Science.gov

Sample records for activity includes objectives

  1. Interviewing Objects: Including Educational Technologies as Qualitative Research Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Catherine A.; Thompson, Terrie Lynn

    2011-01-01

    This article argues the importance of including significant technologies-in-use as key qualitative research participants when studying today's digitally enhanced learning environments. We gather a set of eight heuristics to assist qualitative researchers in "interviewing" technologies-in-use (or other relevant objects), drawing on concrete…

  2. Object of Activity and Individual Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miettinen, Reijo

    2005-01-01

    A. N. Leontiev (1978) introduced the philosophical concept of practice, or "objective activity" into psychology to reconsider its foundations, and in this context he elaborated the concept of the object of activity. This article deals with the co-formation of an object of a collective activity and of the goals, motives and capabilities…

  3. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  4. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating the design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  5. Multi-objective shape and material optimization of composite structures including damping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    A multi-objective optimal design methodology is developed for light-weight, low-cost composite structures of improved dynamic performance. The design objectives include minimization of resonance amplitudes (or maximization of modal damping), weight, and material cost. The design vector includes micromechanics, laminate, and structural shape parameters. Performance constraints are imposed on static displacements, dynamic amplitudes, and natural frequencies. The effects of damping on the dynamics of composite structures are incorporated. Preliminary applications on a cantilever composite beam illustrated that only the proposed multi-objective optimization, as opposed to single objective functions, simultaneously improved all objectives. The significance of composite damping in the design of advanced composite structures was also demonstrated, indicating that design methods based on undamped dynamics may fail to improve the dynamic performance near resonances.

  6. Of "what" and "where" in a natural search task: Active object handling supports object location memory beyond the object's identity.

    PubMed

    Draschkow, Dejan; Võ, Melissa L-H

    2016-08-01

    Looking for as well as actively manipulating objects that are relevant to ongoing behavioral goals are intricate parts of natural behavior. It is, however, not clear to what degree these two forms of interaction with our visual environment differ with regard to their memory representations. In a real-world paradigm, we investigated if physically engaging with objects as part of a search task influences identity and position memory differently for task-relevant versus irrelevant objects. Participants equipped with a mobile eye tracker either searched for cued objects without object interaction (Find condition) or actively collected the objects they found (Handle condition). In the following free-recall task, identity memory was assessed, demonstrating superior memory for relevant compared to irrelevant objects, but no difference between the Handle and Find conditions. Subsequently, location memory was inferred via times to first fixation in a final object search task. Active object manipulation and task-relevance interacted in that location memory for relevant objects was superior to irrelevant ones only in the Handle condition. Including previous object recall performance as a covariate in the linear mixed-model analysis of times to first fixation allowed us to explore the interaction between remembered/forgotten object identities and the execution of location memory. Identity memory performance predicted location memory in the Find but not the Handle condition, suggesting that active object handling leads to strong spatial representations independent of object identity memory. We argue that object handling facilitates the prioritization of relevant location information, but this might come at the cost of deprioritizing irrelevant information.

  7. Actively learning object names across ambiguous situations.

    PubMed

    Kachergis, George; Yu, Chen; Shiffrin, Richard M

    2013-01-01

    Previous research shows that people can use the co-occurrence of words and objects in ambiguous situations (i.e., containing multiple words and objects) to learn word meanings during a brief passive training period (Yu & Smith, 2007). However, learners in the world are not completely passive but can affect how their environment is structured by moving their heads, eyes, and even objects. These actions can indicate attention to a language teacher, who may then be more likely to name the attended objects. Using a novel active learning paradigm in which learners choose which four objects they would like to see named on each successive trial, this study asks whether active learning is superior to passive learning in a cross-situational word learning context. Finding that learners perform better in active learning, we investigate the strategies and discover that most learners use immediate repetition to disambiguate pairings. Unexpectedly, we find that learners who repeat only one pair per trial--an easy way to infer this pair-perform worse than those who repeat multiple pairs per trial. Using a working memory extension to an associative model of word learning with uncertainty and familiarity biases, we investigate individual differences that correlate with these assorted strategies.

