, but as a group did not respond to changes in appearance. Moreover, more skilled activity with objects during naturalistic play was associated with longer looking in response to a change in appearance, but not to a change in action. Implications for the relation between perception and action in infancy are discussed. (

  5. A Brief Survey of Activity Phenomena in Cosmic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt is done to unify the variety of physical active phenomena observed in various cosmic objects belonging to the all hierarchical levels. The dark energy carrier is suggested to interact with the baryonic matter and provide the activity energy through the injection from "the main reservoir". The concept that the Hubble flow is not possible for non-cosmological shorter scales where the baryonic objects are believed to be gravitationally bound is considered in a few words to show that it is a simple extrapolation of the a priori hypothesis on the formation of cosmic objects. Some observational facts are pointed to show that expansion phenomena at shorter scales could be explained using the Hubble law only. The physical consequences of dark energy exchange with the atomic nuclei and "gravitationally bound" objects are considered.

  6. Antiradical activity of gallic acid included in lipid interphases.

    PubMed

    Salcedo, C L; Frías, M A; Cutro, A C; Nazareno, M A; Disalvo, E A

    2014-10-01

    Polyphenols are well known as antioxidant agents and by their effects on the hydration layers of lipid interphases. Among them, gallic acid and its derivatives are able to decrease the dipole potential and to act in water as a strong antioxidant. In this work we have studied both effects on lipid interphases in monolayers and bilayers of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine. The results show that gallic acid (GA) increases the negative surface charges of large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) and decreases the dipole potential of the lipid interphase. As a result, positively charged radical species such as ABTS(+) are able to penetrate the membrane forming an association with GA. These results allow discussing the antiradical activity (ARA) of GA at the membrane phase which may be taking place in water spaces between the lipids.

  7. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children.

  8. Objectively measured physical activity of young Canadian children using accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Borkhoff, Cornelia M; Heale, Liane D; Anderson, Laura N; Tremblay, Mark S; Maguire, Jonathon L; Parkin, Patricia C; Birken, Catherine S

    2015-12-01

    The objective of the study was to describe objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary time of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers and determine the proportion meeting Canadian age-specific PA guidelines. Ninety children (47 girls, 43 boys; mean age 32 (range, 4-70) months) attending scheduled health supervision visits and in the TARGet Kids! (The Applied Research Group for Kids) cohort wore an Actical accelerometer for 7 days. Participants with 4 or more valid days were included in the analysis. Time, in mean minutes per day (min/day), spent sedentary and in light PA, moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA), and total PA was determined using published cut-points; age groups were compared using ANOVA. Twenty-three percent of children <18 months (n = 28) and 76% of children aged 18-59 months (n = 45) met the guideline of 180 min/day of total PA; 13% of children ≥60 months (n = 17) met the guideline of 60 min/day of MVPA. Children <18 months spent more of their waking time per day engaged in sedentary behaviours (79%; ∼7.3 h) compared with children aged 18-59 months (63%; ∼6.6 h) and children ≥60 months (58%; ∼6.6 h). In conclusion, most children aged 18-59 months met the Canadian PA guidelines for children aged 0-4 years, whereas few younger than 18 months met the same guidelines. Only 13% of children ≥5 years met their age-specific PA guidelines. Further research is needed to develop, test, and implement effective strategies to promote PA and reduce sedentary behaviour in very young children. PMID:26573442

  9. Enhancing Sensorimotor Activity by Controlling Virtual Objects with Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Modroño, Cristián; Plata-Bello, Julio; Zelaya, Fernando; García, Sofía; Galván, Iván; Marcano, Francisco; Navarrete, Gorka; Casanova, Óscar; Mas, Manuel; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI work studies brain activity of healthy volunteers who manipulated a virtual object in the context of a digital game by applying two different control methods: using their right hand or using their gaze. The results show extended activations in sensorimotor areas, not only when participants played in the traditional way (using their hand) but also when they used their gaze to control the virtual object. Furthermore, with the exception of the primary motor cortex, regional motor activity was similar regardless of what the effector was: the arm or the eye. These results have a potential application in the field of the neurorehabilitation as a new approach to generate activation of the sensorimotor system to support the recovery of the motor functions. PMID:25799431

  10. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment. PMID:22789551

  11. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.

  12. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses.

  13. Anticipating Human Activities Using Object Affordances for Reactive Robotic Response.

    PubMed

    Koppula, Hema S; Saxena, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    An important aspect of human perception is anticipation, which we use extensively in our day-to-day activities when interacting with other humans as well as with our surroundings. Anticipating which activities will a human do next (and how) can enable an assistive robot to plan ahead for reactive responses. Furthermore, anticipation can even improve the detection accuracy of past activities. The challenge, however, is two-fold: We need to capture the rich context for modeling the activities and object affordances, and we need to anticipate the distribution over a large space of future human activities. In this work, we represent each possible future using an anticipatory temporal conditional random field (ATCRF) that models the rich spatial-temporal relations through object affordances. We then consider each ATCRF as a particle and represent the distribution over the potential futures using a set of particles. In extensive evaluation on CAD-120 human activity RGB-D dataset, we first show that anticipation improves the state-of-the-art detection results. We then show that for new subjects (not seen in the training set), we obtain an activity anticipation accuracy (defined as whether one of top three predictions actually happened) of 84.1, 74.4 and 62.2 percent for an anticipation time of 1, 3 and 10 seconds respectively. Finally, we also show a robot using our algorithm for performing a few reactive responses. PMID:26656575

  14. Object classification and acoustic imaging with active sonar.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J G; Carpenter, R N; Tague, J A

    1992-04-01

    The theoretical underpinnings of underwater acoustic classification and imaging using high-frequency active sonar are studied. All essential components of practical classification systems are incorporated in a Bayesian theoretic framework. The optimum decision rules and array processing are presented and evaluated. A systematic performance evaluation methodology is derived. New results quantify the relationship between classifier performance and object geometry, acoustic imaging, and the accuracy of a priori knowledge infused into the processor.

  15. Conceptual Coherence Affects Phonological Activation of Context Objects during Object Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppermann, Frank; Jescheniak, Jorg D.; Schriefers, Herbert

    2008-01-01

    In 4 picture-word interference experiments, speakers named a target object that was presented with a context object. Using auditory distractors that were phonologically related or unrelated either to the target object or the context object, the authors assessed whether phonological processing was confined to the target object or not. Phonological…

  16. Characterization of real objects by an active electrolocation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzen, Michael G.; Al Ghouz, Imène; Krueger, Sandra; Bousack, Herbert; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2012-04-01

    Weakly electric fish use a process called 'active electrolocation' to orientate in their environment and to localize objects based on their electrical properties. To do so, the fish discharge an electric organ which emits brief electrical current pulses (electric organ discharge, EOD) and in return sense the generated electric field which builds up surrounding the animal. Caused by the electrical properties of nearby objects, fish measure characteristic signal modulations with an array of electroreceptors in their skin. The fish are able to gain important information about the geometrical properties of an object as well as its complex impedance and its distance. Thus, active electrolocation is an interesting feature to be used in biomimetic approaches. We used this sensory principle to identify different insertions in the walls of Plexiglas tubes. The insertions tested were composed of aluminum, brass and graphite in sizes between 3 and 20 mm. A carrier signal was emitted and perceived with the poles of a commercial catheter for medical diagnostics. Measurements were performed with the poles separated by 6.3 to 55.3 mm. Depending on the length of the insertion in relation to the sender-receiver distance, we observed up to three peaks in the measured electric images. The first peak was affected by the material of the insertion, while the distance between the second and third peak strongly correlated with the length of the insertion. In a second experiment we tested whether various materials could be detected by using signals of different frequency compositions. Based on their electric images we were able to discriminate between objects having different resistive properties, but not between objects of complex impedances.

  17. Activities Joining Learning Objectives to Assessments in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, Stacy E.; Larson, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, accreditation boards and other governing bodies have been pushing hard for explicit learning goals and quantitative measures of assessment for general education courses such as Astronomy 101. This added assessment burden can be problematic, especially for harried adjuncts teaching multiple courses at multiple institutions. It would be helpful to have a field-tested set of combined hands-on activities and assessment tools that help instructors meet these assessment requirements. The authors have produced just such a set. We have been using hands-on activities in our classrooms for more than 15 years. These activities require no special equipment or preparation and can be completed within an hour by most students working in groups of two or three. The sections of each activity are arranged in steps, guiding the students from initial knowledge-level questions or practice to a final evaluation or synthesis of what they have just accomplished. Students thus get practice thinking at higher cognitive levels. A recent addition to these activities is the inclusion of formalized learning objectives and accompanying pre- and post-activity questions. The pre-activity questions address common misconceptions, relate familiar analogous terrestrial examples to the activity, and act as a brief refresher meta-concepts like scale factors, measurements, and basic mathematics review. The post-activity questions review the most important concepts introduced in the activity. We present a number of examples as well as a summary as to how we have initiated their use in a large lecture setting of 300 students, in smaller classrooms of 15 students, and in a community college online course.

  18. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  19. Validation of radiographic simulation codes including x-ray phase effects for millimeter-size objects with micrometer structures.

    PubMed

    Martz, Harry E; Kozioziemski, Bernard J; Lehman, Sean K; Hau-Riege, Stefan; Schneberk, Daniel J; Barty, Anton

    2007-01-01

    The mix between x-ray phase and attenuation information needs to be understood for accurate object recovery from radiography and tomography data. We are researching and experimentally validating algorithms that simulate x-ray phase contrast to determine the required physics necessary for quantitative object recovery. The results of a study are described to determine if a multislice (beam-propagation) method is required for simulating x-ray radiographs. We conclude that the multislice method is not required for accurate simulation of greater than or equal to 8 keV x-ray radiographs of millimeter-size objects with micrometer structures.

  20. Pioneering Objectives and Activities on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mars missions have been a topic of sustained interest within NASA, which continues to use its resources to examine many different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies, the combinations of which are often referred to as reference missions or architectures. The current investigative effort, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), is examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. These alternatives involve combinations of all the factors just mentioned. This paper is focused on the subset of these factors involved with objectives and activities that take place on the surface of Mars. "Pioneering" is a useful phrase to encapsulate the current approach being used to address this situation - one of its primary definitions is "a person or group that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity or a new method or technical development". Thus, in this scenario, NASA would be embarking on a path to "pioneer" a suite of technologies and operations that will result in an Earth independent, extended stay capability for humans on Mars. This paper will describe (a) the concept of operation determined to be best suited for the initial emplacement, (b) the functional capabilities determined to be necessary for this emplacement, with representative examples of systems that could carry out these functional capabilities and one implementation example (i.e., delivery sequence) at a representative landing site, and will (c) discuss possible capabilities and operations during subsequent surface missions.

  1. Efficient Multiple Object Tracking Using Mutually Repulsive Active Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yi; Coen, Philip; Sun, Mingzhai; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of social and group behavior in interacting organisms require high-throughput analysis of the motion of a large number of individual subjects. Computer vision techniques offer solutions to specific tracking problems, and allow automated and efficient tracking with minimal human intervention. In this work, we adopt the open active contour model to track the trajectories of moving objects at high density. We add repulsive interactions between open contours to the original model, treat the trajectories as an extrusion in the temporal dimension, and show applications to two tracking problems. The walking behavior of Drosophila is studied at different population density and gender composition. We demonstrate that individual male flies have distinct walking signatures, and that the social interaction between flies in a mixed gender arena is gender specific. We also apply our model to studies of trajectories of gliding Myxococcus xanthus bacteria at high density. We examine the individual gliding behavioral statistics in terms of the gliding speed distribution. Using these two examples at very distinctive spatial scales, we illustrate the use of our algorithm on tracking both short rigid bodies (Drosophila) and long flexible objects (Myxococcus xanthus). Our repulsive active membrane model reaches error rates better than per fly per second for Drosophila tracking and comparable results for Myxococcus xanthus. PMID:23799046

  2. Synchronous Parallel Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation System with Self-Contained Simulation Objects and Active Event Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a method of performing object-oriented simulation and a system having inter-connected processor nodes operating in parallel to simulate mutual interactions of a set of discrete simulation objects distributed among the nodes as a sequence of discrete events changing state variables of respective simulation objects so as to generate new event-defining messages addressed to respective ones of the nodes. The object-oriented simulation is performed at each one of the nodes by assigning passive self-contained simulation objects to each one of the nodes, responding to messages received at one node by generating corresponding active event objects having user-defined inherent capabilities and individual time stamps and corresponding to respective events affecting one of the passive self-contained simulation objects of the one node, restricting the respective passive self-contained simulation objects to only providing and receiving information from die respective active event objects, requesting information and changing variables within a passive self-contained simulation object by the active event object, and producing corresponding messages specifying events resulting therefrom by the active event objects.

  3. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  4. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  5. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  6. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  7. Step-by-Step Activities to Accompany The Dale Avenue Performance Objectives Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schenberg, Rhoda; And Others

    This kit contains performance objectives (stated in behavioral terms) for several areas of school-related skills and suggested activities and materials for teaching those skills to young children. The areas included are: (1) listening, (2) naming, (3) observing, (4) speaking, (5) writing and motor skills, (6) perceptual motor skills, (7)…

  8. Early activation of object names in visual search.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Antje S; Belke, Eva; Telling, Anna L; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2007-08-01

    In a visual search experiment, participants had to decide whether or not a target object was present in a four-object search array. One of these objects could be a semantically related competitor (e.g., shirt for the target trousers) or a conceptually unrelated object with the same name as the target-for example, bat (baseball) for the target bat (animal). In the control condition, the related competitor was replaced by an unrelated object. The participants' response latencies and eye movements demonstrated that the two types of related competitors had similar effects: Competitors attracted the participants' visual attention and thereby delayed positive and negative decisions. The results imply that semantic and name information associated with the objects becomes rapidly available and affects the allocation of visual attention.

  9. Active Structured Learning for High-Speed Object Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampert, Christoph H.; Peters, Jan

    High-speed smooth and accurate visual tracking of objects in arbitrary, unstructured environments is essential for robotics and human motion analysis. However, building a system that can adapt to arbitrary objects and a wide range of lighting conditions is a challenging problem, especially if hard real-time constraints apply like in robotics scenarios. In this work, we introduce a method for learning a discriminative object tracking system based on the recent structured regression framework for object localization. Using a kernel function that allows fast evaluation on the GPU, the resulting system can process video streams at speed of 100 frames per second or more.

  10. Children's Objective Physical Activity by Location: Why the Neighborhood Matters

    PubMed Central

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie; Saelens, Brian; Sallis, James; Glanz, Karen; Frank, Lawrence; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hannon, Peggy; Grembowski, David; Chan, KC Gary; Cain, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of where children are active may lead to more informed policies about how and where to intervene and improve physical activity. This study examined where children aged 6–11 were physically active using time-stamped accelerometer data and parent-reported place logs and assessed the association of physical-activity location variation with demographic factors. Children spent most time and did most physical activity at home and school. Although neighborhood time was limited, this time was more proportionally active than time in other locations (e.g., active 42.1% of time in neighborhood vs. 18.1% of time at home). Children with any neighborhood-based physical activity had higher average total physical activity. Policies and environments that encourage children to spend time outdoors in their neighborhoods could result in higher overall physical activity. PMID:23877357

  11. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  12. Distinct brain activity in processing negative pictures of animals and objects - the role of human contexts.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhijun; Zhao, Yanbing; Tan, Tengteng; Chen, Gang; Ning, Xueling; Zhan, Lexia; Yang, Jiongjiong

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the amygdala is important in processing not only animate entities but also social information. It remains to be determined to what extent the factors of category and social context interact to modulate the activities of the amygdala and cortical regions. In this study, pictures depicting animals and inanimate objects in negative and neutral levels were presented. The contexts of the pictures differed in whether they included human/human parts. The factors of valence, arousal, familiarity and complexity of pictures were controlled across categories. The results showed that the amygdala activity was modulated by category and contextual information. Under the nonhuman context condition, the amygdala responded more to animals than objects for both negative and neutral pictures. In contrast, under the human context condition, the amygdala showed stronger activity for negative objects than animals. In addition to cortical regions related to object action, functional and effective connectivity analyses showed that the anterior prefrontal cortex interacted more with the amygdala for negative objects (vs. animals) in the human context condition, by a top-down modulation of the anterior prefrontal cortex to the amygdala. These results highlighted the effects of category and human contexts on modulating brain activity in emotional processing.

  13. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  14. A Standard-Compliant Virtual Meeting System with Active Video Object Tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Wen; Chang, Yao-Jen; Wang, Chih-Ming; Chen, Yung-Chang; Sun, Ming-Ting

    2002-12-01

    This paper presents an H.323 standard compliant virtual video conferencing system. The proposed system not only serves as a multipoint control unit (MCU) for multipoint connection but also provides a gateway function between the H.323 LAN (local-area network) and the H.324 WAN (wide-area network) users. The proposed virtual video conferencing system provides user-friendly object compositing and manipulation features including 2D video object scaling, repositioning, rotation, and dynamic bit-allocation in a 3D virtual environment. A reliable, and accurate scheme based on background image mosaics is proposed for real-time extracting and tracking foreground video objects from the video captured with an active camera. Chroma-key insertion is used to facilitate video objects extraction and manipulation. We have implemented a prototype of the virtual conference system with an integrated graphical user interface to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed methods.

  15. Body-ownership for actively operated non-corporeal objects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ke; Hommel, Bernhard

    2015-11-01

    Rubber-hand and virtual-hand illusions show that people can perceive body ownership for objects under suitable conditions. Bottom-up approaches assume that perceived ownership emerges from multisensory matching (e.g., between seen object and felt hand movements), whereas top-down approaches claim that novel body parts are integrated only if they resemble some part of a permanent internal body representation. We demonstrate that healthy adults perceive body ownership for a virtual balloon changing in size, and a virtual square changing in size or color, in synchrony with movements of their real hand. This finding is inconsistent with top-down approaches and amounts to an existence proof that non-corporeal events can be perceived as body parts if their changes are systematically related to one's actions. It also implies that previous studies with passive-stimulation techniques might have underestimated the plasticity of body representations and put too much emphasis on the resemblance between viewed object and real hand. PMID:26094223

  16. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity–an important determinant of health and function in old age–may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. Methods One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70–90-year-old people in central Finland from the “Life-space mobility in old age” cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Results Participants’ mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p < .001) and greater moderate and low activity time (p < .001) on days when greater life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Conclusion Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity. PMID:26252537

  17. "Active" and "passive" learning of three-dimensional object structure within an immersive virtual reality environment.

    PubMed

    James, K H; Humphrey, G K; Vilis, T; Corrie, B; Baddour, R; Goodale, M A

    2002-08-01

    We used a fully immersive virtual reality environment to study whether actively interacting with objects would effect subsequent recognition, when compared with passively observing the same objects. We found that when participants learned object structure by actively rotating the objects, the objects were recognized faster during a subsequent recognition task than when object structure was learned through passive observation. We also found that participants focused their study time during active exploration on a limited number of object views, while ignoring other views. Overall, our results suggest that allowing active exploration of an object during initial learning can facilitate recognition of that object, perhaps owing to the control that the participant has over the object views upon which they can focus. The virtual reality environment is ideal for studying such processes, allowing realistic interaction with objects while maintaining experimenter control. PMID:12395554

  18. Positron emission mammography (PEM): Effect of activity concentration, object size, and object contrast on phantom lesion detection

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, Lawrence R.; Wang, Carolyn L.; Eissa, Marna; Haseley, David; Kelly, Mary M.; Liu, Franklin; Parikh, Jay R.; Beatty, J. David; Rogers, James V.

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: To characterize the relationship between lesion detection sensitivity and injected activity as a function of lesion size and contrast on the PEM (positron emission mammography) Flex Solo II scanner using phantom experiments. Methods: Phantom lesions (spheres 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 mm diameter) were randomly located in uniform background. Sphere activity concentrations were 3 to 21 times the background activity concentration (BGc). BGc was a surrogate for injected activity; BGc ranged from 0.44-4.1 kBq/mL, corresponding to 46-400 MBq injections. Seven radiologists read 108 images containing zero, one, or two spheres. Readers used a 5-point confidence scale to score the presence of spheres. Results: Sensitivity was 100% for lesions {>=}12 mm under all conditions except for one 12 mm sphere with the lowest contrast and lowest BGc (60% sensitivity). Sensitivity was 100% for 8 mm spheres when either contrast or BGc was high, and 100% for 4 mm spheres only when both contrast and BGc were highest. Sphere contrast recovery coefficients (CRC) were 49%, 34%, 26%, 14%, and 2.8% for the largest to smallest spheres. Cumulative specificity was 98%. Conclusions: Phantom lesion detection sensitivity depends more on sphere size and contrast than on BGc. Detection sensitivity remained {>=}90% for injected activities as low as 100 MBq, for lesions {>=}8 mm. Low CRC in 4 mm objects results in moderate detection sensitivity even for 400 MBq injected activity, making it impractical to optimize injected activity for such lesions. Low CRC indicates that when lesions <8 mm are observed on PEM images they are highly tracer avid with greater potential of clinical significance. High specificity (98%) suggests that image statistical noise does not lead to false positive findings. These results apply to the 85 mm thick object used to obtain them; lesion detectability should be better (worse) for thinner (thicker) objects based on the reduced (increased) influence of photon attenuation.

  19. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  20. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  1. Neural mechanisms of infant learning: differences in frontal theta activity during object exploration modulate subsequent object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Begus, Katarina; Southgate, Victoria; Gliga, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Investigating learning mechanisms in infancy relies largely on behavioural measures like visual attention, which often fail to predict whether stimuli would be encoded successfully. This study explored EEG activity in the theta frequency band, previously shown to predict successful learning in adults, to directly study infants' cognitive engagement, beyond visual attention. We tested 11-month-old infants (N = 23) and demonstrated that differences in frontal theta-band oscillations, recorded during infants' object exploration, predicted differential subsequent recognition of these objects in a preferential-looking test. Given that theta activity is modulated by motivation to learn in adults, these findings set the ground for future investigation into the drivers of infant learning. PMID:26018832

  2. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  3. Implementation of objective activity monitoring to supplement the interpretation of ambulatory esophageal PH investigations.

    PubMed

    Kwasnicki, R M; Ley Greaves, R; Ali, R; Gummett, P A; Yang, G Z; Darzi, A; Hoare, J

    2016-04-01

    Conventional catheter-based systems used for ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring have been reported to affect patient behavior. As physical activity has been associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), there is a risk that abnormal behavior will degrade the value of this diagnostic investigation and consequent management strategies. The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of conventional pH monitoring on behavior and to investigate the temporal association between activity and reflux. A total of 20 patients listed for 24 hours pH monitoring underwent activity monitoring using a lightweight ear-worn accelerometer (e-AR sensor, Imperial College London) 2 days prior to, and during their investigation. PH was measured and recorded using a conventional nasogastric catheter and waist-worn receiver. Daily activity levels, including subject-specific activity intensity quartiles, were calculated and compared. Physical activity was added to the standard pH output to supplement interpretation. Average patient activity levels decreased by 26.5% during pH monitoring (range -4.5 to 51.0%, P = 0.036). High-intensity activity decreased by 24.4% (range -4.0 to 75.6%, P = 0.036), and restful activity increased on average by 34% although this failed to reach statistical significance (-24.0 to 289.2%, P = 0.161). Some patients exhibited consistent associations between bouts of activity and acidic episodes. The results of this study support the previously reported reduction in activity during ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring, with the added reliability of objective data. In the absence of more pervasive pH monitoring systems (e.g. wireless), quantifying activity changes in the setting of activity-induced reflux might guide the physicians' interpretation of patient DeMeester scores resulting in more appropriate management of GERD.

  4. Evaluation of activity images in dynamics speckle in search of objective estimators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avendaño Montecinos, Marcos; Mora Canales, Victor; Cap, Nelly; Grumel, Eduardo; Rabal, Hector; Trivi, Marcelo; Baradit, Erik

    2015-08-01

    We explore the performance of two algorithms to screen loci of equal activity in dynamic speckle images. Dynamic speckle images are currently applied to several applications in medicine, biology, agriculture and other disciplines. Nevertheless, no objective standard has been proposed so far to evaluate the performance of the algorithms, which must be then relied on subjective appreciations. We use two case studies of activity that do not bear the biologic inherent variability to test the methods: "Generalized Differences" and "Fujii", looking for a standard to evaluate their performance in an objective way. As study cases, we use the drying of paint on an (assumed) unknown topography, namely the surface of a coin, and the activity due to pre heating a piece of paper that hides writings in the surface under the paper. A known object of simple topography is included in the image, besides of the painted coin, consisting in a paint pool where the depth is a linear function of its position. Both algorithms are applied to the images and the intensity profile of the results along the linear region of the pool activity is used to estimate the depth of the geometric topography hidden under paint in the coin. The accuracy of the result is used as a merit estimation of the corresponding algorithm. In the other experiment, a hidden dark bar printed on paper is covered with one or two paper leaves, slightly pre heated with a lamp and activity images registered and processed with both algorithms. The intensity profile of the activity images is used to estimate which method gives a better description of the bar edges images and their deterioration. Experimental results are shown.

  5. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  6. 76 FR 10385 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Various Contract Related Forms That Will be Included in the Homeland Security Acquisition Regulation, DHS FORM 0700-01, DHS FORM 0700-02, DHS FORM 0700-03...: The Department of Homeland Security, Office of Chief Procurement Officer, Acquisition Policy...

  7. Impaired assessment of cumulative lifetime familiarity for object concepts after left anterior temporal-lobe resection that includes perirhinal cortex but spares the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Ben; Duke, Devin; Rosenbaum, R Shayna; McRae, Ken; Köhler, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    The ability to recognize the prior occurrence of objects can operate effectively even in the absence of successful recollection of episodic contextual detail about a relevant past object encounter. The pertinent process, familiarity assessment, is typically probed in humans with recognition-memory tasks that include an experimentally controlled study phase for a list of items. When meaningful stimuli such as words or pictures of common objects are employed, participants must judge familiarity with reference to the recent experimental encounter rather than their lifetime of autobiographical experience, which may have involved hundreds or thousands of exposures across numerous episodic contexts. Humans can, however, also judge the cumulative familiarity of objects concepts they have encountered over their lifetime. At present, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms that support this ability. Here, we tested an individual (NB) with a rare left anterior temporal-lobe lesion that included perirhinal cortex but spared the hippocampus, who had previously been found to exhibit selective impairments in familiarity assessment on verbal recognition-memory tasks. As NB exhibits normal recollection abilities, her case presents a unique opportunity to examine potential links between both types of familiarity. In Experiment 1, we demonstrated that NB's impairment in making recognition judgments affects cumulative frequency judgments for exposure to concept names in a recent study episode. Experiments 2 and 3 revealed, with a task borrowed from the semantic-memory literature, that NB's impairments do indeed extend to abnormalities in judging cumulative lifetime familiarity for object concepts. These abnormalities were not limited to verbal processing, and were present even when pictures were offered as additional cues. Moreover, they showed sensitivity to concept structure as reflected in semantic feature norms; we only observed them for judgments on object

  8. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  9. Function Follows Form: Activation of Shape and Function Features during Object Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function…

  10. Association between maternal education and objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Sherar, Lauren B; Griffin, Tom P; Ekelund, Ulf; Cooper, Ashley R; Esliger, Dale W; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Bo Andersen, Lars; Cardon, Greet; Davey, Rachel; Froberg, Karsten; Hallal, Pedro C; Janz, Kathleen F; Kordas, Katarzyna; Kriemler, Susi; Pate, Russell R; Puder, Jardena J; Sardinha, Luis B; Timperio, Anna F; Page, Angie S

    2016-01-01

    Background Investigating socioeconomic variation in physical activity (PA) and sedentary time is important as it may represent a pathway by which socioeconomic position (SEP) leads to ill health. Findings on the association between children's SEP and objectively assessed PA and/or sedentary time are mixed, and few studies have included international samples. Objective Examine the associations between maternal education and adolescent's objectively assessed PA and sedentary time. Methods This is an observational study of 12 770 adolescents (10–18 years) pooled from 10 studies from Europe, Australia, Brazil and the USA. Original PA data were collected between 1997 and 2009. The associations between maternal education and accelerometer variables were examined using robust multivariable regression, adjusted for a priori confounders (ie, body mass index, monitor wear time, season, age and sex) and regression coefficients combined across studies using random effects meta-analyses. Analyses were conducted in March 2014. Results Adolescents of university educated mothers spent more time sedentary (9.5 min/day, p=0.005) and less time in light activity (10 min/day, p<0.001) compared with adolescents of high school educated mothers. Pooled analysis across two studies from Brazil and Portugal (analysed separately because of the different coding of maternal education) showed that children of higher educated mothers (tertiary vs primary/secondary) spent less time in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) (6.6 min/day, p=0.001) and in light PA (39.2 min/day: p<0.001), and more time sedentary (45.9 min/day, p<0.001). Conclusions Across a number of international samples, adolescents of mothers with lower education may not be at a disadvantage in terms of overall objectively measured PA. PMID:26802168

  11. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  12. Activation of new attentional templates for real-world objects in visual search.

    PubMed

    Nako, Rebecca; Smith, Tim J; Eimer, Martin

    2015-05-01

    Visual search is controlled by representations of target objects (attentional templates). Such templates are often activated in response to verbal descriptions of search targets, but it is unclear whether search can be guided effectively by such verbal cues. We measured ERPs to track the activation of attentional templates for new target objects defined by word cues. On each trial run, a word cue was followed by three search displays that contained the cued target object among three distractors. Targets were detected more slowly in the first display of each trial run, and the N2pc component (an ERP marker of attentional target selection) was attenuated and delayed for the first relative to the two successive presentations of a particular target object, demonstrating limitations in the ability of word cues to activate effective attentional templates. N2pc components to target objects in the first display were strongly affected by differences in object imageability (i.e., the ability of word cues to activate a target-matching visual representation). These differences were no longer present for the second presentation of the same target objects, indicating that a single perceptual encounter is sufficient to activate a precise attentional template. Our results demonstrate the superiority of visual over verbal target specifications in the control of visual search, highlight the fact that verbal descriptions are more effective for some objects than others, and suggest that the attentional templates that guide search for particular real-world target objects are analog visual representations.

  13. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals.

  14. Enzymatically active 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetases are widely distributed among Metazoa, including protostome lineage.

    PubMed

    Päri, Mailis; Kuusksalu, Anne; Lopp, Annika; Kjaer, Karina Hansen; Justesen, Just; Kelve, Merike

    2014-02-01

    2',5'-Oligoadenylate synthetases (OASs) belong to the nucleotidyl transferase family together with poly(A) polymerases, CCA-adding enzymes and the recently discovered cyclic-GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS). Mammalian OASs have been thoroughly characterized as components of the interferon-induced antiviral system. The OAS activity and the respective genes were also discovered in marine sponges where the interferon system is absent. In this study the recombinant OASs from several multicellular animals and their closest unicellular relative, a choanoflagellate, were expressed in a bacterial expression system and their enzymatic activities were examined. We demonstrated 2-5A synthesizing activities of OASs from the marine sponge Tedania ignis, a representative of the phylogenetically oldest metazoan phylum (Porifera), from an invertebrate of the protostome lineage, the mollusk Mytilus californianus (Mollusca), and from a vertebrate species, a cartilaginous fish Leucoraja erinacea (Chordata). However, the expressed proteins from an amphibian, the salamander Ambystoma mexicanum (Chordata), and from a protozoan, the marine choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis (Choanozoa), did not show 2-5A synthesizing activity. Differently from other studied OASs, OAS from the marine sponge T. ignis was able to catalyze the formation of oligomers having both 2',5'- and 3',5'-phosphodiester linkages. Our data suggest that OASs from sponges and evolutionarily higher animals have similar activation mechanisms which still include different affinities and possibly different structural requirements for the activating RNAs. Considering their 2'- and 3'-specificities, sponge OASs could represent a link between evolutionarily earlier nucleotidyl transferases and 2'-specific OASs from higher animals. PMID:24184688

  15. Activity of human motor system during action observation is modulated by object presence.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Chandrasekharan, Sanjay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2011-03-01

    Neurons in the monkey mirror neuron system (MNS) become active when actions are observed or executed. Increases in activity are greater when objects are engaged than when the actions are mimed. This modulation occurs even when object manipulation is hidden from view. We examined whether human motor systems are similarly modulated during action observation because such observation-related modulations are potentially mediated by a putative human MNS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of a grasping muscle while participants observed actual or pantomimed grasping movements whose endpoints were sometimes hidden from view. MEP amplitudes were found to be modulated by object presence. Critically, the object-based modulation was found when the participant directly observed object manipulation and when the object manipulation had to be inferred because it was hidden. These findings parallel studies of MNS activity in monkeys and support the hypothesis that the MNS influences motor system activity during action observation. Although the object-based modulation of MEP amplitudes was consistent with the hypotheses, the direction of the modulation was not--MEP amplitudes decreased during action observation in contrast to the increase that has previously been observed. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude on object-present trials resulted from inhibitory mechanisms that were activated to suppress the observation-evoked response codes from generating overt muscle activity.