  8. Object and activity detection from aerial video

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Se, Stephen; Shi, Feng; Liu, Xin; Ghazel, Mohsen

    2015-05-01

    Aerial video surveillance has advanced significantly in recent years, as inexpensive high-quality video cameras and airborne platforms are becoming more readily available. Video has become an indispensable part of military operations and is now becoming increasingly valuable in the civil and paramilitary sectors. Such surveillance capabilities are useful for battlefield intelligence and reconnaissance as well as monitoring major events, border control and critical infrastructure. However, monitoring this growing flood of video data requires significant effort from increasingly large numbers of video analysts. We have developed a suite of aerial video exploitation tools that can alleviate mundane monitoring from the analysts, by detecting and alerting objects and activities that require analysts' attention. These tools can be used for both tactical applications and post-mission analytics so that the video data can be exploited more efficiently and timely. A feature-based approach and a pixel-based approach have been developed for Video Moving Target Indicator (VMTI) to detect moving objects at real-time in aerial video. Such moving objects can then be classified by a person detector algorithm which was trained with representative aerial data. We have also developed an activity detection tool that can detect activities of interests in aerial video, such as person-vehicle interaction. We have implemented a flexible framework so that new processing modules can be added easily. The Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to configure the processing pipeline at run-time to evaluate different algorithms and parameters. Promising experimental results have been obtained using these tools and an evaluation has been carried out to characterize their performance.

  9. A Model for the Design of Puzzle-Based Games Including Virtual and Physical Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melero, Javier; Hernandez-Leo, Davinia

    2014-01-01

    Multiple evidences in the Technology-Enhanced Learning domain indicate that Game-Based Learning can lead to positive effects in students' performance and motivation. Educational games can be completely virtual or can combine the use of physical objects or spaces in the real world. However, the potential effectiveness of these approaches…

  10. Unposed Object Recognition using an Active Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    a transition between two different visual aspects V1, and V2 . The human brain stores pose in a simi- lar manner. Neurophysiological evidence sug...re- gion that is not on the table, as estimated using the Depth information provided by the Kinect . The size of the object was normalized in the same

  11. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  12. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  13. Feature-based active contour model and occluding object detection.

    PubMed

    Memar, Sara; Ksantini, Riadh; Boufama, Boubakeur

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a method for image segmentation and object detection. The proposed strategy consists of two major stages. The first one corresponds to image segmentation, which is based on the active contour model (ACM) algorithm, using an automatic selection of the best candidate features among gradient, polarity, and depth, coupled with a combination of them by the kernel support vector machine (KSVM). Although existing techniques, such as the ones based on ACM, perform well in the single-object case and non-noisy environments, these techniques fail when the scene consists of multiple occluding objects, with possibly similar colors. Thus, the second stage corresponds to the identification of salient and occluded objects based on the fuzzy C-mean algorithm (FCM). In this stage, the depth is included as another clue that allows us to estimate the cluster number and to make the clustering process more robust. In particular, complex occlusions can be handled this way, and the objects can be properly segmented and identified. Experimental results on real images and on several standard datasets have shown the success and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  14. From Lobster Shells to Plastic Objects: A Bioplastics Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Reuben; Glaisher, Samuel; Bishop, Alexandra; Katz, Jeffrey L.