  16. Activity in human visual and parietal cortex reveals object-based attention in working memory.

    PubMed

    Peters, Benjamin; Kaiser, Jochen; Rahm, Benjamin; Bledowski, Christoph

    2015-02-25

    Visual attention enables observers to select behaviorally relevant information based on spatial locations, features, or objects. Attentional selection is not limited to physically present visual information, but can also operate on internal representations maintained in working memory (WM) in service of higher-order cognition. However, only little is known about whether attention to WM contents follows the same principles as attention to sensory stimuli. To address this question, we investigated in humans whether the typically observed effects of object-based attention in perception are also evident for object-based attentional selection of internal object representations in WM. In full accordance with effects in visual perception, the key behavioral and neuronal characteristics of object-based attention were observed in WM. Specifically, we found that reaction times were shorter when shifting attention to memory positions located on the currently attended object compared with equidistant positions on a different object. Furthermore, functional magnetic resonance imaging and multivariate pattern analysis of visuotopic activity in visual (areas V1-V4) and parietal cortex revealed that directing attention to one position of an object held in WM also enhanced brain activation for other positions on the same object, suggesting that attentional selection in WM activates the entire object. This study demonstrated that all characteristic features of object-based attention are present in WM and thus follows the same principles as in perception.

  17. Plants as sources of airborne bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, J; Constantinidou, H A; Barchet, W R; Upper, C D

    1982-11-01

    Vertical wind shear and concentration gradients of viable, airborne bacteria were used to calculate the upward flux of viable cells above bare soil and canopies of several crops. Concentrations at soil or canopy height varied from 46 colony-forming units per m over young corn and wet soil to 663 colony-forming units per m over dry soil and 6,500 colony-forming units per m over a closed wheat canopy. In simultaneous samples, concentrations of viable bacteria in the air 10 m inside an alfalfa field were fourfold higher than those over a field with dry, bare soil immediately upwind. The upward flux of viable bacteria over alfalfa was three- to fourfold greater than over dry soil. Concentrations of ice nucleation-active bacteria were higher over plants than over soil. Thus, plant canopies may constitute a major source of bacteria, including ice nucleation-active bacteria, in the air.

  18. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  19. Relationships between fundamental movement skills and objectively measured physical activity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Smith, Leif M; McKeen, Kim

    2009-11-01

    Gender differences in cross-sectional relationships between fundamental movement skill (FMS) subdomains (locomotor skills, object-control skills) and physical activity were examined in preschool children. Forty-six 3- to 5-year-olds (25 boys) had their FMS video assessed (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and their physical activity objectively monitored (Actigraph 7164 accelerometers). Among boys, object-control skills were associated with physical activity and explained 16.9% (p = .024) and 13.7% (p = .049) of the variance in percent of time in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and total physical activity, respectively, after controlling for age, SES and z-BMI. Locomotor skills were inversely associated with physical activity among girls, and explained 19.2% (p = .023) of the variance in percent of time in MVPA after controlling for confounders. Gender and FMS subdomain may influence the relationship between FMS and physical activity in preschool children. PMID:20128363

  20. Stability and activity of alcohol dehydrogenases in W/O-microemulsions: enantioselective reduction including cofactor regeneration.

    PubMed

    Orlich, B; Berger, H; Lade, M; Schomäcker, R

    2000-12-20

    Microemulsions provide an interesting alternative to classical methods for the conversion of less water-soluble substrates by alcohol dehydrogenase, but until now stability and activity were too low for economically useful processes. The activity and stability of the enzymes are dependent on the microemulsion composition, mostly the water and the surfactant concentration. Therefore, it is necessary to know the exact phase behavior of a given microemulsion reaction system and the corresponding enzyme behavior therein. Because of their economic and ecologic suitability polyethoxylated fatty alcohols were investigated concerning their phase behavior and their compatibility with enzymes in ternary mixtures. The phase behavior of Marlipal O13-60 (C13EO6 in industrial quality)/cyclohexane/water and its effect on the activity and stability of alcohol dehydrogenase from Yeast (YADH) and horse liver (HLADH) and the carbonyl reductase from Candida parapsilosis (CPCR) is presented in this study. Beside the macroscopic phase behavior of the reaction system, the viscosity of the system indicates structural changes of aggregates in the microemulsion. The changes of the enzyme activities with the composition are discussed on the basis of transitions from reverse micelles to swollen reverse micelles and finally, the transition to the phase separation. The formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii was used for the NADH-regeneration during reduction reactions. While the formate dehydrogenase did not show any kinetic effect on the microemulsion composition, the other enzymes show significant changes of activity and stability varying the water or surfactant concentration of the microemulsion. Under certain conditions, stability could be maintained with HLADH for several weeks. Successful experiments with semi-batch processes including cofactor regeneration and product separation were performed.

  1. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  2. The Time Course of Activation of Object Shape and Shape+Colour Representations during Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Jones, Toby J.; Roberts, Mark V.; Leek, E. Charles; Fouquet, Nathalie C.; Truchanowicz, Ewa G.

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the timing of activating memory for objects and their associated perceptual properties, such as colour, and yet this is important for theories of human cognition. We investigated the time course associated with early cognitive processes related to the activation of object shape and object shape+colour representations respectively, during memory retrieval as assessed by repetition priming in an event-related potential (ERP) study. The main findings were as follows: (1) we identified a unique early modulation of mean ERP amplitude during the N1 that was associated with the activation of object shape independently of colour; (2) we also found a subsequent early P2 modulation of mean amplitude over the same electrode clusters associated with the activation of object shape+colour representations; (3) these findings were apparent across both familiar (i.e., correctly coloured – yellow banana) and novel (i.e., incorrectly coloured - blue strawberry) objects; and (4) neither of the modulations of mean ERP amplitude were evident during the P3. Together the findings delineate the timing of object shape and colour memory systems and support the notion that perceptual representations of object shape mediate the retrieval of temporary shape+colour representations for familiar and novel objects. PMID:23155393

  3. Design of an active millimeter-wave concealed-object imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulter, Nicholas G.; Grossman, Erich N.; Stenbakken, G. N.; Waltrip, B. C.; Nolen, Shalva; Reintsema, Carl D.

    2001-08-01

    The research and design of an active millimeter-wave concealed object imaging system is described. Several illumination and detection methods were analyzed via computer simulation to assess the effects of system parameters on the signal-to-noise ratio of the detected signal. The results of many of these simulations were experimentally verified using either a 10 MHz or a 100 GHz measurement system. Based on this assessment, two design using pulsed illuminate with gated detection were selected for development. Pulsed illumination is provided using a pulsed broadband noise source. For detecting the reflected noise pulse, two methods were examined, one using micro bolometers and the other using electrooptics. Based on imaging system considerations, such as cost of manufacture, ruggedness, etc., and technical parameters, micro bolometer arrays were selected for further development. The electronics interface, including image display capability, was developed. We examined the absorption of some common clothing materials at 100 Ghz and compared this to results previously reported.

  4. The NASA SETI Program - Objectives of the R&D activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M. J.; Gulkis, S.

    1983-01-01

    The current activity in NASA's SETI Program is a research and development program jointly carried out by the NASA Ames Research Center and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The purpose of this R&D phase is to develop all prerequisites for a well defined microwave observing program. The specific objectives include the development of a prototype search system which will ultimately be capable of processing data rates up to 10 gigabytes/second. Specialized signal detection algorithms and automated search procedures will be developed and tested with the prototype hardware. A series of field tests will be carried out with the NASA Deep Space Network facilities at Goldstone, CA and with the 305-m radio telescope at the Arecibo Ionospheric Observatory in Puerto Rico.

  5. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  6. Twin Study on Heritability of Activity, Attention, and Impulsivity as Assessed by Objective Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Philip; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Frey, Joachim; Smidt, Judith; Grabarkiewicz, Justyna; Friedel, Susann; Kuhnau, Wolfgang; Schmidtke, Jorg; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess heritability of activity, attention, and impulsivity by comparing young monozygotic (MZ) twins with dizygotic (DZ) twins using objective measures. Method: The OPTAx test is an infrared motion analysis to record the movement pattern during a continuous performance test. Seventeen MZ and 12 same…

  7. Locomotor activity, object exploration and space preference in children with autism and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Rafał; Pisula, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    There have been ambiguous accounts of exploration in children with intellectual disabilities with respect to the course of that exploration, and in particular the relationship between the features of explored objects and exploratory behaviour. It is unclear whether reduced exploratory activity seen with object exploration but not with locomotor activity is autism-specific or if it is also present in children with other disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to compare preschool children with autism with their peers with Down syndrome and typical development in terms of locomotor activity and object exploration and to determine whether the complexity of explored objects affects the course of exploration activity in children with autism. In total there were 27 children in the study. The experimental room was divided into three zones equipped with experimental objects providing visual stimulation of varying levels of complexity. Our results indicate that children with autism and Down syndrome differ from children with typical development in terms of some measures of object exploration (i.e. looking at objects) and time spent in the zone with the most visually complex objects.

  8. Layer V Perirhinal Cortical Ensemble Activity during Object Exploration: A Comparison between Young and Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Burke, S.N.; Hartzell, A.L.; Lister, J.P.; Hoang, L.T.; Barnes, C.A.

    2012-01-01

    Object recognition memory requires the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and this cognitive function declines during normal aging. Recent electrophysiological recordings from young rats have shown that neurons in layer V of the PRC are activated by 3-dimensional objects. Thus, it is possible that age-related object recognition deficits result from alterations in PRC neuron activity in older animals. To examine this, the present study used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) with confocal microscopy to monitor cellular distributions of activity-induced Arc RNA in layer V of the PRC. Activity was monitored during two distinct epochs of object exploration. In one group of rats (6 young/6 aged) animals were placed in a familiar testing arena and allowed to explore five different 3-dimensional objects for two 5-min sessions separated by a 20-min rest (AA). The second group of animals (6 young/6 aged) also explored the same objects for two 5-min sessions, but the environment was changed between the first and the second epoch (AB). Behavioral data showed that both age groups spent less time exploring objects during the second epoch, even when the environment changed, indicating successful recognition. Although the proportion of active neurons between epochs did not change in the AA group, in the AB group more neurons were active during epoch 2 of object exploration. This recruitment of neurons into the active neural ensemble could serve to signal that familiar stimuli are being encountered in a new context. When numbers of Arc positive neurons were compared between age groups, the old rats had significantly lower proportions of Arc-positive PRC neurons in both the AA and AB behavioral conditions. These data support the hypothesis that age-associated functional alterations in the PRC contribute to declines in stimulus recognition over the lifespan. PMID:22987683

  9. Layer V perirhinal cortical ensemble activity during object exploration: a comparison between young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Burke, S N; Hartzell, A L; Lister, J P; Hoang, L T; Barnes, C A

    2012-10-01

    Object recognition memory requires the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and this cognitive function declines during normal aging. Recent electrophysiological recordings from young rats have shown that neurons in Layer V of the PRC are activated by three-dimensional objects. Thus, it is possible that age-related object recognition deficits result from alterations in PRC neuron activity in older animals. To examine this, the present study used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) with confocal microscopy to monitor cellular distributions of activity-induced Arc RNA in layer V of the PRC. Activity was monitored during two distinct epochs of object exploration. In one group of rats (6 young/6 aged) animals were placed in a familiar testing arena and allowed to explore five different three-dimensional objects for two 5-min sessions separated by a 20-min rest (AA). The second group of animals (6 young/6 aged) also explored the same objects for two 5-min sessions, but the environment was changed between the first and the second epoch (AB). Behavioral data showed that both age groups spent less time exploring objects during the second epoch, even when the environment changed, indicating successful recognition. Although the proportion of active neurons between epochs did not change in the AA group, in the AB group more neurons were active during epoch 2 of object exploration. This recruitment of neurons into the active neural ensemble could serve to signal that familiar stimuli are being encountered in a new context. When numbers of Arc positive neurons were compared between age groups, the old rats had significantly lower proportions of Arc-positive PRC neurons in both the AA and AB behavioral conditions. These data support the hypothesis that age-associated functional alterations in the PRC contribute to declines in stimulus recognition over the lifespan.

  10. The EMT-activator ZEB1 induces bone metastasis associated genes including BMP-inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Kerstin; Preca, Bogdan-Tiberius; Brummer, Tilman; Brabletz, Simone; Stemmler, Marc P.; Brabletz, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Tumor cell invasion, dissemination and metastasis is triggered by an aberrant activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), often mediated by the transcription factor ZEB1. Disseminating tumor cells must acquire specific features that allow them to colonize at different organ sites. Here we identify a set of genes that is highly expressed in breast cancer bone metastasis and activated by ZEB1. This gene set includes various secreted factors, e.g. the BMP-inhibitor FST, that are described to reorganize the bone microenvironment. By inactivating BMP-signaling, BMP-inhibitors are well-known to induce osteolysis in development and disease. We here demonstrate that the expression of ZEB1 and BMP-inhibitors is correlated with bone metastasis, but not with brain or lung metastasis of breast cancer patients. In addition, we show that this correlated expression pattern is causally linked, as ZEB1 induces the expression of the BMP-inhibitors NOG, FST and CHRDL1 both by directly increasing their gene transcription, as well as by indirectly suppressing their reduction via miR-200 family members. Consequently, ZEB1 stimulates BMP-inhibitor mediated osteoclast differentiation. These findings suggest that ZEB1 is not only driving EMT, but also contributes to the formation of osteolytic bone metastases in breast cancer. PMID:25973542

  11. Abnormal dynamics of activation of object use information in apraxia: evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Mirman, Daniel; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Action representations associated with object use may be incidentally activated during visual object processing, and the time course of such activations may be influenced by lexical-semantic context (e.g., Lee, Middleton, Mirman, Kalénine, & Buxbaum, 2012). In this study we used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm to examine whether a deficit in producing skilled object-use actions (apraxia) is associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information, and assessed the neuroanatomical substrates of any such deficits. Twenty left hemisphere stroke patients, ten of whom were apraxic, performed a task requiring identification of a named object in a visual display containing manipulation-related and unrelated distractor objects. Manipulation relationships among objects were not relevant to the identification task. Objects were cued with neutral (“S/he saw the….”), or action-relevant (“S/he used the….”) sentences. Non-apraxic participants looked at use-related non-target objects significantly more than at unrelated non-target objects when cued both by neutral and action-relevant sentences, indicating that action information is incidentally activated. In contrast, apraxic participants showed delayed activation of manipulation-based action information during object identification when cued by neutral sentences. The magnitude of delayed activation in the neutral sentence condition was reliably predicted by lower scores on a test of gesture production to viewed objects, as well as by lesion loci in the inferior parietal and posterior temporal lobes. However, when cued by a sentence containing an action verb, apraxic participants showed fixation patterns that were statistically indistinguishable from non-apraxic controls. In support of grounded theories of cognition, these results suggest that apraxia and temporal-parietal lesions may be associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information from objects. Further

  12. Coordination of bat sonar activity and flight for the exploration of three-dimensional objects.

    PubMed

    Genzel, Daria; Geberl, Cornelia; Dera, Thomas; Wiegrebe, Lutz

    2012-07-01

    The unique combination of flight and echolocation has opened the nocturnal air space as a rich ecological niche for bats. By analysing echoes of their sonar emissions, bats discriminate and recognize three-dimensional (3-D) objects. However, in contrast to vision, the 3-D information that can be gained by ensonifying an object from only one observation angle is sparse. To date, it is unclear how bats synchronize echolocation and flight activity to explore the 3-D shape of ensonified objects. We have devised an experimental design that allows creating 3-D virtual echo-acoustic objects by generating in real-time echoes from the bat's emissions that depend on the bat's position relative to the virtual object. Bats were trained to evaluate these 3-D virtual objects differing in their azimuthal variation of either echo amplitude or spectral composition. The data show that through a very effective coordination of sonar and flight activity, bats analyse an azimuthal variation of echo amplitude with a resolution of approximately 16 dB and a variation of echo centre frequency of approximately 19%. Control experiments show that the bats can detect not only these variations but also perturbations in the spatial arrangement of these variations. The current experimental paradigm shows that echolocating bats assemble echo-acoustic object information - acquired sequentially in flight - to reconstruct the 3-D shape of the ensonified object. Unlike previous approaches, the recruitment of virtual objects allows for a direct quantification of this reconstruction success in a highly controlled experimental approach.

  13. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  14. The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Rhonda; And Others

    Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State Board of…

  15. The Object of Activity: Making Sense of the Sense-Maker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaptelinin, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The concept of "the object of activity" plays a key role in research based on activity theory. However, the usefulness of this concept is somewhat undermined by the fact that a number of problems related to its meaning and its contexts of use remain unsolved. This article is an attempt to address some of these problems. The article focuses on 3…

  16. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  17. The application of multi-objective optimization method for activated sludge process: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Lu, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment approach. Depending on the design and specific application, activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can achieve biological nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal, besides the removal of organic carbon substances. However, the effluent N and P limits are getting tighter because of increased emphasis on environmental protection, and the needs for energy conservation as well as the operational reliability. Therefore, the balance between treatment performance and cost becomes a critical issue for the operations of WWTPs, which necessitates a multi-objective optimization (MOO). Recent studies in this field have shown promise in utilizing MOO to address the multiple conflicting criteria (i.e. effluent quality, operation cost, operation stability), including studying the ASP models that are primarily responsible for the process, and developing the method of MOO in the wastewater treatment process, which facilitates better optimization of process performance. Based on a better understanding of the application of MOO for ASP, a comprehensive review is conducted to offer a clear vision of the advances, and potential areas for future research are also proposed in the field. PMID:26819377

  18. Active learning of novel sound-producing objects: motor reactivation and enhancement of visuo-motor connectivity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-01

    Our experience with the world commonly involves physical interaction with objects enabling us to learn associations between multisensory information perceived during an event and our actions that create an event. The interplay among active interactions during learning and multisensory integration of object properties is not well understood. To better understand how action might enhance multisensory associative recognition, we investigated the interplay among motor and perceptual systems after active learning. Fifteen participants were included in an fMRI study during which they learned visuo-auditory-motor associations between novel objects and the sounds they produce, either through self-generated actions on the objects (active learning) or by observing an experimenter produce the actions (passive learning). Immediately after learning, behavioral and BOLD fMRI measures were collected while perceiving the objects used during unisensory and multisensory training in associative perception and recognition tasks. Active learning was faster and led to more accurate recognition of audiovisual associations than passive learning. Functional ROI analyses showed that in motor, somatosensory, and cerebellar regions there was greater activation during both the perception and recognition of actively learned associations. Finally, functional connectivity between visual- and motor-related processing regions was enhanced during the presentation of actively learned audiovisual associations. Overall, the results of the current study clarify and extend our own previous work [Butler, A. J., James, T. W., & Harman James, K. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3515-3528, 2011] by providing several novel findings and highlighting the task-based nature of motor reactivation and retrieval after active learning.

  19. Active control of environmental noise, VIII: increasing the response to primary source changes including unpredictable noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. E.; Atmoko, H.; Vuksanovic, B.

    2004-07-01

    Conventional adaptive cancellation systems using traditional transverse finite impulse response (FIR) filters, together with least mean square (LMS) adaptive algorithms, well known in active noise control, are slow to adapt to primary source changes. This makes them inappropriate for cancelling rapidly changing noise, including unpredictable noise such as speech and music. Secondly, the cancelling structures require considerable computational processing effort to adapt to primary source and plant changes, particularly for multi-channel systems. This paper describes methods to increase the adaptive speed to primary source changes in large enclosed spaces and outdoor environments. A method is described that increases the response to time varying periodic noise using traditional transverse FIR filters. Here a multi-passband filter, with individual variable adaptive step sizes for each passband is automatically adjusted according to the signal level in each band. This creates a similar adaptive response for all frequencies within the total pass-band, irrespective of amplitude, minimizing the signal distortion and increasing the combined adaptive speed. Unfortunately, there is a limit to the adaptive speed using the above method as classical transverse FIR filters have a finite adaptive speed given by the stability band zero bandwidth. For rapidly changing periodic noise and unpredictable non-stationary noise, a rapid to instantaneous response is required. In this case the on-line adaptive FIR filters are dispensed with and replaced by a time domain solution that gives virtually instantaneous cancellation response (infinite adaptive speed) to primary source changes, and is computationally efficient.

  20. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing facilities may

  1. Comparing perceived and objectively measured access to recreational facilities as predictors of physical activity in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Scott, Molly M; Evenson, Kelly R; Cohen, Deborah A; Cox, Christine E

    2007-05-01

    A number of studies in recent years have identified both self-report and objectively measured accessibility of recreational facilities as important predictors of physical activity in youth. Yet, few studies have: (1) examined the relationship between the number and proximity of objectively measured neighborhood physical activity facilities and respondents' perceptions and (2) compared objective and self-report measures as predictors of physical activity. This study uses data on 1,367 6th-grade girls who participated in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) to explore these issues. Girls reported whether nine different types of recreational facilities were easily accessible. These facilities included basketball courts, golf courses, martial arts studios, playing fields, tracks, skating rinks, swimming pools, tennis courts, and dance/gymnastic clubs. Next, geographic information systems (GIS) were used to identify all the parks, schools, and commercial sites for physical activity located within a mile of each girl's home. These sites were then visited to inventory the types of facilities available. Girls wore accelerometers to measure their weekly minutes of non-school metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MW-MVPA). The number of facilities within a half-mile of girls' homes strongly predicted the perception of easy access to seven out of nine facility types. Both individual facility perceptions and the total number of facilities perceived were associated with increased physical activity. For each additional facility perceived, girls clocked 3% more metabolic equivalent weighted moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (p < 0.001). Although girls tended to record 3% more of this kind of physical activity (p < 0.05) per basketball court within a mile of their homes, objective facility measures were otherwise unrelated to physical activity. The results from this study suggest that raising the profile of existing facilities may

  2. Objectively determined physical activity levels of primary school children in south-west Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only a small proportion of children and adolescents meet current recommendations of at least 60 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) daily. Most of the available data, however, relies on subjective reports; there is limited objective data on physical activity (PA) levels in German primary school children. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to accurately determine how much time children spend undertaking different intensities of PA and being sedentary during weekdays and weekend using objective assessment tools. Gender-specific and age-related differences were examined along with differences between normal weight and overweight/obese children. Methods Children’s height and weight were measured according to standard procedures and objective PA measurements were determined in a sub-cohort of 384 primary school children (20% of the whole cohort), participating in a large school-based intervention study in south-west Germany (n = 1947). Baseline data collection occurred on six consecutive days, including weekend days, using multi-sensor accelerometry (Actiheart, CamNtech Ltd., Cambridge UK). 318 children (7.1 ± 0.6 years, male: 50%, first grade: 51%) provided data for at least 3 days including one weekend day. According to the amount of energy expended, defined as metabolic equivalents (METs), different activity intensities were categorised as follows: sedentary < 1.5 METs; light = 1.5-3.0 METs; moderate = 3.0-6.0 METs, and vigorous > 6.0 METs. Results Average wear time was 1403 ± 94 min/day. Children spent 808 ± 97 min/day being sedentary; 497 ± 72 min/day in light; 128 ± 54 min/day in moderate, and 8 ± 10 min/day in vigorous intensity. 48% of children met the current MVPA guidelines. MVPA was significantly higher on weekdays compared to weekend days (144 ± 66 vs. 113 ± 66 min/day; p < 0.001). Furthermore, boys displayed higher MVPA levels compared to girls (164

  3. Association Between Fecal Incontinence and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Rao, Satish S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Brisk physical activity may facilitate fecal incontinence due to physical activity-induced colonic motility. However, there currently are no studies that have examined the relationship between fecal incontinence and free-living physical activity behavior. Aim: Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the association between fecal incontinence and objectively measured physical activity among adults. Materials and Methods: A national sample of adults in the United States (n = 2565, 20-85 years) completed the Fecal Incontinence Severity Index questionnaire and wore an accelerometer for a week to objectively measure physical activity behavior. Results: After adjustments, fecal incontinence was positively associated with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (β = 0.85, P = 0.04), suggesting that lower perceived severity of fecal incontinence was associated with greater engagement in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Fecal incontinence was not significantly associated with light-intensity physical activity (P = 0.27). Conclusion: Our results suggest that adults in the United States with greater perceived severity of fecal incontinence engage in less moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; however, those with greater severity of fecal incontinence do not appear to have different levels of light-intensity physical activity behavior. Given the emerging research showing beneficial effects of light-intensity physical activity, health care professionals should encourage light-intensity physical activity to their patients with fecal incontinence. PMID:25535606

  4. Early (M170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects.

    PubMed

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P

    2009-03-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of 'real' faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at approximately 170 ms after stimulus onset, but what happens when nonface objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography, we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165 ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late reinterpretation cognitive phenomenon.

  5. Early (N170) activation of face-specific cortex by face-like objects

    PubMed Central

    Hadjikhani, Nouchine; Kveraga, Kestutis; Naik, Paulami; Ahlfors, Seppo P.

    2009-01-01

    The tendency to perceive faces in random patterns exhibiting configural properties of faces is an example of pareidolia. Perception of ‘real’ faces has been associated with a cortical response signal arising at about 170ms after stimulus onset; but what happens when non-face objects are perceived as faces? Using magnetoencephalography (MEG), we found that objects incidentally perceived as faces evoked an early (165ms) activation in the ventral fusiform cortex, at a time and location similar to that evoked by faces, whereas common objects did not evoke such activation. An earlier peak at 130 ms was also seen for images of real faces only. Our findings suggest that face perception evoked by face-like objects is a relatively early process, and not a late re-interpretation cognitive phenomenon. PMID:19218867

  6. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  7. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  10. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  11. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Toby G.; Caterson, Ian D.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6) and light (MET 1.6 < 3), moderate (MET 3 < 6), and vigorous (MET 6 < 9) physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p = 0.14) and 0.003% for liver fat (p = 0.96). Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r = 0.294, p = 0.007), but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat. PMID:27777796

  12. Identification and Active Exploration of Deformable Object Boundary Constraints through Robotic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Boonvisut, Pasu; Cavusoglu, M. Cenk

    2014-01-01

    Robotic motion planning algorithms for manipulation of deformable objects, such as in medical robotics applications, rely on accurate estimations of object deformations that occur during manipulation. An estimation of the tissue response (for off-line planning or real-time on-line re-planning), in turn, requires knowledge of both object constitutive parameters and boundary constraints. In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating boundary constraints of deformable objects from robotic manipulation data is presented. The proposed algorithm uses tissue deformation data collected with a vision system, and employs a multi-stage hill climbing procedure to estimate the boundary constraints of the object. An active exploration technique, which uses an information maximization approach, is also proposed to extend the identification algorithm. The effects of uncertainties on the proposed methods are analyzed in simulation. The results of experimental evaluation of the methods are also presented. PMID:25684836

  13. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  14. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  15. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  16. The relationship between school physical activity policy and objectively measured physical activity of elementary school students: a multilevel model analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence of school level variability in the physical activity of children and youth. Less is known about factors that may contribute to this variation. The purpose of this study was to examine if the school health environment (Healthy Physical Environment, Instruction and Programs, Supportive Social Environment, and Community Partnerships) is associated with objectively measured time spent in light to vigorous physical activity among a sample of Toronto children. Methods The sample comprised 856 grade 5 and 6 students from 18 elementary schools in Toronto, Ontario. Multilevel linear regression analyses were used to examine the impact of school physical activity policy on students’ time spent in light-to-vigorous physical activity. Results Significant between-school random variation in objectively measured time spent in light-to-vigorous physical activity was identified [σ2μ0 = 0.067; p < 0.001]; school-level differences accounted for 6.7% of the variability in the time individual students spent in light-to-vigorous physical activity. Of the 22 school-level variables, students attending schools with support for active transportation to/from school and written policies/practices for physical activity, accumulated significantly more minutes of physical activity per school week than students who attended schools that did not. Conclusions School physical activity policy and support for active school travel is associated with objectively measured time spent in light to vigorous physical activity. School physical activity policy might be a critical mechanism through which schools can impact the physical activity levels of their students. PMID:24999387

  17. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  18. Using near-infrared spectroscopy to assess neural activation during object processing in infants.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Teresa; Bortfeld, Heather; Woods, Rebecca; Wruck, Eric; Boas, David A

    2005-01-01

    The capacity to represent the world in terms of numerically distinct objects (i.e., object individuation) is a milestone in early cognitive development and forms the foundation for more complex thought and behavior. Over the past 10 to 15 yr, infant researchers have expended a great deal of effort to identify the origins and development of this capacity. In contrast, relatively little is known about the neural mechanisms that underlie the ability to individuate objects, in large part because there are a limited number of noninvasive techniques available to measure brain functioning in human infants. Recent research suggests that near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS), an optical imaging technique that uses relative changes in total hemoglobin concentration and oxygenation as an indicator of neural activation, may be a viable procedure for assessing the relation between object processing and brain function in human infants. We examine the extent to which increased neural activation, as measured by NIRS, could be observed in two neural areas known to be involved in object processing, the primary visual cortex and the inferior temporal cortex, during an object processing task. Infants aged 6.5 months are presented with a visual event in which two featurally distinct objects emerge successively to opposite sides of an occluder and neuroimaging data are collected. As predicted, increased neural activation is observed in both the primary visual and inferior cortex during the visual event, suggesting that these neural areas support object processing in the young infant. The outcome has important implications for research in cognitive development, developmental neuroscience, and optical imaging. PMID:15847576

  19. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding ”hot-spots”, and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations. PMID:19096530

  20. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  1. The effects of object activity distribution on multiplexing multi-pinhole SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Greta S P; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Beekman, Freek J

    2011-01-01

    We aim to study the effects of activity distribution for multiplexing multi-pinhole (MPH) SPECT. Three digital phantoms, including a hot rod, a cold rod and a cold sphere phantom, were used. Different degrees of multiplexing were obtained by (i) adjusting the MPH pattern for the same 4-pinhole collimator (scheme 1) and (ii) increasing the number of pinholes (scheme 2). Noise-free and noisy projections were generated using a 3D analytical MPH projector based on the same acquisition time. Projections were reconstructed using OS–EM without resolution recovery. Normalized mean-square-error (NMSE), noise, image profiles and signal-to-background ratios (SBR) were assessed. For the hot rod phantom, the NMSE-noise trade-offs slightly improves for multiplexing designs in scheme 2. Substantial artifacts were observed and the NMSE-noise trade-offs slightly worsened for multiplexing designs for the cold phantoms. Resolutions slightly degraded for higher degrees of multiplexing (~39–65%) for the cold rod phantom. For the cold sphere phantom, image profiles showed non-multiplexing designs better emulated the phantom, while ~20% multiplexing performs similarly as compared to non-multiplexing in SBR. Our results indicate that multiplexing can help for sparse objects but leads to a significant image degradation in non-sparse distributions. Since many tracers are not highly specific, and the gain of detection efficiency by allowing multiplexing is fairly offset by image degradations, multiplexing needs to be kept to a minimum for optimum MPH collimator designs. PMID:21454926

  2. Action semantic knowledge about objects is supported by functional motor activation.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-08-01

    The present study assessed the functional organization of action semantics by asking subjects to categorize pictures of an actor holding objects with a correct or incorrect grip at either a correct or incorrect goal location. Overall, reaction times were slower if the object was presented with an inappropriate posture, and this effect was stronger for goal violations compared with grip violations (Experiment 1). In addition, the retrieval of action semantics was found accompanied by the implicit activation of motor representations. Body-related objects (e.g., cup) were classified faster when a movement toward the subject's body was required, whereas world-related objects (e.g., pincers) were responded to faster with a movement in the opposite direction (Experiments 2 and 3). In contrast, when subjects were required to retrieve only visual semantics (Experiment 4), no interference effects of postural information were observed, and motor representations were only partially activated. These findings suggest that action semantics can be accessed independently from visual semantics and that the retrieval of action semantics is supported by functional motor activation reflecting the prototypical use of an object.

  3. Active linear head motion improves dynamic visual acuity in pursuing a high-speed moving object.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Tatsuhisa; Yamashita, Masayuki; Suzuki, Toshihiro; Hisa, Yasuo; Wada, Yoshiro

    2009-04-01

    We usually move both our eyes and our head when pursuing a high-speed moving object. However, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), evoked by head motion, seems to disturb smooth pursuit eye movement because the VOR stabilizes the gaze against head motion. To determine whether head motion is advantageous for pursuing a high-speed moving object, we examined dynamic visual acuity (DVA) for a high-speed (80 degrees /s) rightward moving object with and without active linear rightward head motion (HM) at a maximum of 50 cm/s in nine healthy subjects. Furthermore, we analyzed eye and head movements to investigate the contribution of linear VOR (LVOR) and smooth eye movement under these conditions. In most subjects, active linear head motion improved DVA for a high-speed moving object. Subjects with higher DVA scores under HM had robust rightward gaze (eye + head) velocities (>60 cm/s), i.e., rightward smooth eye movements (>10 degrees /s). With the head stationary (HS), faster smooth eye movements (>40 degrees /s) were generated when the subjects pursued a high-speed moving object. They also showed anticipatory smooth eye movements under conditions HM and HS. However, the level of suppression of their LVOR abilities was equal to that of the others. These results suggest that the ability to generate anticipatory smooth pursuit eye movements for following a high-speed moving object against the LVOR is a determining factor for improvement of DVA under HM.

  4. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  5. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy. PMID:1786224

  6. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  7. Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-15

    The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children. PMID:23153968

  8. Expert individuation of objects increases activation in the fusiform face area of children.

    PubMed

    James, Thomas W; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-15

    The role of experience in the development of brain mechanisms for face recognition is intensely debated. Experience with subordinate- and individual-level classification of faces is thought, by some, to be foundational in the development of the specialization of face recognition. Studying children with extremely intense interests (EII) provides an opportunity to examine experience-related changes in non-face object recognition in a population where face expertise is not fully developed. Here, two groups of school-aged children -one group with an EII with Pokémon cards and another group of age-matched controls - underwent fMRI while viewing faces, Pokémon characters, Pokémon objects, and Digimon characters. Pokémon objects were non-character Pokémon cards that experts do not typically individuate during game play and trading. Neither experts nor controls had previous experience with Digimon characters. As expected, experts and controls showed equivalent activation in the fusiform face area (FFA) with face stimuli. As predicted by the expertise hypothesis, experts showed greater activation than controls with Pokémon characters, and showed greater activation with Pokémon characters than Pokémon objects. Experts and controls showed equivalent activation with Digimon characters. However, heightened activation with Digimon characters in both groups suggested that there are other strong influences on the activation of the FFA beyond stimulus characteristics, experience, and classification level. By demonstrating the important role of expertise, the findings are inconsistent with a purely face-specific account of FFA function. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the effects of expertise and categorization level on activation in the FFA in a group of typically developing children.

  9. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation.

    PubMed

    Norman, J Farley; Phillips, Flip; Cheeseman, Jacob R; Thomason, Kelsey E; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped "glaven") for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object's shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions-e.g., the participants' performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  10. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  11. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  12. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  13. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values. PMID:23082579

  14. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  15. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  16. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  17. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  18. Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L. |; Ishikawa, M. |; Hyde, R.

    1995-05-24

    Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.

  19. Mind the gap: the minimal detectable separation distance between two objects during active electrolocation.

    PubMed

    Fechler, K; Holtkamp, D; Neusel, G; Sanguinetti-Scheck, J I; Budelli, R; von der Emde, G

    2012-12-01

    In a food-rewarded two-alternative forced-choice procedure, it was determined how well the weakly electric elephantnose fish Gnathonemus petersii can sense gaps between two objects, some of which were placed in front of complex backgrounds. The results show that at close distances, G. petersii is able to detect gaps between two small metal cubes (2 cm × 2 cm × 2 cm) down to a width of c. 1·5 mm. When larger objects (3 cm × 3 cm × 3 cm) were used, gaps with a width of 2-3 mm could still be detected. Discrimination performance was better (c. 1 mm gap size) when the objects were placed in front of a moving background consisting of plastic stripes or plant leaves, indicating that movement in the environment plays an important role for object identification. In addition, the smallest gap size that could be detected at increasing distances was determined. A linear relationship between object distance and gap size existed. Minimal detectable gap sizes increased from c. 1·5 mm at a distance of 1 cm, to 20 mm at a distance of 7 cm. Measurements and simulations of the electric stimuli occurring during gap detection revealed that the electric images of two close objects influence each other and superimpose. A large gap of 20 mm between two objects induced two clearly separated peaks in the electric image, while a 2 mm gap caused just a slight indentation in the image. Therefore, the fusion of electric images limits spatial resolution during active electrolocation. Relative movements either between the fish and the objects or between object and background might improve spatial resolution by accentuating the fine details of the electric images. PMID:23252738

  20. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  1. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  2. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  3. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  6. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  7. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  8. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  9. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  10. Preparatory Activity in Posterior Temporal Cortex Causally Contributes to Object Detection in Scenes.

    PubMed

    Reeder, Reshanne R; Perini, Francesca; Peelen, Marius V

    2015-11-01

    Theories of visual selective attention propose that top-down preparatory attention signals mediate the selection of task-relevant information in cluttered scenes. Neuroimaging and electrophysiology studies have provided correlative evidence for this hypothesis, finding increased activity in target-selective neural populations in visual cortex in the period between a search cue and target onset. In this study, we used online TMS to test whether preparatory neural activity in visual cortex is causally involved in naturalistic object detection. In two experiments, participants detected the presence of object categories (cars, people) in a diverse set of photographs of real-world scenes. TMS was applied over a region in posterior temporal cortex identified by fMRI as carrying category-specific preparatory activity patterns. Results showed that TMS applied over posterior temporal cortex before scene onset (-200 and -100 msec) impaired the detection of object categories in subsequently presented scenes, relative to vertex and early visual cortex stimulation. This effect was specific to category level detection and was related to the type of attentional template participants adopted, with the strongest effects observed in participants adopting category level templates. These results provide evidence for a causal role of preparatory attention in mediating the detection of objects in cluttered daily-life environments. PMID:26102225

  11. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities. PMID:22117465

  12. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped “glaven”) for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object’s shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions–e.g., the participants’ performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  13. Perception and conception: temporal lobe activity during complex discriminations of familiar and novel faces and objects.

    PubMed

    Barense, Morgan D; Henson, Richard N A; Graham, Kim S

    2011-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that medial-temporal lobe (MTL) damage, either from focal lesions or neurodegenerative disease (e.g., semantic dementia), impairs perception as well as long-term declarative memory. Notably, however, these two patient groups show different performance for meaningful versus unfamiliar stimuli. In amnesics with nonprogressive MTL lesions, the use of meaningful stimuli, compared with unfamiliar items, boosted discrimination performance. In semantic dementia, a condition characterized by progressive deterioration of conceptual knowledge in the context of anterolateral temporal lobe damage, performance for meaningful stimuli was equivalent to that for unfamiliar items. To further investigate these findings, we scanned healthy volunteers while they performed odd-one-out discriminations involving familiar (i.e., meaningful/famous) and unfamiliar (i.e., novel) objects and faces and a baseline task of size oddity. Outside the scanner, volunteers' recognition memory was assessed. We found above baseline activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus for all object and face discriminations and above baseline activity in the temporal pole for all face discriminations. The comparison of meaningful, relative to novel, faces and objects, revealed increased activity in the perirhinal cortex and hippocampus. In the temporal pole, we also found activity related to meaningfulness for faces but not for objects. Importantly, these meaningfulness effects were evident even for discriminations that were not subsequently well remembered, suggesting that the difference between meaningful and novel stimuli reflects perceptual or conceptual processes rather than solely incidental encoding into long-term memory. The results provide further evidence that the MTL is recruited during complex perceptual discrimination and additionally suggest that these structures are recruited in semantic processing of objects and faces.

  14. Measuring of object vibration using sinusoidal-modulation laser-diode active interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yong; Cao, Qinfeng; Lu, Su

    1996-09-01

    Using the character that the emitting optical frequency of the laser diode is controlled by the injected current, the ability of eliminating environmental disturbance of the sinusoidal modulation laser diode active interferometer will be raised by more than one hundred times through putting the disturbed interference signal produced by the environment into the interferometer. When vibrating frequency of objects is different from that of the sinusoidol modulation, 'beat- frequency' will be produced in the interfere signal, which can be analyzed to get the vibrating frequency of objects. This paper described the operation principle and theoretical delusion of the 'beat-frequency' method.

  15. Neural activation for conceptual identification of correct versus incorrect tool-object pairs.

    PubMed

    Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2010-10-01

    Appropriate tool-object pairing is a natural part of our lives. When preparing to clean our teeth, we know that a toothbrush is useful, but not a screwdriver. The neural correlates of this pairing process remain unclear. We recorded 64-channel electroencephalography to determine neural correlates of identification of tool-object matches and mismatches. Subjects were shown a target tool (e.g. spoon) later paired with an object that was either a conceptual match (e.g. bowl) or mismatch (e.g. wood). To verify that activity was not related to general concept of match-mismatch, in a second condition subjects saw non-tool environmental items (e.g. bird) later paired with a conceptual match (e.g. nest) or mismatch (e.g. spider web). Analysis was focused on time bins after each picture, using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA). Tool-object match versus mismatch revealed significant differences in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, left insula and superior temporal gyrus. These patterns were not present for environmental match versus mismatch. This work suggests a specific network in comprehending tool-based pairings, but not extensive to other pairings. The posterior cingulate, precuneus, insula and superior temporal gyrus preferentially differentiates tool-object matching and mismatching, identifying a potential locus related to impairments in comprehending appropriate and inappropriate tool-object relationships that arise after neural injury.

  16. Impact of Personalised Feedback about Physical Activity on Change in Objectively Measured Physical Activity (the FAB Study): A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen; Sharp, Stephen J.; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity are a major public health concern, and interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. Whether or not personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement motivates behaviour change has yet to be rigorously examined. Methods And Findings: In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, 466 healthy adults aged 32 to 54 years were recruited from the ongoing population-based Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Participants were randomised to receive either no feedback until the end of the trial (control group, n=120) or one of three different types of feedback: simple, visual, or contextualised (intervention groups, n=346). The primary outcome was physical activity (physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kJ/kg/day and average body acceleration (ACC) in m/s2) measured objectively using a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart®). The main secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, intention to increase physical activity, and awareness of physical activity (the agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical activity). At 8 weeks, 391 (83.9%) participants had complete physical activity data. The intervention had no effect on objectively measured physical activity (PAEE: β=-0.92, 95% CI=-3.50 to 1.66, p=0.48 and ACC: β=0.01, 95% CI=-0.00 to 0.02, p=0.21), self-reported physical activity (β=-0.39, 95% CI=-1.59 to 0.81), or intention to increase physical activity (β=-0.05, 95% CI=-0.22 to 0.11). However, it was associated with an increase in awareness of physical activity (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.05 to 2.89). Results did not differ according to the type of feedback. Conclusions Personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement increased awareness but did not result in changes in physical activity in the short term. Measurement and feedback may have a role in promoting behaviour change but are

  17. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  18. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relations purposes, including E-commerce (mail ordering through the Internet): Provided, That Credit-Back...-Back is requested. (e) The following requirements shall apply to Credit-Back for all promotional... and Canada, paragraph (e)(5) of this section shall also apply. (2) The clear and evident purpose...

  19. Cardiorespiratory fitness, weight status and objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity in rural and urban Portuguese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Coelho-e-Silva, Manuel J; Mota, Jorge; Padez, Cristina; Ronque, Enio; Cumming, Sean P; Malina, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Relationships among weight status (body mass index [BMI]), cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and objective measures of sedentary behaviour and physical activity (PA) were considered in a cross-sectional sample of Portuguese adolescents. The sample included 362 youth aged 13-16 years (165 males, 197 females) from urban and rural regions of the Portuguese midlands. CRF was assessed with the 20-m shuttle-run test. An uniaxial accelerometer was used to obtain five consecutive days of activity behaviours including time being sedentary. Pearson correlations and logistic regression analysis were used to examine relationships among variables. Rural adolescents were less active than their urban peers over the weekend. Both rural and urban youth with higher levels of CRF had a lower relative risk of being overweight/obese. The observations indicate important associations between weight status and CRF in both rural and urban Portuguese adolescents. In addition, place of residence has an important impact on weight status of this sample of adolescents.

  20. In vitro bactericidal activity of aminoglycosides, including the next-generation drug plazomicin, against Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Steven C; Carlson, Steve A

    2015-01-01

    Plazomicin is a next-generation aminoglycoside with a potentially unique set of clinical characteristics compared with other aminoglycosides. This study assessed the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of plazomicin against 15 clinical isolates as well as three reference strains representing Brucella abortus, Brucella melitensis and Brucella suis. These data were compared with those obtained for six other aminoglycosides and two aminocyclitols. Plazomicin and gentamicin were the only drugs demonstrating bactericidal activity towards two of the three Brucella spp., whilst plazomicin was the only drug exhibiting bactericidal activity against B. suis. This is the first study to assess the bactericidal nature of plazomicin against Brucella spp. in vitro. PMID:25459738

  1. RE-DEFINING THE ROLES OF SENSORS IN OBJECTIVE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY MONITORING

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kong Y.; Janz, Kathleen F.; Zhu, Weimo; Brychta, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Background As physical activity researchers are increasingly using objective portable devices, this review describes current state of the technology to assess physical activity, with a focus on specific sensors and sensor properties currently used in monitors and their strengths and weakness. Additional sensors and sensor properties desirable for activity measurement and best practices for users and developers also are discussed. Best Practices We grouped current sensors into three broad categories for objectively measuring physical activity: associated body movement, physiology, and context. Desirable sensor properties for measuring physical activity and the importance of these properties in relationship to specific applications are addressed, and the specific roles of transducers and data acquisition systems within the monitoring devices are defined. Technical advancements in sensors, microcomputer processors, memory storage, batteries, wireless communication, and digital filters have made monitors more usable for subjects (smaller, more stable, and longer running time) and for researchers (less costly, higher time resolution and memory storage, shorter download time, and user-defined data features). Future Directions Users and developers of physical activity monitors should learn about the basic properties of their sensors, such as range, accuracy, precision, while considering the data acquisition/filtering steps that may be critical to data quality and may influence the desirable measurement outcome(s). PMID:22157770

  2. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants’ Object Exploration

    PubMed Central

    Wiesen, Sarah E.; Watkins, Rachel M.; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants’ behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant’s experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  3. Active Motor Training Has Long-term Effects on Infants' Object Exploration.

    PubMed

    Wiesen, Sarah E; Watkins, Rachel M; Needham, Amy Work

    2016-01-01

    Long-term changes in infants' behavior as a result of active motor training were studied. Thirty-two infants completed three visits to the laboratory. At the first visit, infants were 3 months old and completed an object exploration assessment. Then the experimenter demonstrated the motor training procedures appropriate for the infant's experimental condition, and parents took home custom infant mittens (either sticky or non-sticky) and a bag of lightweight toys to practice with their infants. Over the course of the following 2 weeks, infants participated in 10 sessions of either active (sticky) or passive (non-sticky) mittens training at home with their parents. Infants who participated in active mittens training wore mittens with the palms covered in Velcro, allowing them to pick up and move around small toys. Infants who participated in passive mittens training wore non-sticky mittens, and their parents moved the toys through their visual fields on their behalf. After completing the training, infants returned to the lab for the second visit. At visit two, infants participated in another object exploration assessment as well as a reaching assessment. Parents returned the training materials to the lab at the second visit, and were told not to continue any specific training regimen from this point forward. Two months later, when infants were about 5.5 months of age, they returned to the lab for a third visit. At the third visit, infants completed the same two assessments as during the second visit. The results of this study indicate that infants who participated in active motor training engaged in more sophisticated object exploration when compared to infants who received passive training. These findings are consistent with others in the literature showing that active motor training at 3 months of age facilitates the processes of object exploration and engagement. The current results and others reveal that the effects of early experience can last long after

  4. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  5. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  6. Phytophthora infestans has a plethora of phospholipase D enzymes including a subclass that has extracellular activity.

    PubMed

    Meijer, Harold J G; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  7. Intrinsic Bayesian Active Contours for Extraction of Object Boundaries in Images

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for incorporating prior information about high-probability shapes in the process of contour extraction and object recognition in images. Here one studies shapes as elements of an infinite-dimensional, non-linear quotient space, and statistics of shapes are defined and computed intrinsically using differential geometry of this shape space. Prior models on shapes are constructed using probability distributions on tangent bundles of shape spaces. Similar to the past work on active contours, where curves are driven by vector fields based on image gradients and roughness penalties, we incorporate the prior shape knowledge in the form of vector fields on curves. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the use of prior shape models in the estimation of object boundaries, and their success in handling partial obscuration and missing data. Furthermore, we describe the use of this framework in shape-based object recognition or classification. PMID:21076692

  8. Multi-objective control for active vehicle suspension with wheelbase preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Panshuo; Lam, James; Cheung, Kie Chung

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a multi-objective control method with wheelbase preview for active vehicle suspension. A four-degree-of-freedom half-car model with active suspension is considered in this study. H∞ norm and generalized H2 norm are used to improve ride quality and ensure that hard constraints are satisfied. Disturbances at the front wheel are obtained as preview information for the rear wheel. Static output-feedback is utilized in designing controllers, the solution is derived by iterative linear matrix inequality (ILMI) and cone complementarity linearization (CCL) algorithms. Simulation results confirm that multi-objective control with wheelbase preview achieves a significant improvement of ride quality (a maximum 27 percent and 60 percent improvement on vertical and angular acceleration, respectively) comparing with that of control without preview, while suspension deflections, tyre deflections and actuator forces remaining within given bounds. The extent of the improvement on the ride quality for different amount of preview information used is also illustrated.

  9. An active tactile sensor for detecting mechanical characteristics of contacted objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Shikida, M.; Sasaki, H.; Itoigawa, K.; Sato, K.

    2006-08-01

    We propose an active tactile sensor actuated by magnetic force. The tactile sensor has the advantage of being able to detect mechanical characteristics related to a tactile impression of contacted objects using a single sensor structure, much as human skin functions. It consists of a displacement-sensing element of piezoresistors formed on a silicon diaphragm, and a magnetic actuating element (a permanent magnet and a flat coil). The sensor has two modes of operation, quasi-static and vibration, and it can detect contact force, elasticity and damping of contacted objects by choosing between operation modes. We fabricated the piezoresistor sensing and magnetic actuating elements by applying the microelectromechanical systems technologies, and assembled them in a hybrid manner. The size of the sensor was 6.0 mm × 6.0 mm × 10 µm. As contact samples we used three different rubber materials with hardness values ranging from A20 to A60 in Shore A. We experimentally confirmed that both the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the sensing element in the vibration mode changed with different samples. We were able to calculate the elastic and damping coefficients of the contacted rubber objects by analyzing the vibrational response of the diaphragm. From the results, we concluded that the active sensor can detect mechanical characteristics of contacted objects using a single sensor structure.

  10. Optical evidence for the unification of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, J S

    1995-01-01

    There is a variety of optical evidence for some unification of different types of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). The case is very strong for the unification of at least some Seyfert galaxies, where polarization data show that the type assigned to the Seyfert galaxy must depend on viewing direction. It has been proposed that Fanaroff-Riley type 2 (FR2) radio galaxies are quasars seen in a direction from which the quasar is obscured, and there is some limited direct evidence for this picture. The broad absorption line QSOs may be normal QSOs seen from a special direction. Some of the sources observed to have high luminosities in the far infrared could be obscured QSOs and active nuclei. Mergers and interactions are likely to play an important role in nuclear activity, and active galaxies and QSOs could change their apparent types through these encounters followed by subsequent evolution. PMID:11607611

  11. Optical evidence for the unification of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Miller, J S

    1995-12-01

    There is a variety of optical evidence for some unification of different types of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). The case is very strong for the unification of at least some Seyfert galaxies, where polarization data show that the type assigned to the Seyfert galaxy must depend on viewing direction. It has been proposed that Fanaroff-Riley type 2 (FR2) radio galaxies are quasars seen in a direction from which the quasar is obscured, and there is some limited direct evidence for this picture. The broad absorption line QSOs may be normal QSOs seen from a special direction. Some of the sources observed to have high luminosities in the far infrared could be obscured QSOs and active nuclei. Mergers and interactions are likely to play an important role in nuclear activity, and active galaxies and QSOs could change their apparent types through these encounters followed by subsequent evolution.

  12. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  13. Dual objective active suspension system based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Vaijayanti S.; Shendge, P. D.; Phadke, S. B.

    2016-09-01

    This paper proposes an active suspension system to fulfil the dual objective of improving ride comfort while trying to keep the suspension deflection within the limits of the rattle space. The scheme is based on a novel nonlinear disturbance compensator which employs a nonlinear function of the suspension deflection. The scheme is analysed and validated by simulation and experimentation on a laboratory setup. The performance is compared with a passive suspension system for a variety of road profiles.

  14. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  16. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  17. The Impact of Ethnicity on Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Eyre, Emma Lisa Jane; Duncan, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and obesity-related diseases (cardiovascular disease/metabolic risk factors) are experienced differently in individuals from different ethnic backgrounds, which originate in childhood. Physical activity is a modifiable risk factor for obesity and related diseases. Both physical activity and metabolic risk factors track to adulthood, and thus understanding the physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds is important. Given the limitations of self-report measures in children, this study provides a review of studies which have objectively measured physical activity patterns in children from different ethnic backgrounds. From a total of 16 studies, it can be concluded that physical activity does seem to vary amongst the ethnic groups especially South Asian and Black compared to White EU (European Union). The findings are less consistent for Hispanic/Mexican American children. However, there are several methodological limitations which need to be considered in future studies. Firstly, there is a need for consistency in the measurement of physical activity. Secondly, there are a range of complex factors such as socioeconomic status and body composition which affect both physical activity and ethnicity. Studies have failed to account for these differences limiting the ability to generalise that ethnicity is an independent risk factor for physical activity. PMID:24555154

  18. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g. monitoring) the relationship is not clear. The objectives of this study were to determine the relationship between parent's PA-related practices, general parenting style, and children's PA level. Methods During the spring of 2007 a diverse group of 99 parent-child dyads (29% White, 49% Black, 22% Hispanic; 89% mothers) living in low-income rural areas of the US participated in a cross-sectional study. Using validated questionnaires, parents self-reported their parenting style (authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) and activity-related parenting practices. Height and weight were measured for each dyad and parents reported demographic information. Child PA was measured objectively through accelerometers and expressed as absolute counts and minutes engaged in intensity-specific activity. Results Seventy-six children had valid accelerometer data. Children engaged in 113.4 ± 37.0 min. of moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) per day. Children of permissive parents accumulated more minutes of MVPA than those of uninvolved parents (127.5 vs. 97.1, p < 0.05), while parents who provided above average levels of support had children who participated in more minutes of MVPA (114.2 vs. 98.3, p = 0.03). While controlling for known covariates, an uninvolved parenting style was the only parenting behavior associated with child physical activity. Parenting style moderated the association between two parenting practices - reinforcement and monitoring - and child physical activity. Specifically, post-hoc analyses revealed that for the permissive parenting style group, higher levels of parental reinforcement or monitoring were associated with higher

  19. Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure “per se” but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different body’s components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents. Methods A cross-sectional study in a school setting was conducted in 2200 (1016 males) adolescents (14.7 ±1.2 years). Weight, height, skinfold thickness, bioimpedance and PA (accelerometry) were measured. Indices of fat mass (body mass index, % fat mass, sum of skinfolds) and muscular component (assessed as fat-free mass) were calculated. Multiple regression analyses were performed adjusting for several confounders including fat-free mass and fat mass when possible. Results Vigorous PA was positively associated with height (p < 0.05) in males, whilst, vigorous PA, moderate-vigorous PA and average PA were negatively associated with all the indices of fat mass (all p < 0.01) in both genders, except for average PA in relation with body mass index in females. Regarding muscular components, vigorous PA showed positive associations with fat-free mass and muscle mass (all p < 0.05) in both genders. Average PA was positively associated with fat-free mass (both p < 0.05) in males and females. Conclusion The present study suggests that PA, especially vigorous PA, is negatively associated with indices of fat mass and positively associated with markers of muscle mass, after adjusting for several confounders (including indices of fat mass and muscle mass when possible). Future studies should focus not only on the classical relationship between PA and fat mass, but also on PA and

  20. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  1. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  2. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  3. Modeling the development of biofilm density including active bacteria, inert biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances.

    PubMed

    Laspidou, Chrysi S; Rittmann, Bruce E

    2004-01-01

    We present the unified multi-component cellular automaton (UMCCA) model, which predicts quantitatively the development of the biofilm's composite density for three biofilm components: active bacteria, inert or dead biomass, and extracellular polymeric substances. The model also describes the concentrations of three soluble organic components (soluble substrate and two types of soluble microbial products) and oxygen. The UMCCA model is a hybrid discrete-differential mathematical model and introduces the novel feature of biofilm consolidation. Our hypothesis is that the fluid over the biofilm creates pressures and vibrations that cause the biofilm to consolidate, or pack itself to a higher density over time. Each biofilm compartment in the model output consolidates to a different degree that depends on the age of its biomass. The UMCCA model also adds a cellular automaton algorithm that identifies the path of least resistance and directly moves excess biomass along that path, thereby ensuring that the excess biomass is distributed efficiently. A companion paper illustrates the trends that the UMCCA model is able to represent and shows a comparison with experimental results. PMID:15276752

  4. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  5. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    every three minutes, for an average of 288 images for every 24 hours of operation. To ensure both science teams can employ the NEOSSat spacecraft to its full potential, the Mission Planning System (MPS) will automate the scheduling of both the HEOSS and NESS observation tasks. In another risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a prototype of the MPS software has been developed to help in the definition of the system requirements as well as to identify and reduce the risks associated with the development of this software system. The paper will first provide an update on the status and schedule of the NEOSSat project. Then, we will present the results achieved (metrics and photometry) from the two tracked GPS spacecraft as well as the lessons learned that are being applied during the development of the joint DRDC and CSA NEOSSat micro-satellite. Finally, results obtained from the MPS prototype development will be presented with a special emphasis on the final system to be designed including a description of the functions judged to be critical based upon the risk reduction activity.

  6. Resting state cerebral blood flow and objective motor activity reveal basal ganglia dysfunction in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Walther, Sebastian; Federspiel, Andrea; Horn, Helge; Razavi, Nadja; Wiest, Roland; Dierks, Thomas; Strik, Werner; Müller, Thomas Jörg

    2011-05-31

    Reduced motor activity has been reported in schizophrenia and was associated with subtype, psychopathology and medication. Still, little is known about the neurobiology of motor retardation. To identify neural correlates of motor activity, resting state cerebral blood flow (CBF) was correlated with objective motor activity of the same day. Participants comprised 11 schizophrenia patients and 14 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging with arterial spin labeling and wrist actigraphy. Patients had reduced activity levels and reduced perfusion of the left parahippocampal gyrus, left middle temporal gyrus, right thalamus, and right prefrontal cortex. In controls, but not in schizophrenia, CBF was correlated with activity in the right thalamic ventral anterior (VA) nucleus, a key module within basal ganglia-cortical motor circuits. In contrast, only in schizophrenia patients positive correlations of CBF and motor activity were found in bilateral prefrontal areas and in the right rostral cingulate motor area (rCMA). Grey matter volume correlated with motor activity only in the left posterior cingulate cortex of the patients. The findings suggest that basal ganglia motor control is impaired in schizophrenia. In addition, CBF of cortical areas critical for motor control was associated with volitional motor behavior, which may be a compensatory mechanism for basal ganglia dysfunction.

  7. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  8. Radio Properties of Low Redshift Broad Line Active Galactic Nuclei Including Multiple Component Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafter, Stephen E.

    2010-01-01

    We present results on the radio properties of a low redshift (z < 0.35) sample of 8434 broad line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey after correlating the optical sources with radio sources in the Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty-Centimeters survey. We find that 10% of our sample has radio emission < 4" away from the optical counterpart (core-only sources), and 1% has significant extended emission that must be taken into account when calculating the total radio luminosity (multi-component sources). Association of the extended radio emission is established by the proximity to the optical source, physical connection of jets and lobes, or large scale symmetry like in classic FRIIs. From these data we find an FRI/FRII luminosity dividing line like that found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974), where we use our core-only sources as proxies for FRIs, and our multi-component sources for the FRIIs. We find a bimodal distribution for the radio loudness (R = L(radio)/L(opt)) where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the multi-component extended sources, compared with no evidence for bimodality when just the core-only sources are used. We also find that a log(R) value of 1.75 is well suited to separate the FRIs from the FRIIs, and that the R bimodality seen here is really a manifestation of the FRI/FRII break originally found by Fanaroff & Riley (1974). We find modest trends in the radio loud fraction as a function of Eddington ratio and black hole mass, where the fraction of RL AGNs decreases with increasing Eddington ratio, and increases when the black hole mass is above 2 x 108 solar masses.

  9. Active learning in the lecture theatre using 3D printed objects.

    PubMed

    Smith, David P

    2016-01-01

    The ability to conceptualize 3D shapes is central to understanding biological processes. The concept that the structure of a biological molecule leads to function is a core principle of the biochemical field. Visualisation of biological molecules often involves vocal explanations or the use of two dimensional slides and video presentations. A deeper understanding of these molecules can however be obtained by the handling of objects. 3D printed biological molecules can be used as active learning tools to stimulate engagement in large group lectures. These models can be used to build upon initial core knowledge which can be delivered in either a flipped form or a more didactic manner. Within the teaching session the students are able to learn by handling, rotating and viewing the objects to gain an appreciation, for example, of an enzyme's active site or the difference between the major and minor groove of DNA. Models and other artefacts can be handled in small groups within a lecture theatre and act as a focal point to generate conversation. Through the approach presented here core knowledge is first established and then supplemented with high level problem solving through a "Think-Pair-Share" cooperative learning strategy. The teaching delivery was adjusted based around experiential learning activities by moving the object from mental cognition and into the physical environment. This approach led to students being able to better visualise biological molecules and a positive engagement in the lecture. The use of objects in teaching allows the lecturer to create interactive sessions that both challenge and enable the student. PMID:27366318

  10. Active learning in the lecture theatre using 3D printed objects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to conceptualize 3D shapes is central to understanding biological processes. The concept that the structure of a biological molecule leads to function is a core principle of the biochemical field. Visualisation of biological molecules often involves vocal explanations or the use of two dimensional slides and video presentations. A deeper understanding of these molecules can however be obtained by the handling of objects. 3D printed biological molecules can be used as active learning tools to stimulate engagement in large group lectures. These models can be used to build upon initial core knowledge which can be delivered in either a flipped form or a more didactic manner. Within the teaching session the students are able to learn by handling, rotating and viewing the objects to gain an appreciation, for example, of an enzyme’s active site or the difference between the major and minor groove of DNA. Models and other artefacts can be handled in small groups within a lecture theatre and act as a focal point to generate conversation. Through the approach presented here core knowledge is first established and then supplemented with high level problem solving through a "Think-Pair-Share" cooperative learning strategy. The teaching delivery was adjusted based around experiential learning activities by moving the object from mental cognition and into the physical environment. This approach led to students being able to better visualise biological molecules and a positive engagement in the lecture. The use of objects in teaching allows the lecturer to create interactive sessions that both challenge and enable the student. PMID:27366318

  11. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates.

  12. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates. PMID:27593377

  13. Active millimeter-wave imaging system for material analysis and object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kallfass, Ingmar; Tessmann, Axel; Zink, Martin; Schlechtweg, Michael; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The use of millimeter-waves for imaging purposes is becoming increasingly important, as millimeter-waves can penetrate most clothing and packaging materials, so that the detector does not require physical contact with the object. This will offer a view to the hidden content of e.g. packets or bags without the need to open them, whereby packaging and content will not be damaged. Nowadays X-ray is used, but as the millimeter-wave quantum energy is far below the ionization energy, it is less harmful for the human health. In this paper we report an active millimeter-wave imaging tomograph for material analysis and concealed object detection purposes. The system is build using in-house W-band components. The object is illuminated with low-power millimeter-waves in the frequency range between 89 and 96GHz; mirrors are used to guide and focus the beam. The object is moved through the focus point to scan the object pixel by pixel. Depending on the actual material some parts of the waves are reflected, the other parts penetrate the object. A single-antenna transmit and receive module is used for illumination and measurement of the material-specific reflected power. A second receiver module is used to measure the transmitted wave. All information is processed for amplitude and phase images by a computer algorithm. The system can be used for security, such as detecting concealed weapons, explosives or contrabands at airports and other safety areas, but also quality assurance applications, e.g. during production to detect defects. Some imaging results will be presented in this paper.

  14. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity and balance among U.S. adults.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Brosky, Joseph A

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and balance in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults 40 years of age and older. Data from the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. Physical activity was measured over a 7-day period using accelerometry, and balance was assessed using the Romberg test. Participants completed a questionnaire regarding their subjective views on difficulty with falling in the past 12 months. For every 60-minute increase in light-intensity PA, participants were 10% (p = 0.04) more likely to have functional balance. Similarly, for every 1-minute increase in log-transformed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, participants were 23% (p = 0.04) more likely to have functional balance. Regular PA, regardless of intensity, may have health benefits for older adults and is associated with functional balance.

  16. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  17. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Katapally, Tarun R.; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-01-01

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon’s built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10–14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. PMID:26371015

  18. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity. PMID:24213306

  19. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Teresia M.; Cerin, Ester; Robles, Jessica; Lee, Rebecca E.; Kerr, Jacqueline; Butte, Nancy; Mendoza, Jason A.; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children's physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15) simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS) data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS). Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary) correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children's location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. PMID:23733298

  20. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  1. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  2. Development of an oregano-based ointment with anti-microbial activity including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Eng, William; Norman, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Increasing antibiotic resistance has prompted a search for new compounds with anti-microbial activity. In the authors' previous study, oregano extract was identified as one of the most potent anti-microbial compounds. The disk diffusion method was employed to assess the degree of inhibition against various microorganisms, and the bacteriostatic or bactericidal mechanism of action. Disk diffusion studies showed that oregano was found to be bacteriostatic for Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, (MRSA) but bacteriocidal for seven other microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa could not be inhibited by oregano. An ointment consisting of 1-10% oregano could inhibit most organisms except for Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulgaris, which required 20% and Pseudomonas which could not be inhibited even at the highest concentration of 80%. Oregano extracts can be formulated into an ointment that shows broad antimicrobial activity. Additional testing to assess tissue toxicity and other adverse reactions would be needed prior to human testing.