    2015-01-01

    A multiple day activity for students to create large-scale plastic objects from the biopolymer chitin (major component of lobster, crab, and shrimp shells) is described. The plastic objects created are durable and made from benign materials, making them suitable for students to take home to play with. Since the student-created plastic objects are…

  15. Active Electric Imaging: Body-Object Interplay and Object's “Electric Texture”

    PubMed Central

    Caputi, Ángel A.; Aguilera, Pedro A.; Pereira, Ana Carolina

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the role of fish's body and object's geometry on determining the image spatial shape in pulse Gymnotiforms. This problem was explored by measuring local electric fields along a line on the skin in the presence and absence of objects. We depicted object's electric images at different regions of the electrosensory mosaic, paying particular attention to the perioral region where a fovea has been described. When sensory surface curvature increases relative to the object's curvature, the image details depending on object's shape are blurred and finally disappear. The remaining effect of the object on the stimulus profile depends on the strength of its global polarization. This depends on the length of the object's axis aligned with the field, in turn depending on fish body geometry. Thus, fish's body and self-generated electric field geometries are embodied in this “global effect” of the object. The presence of edges or local changes in impedance at the nearest surface of closely located objects adds peaks to the image profiles (“local effect” or “object's electric texture”). It is concluded that two cues for object recognition may be used by active electroreceptive animals: global effects (informing on object's dimension along the field lines, conductance, and position) and local effects (informing on object's surface). Since the field has fish's centered coordinates, and electrosensory fovea is used for exploration of surfaces, fish fine movements are essential to perform electric perception. We conclude that fish may explore adjacent objects combining active movements and electrogenesis to represent them using electrosensory information. PMID:21876730

  16. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  17. Activity as Object-Related: Resolving the Dichotomy of Individual and Collective Planes of Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetsenko, Anna

    2005-01-01

    This article suggests that the principle of object-relatedness, introduced by Vygotsky and expanded by A. N. Leontiev, can be used to conceptualize human subjectivity within a profoundly social view of human development. This is achieved by reformulating the premises of cultural-historical activity theory to include the notion that material…

  18. Exploiting object constancy: effects of active exploration and shape morphing on similarity judgments of novel objects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haemy; Wallraven, Christian

    2013-03-01

    Humans are experts at shape processing. This expertise has been learned and fine tuned by actively manipulating and perceiving thousands of objects during development. Therefore, shape processing possesses an active component and a perceptual component. Here, we investigate both components in six experiments in which participants view and/or interact with novel, parametrically defined 3D objects using a touch-screen interface. For probing shape processing, we use a similarity rating task. In Experiments 1-3, we show that active manipulation leads to a better perceptual reconstruction of the physical parameter space than judging rotating objects, or passively viewing someone else's exploration pattern. In Experiment 4, we exploit object constancy-the fact that the visual system assumes that objects do not change their identity during manipulation. We show that slow morphing of an object during active manipulation systematically biases similarity ratings-despite the participants being unaware of the morphing. Experiments 5 and 6 investigate the time course of integrating shape information by restricting the morphing to the first and second half of the trial only. Interestingly, the results indicate that participants do not seem to integrate shape information beyond 5 s of exploration time. Finally, Experiment 7 uses a secondary task that suggests that the previous results are not simply due to lack of attention during the later parts of the trial. In summary, our results demonstrate the advantage of active manipulation for shape processing and indicate a continued, perceptual integration of complex shape information within a time window of a few seconds during object interactions.

  19. Basic Skills and Activities Compendium. Instructional Objectives and Matching Activities for Working with Severely and Profoundly Mentally Retarded Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Univ. of New York, NY. Center for Advanced Study in Education.

    The kit contains instructional objectives and matching activities for working with severely and profoundly mentally retarded children. Activities are classified into three color coded skill areas - sensory stimulation, motor development, and language development. Each card includes the name of the activity, objectives, and step-by-step procedures.…

  20. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  1. Contrast- and illumination-invariant object recognition from active sensation.

    PubMed

    Rentschler, Ingo; Osman, Erol; Jüttner, Martin

    2009-01-01

    It has been suggested that the deleterious effect of contrast reversal on visual recognition is unique to faces, not objects. Here we show from priming, supervised category learning, and generalization that there is no such thing as general invariance of recognition of non-face objects against contrast reversal and, likewise, changes in direction of illumination. However, when recognition varies with rendering conditions, invariance may be restored and effects of continuous learning may be reduced by providing prior object knowledge from active sensation. Our findings suggest that the degree of contrast invariance achieved reflects functional characteristics of object representations learned in a task-dependent fashion.

  2. Active objects programming for military autonomous mobile robots software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-09-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge pannel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  3. Active object programming for military autonomous mobile robot software prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozien, Roger F.

    2001-10-01

    While designing mobile robots, we do think that the prototyping phase is really critical. Good and clever choices have to be made. Indeed, we may not easily upgrade such robots, and most of all, when the robot is on its own, any change in both the software and the physical body is going to be very difficult, if not impossible. Thus, a great effort has to be made when prototyping the robot. Furthermore, I think that the kind of programming is very important. If your programming model is not expressive enough, you may experience a great deal of difficulties to add all the features you want, in order to give your robot reactiveness and decision making autonomy. Moreover, designing, and prototyping the on-board software of a reactive robot brings other difficulties. A reactive robot does not include any matter of rapidity. A reactive system is a system able to respond to a huge panel of situations of which it does not have the schedule. In other words, for instance, the robot does not know when a particular situation may occur, and overall, what it would be doing at this time, and what would be its internal state. This kind of robot must be able to take a decision and to act even if they do not have all the contextual information. To do so, we use a computer language named oRis featuring object and active object oriented programming, but also parallel and dynamic code, (the code can be changed during its own execution). This last point has been made possible because oRis is fully interpreted. However oRis may call fully compiled code, but also Prolog and Java code. An oRis program may be distributed on several computers using TCP/IP network connections. The main issue in this paper is to show how active objet oriented programming, as a modern extension of object oriented programming, may help us in designing autonomous mobile robots. Based on a fully parallel software programming, an active object code allows us to give many features to a robot, and to easily solve

  4. A Brief Survey of Activity Phenomena in Cosmic Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-06-01

    An attempt is done to unify the variety of physical active phenomena observed in various cosmic objects belonging to the all hierarchical levels. The dark energy carrier is suggested to interact with the baryonic matter and provide the activity energy through the injection from "the main reservoir". The concept that the Hubble flow is not possible for non-cosmological shorter scales where the baryonic objects are believed to be gravitationally bound is considered in a few words to show that it is a simple extrapolation of the a priori hypothesis on the formation of cosmic objects. Some observational facts are pointed to show that expansion phenomena at shorter scales could be explained using the Hubble law only. The physical consequences of dark energy exchange with the atomic nuclei and "gravitationally bound" objects are considered.

  5. The relation between infants' activity with objects and attention to object appearance.

    PubMed

    Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M

    2008-09-01

    The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action. Infants robustly responded to changes in action, but as a group did not respond to changes in appearance. Moreover, more skilled activity with objects during naturalistic play was associated with longer looking in response to a change in appearance, but not to a change in action. Implications for the relation between perception and action in infancy are discussed. (

  6. Directed energy active illumination for near-Earth object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riley, Jordan; Lubin, Philip; Hughes, Gary B.; O'Neill, Hugh; Meinhold, Peter; Suen, Jonathan; Bible, Johanna; Johansson, Isabella E.; Griswold, Janelle; Cook, Brianna