  3. Objective Phonological and Subjective Perceptual Characteristics of Syllables Modulate Spatiotemporal Patterns of Superior Temporal Gyrus Activity

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Richard E.; Fisher, Janet McGraw; Witzel, Thomas; Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Swank, Paul; Liederman, Jacqueline; Halgren, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Natural consonant vowel syllables are reliably classified by most listeners as voiced or voiceless. However, our previous research (Liederman et al., 2005) suggests that among synthetic stimuli varying systematically in voice onset time (VOT), syllables that are classified reliably as voiceless are nonetheless perceived differently within and between listeners. This perceptual ambiguity was measured by variation in the accuracy of matching two identical stimuli presented in rapid succession. In the current experiment, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to examine the differential contribution of objective (i.e., VOT) and subjective (i.e., perceptual ambiguity) acoustic features on speech processing. Distributed source models estimated cortical activation within two regions of interest in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and one in the inferior frontal gyrus. These regions were differentially modulated by VOT and perceptual ambiguity. Ambiguity strongly influenced lateralization of activation; however, the influence on lateralization was different in the anterior and middle/posterior portions of the STG. The influence of ambiguity on the relative amplitude of activity in the right and left anterior STG activity depended on VOT, whereas that of middle/posterior portions of the STG did not. These data support the idea that early cortical responses are bilaterally distributed whereas late processes are lateralized to the dominant hemisphere and support a “how/what” dual-stream auditory model. This study helps to clarify the role of the anterior STG, especially in the right hemisphere, in syllable perception. Moreover, our results demonstrate that both objective phonological and subjective perceptual characteristics of syllables independently modulate spatiotemporal patterns of cortical activation. PMID:18356082

  4. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L.; Thompson, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e

  5. [Evaluation of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied in public schools of Santiago, Chile].

    PubMed

    Kain, Juliana; Leyton, Bárbara; Concha, Fernando; Weisstaub, Gerardo; Lobos, Luz; Bustos, Nelly; Vio, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of an obesity prevention intervention which included nutrition education and physical activity applied to low income Chilean children in a longitudinal three-year follow-up study. Participants included all 4-7 year old children from 7 public schools located in a low socioeconomic district of Santiago. The main aspects of the intervention were: training of teachers so they could apply an educational program on healthy eating, increase in physical education classes from 3 to 4 per week, and improvement of their quality. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) were assessed yearly in 597 children. We calculated BMI, BMI Z, % normal (N), overweight (OW) and obesity (OB), WC > 90th percentile (NHANES III) and fitness (6MWD/height). Annual changes in BMI Z, WC, 6MWD and fitness were assessed, using repeated measures ANOVA and the test of proportions. Knowledge in healthy eating was assessed during 2 of the 3 years. Results showed that % OB remained unchanged for 2 years (17%) but increased to 19.3% at follow-up. BMI Z increased from 0.3 to 0.38 (p = 0.052) in the N, remained unchanged in the OW, while decreasing significantly in the OB (2.73 to 2.41 p < 0.0001). % WC > 90 th percentile decreased in the OW and OB; 6 MWD was higher in the OW, but the increase in distance overtime was greater among the N. Overall fitness improved, however it was only significant among the N (p = 0.0002). There was a significant increase in food knowledge. We conclude that in spite of a decrease in BMI Z of the OB, an improvement in fitness in the N and food knowledge in all the children, obesity increased at follow-up. This study shows that in school-based obesity programs it is necessary to apply more intense interventions with another type of methodology; otherwise this condition will continue to rise.

  6. Straightforward multi-object video tracking for quantification of mosquito flight activity.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David A; Lebon, Cyrille; Wood, Trevor; Rosser, Gabriel; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito flight activity has been studied using a variety of different methodologies, and largely concentrates on female mosquito activity as vectors of disease. Video recording using standard commercially available hardware has limited accuracy for the measurement of flight activity due to the lack of depth-perception in two-dimensional images, but multi-camera observation for three dimensional trajectory reconstructions remain challenging and inaccessible to the majority of researchers. Here, in silico simulations were used to quantify the limitations of two-dimensional flight observation. We observed that, under the simulated conditions, two dimensional observation of flight was more than 90% accurate for the determination of population flight speeds and thus that two dimensional imaging can be used to provide accurate estimates of mosquito population flight speeds, and to measure flight activity over long periods of time. We optimized single camera video imaging to study male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes over a 30 h time period, and tested two different multi-object tracking algorithms for their efficiency in flight tracking. A. Albopictus males were observed to be most active at the start of the day period (06h00-08h00) with the longest period of activity in the evening (15h00-18h00) and that a single mosquito will fly more than 600 m over the course of 24 h. No activity was observed during the night period (18h00-06h00). Simplistic tracking methodologies, executable on standard computational hardware, are sufficient to produce reliable data when video imaging is optimized under laboratory conditions. As this methodology does not require overly-expensive equipment, complex calibration of equipment or extensive knowledge of computer programming, the technology should be accessible to the majority of computer-literate researchers. PMID:25450566

  7. Straightforward multi-object video tracking for quantification of mosquito flight activity.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David A; Lebon, Cyrille; Wood, Trevor; Rosser, Gabriel; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito flight activity has been studied using a variety of different methodologies, and largely concentrates on female mosquito activity as vectors of disease. Video recording using standard commercially available hardware has limited accuracy for the measurement of flight activity due to the lack of depth-perception in two-dimensional images, but multi-camera observation for three dimensional trajectory reconstructions remain challenging and inaccessible to the majority of researchers. Here, in silico simulations were used to quantify the limitations of two-dimensional flight observation. We observed that, under the simulated conditions, two dimensional observation of flight was more than 90% accurate for the determination of population flight speeds and thus that two dimensional imaging can be used to provide accurate estimates of mosquito population flight speeds, and to measure flight activity over long periods of time. We optimized single camera video imaging to study male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes over a 30 h time period, and tested two different multi-object tracking algorithms for their efficiency in flight tracking. A. Albopictus males were observed to be most active at the start of the day period (06h00-08h00) with the longest period of activity in the evening (15h00-18h00) and that a single mosquito will fly more than 600 m over the course of 24 h. No activity was observed during the night period (18h00-06h00). Simplistic tracking methodologies, executable on standard computational hardware, are sufficient to produce reliable data when video imaging is optimized under laboratory conditions. As this methodology does not require overly-expensive equipment, complex calibration of equipment or extensive knowledge of computer programming, the technology should be accessible to the majority of computer-literate researchers.

  8. Reliability and Validity of Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Youth With Cerebral Palsy Who Are Ambulatory

    PubMed Central

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Lennon, Nancy; George, Ameeka; Forman, Jeffrey; Trost, Stewart G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical therapy for youth with cerebral palsy (CP) who are ambulatory includes interventions to increase functional mobility and participation in physical activity (PA). Thus, reliable and valid measures are needed to document PA in youth with CP. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-instrument reliability and concurrent validity of 3 accelerometer-based motion sensors with indirect calorimetry as the criterion for measuring PA intensity in youth with CP. Methods Fifty-seven youth with CP (mean age=12.5 years, SD=3.3; 51% female; 49.1% with spastic hemiplegia) participated. Inclusion criteria were: aged 6 to 20 years, ambulatory, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I through III, able to follow directions, and able to complete the full PA protocol. Protocol activities included standardized activity trials with increasing PA intensity (resting, writing, household chores, active video games, and walking at 3 self-selected speeds), as measured by weight-relative oxygen uptake (in mL/kg/min). During each trial, participants wore bilateral accelerometers on the upper arms, waist/hip, and ankle and a portable indirect calorimeter. Intraclass coefficient correlations (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate inter-instrument reliability (left-to-right accelerometer placement). Spearman correlations were used to examine concurrent validity between accelerometer output (activity and step counts) and indirect calorimetry. Friedman analyses of variance with post hoc pair-wise analyses were conducted to examine the validity of accelerometers to discriminate PA intensity across activity trials. Results All accelerometers exhibited excellent inter-instrument reliability (ICC=.94–.99) and good concurrent validity (rho=.70–.85). All accelerometers discriminated PA intensity across most activity trials. Limitations This PA protocol consisted of controlled activity trials. Conclusions Accelerometers provide valid and reliable

  9. Semi-active control of the rocking motion of monolithic art objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceravolo, Rosario; Pecorelli, Marica Leonarda; Zanotti Fragonara, Luca

    2016-07-01

    The seismic behaviour of many art objects and obelisks can be analysed in the context of the seismic response of rigid blocks. Starting from the pioneering works by Housner, a large number of analytical studies of the rigid block dynamics were proposed. In fact, despite its apparent simplicity, the motion of a rigid block involves a number of complex dynamic phenomena such as impacts, sliding, uplift and geometric nonlinearities. While most of the current strategies to avoid toppling consist in preventing rocking motion, in this paper a novel semi-active on-off control strategy for protecting monolithic art objects was investigated. The control procedure under study follows a feedback-feedforward scheme that is realised by switching the stiffness of the anchorages located at the two lower corner of the block between two values. Overturning spectra have been calculated in order to clarify the benefits of applying a semi-active control instead of a passive control strategy. In accordance with similar studies, the numerical investigation took into account the dynamic response of blocks with different slenderness and size subject to one-sine pulse excitation.

  10. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  11. Does birth weight influence physical activity in youth? A combined analysis of four studies using objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Ridgway, Charlotte L; Brage, Søren; Sharp, Stephen J; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate L; van Sluijs, Esther M; Goodyer, Ian M; Hallal, Pedro C; Anderssen, Sigmund A; Sardinha, Luis B; Andersen, Lars Bo; Ekelund, Ulf

    2011-01-12

    Animal models suggest growth restriction in utero leads to lower levels of motor activity. Furthermore, individuals with very low birth weight report lower levels of physical activity as adults. The aim of this study was to examine whether birth weight acts as a biological determinant of physical activity and sedentary time. This study uses combined analysis of three European cohorts and one from South America (n = 4,170). Birth weight was measured or parentally reported. Height and weight were measured and used to calculate Body Mass Index (BMI). PA was objectively measured using accelerometry for ≥3 days, ≥10 hours day. Data was standardized to allow comparisons between different monitors. Total physical activity was assessed as counts per minute (cpm), with time spent above moderate activity (MVPA) >2,000 counts and time spent sedentary (<100 counts). There was no evidence for an association between birth weight and total physical activity (p = 0.9) or MVPA (p = 0.7). Overall there was no evidence for an association between birth weight and sedentary time (p = 0.8). However in the Pelotas study we did find an association between higher birth weight (kg) and lower overall physical activity (cpm) (β = -31, 95%CI: -58, -46, p = 0.03) and higher birth weight and greater sedentary time (mins/day) (β = 16.4, 95%CI: 5.3, 27.5, p = 0.004), although this was attenuated and no longer significant with further adjustment for gestational age. Overall this combined analysis suggests that birth weight may not be an important biological determinant of habitual physical activity or sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents.

  12. The effects of objectively measured physical activity and fitness on fear of falling among Korean older women

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Myung; Lim, Seung-Kil; Shin, Sohee; Lee, Jae-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effects of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and physical fitness (PF) on fear of falling (FOF) among older adults. The subjects were 94 Korean females aged 65–79. PA was measured with accelerometers, PF with the senior fitness test and FOF with the Korean Survey of Activities and Fear of Falling in the Elderly. With the subjects’ age, number of chronic conditions, and history of falls included as correction factors, a multiple regression analysis showed that PA (P=0.016) and agility/dynamic balance measured by the 8-foot up-and-go test (UNG) (P=0.001) significantly influenced FOF. The FOF of the slowest UNG quartile was significantly higher than those of other groups (P=0.002). This study concludes that among female older adults agility/dynamic balance as measured by UNG is the main factor impacting FOF and individuals with markedly low UNG tend to have high FOF. PMID:27807530

  13. Pre- to postoperative physical activity changes in bariatric surgery patients: self report vs. objective measures.

    PubMed

    Bond, Dale S; Jakicic, John M; Unick, Jessica L; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G Dean; Ryder, Beth A; Sax, Harry C; Wing, Rena R

    2010-12-01

    Bariatric surgery patients report significant pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA). However, it is unclear whether objective measures would corroborate these changes. The present study compared self-reported and accelerometer-based estimates of changes in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) from pre- (pre-op) to 6 months postsurgery (post-op). Twenty bariatric surgery (65% laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding, 35% gastric bypass) patients (46.2 ± 9.8 years, 88% female, pre-op BMI = 50.8 ± 9.7 kg/m(2)) wore RT3 accelerometers as an objective measure of MVPA and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) as a subjective measure before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Time (min/week) spent in MVPA was calculated for the PPAQ and RT3 (≥ 1-min and ≥ 10-min bouts) at pre-op and post-op. Self-reported MVPA increased fivefold from pre-op to post-op (44.6 ± 80.8 to 212.3 ± 212.4 min/week; P < 0.005). By contrast, the RT3 showed nonsignificant decreases in MVPA for both ≥ 1-min (186.0 ± 169.0 to 151.2 ± 118.3 min/week) and ≥ 10-min (41.3 ± 109.3 to 39.8 ± 71.3 min/week) bouts. At pre-op, the percentage of participants who accumulated ≥ 150-min/week of MVPA in bouts ≥ 10-min according to the PPAQ and RT3 was identical (10%). However, at post-op, 55% of participants reported compliance with the recommendation compared to 5% based on RT3 measurement (P = 0.002). Objectively-measured changes in MVPA from pre-op to 6 months post-op appear to be much smaller than self-reported changes. Further research involving larger samples is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether self-report and objective PA measures are differentially associated with surgical weight loss outcomes.

  14. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  15. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  16. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  17. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  18. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  19. Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica Joan; Gray, Casey Ellen; Borghese, Michael M; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pate, Russell R; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is essential for disease prevention and health promotion. Emerging evidence suggests other intensities of physical activity (PA), including light-intensity activity (LPA), may also be important, but there has been no rigorous evaluation of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively measured PA (total and all intensities) and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (volumes, durations, frequencies, intensities, and patterns of objectively measured PA), and outcome (body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms, bone health, motor skill development, psychological distress, self-esteem). Heterogeneity among studies precluded meta-analyses; narrative synthesis was conducted. A total of 162 studies were included (204 171 participants from 31 countries). Overall, total PA was favourably associated with physical, psychological/social, and cognitive health indicators. Relationships were more consistent and robust for higher (e.g., MVPA) versus lower (e.g., LPA) intensity PA. All patterns of activity (sporadic, bouts, continuous) provided benefit. LPA was favourably associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers; data were scarce for other outcomes. These findings continue to support the importance of at least 60 min/day of MVPA for disease prevention and health promotion in children and youth, but also highlight the potential benefits of LPA and total PA. All intensities of PA should be considered in future work aimed at better elucidating the health benefits of PA in children and youth. PMID:27306431

  20. Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica Joan; Gray, Casey Ellen; Borghese, Michael M; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pate, Russell R; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is essential for disease prevention and health promotion. Emerging evidence suggests other intensities of physical activity (PA), including light-intensity activity (LPA), may also be important, but there has been no rigorous evaluation of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively measured PA (total and all intensities) and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (volumes, durations, frequencies, intensities, and patterns of objectively measured PA), and outcome (body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms, bone health, motor skill development, psychological distress, self-esteem). Heterogeneity among studies precluded meta-analyses; narrative synthesis was conducted. A total of 162 studies were included (204 171 participants from 31 countries). Overall, total PA was favourably associated with physical, psychological/social, and cognitive health indicators. Relationships were more consistent and robust for higher (e.g., MVPA) versus lower (e.g., LPA) intensity PA. All patterns of activity (sporadic, bouts, continuous) provided benefit. LPA was favourably associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers; data were scarce for other outcomes. These findings continue to support the importance of at least 60 min/day of MVPA for disease prevention and health promotion in children and youth, but also highlight the potential benefits of LPA and total PA. All intensities of PA should be considered in future work aimed at better elucidating the health benefits of PA in children and youth.

  1. To Perceive or Not Perceive: The Role of Gamma-band Activity in Signaling Object Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, João; Rebola, José; Leitão, Bruno; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The relation of gamma-band synchrony to holistic perception in which concerns the effects of sensory processing, high level perceptual gestalt formation, motor planning and response is still controversial. To provide a more direct link to emergent perceptual states we have used holistic EEG/ERP paradigms where the moment of perceptual “discovery” of a global pattern was variable. Using a rapid visual presentation of short-lived Mooney objects we found an increase of gamma-band activity locked to perceptual events. Additional experiments using dynamic Mooney stimuli showed that gamma activity increases well before the report of an emergent holistic percept. To confirm these findings in a data driven manner we have further used a support vector machine classification approach to distinguish between perceptual vs. non perceptual states, based on time-frequency features. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were all above 95%. Modulations in the 30–75 Hz range were larger for perception states. Interestingly, phase synchrony was larger for perception states for high frequency bands. By focusing on global gestalt mechanisms instead of local processing we conclude that gamma-band activity and synchrony provide a signature of holistic perceptual states of variable onset, which are separable from sensory and motor processing. PMID:23785494

  2. To perceive or not perceive: the role of gamma-band activity in signaling object percepts.

    PubMed

    Castelhano, João; Rebola, José; Leitão, Bruno; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The relation of gamma-band synchrony to holistic perception in which concerns the effects of sensory processing, high level perceptual gestalt formation, motor planning and response is still controversial. To provide a more direct link to emergent perceptual states we have used holistic EEG/ERP paradigms where the moment of perceptual "discovery" of a global pattern was variable. Using a rapid visual presentation of short-lived Mooney objects we found an increase of gamma-band activity locked to perceptual events. Additional experiments using dynamic Mooney stimuli showed that gamma activity increases well before the report of an emergent holistic percept. To confirm these findings in a data driven manner we have further used a support vector machine classification approach to distinguish between perceptual vs. non perceptual states, based on time-frequency features. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were all above 95%. Modulations in the 30-75 Hz range were larger for perception states. Interestingly, phase synchrony was larger for perception states for high frequency bands. By focusing on global gestalt mechanisms instead of local processing we conclude that gamma-band activity and synchrony provide a signature of holistic perceptual states of variable onset, which are separable from sensory and motor processing. PMID:23785494

  3. Incidental and Context-Responsive Activation of Structure- and Function-Based Action Features during Object Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-lin; Middleton, Erica; Mirman, Daniel; Kalenine, Solene; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that action representations are activated during object processing, even when task-irrelevant. In addition, there is evidence that lexical-semantic context may affect such activation during object processing. Finally, prior work from our laboratory and others indicates that function-based ("use") and structure-based…

  4. Impact of an Extra-Curricular School Sport Programme on Determinants of Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubans, David; Morgan, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to identify potential determinants of objectively measured physical activity in the "Learning to Enjoy Activity with Friends" (LEAF) study. Design: This study involved a quasi-experimental design and students (N = 116) were assigned to an intervention group (n = 50) or a comparison group (n = 66) for a…

  5. A lipid chemotactic factor from anaerobic coryneform bacteria including Corynebacterium parvum with activity for macrophages and monocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, R J; McInroy, R J; Wilkinson, P C; White, R G

    1976-01-01

    A lipid with chemoattractant (chemotactic) activity for mouse and guinea-pig macrophages and for human blood monocytes is released by anaerobic coryneform bacteria (including Corynebacterium parvum). The active lipid is associated with fibrillar structures which lie on the outside of the bacterial cell and are released spontaneously during growth. The lipid can also be extracted easily by a number of methods. The fibrils are loosely associated with a capsule-like structure composed largely of polysaccharide. Purification of the active lipid was achieved by chloroform-methanol extraction of the whole organisms yielding a chloroform-soluble fraction attracting mononuclear phagocytes at concentrations around 10 microgram/ml. The infra-red spectrum of this material showed lipid but no peptide or sugar. Thin-layer chromatography yielded twelve spots of which three had chemoattractant properties. The most active of these gave staining reactions consistent with the presence of phospholipid, the other two probably contained free fatty acids and triglycerides. Thin-layer electrophoresis also yielded an active phosphorus-containing spot. Saturated fatty acids of chain lengths found in the anaerobic coryne forms had weak monocyte-attractant activity. As the active material was progressively purified, its activity as a monocyte attractant weakened. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:1027716

  6. Level of physical activity among children and adolescents in Europe: a review of physical activity assessed objectively by accelerometry.

    PubMed

    Guinhouya, B C; Samouda, H; de Beaufort, C

    2013-04-01

    This study explored the proportion of European youth who are sufficiently active according to physical activity (PA) recommendations, based exclusively on objective assessment through accelerometers. A systematic electronic search of studies published up to March 2012 was conducted. PubMed was used to identify accelerometry-assessed PA studies that involved European youth. Within the 131 European studies, only 35 clearly reported the proportion of youth meeting the PA recommendations. Different thresholds lying between 1000 and 4000 counts/min (cpm) were used to define moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Overall, up to 100% of youth may be sufficiently active when using a threshold of approximately >1000-1500 cpm. With the most cited cut-off point (i.e. >2000 cpm), up to 87% of European youth might be considered physically active with reference to the current recommendations. Alternatively, with a cut-off point >3000 cpm, no more than 3-5% of them appeared to achieve these recommendations. The large discrepancy in outcomes released by accelerometer data is mainly due to the variety of cut-off points for MVPA among youth, hindering the definition of a clear goal towards PA promotion in Europe. Standardization of methods is urgently required.

  7. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Nathan Spreng, R; Mitchell, Jason P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking-i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one's life experiences could have occurred-engages the brain's default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals. PMID

  8. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking

    PubMed Central

    De Brigard, Felipe; Spreng, R. Nathan; Mitchell, Jason P.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking—i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one’s life experiences could have occurred—engages the brain’s default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals

  9. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  10. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  11. Relationship between the objectively-assessed neighborhood area and activity behavior in Swiss youth

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kriemler, Susi; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Neighborhood attributes are modifiable determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We tested whether the objectively-assessed built and social environment was associated with PA and SB in Swiss youth and whether sex, age and the socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP) modified such associations. Methods We combined data of 1742 youth (ages 4 to 17) from seven studies conducted within Switzerland between 2005–2010. All youth provided accelerometer data and a home address, which was linked to objective environmental data and the Swiss-SEP-index. Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were analyzed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. Results The extent of green areas and building density was positively associated with PA in the total sample (p < 0.05). Factors representing centrally located areas, and more schoolchildren living nearby tended to increase PA in secondary schoolchildren, boys and those from lower-ranked socioeconomic areas. In primary schoolchildren, the extent of green areas was positively associated with PA (p = 0.05). Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were more pronounced in youth from low socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The results indicate that some associations between neighborhood attributes and PA differ by age, sex and socioeconomic area. This should be taken into account when planning interventions to increase childhood PA. PMID:26844034

  12. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object- oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  13. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object-oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  14. Posterior Parietal Cortex Drives Inferotemporal Activations During Three-Dimensional Object Vision

    PubMed Central

    Van Dromme, Ilse C.; Premereur, Elsie; Verhoef, Bram-Ernst; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The primate visual system consists of a ventral stream, specialized for object recognition, and a dorsal visual stream, which is crucial for spatial vision and actions. However, little is known about the interactions and information flow between these two streams. We investigated these interactions within the network processing three-dimensional (3D) object information, comprising both the dorsal and ventral stream. Reversible inactivation of the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) reduced fMRI activations in posterior parietal cortex in the dorsal stream and, surprisingly, also in the inferotemporal cortex (ITC) in the ventral visual stream. Moreover, CIP inactivation caused a perceptual deficit in a depth-structure categorization task. CIP-microstimulation during fMRI further suggests that CIP projects via posterior parietal areas to the ITC in the ventral stream. To our knowledge, these results provide the first causal evidence for the flow of visual 3D information from the dorsal stream to the ventral stream, and identify CIP as a key area for depth-structure processing. Thus, combining reversible inactivation and electrical microstimulation during fMRI provides a detailed view of the functional interactions between the two visual processing streams. PMID:27082854

  15. Multi-objective H ∞ control for vehicle active suspension systems with random actuator delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongyi; Liu, Honghai; Hand, Steve; Hilton, Chris

    2012-12-01

    This article is concerned with the problem of multi-objective H ∞ control for vehicle active suspension systems with random actuator delay, which can be represented by signal probability distribution. First, the dynamical equations of a quarter-car suspension model are established for the control design purpose. Secondly, when taking into account vehicle performance requirements, namely, ride comfort, suspension deflection and the probability distributed actuator delay, we present the corresponding dynamic system, which will be transformed to the stochastic system for the problem of multi-objective H ∞ controller design. Third, based on the stochastic stability theory, the state feedback controller is proposed to render that the closed-loop system is exponentially stable in mean-square while simultaneously satisfying H ∞ performance and the output constraint requirement. The presented condition is expressed in the form of convex optimisation problems so that it can be efficiently solved via standard numerical software. Finally, a practical design example is given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE MAIN BELT OBJECT P/2012 F5 (GIBBS): A POSSIBLE IMPACTED ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, R.; Kramer, E. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

    2012-11-10

    In this work, we characterize the recently discovered active main belt object P/2012 F5 (Gibbs), which was discovered with a dust trail >7' in length in the outer main belt, 7 months prior to aphelion. We use optical imaging obtained on UT 2012 March 27 to analyze the central condensation and the long trail. We find B-band and R-band apparent magnitudes of 20.96 {+-} 0.04 mag and 19.93 {+-} 0.02 mag, respectively, which give an upper limit on the radius of the nucleus of 2.1 km. The geometric scattering cross-section of material in the trail was {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m{sup 2}, corresponding to a mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} kg. Analysis of infrared images taken by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in 2010 September reveals that the object was below the detection limit, suggesting that it was less active than it was during 2012, or possibly inactive, just six months after it passed through perihelion. We set a 1{sigma} upper limit on its radius during this time of 2.9 km. P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) is dynamically stable in the outer main belt on timescales of {approx}1 Gyr, pointing toward an asteroidal origin. We find that the morphology of the ejected dust is consistent with it being produced by a single event that occurred on UT 2011 July 7 {+-} 20 days, possibly as the result of a collision with a small impactor.

  17. Cortical activation to object shape and speed of motion during the first year

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Hawkins, Laura B.; Hirskkowitz, Amy; Boas, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A great deal is known about the functional organization of cortical networks that mediate visual object processing in the adult. The current research is part of a growing effort to identify the functional maturation of these pathways in the developing brain. The current research used near-infrared spectroscopy to investigate functional activation of the infant cortex during the processing of featural information (shape) and spatiotemporal information (speed of motion) during the first year of life. Our investigation focused on two areas that were implicated in previous studies: anterior temporal cortex and posterior parietal cortex. Neuroimaging data were collected with 207 infants across three age groups: 3 to 6 months (Experiment 1), 7 to 8 months (Experiment 2), and 10 to 12 months (Experiments 3 and 4). The neuroimaging data revealed age-related changes in patterns of activation to shape and speed information, mostly involving posterior parietal areas, some of which were predicted and others that were not. We suggest that these changes reflect age-related differences in the perceptual and/or cognitive processes engaged during the task. PMID:24821531

  18. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  19. Activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects of the volatile constituents of Leonotis nepetaefolia from Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-11-01

    The chemical composition of the essential oil from aerial parts of L. nepetaefolia (L.) R. Br. collected in Nicaragua was evaluated by GC and GC-MS. The main components were (Z)-phytol (22.8%), caryophyllene oxide (18.9%) and hexahydrofarnesylacetone (9.0%). The antibacterial activity against several Gram + and Gram - bacteria, including Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis, both infesting historical cellulosic material, was also determined. B. cereus, B. subtilis and Staphylococcus epidermis were the most affected by the action of the oil. PMID:25532300

  20. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity and longitudinal changes in adolescent body fatness: an observational cohort study*

    PubMed Central

    Collings, P. J.; Wijndaele, K.; Corder, K.; Westgate, K.; Ridgway, C. L.; Sharp, S. J.; Atkin, A. J.; Stephen, A. M.; Bamber, D.; Goodyer, I.; Brage, S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The data regarding prospective associations between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in youth are inconsistent. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate associations between baseline levels of objectively measured PA and changes in adiposity over 2.5 years from mid‐to‐late adolescence. Methods This was an observational cohort study in 728 school students (43% boys) from Cambridgeshire, United Kingdom. Fat mass index (FMI, kg m−2) was estimated at baseline (mean ± standard deviation age: 15 ± 0.3 years) and follow‐up (17.5 ± 0.3 years) by anthropometry and bioelectrical impedance. Habitual PA was assessed at baseline by ≥3 d combined heart rate and movement sensing. Average daily PA energy expenditure (PAEE) and the time (min d−1) spent in light, moderate and vigorous intensity PA (LPA, MPA and VPA, respectively) was estimated. Multilevel models were used to investigate associations between baseline PA and change in FMI (ΔFMI). Adjustment for baseline age, sex, follow‐up duration, area‐level socioeconomic status, season of PA assessment, sedentary time, energy intake and sleep duration was made; baseline FMI was also added in a second model. Results FMI increased significantly over follow‐up (0.6 ± 1.2 kg m−2, P < 0.001). Baseline PAEE and LPA positively predicted ΔFMI in overfat participants (P ≤ 0.030), as did VPA in initially normal fat participants (P ≤ 0.044). There were further positive associations between PAEE and ΔFMI in normal fat participants, and between MPA and ΔFMI in both fat groups, when adjusted for baseline FMI (P ≤ 0.024). Conclusions Baseline PAEE and its subcomponents were positively associated with small and unlikely clinically relevant increases in ΔFMI. These counter‐intuitive findings may be explained by behavioural changes during the course of study follow‐up. PMID:25919340

  2. Location performance objectives for the NNWSI area-to-location screening activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-four objectives were identified to guide the screening of the Nevada Research and Development Area of the Nevada Test Site for relatively favorable locations for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository. The objectives were organized as a hierarchy composed of 4 upper-level, 12 middle-level, and 38 lower-level objectives. The four upper-level objectives account for broad national goals to contain and isolate nuclear waste in an environmentally sound and economically acceptable manner. The middle-level objectives correspond to topical categories that logically relate the upper-level objectives to site-specific concerns such as seismicity, sensitive species, and flooding hazards (represented by the lower-level objectives). The relative merits of alternative locations were compared by an application of decision analysis based on standard utility theory. The relative favorabilities of pertinent physical conditions at each alternative location were weighted in relation to the importance of objectives, and summed to produce maps indicating the most and the least favorable locations. Descriptions of the objectives were organized by the hierarchical format; they detail the applicability of each objective to geologic repository siting, previously published siting criteria corresponding to each objective, and the rationale for the weight assigned to each objective, and the pertinent attributes for evaluating locations with respect to each objective. 51 references, 47 figures, 4 tables.

  3. Objective Measures of Physical Activity, White Matter Integrity and Cognitive Status in Adults Over Age 80

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Aizenstein, Howard J.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B.; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Boudreau, Robert M.; Newman, Anne B.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age=87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (minutes), and intensity (Metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean±SD/day: 1766±1345 steps, 202±311 kcal, 211±39 minutes, 1.8±1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  4. Objective measures of physical activity, white matter integrity and cognitive status in adults over age 80.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qu; Glynn, Nancy W; Erickson, Kirk I; Aizenstein, Howard J; Simonsick, Eleanor M; Yaffe, Kristine; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Boudreau, Robert M; Newman, Anne B; Lopez, Oscar L; Saxton, Judith; Rosano, Caterina

    2015-05-01

    The neuroprotective effects of physical activity (PA) are consistently shown in older adults, but the neural substrates, particularly in white matter (WM), are understudied, especially in very old adults with the fastest growth rate and the highest risk of dementia. This study quantified the association between PA and WM integrity in adults over 80. The moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations and WM hyperintensities were also examined, as they can affect PA and brain integrity. Fractional anisotropy (FA) from normal-appearing WM via diffusion tensor imaging and WM hyperintensities were obtained in 90 participants (mean age = 87.4, 51.1% female, 55.6% white) with concurrent objective measures of steps, active energy expenditure (AEE in kcal), duration (min), and intensity (metabolic equivalents, METs) via SenseWear Armband. Clinical adjudication of cognitive status, prevalence of stroke and diabetes, systolic blood pressure, and gait speed were assessed at time of neuroimaging. Participants were on average sedentary (mean ± SD/day: 1766 ± 1345 steps, 202 ± 311 kcal, 211 ± 39 min, 1.8 ± 1.1 METs). Higher steps, AEE and duration, but not intensity, were significantly associated with higher FA. Associations were localized in frontal and temporal areas. Moderating effects of cardiometabolic conditions, physical functional limitations, and WM hyperintensities were not significant. Neither FA nor PA was related to cognitive status. Older adults with a sedentary lifestyle and a wide range of cardiometabolic conditions and physical functional limitations, displayed higher WM integrity in relation to higher PA. Studies of very old adults to quantify the role of PA in reducing dementia burden via WM integrity are warranted. PMID:25655514

  5. Associations between objectively measured physical activity and academic attainment in adolescents from a UK cohort

    PubMed Central

    Booth, J N; Leary, S D; Joinson, C; Ness, A R; Tomporowski, P D; Boyle, J M; Reilly, J J

    2014-01-01

    Background To test for cross-sectional (at age 11) and longitudinal associations between objectively measured free-living physical activity (PA) and academic attainment in adolescents.Method Data from 4755 participants (45% male) with valid measurement of PA (total volume and intensity) by accelerometry at age 11 from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) was examined. Data linkage was performed with nationally administered school assessments in English, Maths and Science at ages 11, 13 and 16. Results In unadjusted models, total volume of PA predicted decreased academic attainment. After controlling for total volume of PA, percentage of time spent in moderate-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) predicted increased performance in English assessments in both sexes, taking into account confounding variables. In Maths at 16 years, percentage of time in MVPA predicted increased performance for males (standardised β=0.11, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.22) and females (β=0.08, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.16). For females the percentage of time spent in MVPA at 11 years predicted increased Science scores at 11 and 16 years (β=0.14 (95% CI 0.03 to 0.25) and 0.14 (0.07 to 0.21), respectively). The correction for regression dilution approximately doubled the standardised β coefficients. Conclusions Findings suggest a long-term positive impact of MVPA on academic attainment in adolescence. PMID:24149097

  6. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  7. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  8. In Vitro Antimicrobial Activity of a Siderophore Cephalosporin, S-649266, against Enterobacteriaceae Clinical Isolates, Including Carbapenem-Resistant Strains.

    PubMed

    Kohira, Naoki; West, Joshua; Ito, Akinobu; Ito-Horiyama, Tsukasa; Nakamura, Rio; Sato, Takafumi; Rittenhouse, Stephen; Tsuji, Masakatsu; Yamano, Yoshinori

    2015-11-16

    S-649266 is a novel siderophore cephalosporin antibiotic with a catechol moiety on the 3-position side chain. Two sets of clinical isolate collections were used to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of S-649266 against Enterobacteriaceae. These sets included 617 global isolates collected between 2009 and 2011 and 233 β-lactamase-identified isolates, including 47 KPC-, 49 NDM-, 12 VIM-, and 8 IMP-producers. The MIC90 values of S-649266 against the first set of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens, Citrobacter freundii, Enterobacter aerogenes, and Enterobacter cloacae isolates were all ≤1 μg/ml, and there were only 8 isolates (1.3%) among these 617 clinical isolates with MIC values of ≥8 μg/ml. In the second set, the MIC values of S-649266 were ≤4 μg/ml against 109 strains among 116 KPC-producing and class B (metallo) carbapenemase-producing strains. In addition, S-649266 showed MIC values of ≤2 μg/ml against each of the 13 strains that produced other types of carbapenemases such as SME, NMC, and OXA-48. The mechanisms of the decreased susceptibility of 7 class B carbapenemase-producing strains with MIC values of ≥16 μg/ml are uncertain. This is the first report to demonstrate that S-649266, a novel siderophore cephalosporin, has significant antimicrobial activity against Enterobacteriaceae, including strains that produce carbapenemases such as KPC and NDM-1.

  9. Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, BL Lac Objects and X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The XMM COSMOS survey is producing the large surface density of X-ray sources anticipated. The first batch of approx. 200 sources is being studied in relation to the large scale structure derived from deep optical/near-IR imaging from Subaru and CFHT. The photometric redshifts from the opt/IR imaging program allow a first look at structure vs. redshift, identifying high z clusters. A consortium of SAO, U. Arizona and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Pasadena) has started a large program using the 6.5meter Magellan telescopes in Chile with the prime objective of identifying the XMM X-ray sources in the COSMOS field. The first series of observing runs using the new IMACS multi-slit spectrograph on Magellan will take place in January and February of 2005. Some 300 spectra per field will be taken, including 70%-80% of the XMM sources in each field. The four first fields cover the center of the COSMOS field. A VLT consortium is set to obtain bulk redshifts of the field galaxies. The added accuracy of the spectroscopic redshifts over the photo-z's will allow much lower density structures to be seen, voids and filaments. The association of X-ray selected AGNs, and quasars with these filaments, is a major motivation for our studies. Comparison to the deep VLA radio data now becoming available is about to begin.

  10. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  11. Effects of Physical Education on Objectively Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children--Which Proportioning Is Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyus, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jurgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were…

  12. Activity of eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, including multidrug-resistant isolates, from New York City.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David; Quale, John

    2015-03-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  13. Three-dimensional analysis of object properties during active electrolocation in mormyrid weakly electric fishes (Gnathonemus petersii).

    PubMed Central

    von der Emde, G; Schwarz, S

    2000-01-01

    Weakly electric fishes are nocturnal and orientate in the absence of vision by using their electrical sense. This enables them not only to navigate but also to perceive and recognize objects in complete darkness. They create an electric field around their bodies by producing electric signals with specialized electric organs. Objects within this field alter the electric current at electroreceptor organs, which are distributed over almost the entire body surface. During active electrolocation, fishes detect, localize and analyse objects by monitoring their self-produced electric signals. We investigated the ability of the mormyrid Gnathonemus petersii to perceive objects three-dimensionally in space. Within a range of about 12 cm, G. petersii can perceive the distance of objects. Depth perception is independent of object size, shape and material. The mechanism for distance determination through electrolocation involves calculating the ratio between two parameters (maximal slope and maximal amplitude) of the electrical image which each object projects onto the fish's skin. During active electrolocation, electric fishes cannot only locate objects in space but in addition can determine the three-dimensional shape of an object. Up to certain limits, objects are spontaneously categorized according to their shapes, but not according to their sizes or the materials of which they are made. PMID:11079386

  14. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity With Cardiovascular Risk in Mobility‐limited Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgerald, Jodi D.; Johnson, Lindsey; Hire, Don G.; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Anton, Stephen D.; Dodson, John A.; Marsh, Anthony P.; McDermott, Mary M.; Nocera, Joe R.; Tudor‐Locke, Catrine; White, Daniel K.; Yank, Veronica; Pahor, Marco; Manini, Todd M.; Buford, Thomas W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Data are sparse regarding the impacts of habitual physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior on cardiovascular (CV) risk in older adults with mobility limitations. Methods and Results This study examined the baseline, cross‐sectional association between CV risk and objectively measured PA among participants in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study. The relationship between accelerometry measures and predicted 10‐year Hard Coronary Heart Disease (HCHD) risk was modeled by using linear regression, stratified according to CVD history. Participants (n=1170, 79±5 years) spent 642±111 min/day in sedentary behavior (ie, <100 accelerometry counts/min). They also spent 138±43 min/day engaging in PA registering 100 to 499 accelerometry counts/min and 54±37 min/day engaging in PA ≥500 counts/min. Each minute per day spent being sedentary was associated with increased HCHD risk among both those with (0.04%, 95% CI 0.02% to 0.05%) and those without (0.03%, 95% CI 0.02% to 0.03%) CVD. The time spent engaging in activities 100 to 499 as well as ≥500 counts/min was associated with decreased risk among both those with and without CVD (P<0.05). The mean number of counts per minute of daily PA was not significantly associated with HCHD risk in any model (P>0.05). However, a significant interaction was observed between sex and count frequency (P=0.036) for those without CVD, as counts per minute was related to HCHD risk in women (β=−0.94, −1.48 to −0.41; P<0.001) but not in men (β=−0.14, −0.59 to 0.88; P=0.704). Conclusions Daily time spent being sedentary is positively associated with predicted 10‐year HCHD risk among mobility‐limited older adults. Duration, but not intensity (ie, mean counts/min), of daily PA is inversely associated with HCHD risk score in this population—although the association for intensity may be sex specific among persons without CVD. Clinical Trial Registration URL: www

  15. Characterizing “fibrofog”: Subjective appraisal, objective performance, and task-related brain activity during a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Walitt, Brian; Čeko, Marta; Khatiwada, Manish; Gracely, John L.; Rayhan, Rakib; VanMeter, John W.; Gracely, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    The subjective experience of cognitive dysfunction (“fibrofog”) is common in fibromyalgia. This study investigated the relation between subjective appraisal of cognitive function, objective cognitive task performance, and brain activity during a cognitive task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Sixteen fibromyalgia patients and 13 healthy pain-free controls completed a battery of questionnaires, including the Multiple Ability Self-Report Questionnaire (MASQ), a measure of self-perceived cognitive difficulties. Participants were evaluated for working memory performance using a modified N-back working memory task while undergoing Blood Oxygen Level Dependent (BOLD) fMRI measurements. Fibromyalgia patients and controls did not differ in working memory performance. Subjective appraisal of cognitive function was associated with better performance (accuracy) on the working memory task in healthy controls but not in fibromyalgia patients. In fibromyalgia patients, increased perceived cognitive difficulty was positively correlated with the severity of their symptoms. BOLD response during the working memory task did not differ between the groups. BOLD response correlated with task accuracy in control subjects but not in fibromyalgia patients. Increased subjective cognitive impairment correlated with decreased BOLD response in both groups but in different anatomic regions. In conclusion, “fibrofog” appears to be better characterized by subjective rather than objective impairment. Neurologic correlates of this subjective experience of impairment might be separate from those involved in the performance of cognitive tasks. PMID:26955513

  16. Action Semantic Knowledge about Objects Is Supported by Functional Motor Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the functional organization of action semantics by asking subjects to categorize pictures of an actor holding objects with a correct or incorrect grip at either a correct or incorrect goal location. Overall, reaction times were slower if the object was presented with an inappropriate posture, and this effect was stronger…

  17. Objects Prompt Authentic Scientific Activities among Learners in a Museum Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science "education" as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme…

  18. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  19. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  20. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  1. Lipopolysaccharide affects exploratory behaviors toward novel objects by impairing cognition and/or motivation in mice: Possible role of activation of the central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Haba, Ryota; Shintani, Norihito; Onaka, Yusuke; Wang, Hyper; Takenaga, Risa; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-03-17

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a series of systemic and psychiatric changes called sickness behavior. In the present study, we characterized the LPS-induced decrease in novel object exploratory behaviors in BALB/c mice. As already reported, LPS (0.3-5 μg/mouse) induced dose- and time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity, food intake, social interaction, and exploration for novel objects, and an increase in immobility in the forced-swim test. Although the decrease in locomotor activity was ameliorated by 10h postinjection, novel object exploratory behaviors remained decreased at 24h and were observed even with the lowest dose of LPS. In an object exploration test, LPS shortened object exploration time but did not affect moving time or the frequency of object exploration. Although pre-exposure to the same object markedly decreased the duration of exploration and LPS did not change this reduction, LPS significantly impaired the exploration of a novel object that replaced the familiar one. LPS did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. An LPS-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in several brain regions within 6h of LPS administration, but the number of cells quickly returned to control levels, except in the central amygdala where the increase continued for 24h. These results suggest that LPS most prominently affects object exploratory behaviors by impairing cognition and/or motivation including continuous attention and curiosity toward objects, and that this may be associated with activation of brain nuclei such as the central amygdala.

  2. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  3. An active state of the BL Lacertae object Markarian 421 detected by INTEGRAL in April 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pian, E.; Türler, M.; Fiocchi, M.; Boissay, R.; Bazzano, A.; Foschini, L.; Tavecchio, F.; Bianchin, V.; Castignani, G.; Ferrigno, C.; Raiteri, C. M.; Villata, M.; Beckmann, V.; D'Ammando, F.; Hudec, R.; Malaguti, G.; Maraschi, L.; Pursimo, T.; Romano, P.; Soldi, S.; Stamerra, A.; Treves, A.; Ubertini, P.; Vercellone, S.; Walter, R.

    2014-10-01

    Aims: Multiwavelength variability of blazars offers indirect, but very effective, insight into their powerful engines and on the mechanisms through which energy is propagated from the centre down the jet. The BL Lac object Mkn 421 is a TeV emitter, a bright blazar at all wavelengths, and therefore an excellent target for variability studies. Methods: We activated INTEGRAL observations of Mkn 421 in an active state on 16-21 April 2013, and complemented them with Fermi-LAT data. Results: We obtained well sampled optical, soft, and hard X-ray light curves that show the presence of two flares and time-resolved spectra in the 3.5-60 keV (JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI) and 0.1-100 GeV (Fermi-LAT) ranges. The average flux in the 20-100 keV range is 9.1 × 10-11 erg s-1 cm-2 (~4.5 mCrab) and the nuclear average apparent magnitude, corrected for Galactic extinction, is V ≃ 12.2. In the time-resolved X-ray spectra, which are described by broken power laws and, marginally better, by log-parabolic laws, we see a hardening that correlates with flux increase, as expected in refreshed energy injections in a population of electrons that later cool via synchrotron radiation. The hardness ratios between the JEM-X fluxes in two different bands and between the JEM-X and IBIS/ISGRI fluxes confirm this trend. During the observation, the variability level increases monotonically from the optical to the hard X-rays, while the large LAT errors do not allow a significant assessment of the MeV-GeV variability. The cross-correlation analysis during the onset of the most prominent flare suggests a monotonically increasing delay of the lower frequency emission with respect to that at higher frequency, with a maximum time-lag of about 70 min, that is however not well constrained. The spectral energy distributions from the optical to the TeV domain were compared to homogeneous models of blazar emission based on synchrotron radiation and synchrotron self-Compton scattering. They represent a satisfactory

  4. The contents of predictions in sentence comprehension: activation of the shape of objects before they are referred to.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Praamstra, Peter; Huettig, Falk

    2013-02-01

    When comprehending concrete words, listeners and readers can activate specific visual information such as the shape of the words' referents. In two experiments we examined whether such information can be activated in an anticipatory fashion. In Experiment 1, listeners' eye movements were tracked while they were listening to sentences that were predictive of a specific critical word (e.g., "moon" in "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon"). 500 ms before the acoustic onset of the critical word, participants were shown four-object displays featuring three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). In a time window before shape information from the spoken target word could be retrieved, participants already tended to fixate both the target and the shape competitors more often than they fixated the control objects, indicating that they had anticipatorily activated the shape of the upcoming word's referent. This was confirmed in Experiment 2, which was an ERP experiment without picture displays. Participants listened to the same lead-in sentences as in Experiment 1. The sentence-final words corresponded to the predictable target, the shape competitor, or the unrelated control object (yielding, for instance, "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon/tomato/rice"). N400 amplitude in response to the final words was significantly attenuated in the shape-related compared to the unrelated condition. Taken together, these results suggest that listeners can activate perceptual attributes of objects before they are referred to in an utterance. PMID:23238371

  5. The contents of predictions in sentence comprehension: activation of the shape of objects before they are referred to.

    PubMed

    Rommers, Joost; Meyer, Antje S; Praamstra, Peter; Huettig, Falk

    2013-02-01

    When comprehending concrete words, listeners and readers can activate specific visual information such as the shape of the words' referents. In two experiments we examined whether such information can be activated in an anticipatory fashion. In Experiment 1, listeners' eye movements were tracked while they were listening to sentences that were predictive of a specific critical word (e.g., "moon" in "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon"). 500 ms before the acoustic onset of the critical word, participants were shown four-object displays featuring three unrelated distractor objects and a critical object, which was either the target object (e.g., moon), an object with a similar shape (e.g., tomato), or an unrelated control object (e.g., rice). In a time window before shape information from the spoken target word could be retrieved, participants already tended to fixate both the target and the shape competitors more often than they fixated the control objects, indicating that they had anticipatorily activated the shape of the upcoming word's referent. This was confirmed in Experiment 2, which was an ERP experiment without picture displays. Participants listened to the same lead-in sentences as in Experiment 1. The sentence-final words corresponded to the predictable target, the shape competitor, or the unrelated control object (yielding, for instance, "In 1969 Neil Armstrong was the first man to set foot on the moon/tomato/rice"). N400 amplitude in response to the final words was significantly attenuated in the shape-related compared to the unrelated condition. Taken together, these results suggest that listeners can activate perceptual attributes of objects before they are referred to in an utterance.

  6. Correspondence between objective and perceived walking times to urban destinations: Influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Doing regular physical activity has positive effects on health. Several environmental factors are identified as important correlates of physical activity. However, there seems to be a difference between perceived and objective measures of the environment. This study examines the influence of physical activity, neighbourhood walkability, and socio-demographic characteristics on the correspondence between self-reported and objectively measured walking time to urban destinations of adults in the city of Ghent (Belgium). Methods Previously collected survey data was used from 1164 respondents in the city of Ghent who reported walking times to various closest destinations in the neighbourhood of residence. These were compared with corresponding walking times that were objectively measured through geographical information systems. Physical activity was recorded over a 7-day period using accelerometers. Neighbourhood walkability was assessed on the basis of residential density, connectivity, and land-use mix. Results We observed a relatively poor agreement between objective and perceived walking times. Stronger agreements were noted amongst the most physically active group, while low-level walkers tended to overestimate walking time. Surprisingly, however, people residing in a low-walkable neighbourhood underestimated walking times more frequently relative to those in high-walkable neighbourhoods. Conclusions Researchers investigating the influence of environmental attributes on physical activity behavior should thus be cautious when using only self-reported environmental data, since these are a priori influenced by physical activity levels and various socio-demographic factors. PMID:23046604

  7. Objective measures of the built environment and physical activity in children: from walkability to moveability.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christoph; Tkaczick, Tobias; Pitsiladis, Yannis; De Bourdehaudhuij, Ilse; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-02-01

    Features of the built environment that may influence physical activity (PA) levels are commonly captured using a so-called walkability index. Since such indices typically describe opportunities for walking in everyday life of adults, they might not be applicable to assess urban opportunities for PA in children. Particularly, the spatial availability of recreational facilities may have an impact on PA in children and should be additionally considered. We linked individual data of 400 2- to 9-year-old children recruited in the European IDEFICS study to geographic data of one German study region, based on individual network-dependent neighborhoods. Environmental features of the walkability concept and the availability of recreational facilities, i.e. playgrounds, green spaces, and parks, were measured. Relevant features were combined to a moveability index that should capture urban opportunities for PA in children. A gamma log-regression model was used to model linear and non-linear effects of individual variables on accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) stratified by pre-school children (<6 years) and school children (≥6 years). Single environmental features and the resulting indices were separately included into the model to investigate the effect of each variable on MVPA. In school children, commonly used features such as residential density [Formula: see text], intersection density [Formula: see text], and public transit density [Formula: see text] showed a positive effect on MVPA, while land use mix revealed a negative effect on MVPA [Formula: see text]. In particular, playground density [Formula: see text] and density of public open spaces, i.e., playgrounds and parks combined [Formula: see text], showed positive effects on MVPA. However, availability of green spaces showed no effect on MVPA. Different moveability indices were constructed based on the walkability index accounting for the negative impact of land use mix. Moveability

  8. Validation of a high throughput flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay including assessment of metabolic activation in TK6 cells.

    PubMed

    Thougaard, Annemette V; Christiansen, Joan; Mow, Tomas; Hornberg, Jorrit J

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity is an unacceptable property for new drug candidates and we employ three screening assays during the drug discovery process to identify genotoxicity early and optimize chemical series. One of these methods is the flow cytometric in vitro micronucleus assay for which protocol optimizations have been described recently. Here, we report further validation of the assay in TK6 cells including assessment of metabolic activation. We first optimized assay conditions to allow for testing with and without metabolic activation in parallel in a 96-well plate format. Then, we tested a set of 48 compounds carefully selected to contain known in vivo genotoxins, nongenotoxins and drugs. Avoidance of irrelevant positives, a known issue with mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays, is important to prevent early deselection of potentially promising compounds. Therefore, we enriched the validation set with compounds that were previously reported to produce irrelevant positive results in mammalian cell-based genotoxicity assays. The resulting dataset was used to set the relevant cut-off values for scoring a compound positive or negative, such that we obtained an optimal balance of high sensitivity (88%) and high specificity (87%). Finally, we tested an additional set of 16 drugs to further probe assay performance and 14 of them were classified correctly. To our knowledge, the present study is the most comprehensive validation of the in vitro flow cytometric micronucleus assay and the first to report parallel assessment with metabolic activation in reasonable throughput. The assay allows for rapidly screening novel compounds for genotoxicity and is therefore well-suited for use in early drug discovery projects. Environ.

  9. Poor agreement of objectively measured and self-reported physical activity in juvenile dermatomyositis and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Ana Jéssica; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lúcia; Sallum, Adriana Maluf Elias; Silva, Clóvis Arthur; Gualano, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    To examine the agreement and association between objectively measured and indirectly assessed physical activity levels in patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) and juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus (JSLE) patients. The sample consisted of 19 JDM patients (age 8 to 22 years) and 20 JSLE patients (age 9 to 18 years). Physical activity level was objectively measured using Actigraph® accelerometers and indirectly assessed by the short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to test possible associations between physical activity levels across the two instruments. The Bland-Altman technique was used to calculate bias and limits of agreement. Correlations between objectively measured and indirectly assessed physical activity levels in JDM and JSLE were weak, varying from R = 0.03 to R = 0.33 (all p > 0.05). Total physical activity was correlated between accelerometer and IPAQ in JSLE (R = 0.51, p = 0.021). Bland-Altman analyses suggested that IPAQ tended to highly underestimate sedentary time and light physical activity in JDM (mean bias 105.7 and 199.8 min, respectively) and JSLE (mean bias 36.4 and 127.8 min, respectively). Mean biases of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were also highly variable, ranging from -42.9 to 54.9 min and -59.4 to 89.8 min for JDM and JSLE, respectively. IPAQ was shown to not be valid to assess physical activity levels in patients with JDM and JSLE when compared against accelerometry. While the validation of reliable self-reported instruments that measure physical activity in pediatric rheumatic patients remains necessary, the use of validated tools that objectively measure physical activity is recommended in both clinical and research settings.

  10. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26969822

  12. DETECTION OF COMA ACTIVITY OF THE ACO/QUASI-HILDA OBJECT 212P/2000YN{sub 30}

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-06-20

    The quasi-Hilda object 212P/2000YN{sub 30}, which has a cometary-like orbit, was found to display a dust tail structure between 2009 January and March. From orbital calculations, it is shown that this object could have been an active comet in the past before being transported to its current orbital configuration in quasi-stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter.

  13. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  14. Prefrontal and Striatal Activity Related to Values of Objects and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Hwang, Jaewon; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values (DVs) associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and DVs of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute DVs of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations. PMID:22822390

  15. Patterns and correlates of objectively measured free-living physical activity in adults in rural and urban Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Assah, Felix; Mbanya, Jean Claude; Ekelund, Ulf; Wareham, Nicholas; Brage, Soren

    2015-01-01

    Background Urbanisation in sub-Saharan Africa is changing lifestyles and raising non-communicable disease burden. Understanding the underlying pattern of physical activity and its correlates may inform preventive interventions. We examined correlates of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban Cameroon. Methods Participants were 544 adults resident in rural (W-156, M-89) or urban (W-189, M-110) regions. Physical activity was measured using individually-calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing over seven continuous days. Sociodemographic data were collected by self-report. Independent associations of sociodemographic correlates with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were analysed in multivariate regression models. Results Rural dwellers were significantly more active than their urban counterparts (PAEE: 58.0 vs 42.9 kJ/kg/day; MVPA: 107 vs 62 min/day; MVPA of 150 min/week in >10 min bouts: 62 vs 39%) and less sedentary (923 vs 1026 min/day); p<0.001. There was no significant seasonal difference (dry vs rainy) in activity in urban dwellers whereas in rural dwellers activity was higher during dry seasons compared to rainy seasons (p<0.001). Age, obesity and education showed significant inverse associations with activity. Urban dwellers who considered themselves adequately active were only as active as rural dwellers who thought they were not adequately active. Conclusions This is the first study providing data on sociodemographic patterning of objectively-measured physical activity in rural and urban sub-Saharan Africa. Age, urban residence, obesity and higher educational level are important correlates of lower levels of physical activity. These suggest targets for public health interventions to improve physical activity in Cameroon. PMID:25841243

  16. How do I measure physical activity in my patients? Questionnaires and objective methods.

    PubMed

    Ainsworth, B E

    2009-01-01

    How do healthcare providers know if their patients are getting enough physical activity to promote good health and to reduce their risks of chronic diseases and injury? The first step is to identify the patient's current level of physical activity using questionnaires and/or motion sensors. Questionnaires assess activity levels by having patients answer a set of questions about the types and amounts of activity performed at some time in the past. Motion sensors assess physical activity by patients wearing a small monitoring device that records their body movement as it occurs. If a provider is interested in determining a patient's caloric energy expenditure, he/she can apply statistical regression models to the questionnaire and motion sensor data to estimate kilocalories. If more precise measures of energy expenditure are desired, a provider can use the isotopic doubly labelled water method to estimate kilocalories; however, this method is costly and is impractical in non-research clinical settings.

  17. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  18. Moments applied in the rotation of massive objects in Shuttle extravehicular activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cousins, D.; Akin, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    Experimentally derived applied moments are presented for Space Shuttle crew EVA mission rotations of objects more massive than the human body. These levels appear to be small fractions of physiological limits; horizontal and vertical shoulder strength limits greater than 50 Nm have been established for foot-restrained, pressure-suited subjects in simulated weightlessness. The reduced level in operational EVA may be due to unfamiliarity with manual control in true weightlessness.

  19. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  20. A Trade-Off between Somatosensory and Auditory Related Brain Activity during Object Naming But Not Reading

    PubMed Central

    Hope, Thomas M.H.; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, ‘Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J.

    2015-01-01

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying “1-2-3.” Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying “1-2-3” and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level. PMID:25788691

  1. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  2. Object knowledge during entry-level categorization is activated and modified by implicit memory after 200 ms.

    PubMed

    Schendan, Haline E; Maher, Stephen M

    2009-02-15

    The timing of activating memory about visual objects is important for theories of human cognition but largely unknown, especially for tasks like entry level categorization that activate semantic memory. We tested an implicit memory-categorization "equivalence" hypothesis of multiple memory systems theory that a cortical system that stores structural knowledge to support entry level categorization also stores long-term, perceptual implicit memory, resulting in priming of this knowledge. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded to impoverished pictures of new and repeated objects that were similar in perceptual properties but differed in categorization success. The cortical dynamics of object knowledge were defined using categorization ratings and naming. As predicted, rating, naming, and repetition effects on a frontocentral N350 show that implicit memory modifies the object knowledge network supporting categorization. This ERP is a complex of components between 200 and 500 ms indexing temporally overlapping substates from more perceptual to more conceptual knowledge. A frontopolar N350 subcomponent defines the first substate of a process of object model selection from occipitotemporal cortex based on shape similarity, and indicates that implicit memory in this system is greater with better categorization success. Afterwards, parietal positivity and a slow wave index secondary, post-model selection processes, like evaluating the success of a decision or memory match, and working memory for overt report, respectively. Altogether, ERP findings support the equivalence hypothesis and a two-state interactive account of visual object knowledge, and delineate the timing of multiple memory systems.

  3. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  4. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares: Does sport certification matter?

    PubMed

    Domazet, S L; Møller, N C; Støckel, J T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any differences in overall PA or in time-specific day parts (e.g., during after-school care). The activity levels were quite similar across after-school cares and were mutually high during time spent in the care facility.

  5. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tompuri, Tuomo T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor. PMID:26321958

  6. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliver; Roder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rosler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily…

  7. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  8. Intuition in the Context of Object Perception: Intuitive Gestalt Judgments Rest on the Unconscious Activation of Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Annette; Goschke, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Intuition denotes the ability to judge stimulus properties on the basis of information that is activated in memory, but not consciously retrieved. In three experiments we show that participants discriminated better than chance fragmented line drawings depicting meaningful objects (coherent fragments) from fragments consisting of randomly displaced…

  9. Association between Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Objectively Measured Hearing Sensitivity among U.S. Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Gilham, Ben; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and hearing sensitivity among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with diabetes. Method: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. One hundred eighty-four U.S. adults with diabetes…

  10. Small Schools Mathematics Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    The Washington grade 4-6 mathematics curriculum is organized according to the Small Schools Materials format which lists the sequence of learning objectives related to a specific curriculum area, recommends a teaching and mastery grade placement, and identifies activities, monitoring procedures and possible resources used in teaching to the…

  11. Relationships of objectively measured physical activity and sleep with BMI and academic outcomes in 8-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Susan Ann

    2013-05-01

    Current guidelines in place for sleep and physical activity in childhood are the result of data collected in the form of self-reports. Exact measurement of activity dimensions and sleep characteristics are essential. The purpose of clearly established parameters is for the intent of verifying health outcomes and evaluating interventions. The purpose of this research was to determine the relationships between the objective dimensions of physical activity, sleep, weight status, academic achievement, and academic behavior. This cross-sectional correlational descriptive design examined the activity and sleep patterns continuously for 24 hours/7 days with triaxial accelerometers in a low income African American sample of 8-year-olds. A qualitative component gathered additional identifiers. This sample was overweight/obese, inactive, and sleep-deprived. Moderate-vigorous activity was correlated with reading scores. Confirmed in this research was the association between sleep duration, physical activity intensities, and academics. Positive health outcomes in children are endorsed by an energy balance.

  12. Multiobjective optimization in a pseudometric objective space as applied to a general model of business activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachaturov, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that finding the equivalence set for solving multiobjective discrete optimization problems is advantageous over finding the set of Pareto optimal decisions. An example of a set of key parameters characterizing the economic efficiency of a commercial firm is proposed, and a mathematical model of its activities is constructed. In contrast to the classical problem of finding the maximum profit for any business, this study deals with a multiobjective optimization problem. A method for solving inverse multiobjective problems in a multidimensional pseudometric space is proposed for finding the best project of firm's activities. The solution of a particular problem of this type is presented.

  13. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  14. Resisting Rote: The Importance of Active Learning for All Course Learning Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fata-Hartley, Cori

    2011-01-01

    Many college science educators have moved away from the traditional lecture format and toward learner-centered classroom environments. Yet many of us struggle to cover large content loads, reverting at times to rote memorization. This paper suggests rote memorization simply does not work and students must be actively engaged to learn. (Contains 1…

  15. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  16. An Objective Assessment of Children's Physical Activity during the Keep It Moving! After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuna, John M., Jr.; Lauersdorf, Rebekah L.; Behrens, Timothy K.; Liguori, Gary; Liebert, Mina L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After-school programs may provide valuable opportunities for children to accumulate healthful physical activity (PA). This study assessed the PA of third-, fourth-, and ?fth-grade children in the Keep It Moving! (KIM) after-school PA program, which was implemented in an ethnically diverse and low socioeconomic status school district in…

  17. Characteristics of urban sidewalks/streets and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Heinrich, Katie M; Poston, Walker S C; Hyder, Melissa; Pyle, Sara

    2008-03-01

    Several studies have found significant relationships between environmental characteristics (e.g., number of destinations, aesthetics) and physical activity. While a few of these studies verified that the physical activities assessed were performed in the environments examined, none have done this in an urban, neighborhood setting. This information will help efforts to inform policy decisions regarding the design of more "physically active" communities. Fourteen environmental characteristics of 60, 305-m-long segments, located in an urban, residential setting, were directly measured using standardized procedures. The number of individuals walking, jogging, and biking in the segments was assessed using an observation technique. The segments were heterogeneous with regards to several of the environmental characteristics. A total of 473 individuals were seen walking, bicycling, or jogging in the segments during 3,600 min of observation (60 min/segment). Of the 473 seen, 315 were walking, 116 bicycling, and 42 jogging. A greater number of individuals were seen walking in segments with more traffic, sidewalk defects, graffiti, and litter and less desirable property aesthetics. Only one environmental characteristic was associated with bicycling and none were significantly related with jogging. This study provides further evidence that environmental characteristics and walking are related. It also adds new information regarding the importance of scale (e.g., micro, macro) and how some environmental characteristics of urban, residential sidewalks and streets relate to physical activity.

  18. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  19. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  20. Stand-off detection of hidden threat objects on personnel at checkpoints and in public areas using active millimetre-wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Rory S.; Lyons, Brendan N.; Lettington, Alan H.; McEnroe, Tony; Walshe, John; McNaboe, John; Curtin, Peter; Bleszynski, Stan

    2004-12-01

    The use of millimetre-wave imaging to identify threat objects such as guns and bomb material concealed on the person is well documented. However, the technology has been hindered by the performance and cost barriers typically associated with imaging at mm-wave frequencies. A novel scanning technique that minimises the receiver count while operating at very high efficiency levels has made it possible to build a cost-effective and high-performance mm-wave imager that can make security screening a commercial reality. The imager design allows for either passive or active operation and its compact form factor is suitable for practical installation in security channel situations. The uses of this technology include portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects or longer distance surveillance type monitoring of checkpoints and crowds. This presentation details the use of the imager in an active configuration to observe a checkpoint or crowd scene at stand-off distances of up to 50 metres. Target objects to be detected are the hidden metal components associated with suicide bomb constructions. A typical bomb consists of several explosive filled pipes strapped to the body or clusterings of small metallic objects embedded in explosives. Trials at 94GHz have yielded positive results by showing the presence of concealed metallic objects on people at distances of 25 metres. Objects detected have included simulated bomb constructions such as groups of metal pipes and clusters of nuts and bolts. These tests have been conducted using a Gunn based CW source and direct detect receiver unit. Further enhancement of the system includes the use of an FMCW front-end configuration.