    2014-09-01

    On 15 February 2013, a previously unknown ~20 m asteroid struck Earth near Chelyabinsk, Russia, releasing kinetic energy equivalent to ~570 kt TNT. Detecting objects like the Chelyabinsk impactor that are orbiting near Earth is a difficult task, in part because such objects spend much of their own orbits in the direction of the Sun when viewed from Earth. Efforts aimed at protecting Earth from future impacts will rely heavily on continued discovery. Ground-based optical observatory networks and Earth-orbiting spacecraft with infrared sensors have dramatically increased the pace of discovery. Still, less than 5% of near-Earth objects (NEOs) >=100 m/~100 Mt TNT have been identified, and the proportion of known objects decreases rapidly for smaller sizes. Low emissivity of some objects also makes detection by passive sensors difficult. A proposed orbiting laser phased array directed energy system could be used for active illumination of NEOs, enhancing discovery particularly for smaller and lower emissivity objects. Laser fiber amplifiers emit very narrow-band energy, simplifying detection. Results of simulated illumination scenarios are presented based on an orbiting emitter array with specified characteristics. Simulations indicate that return signals from small and low emissivity objects is strong enough to detect. The possibility for both directed and full sky blind surveys is discussed, and the resulting diameter and mass limits for objects in different observational scenarios. The ability to determine both position and speed of detected objects is also discussed.

  7. Enhancing Sensorimotor Activity by Controlling Virtual Objects with Gaze

    PubMed Central

    Modroño, Cristián; Plata-Bello, Julio; Zelaya, Fernando; García, Sofía; Galván, Iván; Marcano, Francisco; Navarrete, Gorka; Casanova, Óscar; Mas, Manuel; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-01-01

    This fMRI work studies brain activity of healthy volunteers who manipulated a virtual object in the context of a digital game by applying two different control methods: using their right hand or using their gaze. The results show extended activations in sensorimotor areas, not only when participants played in the traditional way (using their hand) but also when they used their gaze to control the virtual object. Furthermore, with the exception of the primary motor cortex, regional motor activity was similar regardless of what the effector was: the arm or the eye. These results have a potential application in the field of the neurorehabilitation as a new approach to generate activation of the sensorimotor system to support the recovery of the motor functions. PMID:25799431

  8. Reinforcement active learning in the vibrissae system: optimal object localization.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Goren; Dorfman, Nimrod; Ahissar, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Rats move their whiskers to acquire information about their environment. It has been observed that they palpate novel objects and objects they are required to localize in space. We analyze whisker-based object localization using two complementary paradigms, namely, active learning and intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning. Active learning algorithms select the next training samples according to the hypothesized solution in order to better discriminate between correct and incorrect labels. Intrinsic-reward reinforcement learning uses prediction errors as the reward to an actor-critic design, such that behavior converges to the one that optimizes the learning process. We show that in the context of object localization, the two paradigms result in palpation whisking as their respective optimal solution. These results suggest that rats may employ principles of active learning and/or intrinsic reward in tactile exploration and can guide future research to seek the underlying neuronal mechanisms that implement them. Furthermore, these paradigms are easily transferable to biomimetic whisker-based artificial sensors and can improve the active exploration of their environment.

  9. Adiponectin, Leptin and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Adults: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nurnazahiah, Ali; Lua, Pei Lin; Shahril, Mohd Razif

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compile and analyse existing scientific evidences reporting the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin. Articles related to the effects of objectively measured physical activity on the levels of adiponectin and leptin were searched from the Medline and PubMed databases. The search was limited to ‘objectively measured’ physical activity, and studies that did not objectively measure the physical activity were excluded. Only English articles were included in the search and review. A total of 18 articles encompassing 2,026 respondents met the inclusion criteria. The eligible articles included all forms of evidence (e.g., cross-sectional and intervention). Seventeen and 11 studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Five and four cross-sectional studies showed the effects of objectively measured physical activity on adiponectin and leptin, respectively. Two out of five studies showed a weak to moderate positive association between adiponectin and objectively measured physical activity, while three out of four studies showed a weak to moderate inverse association between leptin and objectively measured physical activity. For intervention studies, six out of 12 studies involving adiponectin and five out of seven studies involving leptin showed a significant effect between the proteins and objectively measured physical activity. However, a definitive conclusion could not be drawn due to several methodological flaws in the existing articles and the acute lack of additional research in this area. In conclusion, the existing evidences are encouraging but yet not compelling. Hence, further well-designed large trials are needed before the effectiveness of objectively measured physical activity in elevating adiponectin levels and in decreasing leptin levels could be strongly confirmed. PMID:28090175