  1. Rethinking Trends in Instructional Objectives: Exploring the Alignment of Objectives with Activities and Assessment in Higher Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamanaka, Akio; Wu, Leon Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    This study explored higher education level syllabi to identify trends in educational objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy and various strategic models were used to classify 714 objectives from 114 sections of courses administered through a Midwest teacher education institution in the United States. 1229 verbs and verb phrases were classified through the…

  2. Activities in Europe related to the mitigation of the threat from near-Earth objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, D.; Drolshagen, G.

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarizes the current NEO-related activities within ESA's Space Situational Awareness programme. It has successfully federated some existing European assets: The NEODyS system, focussing on the precise orbit computation and impact predictions; the physical properties database as initially set up by the European Asteroid Research Network (EARN), and a priority list which lists NEOs in need of observation. Additionally, several European telescopes are now regularly used for the follow-up and, in a limited way, survey of NEOs. Europe has also been actively involved in setting up a decision process on how to react to an imminent impact threat. And ESA is preparing for a possible asteroid deflection demonstration mission, in collaboration with NASA.

  3. Local Finite-Amplitude Wave Activity as an Objective Diagnostic of Midlatitude Extreme Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Lu, J.; Burrows, D. A.; Leung, L. R.

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this work, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  4. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, D. Alex; Leung, L. Ruby

    2015-12-01

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate-related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura (2015) is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500 hPa geopotential height for characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in the literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trends of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  5. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  6. Retrospective assessment of indoor radon exposure by measurements of embedded 210Po activity in glass objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Gusain, G. S.; Prasad, Ganesh

    In most of the epidemiological studies contemporary radon measurements have been used as surrogates for radon concentrations in past decades even though changes in radon levels and residence may have occurred. Short-lived radon progeny may deposit on available surfaces in dwellings thus giving rise over time to a build up of long-lived progeny. Airborne radon decay products can be deposited and implanted through alpha recoil into the glass surfaces. On glass surface, activities of 210Po may arise as a result of the decay of recoil implanted activity following the alpha decay of surface deposited 218Po or 214Po. Measurement of 210Po implanted on a household glass is a method that can be employed to retrospectively determine the historic level of radon in dwellings. This method is based on the assumption that levels of recoil implanted 210Po in the glass provide a measure of time integrated radon concentration in the environment in which the glass has been located. The surface deposited activity of the radon progenies, which then become implanted in the glass by alpha recoil, is believed to reflect past exposure to airborne activity. Such retrospective measurements on glass are valuable in estimating the human dose derived from radon during the time of exposure. In this paper an account is given of the principles and some field applications of a retrospective technique, using the alpha track detectors, CR-39 and LR-115, to measure 210Po implanted in glass surfaces (surface traps). By using this CR-LR difference technique, the cumulative radon exposure in a dwelling in past decades may be estimated. This method provides reliable radon exposure data as a support to epidemiological studies concerning the health effects of radon exposure in the living environment.

  7. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brady, Timothy F; Störmer, Viola S; Alvarez, George A

    2016-07-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli-colors and orientations-is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up," revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge.

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  9. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  11. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  14. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  15. Effects of restricted feeding on daily fluctuations of hepatic functions including p450 monooxygenase activities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Jun; Arakawa, Shingo; Watanabe, Kyoko; Ito, Kazumi; Furukawa, Tadashi

    2006-02-10

    Hepatic P450 monooxygenase activities, assessed by measurement of 7-alkoxycoumarin O-dealkylase (ACD) activities, show obvious daily fluctuations in male rats with high values during the dark period and low values during the light period. We have already confirmed that the ACD activities are controlled by the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), which is well known as the oscillator of circadian rhythm. Recently, it is reported that circadian oscillators exist not only in the SCN but also in peripheral organs. To date, it is unclear which circadian oscillators predominantly drive the daily fluctuations of hepatic ACD activities. To address this question, we examined the effects of restricted feeding, which uncouples the circadian oscillators in the liver from the central pacemaker in the SCN, on the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities in male rats. Here we show that restricted feeding inverts the oscillation phase of the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities. Regarding the hepatic P450 content, there were no fluctuations between the light and dark periods under ad libitum and restricted feeding conditions. Therefore, it is considered that the daily fluctuations in hepatic ACD activities are predominantly driven by the circadian factors in peripheral organs rather than by the oscillator in the SCN directly.

  16. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Burbidge, G.; Napier, W. M. E-mail: smawmn@cardiff.ac.u

    2009-11-20

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z <= 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of approx<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all approx4000 QSOs with g <= 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  17. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  18. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  19. Activity Restriction Induced by Fear of Falling and Objective and Subjective Measures of Physical Function: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Nandini; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Guralnik, Jack; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether activity restriction specifically induced by fear of falling (FF) contributes to greater risk of disability and decline in physical function. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Population-based older cohort. Participants Six hundred seventy-three community-living elderly (≥65) participants in the Invecchiare in Chianti Study who reported FF. Measurements FF, fear-induced activity restriction, cognition, depressive symptoms, comorbidities, smoking history, and demographic factors were assessed at baseline. Disability in activities of daily living (ADLs) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) and performance on the Short Performance Physical Battery (SPPB) were evaluated at baseline and at the 3-year follow-up. Results One-quarter (25.5%) of participants did not report any activity restriction, 59.6% reported moderate activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of <3 activities), and 14.9% reported severe activity restriction (restriction or avoidance of ≥3 activities). The severe restriction group reported significantly higher IADL disability and worse SPPB scores than the no restriction and moderate restriction groups. Severe activity restriction was a significant independent predictor of worsening ADL disability and accelerated decline in lower extremity performance on SPPB over the 3-year follow-up. Severe and moderate activity restriction were independent predictors of worsening IADL disability. Results were consistent even after adjusting for multiple potential confounders. Conclusion In an elderly population, activity restriction associated with FF is an independent predictor of decline in physical function. Future intervention studies in geriatric preventive care should directly address risk factors associated with FF and activity restriction to substantiate long-term effects on physical abilities and autonomy of older persons. PMID:18312314

  20. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  1. Magnetar-like Activity from the Central Compact Object in the SNR RCW103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, N.; Borghese, A.; Esposito, P.; Coti Zelati, F.; Bachetti, M.; Israel, G. L.; De Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The 6.67 hr periodicity and the variable X-ray flux of the central compact object (CCO) at the center of the supernova remnant RCW 103, named 1E 161348–5055, have been always difficult to interpret within the standard scenarios of an isolated neutron star (NS) or a binary system. On 2016 June 22, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift detected a magnetar-like short X-ray burst from the direction of 1E 161348–5055, also coincident with a large long-term X-ray outburst. Here, we report on Chandra, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and Swift (BAT and XRT) observations of this peculiar source during its 2016 outburst peak. In particular, we study the properties of this magnetar-like burst, we discover a hard X-ray tail in the CCO spectrum during outburst, and we study its long-term outburst history (from 1999 to 2016 July). We find the emission properties of 1E 161348–5055 consistent with it being a magnetar. However, in this scenario, the 6.67 hr periodicity can only be interpreted as the rotation period of this strongly magnetized NS, which therefore represents the slowest pulsar ever detected, by orders of magnitude. We briefly discuss the viable slow-down scenarios, favoring a picture involving a period of fall-back accretion after the supernova explosion, similarly to what is invoked (although in a different regime) to explain the “anti-magnetar” scenario for other CCOs.

  2. Magnetar-like Activity from the Central Compact Object in the SNR RCW103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, N.; Borghese, A.; Esposito, P.; Coti Zelati, F.; Bachetti, M.; Israel, G. L.; De Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The 6.67 hr periodicity and the variable X-ray flux of the central compact object (CCO) at the center of the supernova remnant RCW 103, named 1E 161348-5055, have been always difficult to interpret within the standard scenarios of an isolated neutron star (NS) or a binary system. On 2016 June 22, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift detected a magnetar-like short X-ray burst from the direction of 1E 161348-5055, also coincident with a large long-term X-ray outburst. Here, we report on Chandra, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and Swift (BAT and XRT) observations of this peculiar source during its 2016 outburst peak. In particular, we study the properties of this magnetar-like burst, we discover a hard X-ray tail in the CCO spectrum during outburst, and we study its long-term outburst history (from 1999 to 2016 July). We find the emission properties of 1E 161348-5055 consistent with it being a magnetar. However, in this scenario, the 6.67 hr periodicity can only be interpreted as the rotation period of this strongly magnetized NS, which therefore represents the slowest pulsar ever detected, by orders of magnitude. We briefly discuss the viable slow-down scenarios, favoring a picture involving a period of fall-back accretion after the supernova explosion, similarly to what is invoked (although in a different regime) to explain the “anti-magnetar” scenario for other CCOs.

  3. The effect of variations of geomagnetic activity changing rate on trunk objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, V. I.; Mullayarov, V. A.; Grigor'ev, Yu. M.

    2015-11-01

    The frequency of occurrence of a certain level of the rate of change of geomagnetic activity can be expressed as a power law with an exponent of the order -1.7, and the probability of exceedance of a given level can be expressed by the law lg(P) = -0.0517 (dB / dt) - 0.1946. The largest high-frequency variations are noted during the recovery phase of magnetic bay and correspond to geomagnetic pulsations of the Pc5 range (a period of variations of 200-300 s). On a pipeline on these pulsations other high-frequency variations are imposed and they start earlier - from a maximum of bay of disturbance. It is noted the need of monitoring and forecasting of magnetic storms and recommendations on the allocation of periods, during which one cannot disable protection for preventive works.

  4. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  5. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  6. Tracking on non-active collaborative objects from San Fernando Laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Quijano, Manuel; Cortina, Luis M.; Pazos, Antonio A.; Martín-Davila, José

    2016-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (ROA) works on satellite geodesy from the early days of the space age, when the first artificial satellite tracking telescope was installed in 1958: the Baker-Nunn camera. In 1975 a French satellite Laser ranging (SLR) station was installed and operated at ROA . Since 1980, ROA has been operating this instrument which was upgraded to a third generation and it is still keep into a continuous update to reach the highest level of operability. Since then ROA has participated in different space geodesy campaigns through the International Laser Service Stations (ILRS) or its European regional organization (EUROLAS), tracking a number of artificial satellites types : ERS, ENVISAT, LAGEOS, TOPEX- POSEIDON to name but a few. Recently we opened a new field of research: space debris tracking, which is receiving increasing importance and attention from international space agencies. The main problem is the relatively low accuracy of common used methods. It is clear that improving the predicted orbit accuracy is necessary to fulfill our aims (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers,..). Following results obtained by other colleagues (Austria, China, USA,...) we proposed to share our time-schedule using our satellite ranging station to obtain data which will make orbital elements predictions far more accurate (sub-meter accuracy), while we still keep our tracking routines over active satellites. In this communication we report the actions fulfill until nowadays.

  7. Mathematical model for the characterization and objective comparison of antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Murado, Miguel Anxo; Vázquez, José Antonio

    2010-02-10

    The available data about the interference of antioxidants in the kinetics of lipid oxidation are abundant, but often they allow only semiquantitative conclusions, not always with sufficient basis. One of the causes of this problem is the absence of formal models able to guide the experimental design and to calculate characterizing parameters. In this regard, the model which we propose allows us to obtain the simultaneous solution of a series of oxidation kinetics in the presence of any number of antioxidant concentrations. It describes satisfactorily simulations in which substrate and antioxidant compete for oxygen in a second order kinetic scheme, as well as experimental results from other authors, in different systems and under different conditions. Its application is simple, it provides parametric estimates which characterize both the oxidative process and the antioxidant activity, and it facilitates rigorous comparisons among the effects of different compounds and experimental approaches. In all experimental data tested, the calculated parameters were always statistically significant (Student's t test, alpha = 0.05), the equations were consistent (Fisher's F-test), and the goodness of fit parameters (adj r(2), adjusted coefficients of multiple determination) were up to 0.97. PMID:20058868

  8. Gender, mental health service use and objectively measured physical activity: Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2003–2004)

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Richardson, Caroline R.; Holleman, Robert G.; Glasheen, Cristie; Strath, Scott J.; Conroy, Molly B.; Kriska, Andrea M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship between physical activity levels measured objectively by accelerometry and the use of mental health services (MHS) in a representative sample of males and females. Method NHANES 2003–2004 is a cross-sectional study of the civilian, non-institutionalized US adult population. Participants reported whether or not they had seen a mental health professional during the past 12 months. Three measures of daily physical activity (light minutes, moderate-vigorous minutes, and total activity counts) and sedentary minutes were determined by accelerometry. The relationship between physical activity and use of MHS was modeled with and without adjustments for potential socioeconomic and health confounders. Results Of the 1846 males and 1963 females included in this analysis, 7 and 8% reported seeing mental health professionals during the past 12 months, respectively. Men who used MHS were significantly less active than men who did not use MHS (227,700 versus 276,900 total activity counts, respectively, p < 0.05). Men who did not use MHS engaged in 38 min (95% CI 16.3, 59.0) more of light or moderate-vigorous physical activity per day than men who used MHS. Physical activity levels of women, regardless of MHS use, were significantly lower than men who did not use MHS. Differences in total physical activity between women who did and did not use MHS were small (1.3, 95% CI − 14.0, 11.4). Conclusion Men and women who used MHS were relatively sedentary. Additional research is warranted to determine if increasing physical activity levels results in improved mental health in individuals who use MHS. PMID:19946571

  9. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  10. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... recovery; or (ii) The FAA's determination that risk to third parties and Government property as a result...

  11. Activated Notch1 Target Genes during Embryonic Cell Differentiation Depend on the Cellular Context and Include Lineage Determinants and Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Meier-Stiegen, Franziska; Schwanbeck, Ralf; Bernoth, Kristina; Martini, Simone; Hieronymus, Thomas; Ruau, David; Zenke, Martin; Just, Ursula

    2010-01-01

    Background Notch receptor signaling controls developmental cell fates in a cell-context dependent manner. Although Notch signaling directly regulates transcription via the RBP-J/CSL DNA binding protein, little is known about the target genes that are directly activated by Notch in the respective tissues. Methodology/Principal Findings To analyze how Notch signaling mediates its context dependent function(s), we utilized a Tamoxifen-inducible system to activate Notch1 in murine embryonic stem cells at different stages of mesodermal differentiation and performed global transcriptional analyses. We find that the majority of genes regulated by Notch1 are unique for the cell type and vary widely dependent on other signals. We further show that Notch1 signaling regulates expression of genes playing key roles in cell differentiation, cell cycle control and apoptosis in a context dependent manner. In addition to the known Notch1 targets of the Hes and Hey families of transcriptional repressors, Notch1 activates the expression of regulatory transcription factors such as Sox9, Pax6, Runx1, Myf5 and Id proteins that are critically involved in lineage decisions in the absence of protein synthesis. Conclusion/Significance We suggest that Notch signaling determines lineage decisions and expansion of stem cells by directly activating both key lineage specific transcription factors and their repressors (Id and Hes/Hey proteins) and propose a model by which Notch signaling regulates cell fate commitment and self renewal in dependence of the intrinsic and extrinsic cellular context. PMID:20628604

  12. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS IN CHILEAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Martino-Fuentealba, Pía; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los perjuicios de la inactividad física y de la conducta sedentaria (CS) en la salud de los niños han sido ampliamente respaldados por la evidencia. Sin embargo, existe limitada evidencia de cómo estos comportamientos se manifiestan en los preescolares. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo como propósito evaluar los patrones de actividad física (AF) y CS de forma objetiva en preescolares chilenos. Método: 25 niños (4,8 } 0,50 años, 48% hombres) completaron la monitorización ambulatoria con el acelerómetro e inclinómetro ActivPALTM micro. Se midieron tiempos caminando, de pie y sentado/acostado, además de pasos acumulados por día, para ser comparados según día de la semana y período del día. Resultados: el tiempo promedio caminando fue de 147,2 } 52,23 minutos/día. El tiempo en CS fue de 468,3 } 92,22 minutos/día, con diferencias estadísticas entre días entre semana y fin de semana (484,8 vs. 426,8 min/día, p = 0,03). El 50% de los pasos fueron sumados en acumulaciones menores a 100 pasos/minuto, mientras un 50% del tiempo en CS fue acumulado en intervalos de duración de 35 segundos o menos. Discusión: los preescolares presentan patrones intermitentes de AF y CS. En los días entre semana se sientan más que durante el fin de semana, por lo cual se presenta una posibilidad de modificar este comportamiento durante el período de clases. Este reporte de patrones de AF y CS en preescolares presenta información valiosa para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para mejorar los niveles de AF y disminuir el tiempo en CS en preescolares.

  13. Weight management including dietary and physical activity advice provided by Australian physiotherapists: a pilot cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Suzanne J; Carter, Amy E; Guest, Maya; Collins, Clare E; James, Carole; Kable, Ashley K; Ashby, Samantha E; Plotnikoff, Ronald C

    2014-08-01

    Physiotherapists may have an impact on obesity prevention and treatment by providing nutrition and physical activity advice to overweight or obese clients; yet little is known about physiotherapists' beliefs and practices related to client weight management. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the practices, beliefs, attitudes and knowledge of physiotherapists regarding the provision of weight management advice to overweight or obese clients. Physiotherapists (n = 65) working in multiple practice settings completed a self-administered questionnaire. Logistic regression determined factors associated with the provision of dietary and physical activity advice for weight management. The majority of physiotherapists (n = 53 [81.5%]) believed providing weight management advice was within their scope of practice, yet only a minority had received training during their professional entry level education (n = 13 [20%]) or through professional development (n = 7 [11%]). Most physiotherapists (n = 55 [84.6%]) provided physical activity advice for weight management, but a minority (n = 27 [41.5%]) provided dietary advice. Having received training in weight management during their professional entry level education was associated with providing dietary advice (Odds ratio 8.8, 95% confidence interval 2.0-38.9, p = 0.004). Training in weight management may increase the likelihood of physiotherapists providing dietary advice, improving physiotherapists' management of obesity.

  14. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA–Dependent Tel1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M.; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-01-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  15. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  16. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  17. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  18. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  19. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  20. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  1. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  2. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  3. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  4. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  5. Copula regression analysis of simultaneously recorded frontal eye field and inferotemporal spiking activity during object-based working memory.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meng; Clark, Kelsey L; Gong, Xiajing; Noudoost, Behrad; Li, Mingyao; Moore, Tirin; Liang, Hualou

    2015-06-10

    Inferotemporal (IT) neurons are known to exhibit persistent, stimulus-selective activity during the delay period of object-based working memory tasks. Frontal eye field (FEF) neurons show robust, spatially selective delay period activity during memory-guided saccade tasks. We present a copula regression paradigm to examine neural interaction of these two types of signals between areas IT and FEF of the monkey during a working memory task. This paradigm is based on copula models that can account for both marginal distribution over spiking activity of individual neurons within each area and joint distribution over ensemble activity of neurons between areas. Considering the popular GLMs as marginal models, we developed a general and flexible likelihood framework that uses the copula to integrate separate GLMs into a joint regression analysis. Such joint analysis essentially leads to a multivariate analog of the marginal GLM theory and hence efficient model estimation. In addition, we show that Granger causality between spike trains can be readily assessed via the likelihood ratio statistic. The performance of this method is validated by extensive simulations, and compared favorably to the widely used GLMs. When applied to spiking activity of simultaneously recorded FEF and IT neurons during working memory task, we observed significant Granger causality influence from FEF to IT, but not in the opposite direction, suggesting the role of the FEF in the selection and retention of visual information during working memory. The copula model has the potential to provide unique neurophysiological insights about network properties of the brain. PMID:26063909

  6. Personal and social-environmental correlates of objectively measured physical activity in Norwegian pre-adolescent children.

    PubMed

    Bergh, I H; Grydeland, M; Bjelland, M; Lien, N; Andersen, L F; Klepp, K-I; Anderssen, S A; Ommundsen, Y

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine modifiable biological, psychological, behavioral and social-environmental correlates of physical activity among 1129 Norwegian 11-year-old children within a cross-sectional sample from the HEalth In Adolescents study. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometer, and weight and height were measured objectively. Age- and gender-specific cut-off points proposed by the International Obesity Task Force were used to define body mass index. Social-environmental variables were self-reported by questionnaire. Hierarchical regression (linear mixed models) revealed that normal weight children scored higher on percentage daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [% daily moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA)] than overweight/obese children (P<0.001). Self-efficacy (P<0.01) and perceived social support from friends (P<0.01) were positively associated with children's % daily MVPA, and a negative association was found for computer/game-use on weekends (P<0.01). A moderator effect of weight category (normal vs overweight/obese) in the relationship between computer/game-use on weekends and % daily MVPA was detected (P<0.05), reflecting that higher computer/game-use on weekends was associated with lower % MVPA among the overweight/obese, but not among the normal weight. Modifiable correlates from multiple domains accounted for 14% of the variance in % daily MVPA. Prospective and intervention studies are needed to examine whether these factors act as mediators for physical activity change in pre-adolescent children.

  7. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  8. Novel stilbenoids, including cannabispiradienone glycosides, from Tragopogon tommasinii (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) and their potential anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Granica, Sebastian; Piwowarski, Jakub P; Randazzo, Antonio; Schneider, Peter; Żyżyńska-Granica, Barbara; Zidorn, Christian

    2015-09-01

    A phytochemical investigation of Tragopogon tommasinii Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) yielded a total of 21 natural products, two simple phenolic acids (4-hydroxybenzoic acid and p-coumaric acid), four caffeic acid derivatives (chlorogenic acid, 3-O-caffeoylquinic acid, 3,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and 4,5-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid), six flavonoids (luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, vitexin, orientin, quercetin 3-O-glucoside, and isorhamnetin 3-O-glucoside), three simple bibenzyls [2-carboxyl-5-hydroxy-3-methoxy-4'-β-glucopyranosyl-oxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-5,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxybibenzyl, 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxy-4'-dihydroxy-5,3'-dimethoxybibenzyl], three phtalides [3-(4-β-glucopyranosyloxybenzyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxyphtalide, 7-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide, and 7-(1→6)-α-rhamnosyl-β-glucopyranosyloxy-(S)-3-(4-hydroxybenzyl)-5-methoxyphtalide], two cannabispiradienone derivatives [3-O-β-glucopyranosyldemethoxycannabispiradienone and 3-caffeoyl-(9→5)-β-apiosyl-(1→6)-β-glucopyranosyloxydemethoxycannabispiradienone], and tetra-N-coumaroyl spermine. The three bibenzyls, the latter two benzylphthalides, and both cannabispiradienone derivatives represent new natural compounds and all compounds, except the caffeic acid derivatives and the flavonoids were new for T. tommasinii. The structures were established by HR mass spectrometry, extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and CD spectroscopy. Moreover, the potential anti-inflammatory activities of the new compounds were assayed using human neutrophils and their production of IL-1b, IL-8, TNF-α and MMP-9 as well as the expression of TLR-4, respectively.

  9. Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Active transport can contribute to physical activity accumulation and improved health in adults. The built environment is an established associate of active transport behaviours; however, assessment of environmental features encountered during journeys remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of wearable cameras to objectively audit and quantify environmental features along work-related walking and cycling routes. Methods A convenience sample of employed adults was recruited in New Zealand, in June 2011. Participants wore a SenseCam for all journeys over three weekdays and completed travel diaries and demographic questionnaires. SenseCam images for work-related active transport journeys were coded for presence of environmental features hypothesised to be related to active transport. Differences in presence of features by transport mode and in participant-reported and SenseCam-derived journey duration were determined using two-sample tests of proportion and an independent samples t-test, respectively. Results Fifteen adults participated in the study, yielding 1749 SenseCam images from 30 work-related active transport journeys for coding. Significant differences in presence of features were found between walking and cycling journeys. Almost a quarter of images were uncodeable due to being too dark to determine features. There was a non-significant tendency for respondents to under-report their journey duration. Conclusion This study provides proof of concept for the use of the SenseCam to capture built environment data in real time that may be related to active transportation. Further work is required to test and refine coding methodologies across a range of settings, travel behaviours, and demographic groups. PMID:23575288

  10. Awesome Universe: an exhibition with images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories and associated activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Farrona, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    In September 2013, an ESO exhibition was shown in Santander: ``Awesome Universe -- the Cosmos through the eyes of the European Southern Observatory". Around the exhibition, were proposed several activities: guide tours for children, younger and adults, workshops, film projections... In this way, the exhibition was visited by more than two thousand persons. We must keep in mind that Santander is a small city and its population does not usually take part in outreach activity. With this contribution, we want to teach the way in which it is possible to take advantage of science exhibitions. It made possible to show stunning images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories to the great majority of Santander population, and to awaken their interest in or enthusiasm for science.

  11. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary-time are associated with arterial stiffness in Brazilian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211

  12. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  13. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  14. Altered Neural Activity during Semantic Object Memory Retrieval in Amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment as Measured by Event-Related Potentials.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Hsueh-Sheng; Mudar, Raksha A; Pudhiyidath, Athula; Spence, Jeffrey S; Womack, Kyle B; Cullum, C Munro; Tanner, Jeremy A; Eroh, Justin; Kraut, Michael A; Hart, John

    2015-01-01

    Deficits in semantic memory in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) have been previously reported, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We examined event-related potentials (ERPs) associated with semantic memory retrieval in 16 individuals with aMCI as compared to 17 normal controls using the Semantic Object Retrieval Task (EEG SORT). In this task, subjects judged whether pairs of words (object features) elicited retrieval of an object (retrieval trials) or not (non-retrieval trials). Behavioral findings revealed that aMCI subjects had lower accuracy scores and marginally longer reaction time compared to controls. We used a multivariate analytical technique (STAT-PCA) to investigate similarities and differences in ERPs between aMCI and control groups. STAT-PCA revealed a left fronto-temporal component starting at around 750 ms post-stimulus in both groups. However, unlike controls, aMCI subjects showed an increase in the frontal-parietal scalp potential that distinguished retrieval from non-retrieval trials between 950 and 1050 ms post-stimulus negatively correlated with the performance on the logical memory subtest of the Wechsler Memory Scale-III. Thus, individuals with aMCI were not only impaired in their behavioral performance on SORT relative to controls, but also displayed alteration in the corresponding ERPs. The altered neural activity in aMCI compared to controls suggests a more sustained and effortful search during object memory retrieval, which may be a potential marker indicating disease processes at the pre-dementia stage.

  15. Monitoring the autonomic nervous activity as the objective evaluation of music therapy for severely and multiply disabled children.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Kudo, Takashi; Koga, Mikitoshi; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Sotetsu; Hiramatsu, Kozaburo; Mori, Shunsuke; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Severely and multiply disabled children (SMDC) are frequently affected in more than one area of development, resulting in multiple disabilities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy in SMDC using monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous system, by the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability. We studied six patients with SMDC (3 patients with cerebral palsy, 1 patient with posttraumatic syndrome after head injury, 1 patient with herpes encephalitis sequelae, and 1 patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome characterized by frequent seizures, developmental delay and psychological and behavioral problems), aged 18-26 (mean 22.5 ± 3.5). By frequency domain method using electrocardiography, we measured the high frequency (HF; with a frequency ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), which represents parasympathetic activity, the low frequency/high frequency ratio, which represents sympathetic activity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, and heart rate. A music therapist performed therapy to all patients through the piano playing for 50 min. We monitored each study participant for 150 min before therapy, 50 min during therapy, and 10 min after therapy. Interestingly, four of 6 patients showed significantly lower HF components during music therapy than before therapy, suggesting that these four patients might react to music therapy through the suppression of parasympathetic nervous activities. Thus, music therapy can suppress parasympathetic nervous activities in some patients with SMDC. The monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous activities could be a powerful tool for the objective evaluation of music therapy in patients with SMDC.

  16. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  17. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation. PMID:21558579

  18. Psychosocial and demographic correlates of objectively measured physical activity in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions.

    PubMed

    Rosenkranz, Richard R; Welk, Gregory J; Hastmann, Tanis J; Dzewaltowski, David A

    2011-07-01

    Most studies of psychosocial and demographic correlates of physical activity (PA) have examined relationships across various types of physical and social environments, rather than within a specific environmental behavior setting. The objective of this study was to investigate correlates of PA in structured and unstructured after-school recreation sessions. This study is cross-sectional. School records, questionnaires, and anthropometry were used to obtain demographic and psychosocial variables. Third and fourth-grade children (n = 230) from seven schools wore Actigraph GT1M accelerometers up to six times per year during after-school programming. Accelerometer data were processed to determine percentage of time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (T scores, reflective of an individual child's PA level relative to group mean, were computed for each session and averaged across sessions). Pearson correlations, point-biserial correlations, and mixed-model analyses were used to determine significant associations with PA for each session type (structured and unstructured). For structured sessions, gender, PA barriers self-efficacy, and PA enjoyment were significantly related to PA. For unstructured sessions, only gender was related to PA. Despite equivalent opportunities to participate in active recreation, boys were more active than girls, and children varied in PA level partly due to psychosocial factors. Our results showed that PA self-efficacy and enjoyment explained variability in structured PA sessions.

  19. Prevalence of human cell material: DNA and RNA profiling of public and private objects and after activity scenarios.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T

    2016-03-01

    Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios.

  20. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z; McGregor, Keith M; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R; Dzierzewski, Joseph M; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature.

  1. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS. PMID:26691781

  2. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS.

  3. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms. PMID:23966193

  4. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-08-20

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  5. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms. PMID:23966193

  6. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability.

  7. A3 domain region 1803-1818 contributes to the stability of activated factor VIII and includes a binding site for activated factor IX.

    PubMed

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B

    2013-09-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803-1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803-1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803-1810 and FVIII/FV 1811-1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811-1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811-1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803-1810 and 1811-1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  8. A3 Domain Region 1803–1818 Contributes to the Stability of Activated Factor VIII and Includes a Binding Site for Activated Factor IX

    PubMed Central

    Bloem, Esther; Meems, Henriet; van den Biggelaar, Maartje; Mertens, Koen; Meijer, Alexander B.

    2013-01-01

    A recent chemical footprinting study in our laboratory suggested that region 1803–1818 might contribute to A2 domain retention in activated factor VIII (FVIIIa). This site has also been implicated to interact with activated factor IX (FIXa). Asn-1810 further comprises an N-linked glycan, which seems incompatible with a role of the amino acids 1803–1818 for FIXa or A2 domain binding. In the present study, FVIIIa stability and FIXa binding were evaluated in a FVIII-N1810C variant, and two FVIII variants in which residues 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 are replaced by the corresponding residues of factor V (FV). Enzyme kinetic studies showed that only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 has a decreased apparent binding affinity for FIXa. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that fluorescent FIXa exhibits impaired complex formation with only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 on lipospheres. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Phe-1816 contributes to the interaction with FIXa. To evaluate FVIIIa stability, the FVIII/FV chimeras were activated by thrombin, and the decline in cofactor function was followed over time. FVIII/FV 1803–1810 and FVIII/FV 1811–1818 but not FVIII-N1810C showed a decreased FVIIIa half-life. However, when the FVIII variants were activated in presence of FIXa, only FVIII/FV 1811–1818 demonstrated an enhanced decline in cofactor function. Surface plasmon resonance analysis revealed that the FVIII variants K1813A/K1818A, E1811A, and F1816A exhibit enhanced dissociation after activation. The results together demonstrate that the glycan at 1810 is not involved in FVIII cofactor function, and that Phe-1816 of region 1811–1818 contributes to FIXa binding. Both regions 1803–1810 and 1811–1818 contribute to FVIIIa stability. PMID:23884417

  9. Preschool Curriculum: A Child Centered Curriculum of Concepts and Activities Including All of the CDA Functional Areas--Bi-lingual and Home Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Dorothy, Comp.

    This preschool resource curriculum, intended for use in a Head Start center, was written to correspond with a work plan and curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. The units included in the curriculum guide are aimed at integrating growth experiences with the learning of basic skills. Each of the 16 units contains material related to each of…

  10. Rapid binding of a cationic active site inhibitor to wild type and mutant mouse acetylcholinesterase: Brownian dynamics simulation including diffusion in the active site gorge.

    PubMed

    Tara, S; Elcock, A H; Kirchhoff, P D; Briggs, J M; Radic, Z; Taylor, P; McCammon, J A

    1998-12-01

    It is known that anionic surface residues play a role in the long-range electrostatic attraction between acetylcholinesterase and cationic ligands. In our current investigation, we show that anionic residues also play an important role in the behavior of the ligand within the active site gorge of acetylcholinesterase. Negatively charged residues near the gorge opening not only attract positively charged ligands from solution to the enzyme, but can also restrict the motion of the ligand once it is inside of the gorge. We use Brownian dynamics techniques to calculate the rate constant kon, for wild type and mutant acetylcholinesterase with a positively charged ligand. These calculations are performed by allowing the ligand to diffuse within the active site gorge. This is an extension of previously reported work in which a ligand was allowed to diffuse only to the enzyme surface. By setting the reaction criteria for the ligand closer to the active site, better agreement with experimental data is obtained. Although a number of residues influence the movement of the ligand within the gorge, Asp74 is shown to play a particularly important role in this function. Asp74 traps the ligand within the gorge, and in this way helps to ensure a reaction.

  11. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  12. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW LINES: ARE THEY DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Shields, G. A.; Smith, K. L.; Ammons, S. M. E-mail: mcgurk@ucsc.edu E-mail: shieldsga@mail.utexas.edu E-mail: ammons@as.arizona.edu

    2011-09-20

    Active galaxies hosting two accreting and merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs)-dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-are predicted by many current and popular models of black-hole-galaxy co-evolution. We present here the results of a program that has identified a set of probable dual AGN candidates based on near-infrared laser guide star adaptive optics imaging with the Keck II telescope. These candidates are selected from a complete sample of radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which show double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines. Of the 12 AGNs imaged, we find 6 with double galaxy structure, of which four are in galaxy mergers. We measure the ionization of the two velocity components in the narrow AGN lines to test the hypothesis that both velocity components come from an active nucleus. The combination of a well-defined parent sample and high-quality imaging allows us to place constraints on the fraction of SDSS QSOs that host dual accreting black holes separated on kiloparsec scales: {approx}0.3%-0.65%. We derive from this fraction the time spent in a QSO phase during a typical merger and find a value that is much lower than estimates that arise from QSO space densities and galaxy merger statistics. We discuss possible reasons for this difference. Finally, we compare the SMBH mass distributions of single and dual AGNs and find little difference between the two within the limited statistics of our program, hinting that most SMBH growth happens in the later stages of a merger process.

  13. NON-THERMAL RADIATION FROM COLLISIONS OF COMPACT OBJECTS WITH INTERMEDIATE-SCALE JETS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, W.; Banasiński, P.

    2015-07-10

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late-type stars in the galactic bulges and also early-type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters, which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical halos on a scale of several kpc that contain from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars, and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of the active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster, and GCs with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc-scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar cluster and also the microwave background radiation to TeV γ-ray energies. We show that such non-thermal radiation is likely to be detectable from the intermediate-scale jets of nearby active galaxies for a reasonable number of stars and GCs immersed within the jet. As an example, we calculate the expected non-thermal emission in X-ray and gamma-ray energies from the nearby radio galaxy Cen A, from which steady gamma-ray emission with a complex spectrum has recently been reported by Fermi and the HESS Observatories.

  14. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  15. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  16. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  17. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  18. Objective Assessment of Changes in Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior: Pre-through 3-Years Post- Bariatric Surgery

    PubMed Central

    King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326

  19. Measurement of factor VIII activity using one-stage clotting assay: a calibration curve has not to be systematically included in each run.

    PubMed

    Lattes, S; Appert-Flory, A; Fischer, F; Jambou, D; Toulon, P

    2011-01-01

    Coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) is usually evaluated using activated partial thromboplastin time-based one-stage clotting assays. Guidelines for clotting factor assays indicate that a calibration curve should be included each time the assay is performed. Therefore, FVIII measurement is expensive, reagent- and time-consuming. The aim of this study was to compare FVIII activities obtained using the same fully automated assay that was calibrated once (stored calibration curve) or each time the assay was performed. Unique lots of reagents were used throughout the study. We analysed 255 frozen plasma samples from patients who were prescribed FVIII measurement including treated and untreated haemophilia A patients. Twenty-six runs were performed on a 28-week period, each including four lyophilized control and at most 10 patient plasma samples. In control samples, FVIII activities were not significantly different when the assay was performed using the stored calibration curve or was daily calibrated. The same applied to FVIII activities in patient plasma samples that were not significantly different throughout the measuring range of activities [68.3% (<1-179) vs. 67.6% (<1-177), P=0.48] and no relevant bias could be demonstrated when data were compared according to Bland and Altman. These results suggest that in the studied technical conditions, performing the FVIII assay using a stored calibration curve is reliable, for at least 6 months. Therefore, as far as the same lots of reagents are used, it is not mandatory to include a calibration curve each time the FVIII assay was performed. However, this strategy has to be validated if the assay is performed in different technical conditions.

  20. A Simple Objective Method Used to Forecast Convective Activity during the 1989 PACE Cloud-seeding Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czys, Robert R.; Scott, Robert W.

    1993-05-01

    A simple objective procedure used exploratively to forecast the occurrence, height, and coalescence activity of summertime convective clouds in Illinois during the cloud-seeding trials of the 1989 Precipitation Augmentation for Crops Experiment is described. The method used the temperature of the convective condensation level (TCCL) and potential buoyancy (PB) at 500 mb, easily determined from morning National Weather Service sounding data, to forecast afternoon convection. Maximum echo top heights were found to group according to TCCL and PB. The physical basis of TCCL and PB to implicitly represent a period of time for coalescence to produce supercooled drizzle and raindrops is discussed. The technique performed well at forecasting the occurrence and height of afternoon convective clouds. Aircraft measurements of supercooled raindrop concentrations showed that a discriminator function, dependent only on TCCL and PB, gave a good indication of the presence or absence of supercooled drizzle and raindrops in the updrafts of clouds at the 10°C seeding level. Median concentrations of supercooled drizzle and raindrops (ND>300) in updraft regions at the 10°C level were found to be best approximated by a third-order polynomial dependent on TCCL and PR, presenting a possible physical link between cloud-scale environment and in-cloud conditions.

  1. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  2. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF FLARING ACTIVITY IN BL Lac OBJECT S5 0716+714 DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Zhang, Haocheng; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-20

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. The rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  3. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  4. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE PAGES

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  5. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time: cross-sectional and prospective associations with adiposity in the Millennium Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Lucy J; Sera, Francesco; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Law, Catherine; Ness, Andrew; Dezateux, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Objective To examine whether physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (ST) in primary school-aged children are associated with adiposity at the start of secondary school, and whether these associations differ by sex or ethnic group. Design Nationally representative prospective cohort study. Setting Children born across the UK, between 2000 and 2002. Participants 6497 singleton children. Outcome measures Measures of adiposity (body mass index (BMI), fat mass index (FMI) and fat free mass index (FFMI))—obtained at 7 and 11 years. Explanatory measures Total daily PA (mean counts per minute (cpm)); minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA); and ST. All assessed at 7 years using accelerometers. Results In cross-sectional analyses, total PA was inversely associated with FMI (3.7% (95% CI 2.7% to 4.7%) reduction per 150 cpm increase), as was MVPA (4.2% (CI 3.2% to 5.2%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). Associations were stronger in black and South Asian ethnic groups. Total PA and MVPA were not associated with FFMI. ST was positively associated with FMI (1.3% (CI 0.2% to 2.3%) increase per 50 min/day increase) and inversely associated with FFMI (0.5% (CI 0.2% to 0.7%) reduction per 50 min/day increase). Longitudinally, MVPA at age 7 years remained inversely associated with FMI at age 11 years (1.5% (CI 0.4% to 2.6%) reduction per 20 min/day increase). No association was found between total PA and ST and any of the later adiposity measures. Conclusions 7-year-old children who are more physically active are less likely to be obese at that age and at age 11 years. These associations were particularly evident in children from black or South Asian ethnicity at age 7 years and in boys at age 11 years. Measurements of fat mass provide valuable insights into ethnic differences in associations between adiposity and activity. PMID:27067891

  6. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours.

  7. Bilateral flight muscle activity predicts wing kinematics and 3-dimensional body orientation of locusts responding to looming objects.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Glyn A; Loessin, Vicky; Gray, John R

    2013-09-01

    We placed locusts in a wind tunnel using a loose tether design that allowed for motion in all three rotational degrees of freedom during presentation of a computer-generated looming disc. High-speed video allowed us to extract wing kinematics, abdomen position and 3-dimensional body orientation. Concurrent electromyographic (EMG) recordings monitored bilateral activity from the first basalar depressor muscles (m97) of the forewings, which are implicated in flight steering. Behavioural responses to a looming disc included cessation of flight (wings folded over the body), glides and active steering during sustained flight in addition to a decrease and increase in wingbeat frequency prior to and during, respectively, an evasive turn. Active steering involved shifts in bilateral m97 timing, wing asymmetries and whole-body rotations in the yaw (ψ), pitch (χ) and roll (η) planes. Changes in abdomen position and hindwing asymmetries occurred after turns were initiated. Forewing asymmetry and changes in η were most highly correlated with m97 spike latency. Correlations also increased as the disc approached, peaking prior to collision. On the inside of a turn, m97 spikes occurred earlier relative to forewing stroke reversal and bilateral timing corresponded to forewing asymmetry as well as changes in whole-body rotation. Double spikes in each m97 occurred most frequently at or immediately prior to the time the locusts turned, suggesting a behavioural significance. These data provide information on mechanisms underlying 3-dimensional flight manoeuvres and will be used to drive a closed loop flight simulator to study responses of motion-sensitive visual neurons during production of realistic behaviours. PMID:23737560

  8. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; RochlisZumbado, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  9. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and subclinical vascular disease: Cross-sectional study in older British men.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Tessa J; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A; Halcox, Julian P J; Smith, Kirsten E; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T; Wannamethee, S Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H; Jefferis, Barbara J

    2016-08-01

    Low physical activity (PA) and high levels of sedentary time (ST) are associated with higher cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among older people. However, their independent contribution and importance of duration of PA and ST bouts remain unclear. We investigated associations between objectively measured PA, ST and non-invasive vascular measures, markers of CVD risk. Cross-sectional study of 1216 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.5years, measured in 2010-2012. Carotid intima thickness (CIMT), distensibility coefficient (DC) and plaque presence were measured using ultrasound; pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and augmentation index (AIx) using a Vicorder. PA and ST were measured using hip-worn ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers. After adjusting for covariates, each additional 1000 steps per day was associated with a 0.038m/s lower cfPWV (95% CI=-0.076, 0.0003), 0.095 10(-3) kPa(-1) higher DC (95% CI=0.006, 0.185), 0.26% lower AIx (95% CI=-0.40, -0.12) and a 0.005mm lower CIMT (95% CI=-0.008, -0.001). Moderate and vigorous PA (MVPA) was associated with lower AIx and CIMT, light PA (LPA) with lower cfPWV and CIMT and ST with higher cfPWV, AIx and CIMT and lower DC. LPA and ST were highly correlated (r=-0.62). The independence of MVPA and ST or MVPA and LPA was inconsistent across vascular measures. Bout lengths for both PA and ST were not associated with vascular measures. In our cross-sectional study of older men, all PA regardless of intensity or bout duration was beneficially associated with vascular measures, as was lower ST. LPA was particularly relevant for cfPWV and CIMT. PMID:27261410

  10. A pilot study of actigraphy as an objective measure of SSRI activation symptoms; results from a randomized placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Reid, Adam M.; McNamara, Joseph P.H.; Meyer, Johanna M.; Guzick, Andrew G.; Mason, Dana M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an efficacious and effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but have received scrutiny due to a potential side effect constellation called activation syndrome. While recent research introduced a subjective measure of activation syndrome, objective measures have not been tested. This pilot study, using data from a larger randomized-controlled trial, investigated the potential of actigraphy to provide an objective measure of activation symptoms in 44 youths with OCD beginning an SSRI medication regimen. Data were collected over the first four weeks of a multisite, parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study and statistical modeling was utilized to test how activation syndrome severity predicts daily and nightly activity levels. Results indicated that youths with higher activation symptoms had lower daytime activity levels when treatment averages were analyzed; in contrast youths who experienced onset of activation symptoms one week were more likely to have higher daytime and night-time activity ratings that week. Results support actigraphy as a potential objective measure of activation symptoms. Subsequent studies are needed to confirm these findings and test clinical applications for use by clinicians to monitor activation syndrome during SSRI treatment. National Institutes of Health (5UO1 MH078594-01); NCT00382291. PMID:25535011

  11. Self-activating System and Method for Alerting When an Object or a Person is Left Unattended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Mack, Terry L. (Inventor); Modlin, Edward A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system and method use a wireless tether comprising a transmitter and a receiver to alert a caregiver that an object has been left unattended. A detector senses the presence of the object, usually a child, located in a position such as a safety seat. The detector is operatively coupled to the transmitter. which is located near the object. The transmitter transmits at least one wireless signal when the object is in the position. The receiver, which is remotely located from the transmitter, senses at least one signal as long as the receiver is within a prescribed range of transmission. By performing a timing function, the receiver monitors the proximity of the caregiver, who maintains possession of the receiver, to the transmitter. The system communicates an alarm to the caregiver when the caregiver ventures outside the range of transmission without having removed the object from the position.

  12. Activation of response force by self-splitting objects: where are the limits of feedforward Gestalt processing?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Filipp; Weber, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-21

    Most objects can be recognized easily even when they are partly occluded. This also holds when several overlapping objects share the same surface features (self-splitting objects) which is an illustration of the grouping principle of Good Gestalt. We employed outline and filled contour stimuli in a primed flanker task to test whether the processing of self-splitting objects is in accordance with a simple feedforward model. We obtained priming effects in response time and response force for both types of stimuli, even when increasing the number of occluders up to three. The results for outline contours were in full accordance with a feedforward account. This was not the case for the results for filled contours (i.e., for self-splitting objects), especially under conditions of strong occlusion. We conclude that the implementation of the Good Gestalt principle is fast but still based on recurrent processing.

  13. Self-Activating System and Method for Alerting When an Object or a Person is Left Unattended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, William Christopher (Inventor); Mack, Terry L. (Inventor); Modlin, Edward A. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A system and method uses a wireless tether comprising a transmitter and a receiver to alert a caregiver that an object or person has been left unattended. A detector Senses the presence of the object, usually a child, located in a position such as a safety seat. The detector couples to the transmitter, which is located near the object. The transmitter transmits at least one wireless signal when the object is in the position. The receiver, which is remotely located from the transmitter, senses the at least one signal as long as the receiver is within a prescribed range of transmission. By performing a timing function, the receiver monitors the proximity of the caregiver, who maintains possession of the receiver, to the transmitter. The system communicates an alarm to the caregiver when the caregiver ventures outside the range of transmission without having removed the object/child from the position.

  14. An Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a battery-free…

  15. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  16. Love Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusack, Lynne

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the role of "security" or "transition" objects, such as a blanket or stuffed toy, in children's development of self-comfort and autonomy. Notes the influence of parents in the child-object relationship, and discusses children's responses to losing a security object, and the developmental point at which a child will give up such an…

  17. Object crowding.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Julian M; Tjan, Bosco S

    2011-05-25

    Crowding occurs when stimuli in the peripheral fields become harder to identify when flanked by other items. This phenomenon has been demonstrated extensively with simple patterns (e.g., Gabors and letters). Here, we characterize crowding for everyday objects. We presented three-item arrays of objects and letters, arranged radially and tangentially in the lower visual field. Observers identified the central target, and we measured contrast energy thresholds as a function of target-to-flanker spacing. Object crowding was similar to letter crowding in spatial extent but was much weaker. The average elevation in threshold contrast energy was in the order of 1 log unit for objects as compared to 2 log units for letters and silhouette objects. Furthermore, we examined whether the exterior and interior features of an object are differentially affected by crowding. We used a circular aperture to present or exclude the object interior. Critical spacings for these aperture and "donut" objects were similar to those of intact objects. Taken together, these findings suggest that crowding between letters and objects are essentially due to the same mechanism, which affects equally the interior and exterior features of an object. However, for objects defined with varying shades of gray, it is much easier to overcome crowding by increasing contrast.

  18. Citizenship Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Committee on Assessing the Progress of Education, Ann Arbor, MI.

    The general procedures used to develop educational objectives for the National Assessment of Educational Progress are outlined, as are the procedures used to develop citizenship objectives. Ten general objectives are stated: "show concern for the welfare and dignity of others"; "support rights and freedoms of all individuals"; "help maintain law…

  19. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  20. Verrucous carcinomas of the head and neck, including those with associated squamous cell carcinoma, lack transcriptionally active high-risk human papillomavirus.

    PubMed

    Patel, Kalyani R; Chernock, Rebecca D; Zhang, Tian R; Wang, Xiaowei; El-Mofty, Samir K; Lewis, James S

    2013-11-01

    Most oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and histologic variants harbor transcriptionally active human papillomavirus (HPV). While HPV DNA can be found in many non-oropharyngeal head and neck carcinomas, transcriptionally active HPV is rare. Verrucous carcinoma is a variant with bland cytology, warty appearance, locally destructive growth, and lack of metastasis when lacking a frankly invasive carcinoma component. Studies have shown variable rates of HPV DNA and p16 protein expression in such tumors but still have not clearly addressed if the virus has biological activity or clinical relevance in the positive cases. Department files were searched for verrucous neoplasms, including pure verrucous carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma with dysplasia or minimal invasion, and SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma (ie, having a major component of frankly invasive carcinoma). p16 immunohistochemistry, HPV DNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and E6/E7 mRNA reverse transcription PCR for high-risk HPV types were performed. Of the 49 cases, 6 (12.2%) showed strong (>50%) staining for p16. HPV DNA was detected in 7/49 (14.3%) cases, but only one case was positive for both p16, and HPV DNA. A total of 36 cases yielded sufficient RNA for RT-PCR (18 verrucous carcinomas, 13 atypical verrucous carcinomas, and 5 SCC arising in verrucous carcinoma). All 36 were negative, including the four p16-positive and three HPV DNA-positive tumors tested. Although a minority of verrucous carcinoma lesions are p16 and HPV DNA positive, transcriptionally active high-risk HPV is uniformly absent. These findings argue that verrucous carcinoma and its related squamous cell carcinomas are not HPV-driven tumors.

  1. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  2. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  3. Small Schools Mathematics Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Developed during 1975-76 by 40 primary teachers and 10 elementary principals from 12 small school districts in 2 Washington counties and first used during 1976-77 in more than 20 districts, this K-3 mathematics curriculum is designed to assist district compliance with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, which requires…

  4. Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

  5. Places where preschoolers are (in)active: An observational study on Latino preschoolers and their parents using objective measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in)activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in)activity for this ethnic group. Th...

  6. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  7. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  8. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory.

  9. Compliance with different physical activity recommendations and its association with socio-demographic characteristics using an objective measure

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the past decades, several public health guidelines concerning physical activity have been published. This study evaluated compliance with various physical activity guidelines and examined the associations between meeting the guidelines and socio-demographic characteristics. Methods Data were obtained from 357 Flemish men and women (41.9 ± 9.6 years). Physical activity was assessed for seven consecutive days using the SenseWear Armband. The prevalence of sufficient physical activity was calculated according to various public health guidelines. Logistic regressions examined the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and the odds of meeting the different guidelines. Results 87.2% of men and 68.1% of women achieved ≥150 min/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), but only 57.6% and 37.3% accumulated this amount as ≥30 min/day on ≥5 days/week. With regard to vigorous physical activity, 27.9% of men and 15.7% of women achieved ≥75 min/week and 12.8% and 7.0% achieved ≥20 min/day on ≥3 days/week. In addition, 34.9% of men and 21.6% of women attained an average physical activity level (PAL) of 1.75 MET and thus met the criteria for weight maintenance. Only 16.3% of men and 14.1% of women took 10000 steps/day on 7 days/week. Women had a lower probability of achieving 30 min/day MVPA on 5 days/week (OR: 0.40), or a weekly total of 150 min or 500 MET.min MVPA or 75 min of vigorous activity compared to men (OR: 0.27-0.46). In addition, they were 50% less likely to meet the guidelines for weight maintenance. The odds of engaging in 150 min/week MVPA or attaining a PAL of 1.75 was lower with higher age. Educational level was positively related with accumulating 75 min/week of vigorous activity, but negatively with taking 10000 steps/day. Smokers were 60% less likely to participate weekly in 150 min of MVPA compared to non-smokers. Conclusions The prevalence of sufficient physical activity differed greatly depending on

  10. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  11. Small Schools Mathematics Curriculum, Grades 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Developed during the 1976-77 school year to assist Washington grade 7-8 teachers in small school districts with the improvement of curriculum and instruction, this learning-objective-based curriculum suggests activities, monitoring procedures and resources for mathematics. Introductory materials describe the organization of Small School materials,…

  12. Fermi and Swift observations of correlated outburst activity from the BL Lac object OT 081 (PKS 1749+096)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciprini, Stefano; Gonzalez, Josefa Becerra; Pivato, Giovanna; Thompson, David J.

    2016-07-01

    We report a strong multi-wavelength outburst in the BL Lac object OT 081 (also known as PKS 1749+096, 4C +09.57) with the radio counterpart position R.A.: 267.88674 deg, Dec.: 9.65020 deg (J2000.0, Lanyi et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1695) and with redshift z=0.322 (Stickel, Fried, Kuehr 1988, A & A, 191, 16). Gamma ray and X-ray flares reached peaks during the interval 2016 July 16 and 20 simultaneous with an optical outburst (Balonek et al, 2016, ATel #9259).

  13. A Systematical Method to Search for Active Solar System Objects from the Pan-STARRS Postage Stamp Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Yu-Chi; Wing, Wing-Huen; Hsieh, Henry; Lin, Hsing-Wen

    2015-04-01

    The outgassing effect and dust coma formation process can provide important information on the composition of a comet. The observational study of cometary activity at large heliocentric distance is particularly valuable from this point of view (Epifani et al., 2009; Meech et al., 2009; Kelly et al., 2013). Since mid-2009 the Pan-STARRS project with a wide-field 1.8-m telescope has provided continuous all-sky 3-π survey of time variable phenomena. The data archive is an excellent source for the study of outgassing activities of comets as they orbited around the Sun. We have evaluated the level of gas emission rates of Jupiter Family Comets (JFCs) at different heliocentric distanced by examining the corresponding point-spread function profiles in the postage stamp images. In total, the time evolutionary history of the dust comas of 300 comets has been investigated in terms of the Afρ parameter. In the present work, we will report on the interesting finding that many JFCs exhibited coma activities at heliocentric distance beyond the snow line of about 2.5 AU outside which water ice sublimation will become negligible. Moreover, some comets were active even close to Jupiter's orbit. Four classes of Afρ variability can be identified: (1) activity around perihelion as expected of water sublimation process; (2) presence of coma activity independent of heliocentric distance; (3) point source like nucleus; and (4) no detection. Examples of these different coma behaviors will be described. In addition. Highlights will be given to the detection of outburst-like events near aphelion.

  14. [Behavioral Objectives in English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meade, Richard; And Others

    1970-01-01

    This edition of the "Virginia English Bulletin" is devoted primarily to articles about behavioral objectives and the teaching of English. In "Behavioral Objectives for English?" Richard A. Meade argues that these objectives ought to include the acquisition not only of skills and knowledge but also of understandings, insights, and feelings. He also…

  15. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  16. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  17. Brain activity mapping in Mecp2 mutant mice reveals functional deficits in forebrain circuits, including key nodes in the default mode network, that are reversed with ketamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Kron, Miriam; Howell, C James; Adams, Ian T; Ransbottom, Michael; Christian, Diana; Ogier, Michael; Katz, David M

    2012-10-01

    Excitatory-inhibitory imbalance has been identified within specific brain microcircuits in models of Rett syndrome (RTT) and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, macrocircuit dysfunction across the RTT brain as a whole has not been defined. To approach this issue, we mapped expression of the activity-dependent, immediate-early gene product Fos in the brains of wild-type (Wt) and methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (Mecp2)-null (Null) mice, a model of RTT, before and after the appearance of overt symptoms (3 and 6 weeks of age, respectively). At 6 weeks, Null mice exhibit significantly less Fos labeling than Wt in limbic cortices and subcortical structures, including key nodes in the default mode network. In contrast, Null mice exhibit significantly more Fos labeling than Wt in the hindbrain, most notably in cardiorespiratory regions of the nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS). Using nTS as a model, whole-cell recordings demonstrated that increased Fos expression in Nulls at 6 weeks of age is associated with synaptic hyperexcitability, including increased frequency of spontaneous and miniature EPSCs and increased amplitude of evoked EPSCs in Nulls. No such effect of genotype on Fos or synaptic function was seen at 3 weeks. In the mutant forebrain, reduced Fos expression, as well as abnormal sensorimotor function, were reversed by the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In light of recent findings that the default mode network is hypoactive in autism, our data raise the possibility that hypofunction within this meta-circuit is a shared feature of RTT and other ASDs and is reversible. PMID:23035095

  18. Posttraining activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus impairs object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia R; Rossato, Janine I; Monteiro, Siomara; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that brain endocannabinoids are involved in memory processing. However, the participation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in recognition memory has not been yet conclusively determined. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the posttraining activation of hippocampal cannabinoid receptors on the consolidation of object recognition memory. Rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects. Memory retention was assessed at different times after training. In the test sessions, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately after training, the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor VDM-11 blocked long-term memory retention in a dose-dependent manner without affecting short-term memory, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or the functionality of the hippocampus. The amnesic effect of WIN-55,212-2 and VDM-11 was not due to state-dependency and was completely reversed by co-infusion of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and mimicked by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA but not by the CB2 receptor agonists JWH-015 and palmitoylethanolamide. Our data indicate that activation of hippocampal CB1 receptors early after training hampers consolidation of object recognition memory.

  19. Non-fragile multi-objective static output feedback control of vehicle active suspension with time-delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yongsu; Zhao, Dingxuan; Yang, Bin; Han, Chenghao; Han, Kyongwon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to design a delay-dependent non-fragile H∞/L2-L∞ static output feedback (SOF) controller for active suspension with input time-delay. The control problem of quarter-car active suspension with actuator time-delay is formulated to a H∞/L2-L∞ control problem. By employing a delay-dependent Lyapunov function, new existence conditions of delay-dependent non-fragile SOF H∞ controller and L2-L∞ controller are derived, respectively, in terms of the feasibility of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). Then, a procedure based on linear matrix inequality optimisation and a hybrid algorithm of the particle swarm optimisation and differential evolution is used to solve an optimisation problem with BMI constraints. Design and simulation results of non-fragile H∞/L2-L∞ controller for active suspension show that the designed controller not only can achieve the optimal performance and stability of the closed-loop system in spite of the existence of the actuator time-delay, but also has significantly improved the non-fragility characteristics over controller perturbations.

  20. Objectively assessed physical activity and aerobic fitness in a population-based sample of Norwegian 9- and 15-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Kolle, E; Steene-Johannessen, J; Andersen, L B; Anderssen, S A

    2010-02-01

    The present study described current physical activity, determined compliance with physical activity guidelines and assessed aerobic fitness in a nationally representative sample of 9- and 15-year-olds in Norway. In 2005-2006, 2299 children and adolescents were randomly recruited. The participation rate was 89% and 74% among the 9- and 15-year-olds, respectively. Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry, and aerobic fitness was measured directly as peak oxygen uptake during a cycle ergometry test. Boys were more physically active than girls, and 9-year-olds were substantially more active than 15-year-olds. Physical activity was higher during weekdays than weekends, and 9-year-olds were most active during spring. While four out of five children met current physical activity guidelines, only half of the adolescents did. The mean (SD) values for peak VO2 were: 9-year-old boys, 48.2 (7.1) mL/min/kg; 9-year-old girls, 42.9 (6.7) mL/min/kg; and 15-year-old girls 41.1 (6.0) mL/min/kg and 15-year-old boys 51.9 (8.0) mL/min/kg. Because of the high participation rate, this study provides a good description of the physical activity and aerobic fitness in the young population. Finally, girls and adolescents seem appropriate targets when promoting physical activity in order to increase the proportion meeting the recommendations.

  1. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  2. Objectively measured physical activity in four-year-old British children: a cross-sectional analysis of activity patterns segmented across the day

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about preschool-aged children’s levels of physical activity (PA) over the course of the day. Using time-stamped data, we describe the levels and patterns of PA in a population-based sample of four-year-old British children. Methods Within the Southampton Women’s Survey the PA levels of 593 4-year-old children (51% female) were measured using (Actiheart) accelerometry for up to 7 days. Three outcome measures: minutes spent sedentary (<20 cpm); in light (LPA: ≥20 – 399 cpm) and in moderate-to-vigorous activity (MVPA: ≥400 cpm) were derived. Average daily activity levels were calculated and then segmented across the day (morning, afternoon and evening). MVPA was log-transformed. Two-level random intercept models were used to analyse associations between activity level and temporal and demographic factors. Results Children were active for 67% (mean 568.5 SD 79.5 minutes) of their daily registered time on average, with 88% of active time spent in LPA. All children met current UK guidelines of 180 minutes of daily activity. There were no differences in children’s average daily levels of sedentary activity and LPA by temporal and demographic factors: differences did emerge when activity was segmented across the day. Sex differences were largest in the morning, with girls being more sedentary, spending fewer minutes in LPA and 18% less time in MVPA than boys. Children were more sedentary and less active (LPA and MVPA) in the morning if they attended childcare full-time compared to part-time, and on weekend mornings compared to weekdays. The reverse was true for weekend afternoons and evenings. Children with more educated mothers were less active in the evenings. Children were less sedentary and did more MVPA on summer evenings compared to winter evenings. Conclusions Preschool-aged children meet current physical activity guidelines, but with the majority of their active time spent in LPA, investigation of the importance of activity

  3. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Loprinzi, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = - 0.01; 95% CI: - 0.01 to - 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.0003; 95% CI: - 0.001-0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = - 0.02; 95% CI: - 0.03 to - 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA.

  4. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  5. Sensitivity of the mystacial vibrissae of harbour seals (Phoca vitulina) for size differences of actively touched objects.

    PubMed

    Dehnhardt, G; Kaminski, A

    1995-11-01

    We studied the capability of one male and one female harbour seal Phoca vitulina to discriminate diameter differences of circular discs by means of active touch with their mystacial vibrissae. To prevent the animals from perceiving visual information, they were blindfolded during trials. In a two-alternative forced-choice procedure, the seals were required to choose the larger of two Perspex discs. Weber fractions c (the ratio of the lowest diameter difference detected by the seals on 75% of occasions to the starting disc diameter D, delta D/D = c) were determined for three standard discs (diameters 1.12cm, 5.04cm and 8.74cm) by the psychophysical method of limits. While the seals achieved Weber fractions of 0.29 (male) and 0.26 (female) at the smallest standard disc, their performance improved with increasing disc size, resulting in an approximately constant Weber fraction of 0.13 (male) and 0.08 (female) for the two larger standard discs. The difference in performance between the two seals did not reflect a real difference in sensitivity, but may best be explained by a difference in choice behaviour. As a measure of tactile acuity, the Weber fractions obtained for the larger standard discs indicate that harbour seals can use their mystacial vibrissae as efficiently for active touch as monkeys use their hands.

  6. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  7. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  8. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  9. The concept of sign in the work of Vygotsky, Winnicott and Bakhtin: further integration of object relations theory and activity theory.

    PubMed

    Leiman, M

    1992-09-01

    In a recent paper Ryle introduced the idea of integrating object relations theory and activity theory, a conceptual tradition originated by Vygotsky and developed by a number of Soviet psychologists during the previous decades. A specific aspect of this integrative perspective will be examined, implied in Ryle's paper but not elaborated by him. It is the issue of sign mediation which was Vygotsky's primary contribution to the methodological problems of modern psychology. The aim is to show that object relations theory, especially the work of Winnicott, may bring fresh understanding into Vygotsky's early notions. It is further claimed that, by introducing the contribution of Mikhail Bakhtin and his circle to the notion of sign mediation, the profundity in Winnicott's understanding of the transitional object and of the potential space may be more fully appreciated. At the same time the ideas of Winnicott and Bakhtin will jointly clarify the limitations in Vygotsky's sign conception. PMID:1390355

  10. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    3) significant changes that have occurred in Antarctic exploration and research since World War II will be discussed at the end of this report. Subsequent Open-File Reports will provide a year-by-year documentation of USGS scientific activities and accomplishments in Antarctica beginning with the post-IGY, 1959-60 research team. One Open-File Report is planned to be written for each field-based season. For an example of the series format, see Open-File Reports 2006-1113 (Meunier, 2007a) and 2006-1114 (Meunier, 2007b). This report is a companion document to Open-File Report 2006-1116 (Meunier, 2007c). The USGS mapping and science programs in Antarctica are among the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). The 2005-06 field season is the 56th consecutive U.S. expedition in which USGS scientists have been participants, starting in 1946. USGS and the National Science Foundation (NSF) cooperation began with the establishment by NSF of the U.S. Antarctic (Research) Program [USA(R)P] in 1958-59 under Operation Deep Freeze IV (DF IV) and was given the responsibility for the principal coordination and management of all U.S. scientific activities in Antarctica in Deep Freeze 60 (DF 60) (1959-60). Financial support from NSF, mostly in the form of Memorandum of Understandings (MOUs) and Cooperative Agreements, extends back to this period and can be attributed to the need for accurate geologic, geophysical, and topographic base maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was driven by science and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support (Meunier, 1979 [2007], p. 38). The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, has, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some

  11. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  12. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Although associations between a person’s neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents’ perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14–2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan. PMID:26512682

  13. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-10-01

    Although associations between a person's neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents' perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14-2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan. PMID:26512682

  14. On the Need of Objective Vigilance Monitoring: Effects of Sleep Loss on Target Detection and Task-Negative Activity Using Combined EEG/fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A.; Wetter, Thomas C.; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.; Drummond, Sean P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SDalert) or reduced (SDsleepy) vigilance. In the SDalert condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SDsleepy condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992

  15. A Metabolic–Epidemiological Microsimulation Model to Estimate the Changes in Energy Intake and Physical Activity Necessary to Meet the Healthy People 2020 Obesity Objective

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Hilary; Winkleby, Marilyn

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We combined a metabolic and an epidemiological model of obesity to estimate changes in calorie intake and physical activity necessary to achieve the Healthy People 2020 objective of reducing adult obesity prevalence from 33.9% to 30.5%. Methods. We used the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2010) to construct and validate a microsimulation model of the US population aged 10 years and older, for 2010 to 2020. Results. Obesity prevalence is expected to shift toward older adults, and disparities are expected to widen between White, higher-income groups and minority, lower-income groups if recent calorie consumption and expenditure trends continue into the future. Although a less than 10% reduction in daily calorie intake or increase in physical activity would in theory achieve the Healthy People 2020 objective, no single population-level intervention is likely to achieve the target alone, and individual weight-loss attempts are even more unlikely to achieve the target. Conclusions. Changes in calorie intake and physical activity portend rising inequalities in obesity prevalence. These changes require multiple simultaneous population interventions. PMID:24832140

  16. Levels and Patterns of Objectively Assessed Physical Activity and Compliance with Different Public Health Guidelines in University Students

    PubMed Central

    Arias-Palencia, Natalia María; Solera-Martínez, Monserrat; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Silva, Pedro; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente; Cañete-García-Prieto, Jorge; Sánchez-López, Mairena

    2015-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is associated with health enhancement. The aim of this study was to assess: 1) levels and patterns of PA in university students by using accelerometers; and 2) the percentage of fulfilment of PA recommendations for adults, according to different public health guidelines. Methods Observational cross-sectional study (Cuenca’s Adults Study) involving 296 (206 women) healthy Spanish university students aged 18–25 years old. Participants wore the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer for seven consecutive days. Total PA, steps and time spent in sedentary time, light, moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed, and the prevalence of sufficient PA was calculated according to various public health guidelines. Results No sex differences in total PA were found. University students were more sedentary during weekend days than weekdays (p<0.05). Only 30.3% of participants accumulated 30 min/day at least five days a week of MVPA. A total of 5.4% of students met the recommendation of 150 min/week of MVPA or 75 min/week of vigorous PA, in PA bouts of at least 10 min. using the same definition, but on five or more days a week, only 0.5% students were found to meet the recommendation. In addition, only 0.5% of students met the recommendation of 30 min/day of MVPA, at least five days a week and in bouts of at least 10 min. Finally, 28.1% of the students met the recommendation of 10,000 steps/day. Conclusions Our study shows a high incidence of sedentary time in university students. The number of students meeting PA recommendations significantly differed depending on the recommendation proposed. Specific strategies to promote PA in this population are necessary as well as an agreement as to which PA guidelines should be used. PMID:26536605

  17. Land-Grant College Education 1910 to 1920. Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences Including Miscellaneous Subjects and Activities. Bulletin, 1924, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Walton C., Ed.

    1925-01-01

    This survey of land-grant college education is divided into five sections, published separately as follows: Part I: History and Educational Objectives of Land-Grant College Education; Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences and Miscellaneous Subjects in Land-Grant Colleges; Part III: Agricultural Education in Land-Grant Colleges; Part IV:…

  18. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  19. Using reusable learning objects.

    PubMed

    Billings, Diane M

    2010-02-01

    Reusable learning objects (RLOs) are predeveloped digital learning activities that can be integrated into lessons, modules, and courses. Several repositories have nursing-specific RLOs waiting to be used by nurse educators.

  20. Seed dormancy breaking diterpenoids, including novel brassicicenes J and K, from fungus Alternaria brassicicola, and their necrotic/apoptotic activities in HL-60 cells.

    PubMed

    Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Takeue, Sayaka; Oogushi, Megumi; Yagi, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Takeshi; Toyota, Masao; Asakawa, Yoshinori

    2014-03-01

    To find new metabolites similar to cotylenins and fusicoccins from the fungus Alternaria brassicicola, screening tests were carried out using the lettuce seed dormancy breaking assay. Activity-guided fractionation of the EtOAc extract from the culture using the assay afforded the isolation of two novel fusicoccane diterpenoids named brassicicenes J (1) and K (2), along with three known brassicicenes A (3), B (4), and F (5). Their structures were elucidated from extensive NMR spectral data and by comparison of these with those reported in the literature. Brassicicenes (1-5) exhibited weak to moderate seed dormancy breaking activities against lettuce seeds in the presence of abscisic acid. In addition, the necrotic/apoptotic activities of the brassicicenes (1-5), fusicoccin A (6) and cotylenin A (7) were evaluated by determining their cytotoxicity, cell viability and caspase-3/7 activation on the HL-60 cell line. Brassicicene K (2) exhibited similar cytostatic profiles to that of cotylenin A (7), and brassicicenes J (1), A (3), B (4), and F (5) exhibited necrotic activity. This is the first report of the seed dormancy breaking activity of brassicicenes in plants, and of necrotic/apoptotic activity in mammalian cells. PMID:24689212

  1. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  2. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  3. Enhanced phonological facilitation and traces of concurrent word form activation in speech production: an object-naming study with multiple distractors.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Rasha; Melinger, Alissa

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, we extended the classic picture-word interference paradigm by the presentation of multiple distractor words (Experiment 1) to reexamine whether the word forms of semantic alternatives receive activation in the course of object naming. Experiment 2 showed that phonological facilitation can be magnified by the presentation of multiple words that share overlapping initial and final segments with the target name. Experiments 3 and 4 tested for traces ofnontarget phonological activation with multiple distractors, which enhances the chances of detecting such effects. These experiments revealed a consistent pattern of interference effects induced by words that were related to a semantic category member, consistent with theories assuming phonological activation of nontarget alternatives. PMID:19086192

  4. Robot Grasps Rotating Object

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, Brian H.; Tso, Kam S.; Litwin, Todd E.; Hayati, Samad A.; Bon, Bruce B.

    1991-01-01

    Experimental robotic system semiautomatically grasps rotating object, stops rotation, and pulls object to rest in fixture. Based on combination of advanced techniques for sensing and control, constructed to test concepts for robotic recapture of spinning artificial satellites. Potential terrestrial applications for technology developed with help of system includes tracking and grasping of industrial parts on conveyor belts, tracking of vehicles and animals, and soft grasping of moving objects in general.

  5. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  6. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version.

  7. Data-Driven Objectness.

    PubMed

    Hongwen Kang; Hebert, Martial; Efros, Alexei A; Kanade, Takeo

    2015-01-01

    We propose a data-driven approach to estimate the likelihood that an image segment corresponds to a scene object (its "objectness") by comparing it to a large collection of example object regions. We demonstrate that when the application domain is known, for example, in our case activity of daily living (ADL), we can capture the regularity of the domain specific objects using millions of exemplar object regions. Our approach to estimating the objectness of an image region proceeds in two steps: 1) finding the exemplar regions that are the most similar to the input image segment; 2) calculating the objectness of the image segment by combining segment properties, mutual consistency across the nearest exemplar regions, and the prior probability of each exemplar region. In previous work, parametric objectness models were built from a small number of manually annotated objects regions, instead, our data-driven approach uses 5 million object regions along with their metadata information. Results on multiple data sets demonstrates our data-driven approach compared to the existing model based techniques. We also show the application of our approach in improving the performance of object discovery algorithms. PMID:26353218

  8. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  9. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  10. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  11. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  12. Effect of block of α-1-adrenoceptors on overall motor activity but not on spatial cognition in the object-position recognition task.

    PubMed

    Levčík, D; Stuchlík, A; Klement, D

    2013-01-01

    Prazosin, an alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, is well known for its depressant effect on motivation and motor activity, while it has no effect on retention of spatial behavior in several tasks, e.g. in the Morris water maze and radial arm maze. The role of alpha(1)-adrenoceptors in operant tasks with stimulus-controlled behavior has not yet been tested. The present study investigated the effect of prazosin on the modulation of overall motor activity and on cognitive performance in a spatial operant task called object-position recognition task, where operant behavior (lever pressing) was controlled by spatial stimuli displayed on a computer screen. This task has been previously showed to be hippocampal-dependent. Pre-test injection of prazosin at the dose of 3 mg/kg decreased the responding rate, while it did not affect the recognition of object's position. In conclusion, we validated the new cognitive test with a drug with known pharmacological effects on behavior and confirmed the depressant effect of prazosin on motor activity and no effect on retrieval of spatial memory in the hippocampal-dependent operant task.

  13. Development of a Proxy-Free Objective Assessment Tool of Instrumental Activities of Daily Living in Mild Cognitive Impairment Using Smart Home Technologies

    PubMed Central

    Jekel, Katrin; Damian, Marinella; Storf, Holger; Hausner, Lucrezia; Frölich, Lutz

    2016-01-01

    Background: The assessment of activities of daily living (ADL) is essential for dementia diagnostics. Even in mild cognitive impairment (MCI), subtle deficits in instrumental ADL (IADL) may occur and signal a higher risk of conversion to dementia. Thus, sensitive and reliable ADL assessment tools are important. Smart homes equipped with sensor technology and video cameras may provide a proxy-free assessment tool for the detection of IADL deficits. Objective:The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential of a smart home environment for the assessment of IADL in MCI. Method: The smart home consisted of a two-room flat equipped with activity sensors and video cameras. Participants with either MCI or healthy controls (HC) had to solve a standardized set of six tasks, e.g., meal preparation, telephone use, and finding objects in the flat. Results: MCI participants needed more time (1384 versus 938 seconds, p <  0.001) and scored less total points (48 versus 57 points, p <  0.001) while solving the tasks than HC. Analyzing the subtasks, intergroup differences were observed for making a phone call, operating the television, and retrieving objects. MCI participants showed more searching and task-irrelevant behavior than HC. Task performance was correlated with cognitive status and IADL questionnaires but not with participants’ age. Conclusion: This pilot study showed that smart home technologies offer the chance for an objective and ecologically valid assessment of IADL. It can be analyzed not only whether a task is successfully completed but also how it is completed. Future studies should concentrate on the development of automated detection of IADL deficits. PMID:27031479

  14. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  15. FBI-1 Can Stimulate HIV-1 Tat Activity and Is Targeted to a Novel Subnuclear Domain that Includes the Tat-P-TEFb—containing Nuclear Speckles

    PubMed Central

    Pendergrast, P. Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-01-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain–containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor–rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription. PMID:11907272

  16. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  17. Regarding "Semi-active control of the rocking motion of monolithic art objects" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 374 (2016) 1-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "Semi-active control of the rocking motion of monolithic art objects" by R. Ceravolo, M.L. Pecorelli, and L.Z. Fragonara, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work by D. Konstantinidis and N. Makris entitled "Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of free-standing and anchored laboratory equipment", Report No. PEER 2005/07. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center, University of California, Berkeley, 2005. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  18. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  19. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  20. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  1. [Centenary of I.P. Pavlov's Madrid speech (April, 1903): Subjective aspect of mental activity as an object of system analysis].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V; Uryvaev, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    The main pathstones of methodological approaches to objective exploration of mental activity outlined by I.P. Pavlov in 1903, in particular, such its features as the ability to forsee the results, expediency, reasonable character, and adaptivity of behavior are considered. Stages of methodological perfection of investigations of the inner (mental) states of living organisms, semantic transformation of conditioned reflex, conditioning of the first and second orders, systems of conditioned reflexes, psychonervous activity, causal and extrapolative reflexes are analyzed. The significance of the development of the theory of the functional system by P.K. Anokhin and the modern state of its understanding are shown. The functional significance and neurophysiologic mechanisms of movement task, programming, motivation, memory engram, reinforcement etc. is discussed. PMID:15326945

  2. [Centenary of I.P. Pavlov's Madrid speech (April, 1903): Subjective aspect of mental activity as an object of system analysis].

    PubMed

    Sudakov, K V; Uryvaev, Iu V

    2004-01-01

    The main pathstones of methodological approaches to objective exploration of mental activity outlined by I.P. Pavlov in 1903, in particular, such its features as the ability to forsee the results, expediency, reasonable character, and adaptivity of behavior are considered. Stages of methodological perfection of investigations of the inner (mental) states of living organisms, semantic transformation of conditioned reflex, conditioning of the first and second orders, systems of conditioned reflexes, psychonervous activity, causal and extrapolative reflexes are analyzed. The significance of the development of the theory of the functional system by P.K. Anokhin and the modern state of its understanding are shown. The functional significance and neurophysiologic mechanisms of movement task, programming, motivation, memory engram, reinforcement etc. is discussed.

  3. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  4. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  5. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  6. Context-specific activation of hippocampus and SN/VTA by reward is related to enhanced long-term memory for embedded objects.

    PubMed

    Loh, Eleanor; Kumaran, Dharshan; Koster, Raphael; Berron, David; Dolan, Ray; Duzel, Emrah

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies indicate that hippocampal representations of environmental context modulate reward-related processing in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), a major origin of dopamine in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated the neural specificity of context-reward associations under conditions where the presence of perceptually similar neutral contexts imposed high demands on a putative hippocampal function, pattern separation. The design also allowed us to investigate how contextual reward enhances long-term memory for embedded neutral objects. SN/VTA activity underpinned specific context-reward associations in the face of perceptual similarity. A reward-related enhancement of long-term memory was restricted to the condition where the rewarding and the neutral contexts were perceptually similar, and in turn was linked to co-activation of the hippocampus (subfield DG/CA3) and SN/VTA. Thus, an ability of contextual reward to enhance memory for focal objects is closely linked to context-related engagement of hippocampal-SN/VTA circuitry. PMID:26708279

  7. Context-specific activation of hippocampus and SN/VTA by reward is related to enhanced long-term memory for embedded objects.

    PubMed

    Loh, Eleanor; Kumaran, Dharshan; Koster, Raphael; Berron, David; Dolan, Ray; Duzel, Emrah

    2016-10-01

    Animal studies indicate that hippocampal representations of environmental context modulate reward-related processing in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area (SN/VTA), a major origin of dopamine in the brain. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in humans, we investigated the neural specificity of context-reward associations under conditions where the presence of perceptually similar neutral contexts imposed high demands on a putative hippocampal function, pattern separation. The design also allowed us to investigate how contextual reward enhances long-term memory for embedded neutral objects. SN/VTA activity underpinned specific context-reward associations in the face of perceptual similarity. A reward-related enhancement of long-term memory was restricted to the condition where the rewarding and the neutral contexts were perceptually similar, and in turn was linked to co-activation of the hippocampus (subfield DG/CA3) and SN/VTA. Thus, an ability of contextual reward to enhance memory for focal objects is closely linked to context-related engagement of hippocampal-SN/VTA circuitry.

  8. Associations Between Reasons to Go Outdoors and Objectively-Measured Walking Activity in Various Life-Space Areas Among Older People.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantakokko, Merja; Viljanen, Anne; Saajanaho, Milla; Eronen, Johanna; Rantanen, Taina; Portegijs, Erja

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated associations between reasons to go outdoors and objectively-measured walking activity in various life-space areas among older people. During the study, 174 community-dwelling older people aged 75-90 from central Finland wore an accelerometer over seven days and recorded their reasons to go outdoors in an activity diary. The most common reasons for going outdoors were shopping, walking for exercise, social visits, and running errands. Activities done in multiple life-space areas contributed more to daily step counts than those done in the neighborhood or town and beyond. Those who went shopping or walked for exercise accumulated higher daily step counts than those who did not go outdoors for these reasons. These results show that shopping and walking for exercise are common reasons to go outdoors for community-dwelling older people and may facilitate walking activity in older age. Future studies on how individual trips contribute to the accumulation of steps are warranted.

  9. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes.

  10. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control. PMID:25153870

  11. Fumigant toxicity of Oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components, including their acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, against Japanese termites (Reticulitermes speratus).

    PubMed

    Park, Il-Kwon

    2014-08-19

    This study investigated the fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum (Liquidambar orientalis) and valerian (Valeriana wallichii) essential oils and their components against the Japanese termite (Reticulitermes speratus). The fumigant toxicity of oriental sweetgum and valerian oil differed significantly according to exposure time. Oriental sweetgum showed toxicity at short exposure times (2 days), and the toxicity of valerian oil was high 7 days after treatment. The main constituents of oriental sweetgum and valerian oils were tested individually for their fumigant toxicity against Japanese termites. Among the test compounds, benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, 1-phenyl-1-ethanol, hydrocinnamyl alcohol, trans-cinnamyl aldehyde, trans-cinnamyl alcohol, cis-asarone, styrene, and cis-ocimene showed toxicity against Japanese termites 7 days after treatment. Hydrocinnamyl alcohol and trans-cinnamyl alcohol were found to be the major contributors to the fumigant antitermitic toxicity of oriental sweetgum oil. The acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity of two oils and their constituents was tested to determine their mode of action. Only cis-ocimene showed strong AChE inhibition activity with an IC50 value of 0.131 mg/mL. Further studies are warranted to determine the potential of these essential oils and their constituents as fumigants for termite control.

  12. Suppression of the ELO-2 FA elongation activity results in alterations of the fatty acid composition and multiple physiological defects, including abnormal ultradian rhythms, in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed Central

    Kniazeva, Marina; Sieber, Matt; McCauley, Scott; Zhang, Kang; Watts, Jennifer L; Han, Min

    2003-01-01

    While the general steps of fatty acid (FA) biosynthesis are well understood, the individual enzymes involved in the elongation of long chain saturated and polyunsaturated FA (PUFA) are largely unknown. Recent research indicates that these enzymes might be of considerable physiological importance for human health. We use Caenorhabditis elegans to study FA elongation activities and associated abnormal phenotypes. In this article we report that the predicted C. elegans F11E6.5/ELO-2 is a functional enzyme with the FA elongation activity. It is responsible for the elongation of palmitic acid and is involved in PUFA biosynthesis. RNAi-mediated suppression of ELO-2 causes an accumulation of palmitate and an associated decrease in the PUFA fraction in triacylglycerides and phospholipid classes. This imbalance in the FA composition results in multiple phenotypic defects such as slow growth, small body size, reproductive defects, and changes in rhythmic behavior. ELO-2 cooperates with the previously reported ELO-1 in 20-carbon PUFA production, and at least one of the enzymes must function to provide normal growth and development in C. elegans. The presented data indicate that suppression of a single enzyme of the FA elongation machinery is enough to affect various organs and systems in worms. This effect resembles syndromic disorders in humans. PMID:12586704

  13. Pig skin includes dendritic cell subsets transcriptomically related to human CD1a and CD14 dendritic cells presenting different migrating behaviors and T cell activation capacities.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Florian; Vu Manh, Thien-Phong; Maisonnasse, Pauline; Elhmouzi-Younes, Jamila; Urien, Céline; Bouguyon, Edwige; Jouneau, Luc; Bourge, Mickael; Simon, Gaëlle; Ezquerra, Angel; Lecardonnel, Jérôme; Bonneau, Michel; Dalod, Marc; Schwartz-Cornil, Isabelle; Bertho, Nicolas

    2014-12-15

    Swine skin is one of the best structural models for human skin, widely used to probe drug transcutaneous passage and to test new skin vaccination devices. However, little is known about its composition in immune cells, and among them dendritic cells (DC), that are essential in the initiation of the immune response. After a first seminal work describing four different DC subpopulations in pig skin, we hereafter deepen the characterization of these cells, showing the similarities between swine DC subsets and their human counterparts. Using comparative transcriptomic study, classical phenotyping as well as in vivo and in vitro functional studies, we show that swine CD163(pos) dermal DC (DDC) are transcriptomically similar to the human CD14(pos) DDC. CD163(pos) DDC are recruited in inflamed skin, they migrate in inflamed lymph but they are not attracted toward CCL21, and they modestly activate allogeneic CD8 T cells. We also show that CD163(low) DDC are transcriptomically similar to the human CD1a(pos) DDC. CD163(low) DDC migrate toward CCL21, they activate allogeneic CD8 and CD4 T cells and, like their potential human lung counterpart, they skew CD4 T cells toward a Th17 profile. We thus conclude that swine skin is a relevant model for human skin vaccination.

  14. Flow cytometric analysis of the Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity on red cells: various Rh blood group phenotypes including Du variants.

    PubMed

    Ota, M; Hasekura, H; Fukushima, H; Yonemura, I

    1989-04-01

    Rh1 (Rho, D) antigen activity has been analyzed by the use of the indirect immunofluorescence flow cytometry (FCM), and the Rh blood group genotypes were able to be successfully determined from the intensity of fluorescence detected in flow cytometry using the anti-D IgG that was fractionated in a Protein A Sepharose CL-4B column as the primary antibody. The relative amount of the fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) bound to the D (R1R1, CDe/CDe), the high grade Du (R2r',cDE/Cde), the low grade Du (K1r, CDue/cde), and the d (rr, cde/cde) red cells was estimated from the mean fluorescent intensity. The FITC-binding activity of the high grade Du and low grade Du was 83% and 21% that of D. The antigen-antibody complex density profile was analyzed by using the FITC-conjugated protein-A in place of the second antibody. Compared with the found results using anti-human globulin as the second antibody, this method was less sensitive but it still was able to demonstrate the different degrees of fluorescence according to the Rh genotypes. The present FCM method is both simple and useful for (1) measuring the relative amount of antigens, (2) for detecting the dosage effect and (3) for deferminins the blood group genotypes. PMID:2509769

  15. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  16. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  17. MifM Monitors Total YidC Activities of Bacillus subtilis, Including That of YidC2, the Target of Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Koreaki

    2014-01-01

    The YidC/Oxa1/Alb3 family proteins are involved in membrane protein biogenesis in bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. Recent studies show that YidC uses a channel-independent mechanism to insert a class of membrane proteins into the membrane. Bacillus subtilis has two YidC homologs, SpoIIIJ (YidC1) and YidC2 (YqjG); the former is expressed constitutively, while the latter is induced when the SpoIIIJ activity is compromised. MifM is a substrate of SpoIIIJ, and its failure in membrane insertion is accompanied by stable ribosome stalling on the mifM-yidC2 mRNA, which ultimately facilitates yidC2 translation. While mutational inactivation of SpoIIIJ has been known to induce yidC2 expression, here, we show that the level of this induction is lower than that observed when the membrane insertion signal of MifM is defective. Moreover, this partial induction of YidC2 translation is lowered further when YidC2 is overexpressed in trans. These results suggest that YidC2 is able to insert MifM into the membrane and to release its translation arrest. Thus, under SpoIIIJ-deficient conditions, YidC2 expression is subject to MifM-mediated autogenous feedback repression. Our results show that YidC2 uses a mechanism that is virtually identical to that used by SpoIIIJ; Arg75 of YidC2 in its intramembrane yet hydrophilic cavity is functionally indispensable and requires negatively charged residues of MifM as an insertion substrate. From these results, we conclude that MifM monitors the total activities of the SpoIIIJ and the YidC2 pathways to control the synthesis of YidC2 and to maintain the cellular capability of the YidC mode of membrane protein biogenesis. PMID:25313395

  18. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation. PMID:26901703

  19. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  20. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation activity worldwide in 2012 and a SWOT analysis of the Worldwide Network for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Group including the global survey.

    PubMed

    Niederwieser, D; Baldomero, H; Szer, J; Gratwohl, M; Aljurf, M; Atsuta, Y; Bouzas, L F; Confer, D; Greinix, H; Horowitz, M; Iida, M; Lipton, J; Mohty, M; Novitzky, N; Nunez, J; Passweg, J; Pasquini, M C; Kodera, Y; Apperley, J; Seber, A; Gratwohl, A

    2016-06-01

    Data on 68 146 hematopoietic stem cell transplants (HSCTs) (53% autologous and 47% allogeneic) gathered by 1566 teams from 77 countries and reported through their regional transplant organizations were analyzed by main indication, donor type and stem cell source for the year 2012. With transplant rates ranging from 0.1 to 1001 per 10 million inhabitants, more HSCTs were registered from unrelated 16 433 donors than related 15 493 donors. Grafts were collected from peripheral blood (66%), bone marrow (24%; mainly non-malignant disorders) and cord blood (10%). Compared with 2006, an increase of 46% total (57% allogeneic and 38% autologous) was observed. Growth was due to an increase in reporting teams (18%) and median transplant activity/team (from 38 to 48 HSCTs/team). An increase of 167% was noted in mismatched/haploidentical family HSCT. A Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (SWOT) analysis revealed the global perspective of WBMT to be its major strength and identified potential to be the key professional body for patients and authorities. The limited data collection remains its major weakness and threat. In conclusion, global HSCT grows over the years without plateauing (allogeneic>autologous) and at different rates in the four World Health Organization regions. Major increases were observed in allogeneic, haploidentical HSCT and, to a lesser extent, in cord blood transplantation.

  1. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  2. Object-processing neural efficiency differentiates object from spatial visualizers.

    PubMed

    Motes, Michael A; Malach, Rafael; Kozhevnikov, Maria

    2008-11-19

    The visual system processes object properties and spatial properties in distinct subsystems, and we hypothesized that this distinction might extend to individual differences in visual processing. We conducted a functional MRI study investigating the neural underpinnings of individual differences in object versus spatial visual processing. Nine participants of high object-processing ability ('object' visualizers) and eight participants of high spatial-processing ability ('spatial' visualizers) were scanned, while they performed an object-processing task. Object visualizers showed lower bilateral neural activity in lateral occipital complex and lower right-lateralized neural activity in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. The data indicate that high object-processing ability is associated with more efficient use of visual-object resources, resulting in less neural activity in the object-processing pathway.

  3. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  4. Challenges and solutions in the bioanalysis of BMS-986094 and its metabolites including a highly polar, active nucleoside triphosphate in plasma and tissues using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ang; Lute, John; Gu, Huidong; Wang, Bonnie; Trouba, Kevin J; Arnold, Mark E; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Wang, Jian

    2015-09-01

    BMS-986094, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor of the hepatitis C virus, was withdrawn from clinical trials because of a serious safety issue. To investigate a potential association between drug/metabolite exposure and toxicity in evaluations conducted after the termination of the BMS-986094 development program, it was essential to determine the levels of BMS-986094 and its major metabolites INX-08032, INX-08144 and INX-09054 in circulation and the active nucleoside triphosphate INX-09114 in target and non-target tissues. However, there were many challenges in the bioanalysis of these compounds. The chromatography challenge for the extremely polar nucleoside triphosphate was solved by applying mixed-mode chromatography which combined anion exchange and reversed-phase interactions. The LC conditions provided adequate retention and good peak shape of the analyte and showed good robustness. A strategy using simultaneous extraction but separate LC analysis of the prodrug BMS-986094 and its major circulating metabolites was used to overcome a carryover issue of the hydrophobic prodrug while still achieving good chromatography of the polar metabolites. In addition, the nucleotide analytes were not stable in the presence of endogenous enzymes. Low pH and low temperature were required for blood collection and plasma sample processing. However, the use of phosphatase inhibitor and immediate homogenization and extraction were critical for the quantitative analysis of the active triphosphate, INX-09114, in tissue samples. To alleviate the bioanalytical complexity caused by multiple analytes, different matrices, and various species, a fit-for-purpose approach to assay validation was implemented based on the needs of drug safety assessment in non-clinical (GLP or non-GLP) studies. The assay for INX-08032 was fully validated in plasma of toxicology species. The lower limit of quantification was 1.00ng/mL and the linear curve range was 1.00-500.00ng/mL using a weighted (1/x(2

  5. Association of change in brain structure to objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in older adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

    PubMed

    Arnardottir, Nanna Yr; Koster, Annemarie; Domelen, Dane R Van; Brychta, Robert J; Caserotti, Paolo; Eiriksdottir, Gudny; Sverrisdottir, Johanna E; Sigurdsson, Sigurdur; Johannsson, Erlingur; Chen, Kong Y; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; Sveinsson, Thorarinn

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have examined the hypothesis that greater participation in physical activity (PA) is associated with less brain atrophy. Here we examine, in a sub-sample (n=352, mean age 79.1 years) of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study cohort, the association of the baseline and 5-year change in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-derived volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) to active and sedentary behavior (SB) measured at the end of the 5-year period by a hip-worn accelerometer for seven consecutive days. More GM (β=0.11; p=0.044) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) at baseline was associated with more total physical activity (TPA). Also, when adjusting for baseline values, the 5-year change in GM (β=0.14; p=0.0037) and WM (β=0.11; p=0.030) was associated with TPA. The 5-year change in WM was associated with SB (β=-0.11; p=0.0007). These data suggest that objectively measured PA and SB late in life are associated with current and prior cross-sectional measures of brain atrophy, and that change over time is associated with PA and SB in expected directions.

  6. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation. PMID:22889689

  7. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  8. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor SNP -130 C/T associates with dioxins susceptibility through regulating its receptor activity and downstream effectors including interleukin 24.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ge; Asanoma, Kazuo; Takao, Tomoka; Tsukimori, Kiyomi; Uchi, Hiroshi; Furue, Masutaka; Kato, Kiyoko; Wake, Norio

    2015-01-22

    Dioxins are persistent environmental pollutants that cause multiple adverse health effects in humans, mainly through binding to the ligand-activated transcription factor, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Genetic variation in AhR may modulate the susceptibility to dioxins. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) -130 C/T in the AhR promoter on dioxin-inducible gene transcription, and to investigate interleukin-24 (IL-24) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) as proxies for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exposure. Using primary human chorionic stromal cells, we found that cells with the TT genotype showed higher AhR mRNA and protein levels than did those of the CC genotype. Microarray was carried out to analyze the gene expression profiles of cells (CC and TT genotype) after exposing the cells to TCDD. Several genes associated with human disorders were more highly up-regulated in cells of the TT genotype. Higher up-regulation of IL-24 and IL-1β mRNA in cells with the TT genotype was observed. Furthermore, blood samples from 64 Yusho patients who were accidentally exposed to high concentrations of dioxins were analyzed for the genotype, dioxins concentrations and serum levels of IL-24 and IL-1β. We observed higher serum IL-24 levels and lower serum IL-1β levels in Yusho patients with the TT genotype than in those with the CC genotype. AhR SNP -130 C/T affects serum IL-24 and IL-1β levels, independently of serum dioxins concentrations in Yusho patients. Our observations demonstrate that SNP -130 C/T modulates AhR expression and expression levels of IL-24 and IL-1β, and suggest an association of AhR SNP -130 C/T with the susceptibility to dioxins.

  9. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  10. VERITAS Detection of γ-Ray Flaring Activity From the BL Lac Object 1ES 1727+502 During Bright Moonlight Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Bouvier, A.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Veritas Collaboration; Hughes, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHEs, E\\gt 100 GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35% of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage; RHV configuration), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of γ-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. This detection represents the first evidence of VHE variability from this blazar. The integral flux is (1.1+/- 0.2)× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 above 250 GeV, which is about five times higher than the low-flux state. The detection triggered additional VERITAS observations during standard dark-time. Multiwavelength observations with the FLWO 48″ telescope, and the Swift and Fermi satellites are presented and used to produce the first spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object during γ-ray flaring activity. The SED is then fitted with a standard synchrotron-self-Compton model, placing constraints on the properties of the emitting region and of the acceleration mechanism at the origin of the relativistic particle population in the jet.

  11. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  12. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    SciTech Connect

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  13. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  14. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  15. Data quality objectives for TWRS privatization Phase 1: Confirm tank T is an appropriate feed source for low-activity waste feed batch X

    SciTech Connect

    Certa, P.J.

    1998-07-02

    The Phase 1 privatization contracts require that the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) contractors, on behalf of the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL), deliver the appropriate quantities of the proper composition of feed on schedule to the Privatization contractors (DOE-RL 1996). The type of feed needed, the amount of feed needed, and the overall timing of when feed is to be delivered to the Privatization contractor are specified by the contract. Additional requirements are imposed by the interface control document (ICD) for low-activity waste (LAW) feed (PHMC 1997a). The Tank Waste Remediation System Operation and Utilization Plan (TWRSO/UP) as updated by the Readiness-to-Proceed (RTP) deliverable establishes the baseline operating scenario for the delivery of feed to two Privatization contractors for the first twelve LAW batches. The project master baseline schedule (PMBS) and corresponding logic diagrams that will be used to implement the operating scenario have been developed and are currently being refined. The baseline operating scenario in the TWRSO/UP/RTP specifies which tanks will be used to provide feed for each specific feed batch, the operational activities needed to prepare and deliver each feed batch, and the timing of these activities. This operating scenario has considered such factors as the privatization contracts and ICD requirements, waste composition and chemistry, equipment availability, project schedules and funding, tank farm logistics and the availability of tank space. The PMBS includes activities to reduce programmatic risk.

  16. 15 CFR 930.1 - Overall objectives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... approved management programs and the importance of federal activities (the term “federal action” includes... minimize duplicative effort and unnecessary delay, while making certain that the objectives of the federal... and State agency consistency decisions are directly related to the enforceable policies of...

  17. Tracking of deformable objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aswani, Parimal; Wong, K. K.; Chong, Man N.

    2000-12-01

    Tracking of moving-objects in image sequences is needed for several video processing applications such as content-based coding, object oriented compression, object recognition and more recently for video object plane extraction in MPEG-4 coding. Tracking is a natural follow-up of motion-based segmentation. It is a fast and efficient method to achieve coherent motion segments along the temporal axis. Segmenting out moving objects for each and every frame in a video sequence is a computationally expensive approach. Thus, for better performance, semi-automatic segmentation is an acceptable compromise as automatic segmentation approaches rely heavily on prior assumptions. In semi-automatic segmentation approaches, motion-segmentation is performed only on the initial frame and the moving object is tracked in subsequent frames using tracking algorithms. In this paper, a new model for object tracking is proposed, where