  10. Concealed objects detection based on FWT in active millimeter-wave images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Kun; Zhang, Lu; Chen, Wei; Wan, Guolong; Fu, Ruoran

    2017-01-01

    Active millimeter-wave (MMW) near-filed human imaging is a means for concealed objects detection. A method of concealed objects detection based on fast wavelet transforms (FWT) in the usage of active MMW images is presented as a result of image characteristics, which includes high resolution, characteristics varying in different parts of the human, imaging influenced among human, concealed objects and other objects, and different textures of concealed objects. Images segmentation utilizing results of edge detection based on FWT is conducted and preliminary segmentation results can be obtained. Some kinds of concealed objects according to comparing gray value of concealed objects to human average gray value can be detected in this paper. The experiments of concealed objects on images of actual acquisition are conducted with a result of accurate rate 80.92% and false alarm rate 11.78%, illustrating the effectiveness of the method proposed in this paper.

  11. Active illuminated space object imaging and tracking simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Yufang; Xie, Xiaogang; Luo, Wen; Zhang, Feizhou; An, Jianzhu

    2016-10-01

    Optical earth imaging simulation of a space target in orbit and it's extraction in laser illumination condition were discussed. Based on the orbit and corresponding attitude of a satellite, its 3D imaging rendering was built. General simulation platform was researched, which was adaptive to variable 3D satellite models and relative position relationships between satellite and earth detector system. Unified parallel projection technology was proposed in this paper. Furthermore, we denoted that random optical distribution in laser-illuminated condition was a challenge for object discrimination. Great randomicity of laser active illuminating speckles was the primary factor. The conjunction effects of multi-frame accumulation process and some tracking methods such as Meanshift tracking, contour poid, and filter deconvolution were simulated. Comparison of results illustrates that the union of multi-frame accumulation and contour poid was recommendable for laser active illuminated images, which had capacities of high tracking precise and stability for multiple object attitudes.

  12. Multispectral illumination and image processing techniques for active millimeter-wave concealed object detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lixiao; Stiens, Johan; Elhawil, Amna; Vounckx, Roger

    2008-12-01

    Active millimeter-wave imaging systems for concealed object detection offer the possibility of much higher image contrast than passive systems, especially in indoor applications. By studying active millimeter-wave images of different test objects derived in the W band, we show that multispectral illumination is critical to the detectability of targets. We also propose to use image change detection techniques, including image differencing, normalized difference vegetation index, and principle component analysis to process the multispectral millimeter-wave images. The results demonstrate that multispectral illumination can significantly reveal the object features hidden by image artifacts and improve the appearance of the objects.

  13. Characterization of real objects by an active electrolocation sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metzen, Michael G.; Al Ghouz, Imène; Krueger, Sandra; Bousack, Herbert; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2012-04-01

    Weakly electric fish use a process called 'active electrolocation' to orientate in their environment and to localize objects based on their electrical properties. To do so, the fish discharge an electric organ which emits brief electrical current pulses (electric organ discharge, EOD) and in return sense the generated electric field which builds up surrounding the animal. Caused by the electrical properties of nearby objects, fish measure characteristic signal modulations with an array of electroreceptors in their skin. The fish are able to gain important information about the geometrical properties of an object as well as its complex impedance and its distance. Thus, active electrolocation is an interesting feature to be used in biomimetic approaches. We used this sensory principle to identify different insertions in the walls of Plexiglas tubes. The insertions tested were composed of aluminum, brass and graphite in sizes between 3 and 20 mm. A carrier signal was emitted and perceived with the poles of a commercial catheter for medical diagnostics. Measurements were performed with the poles separated by 6.3 to 55.3 mm. Depending on the length of the insertion in relation to the sender-receiver distance, we observed up to three peaks in the measured electric images. The first peak was affected by the material of the insertion, while the distance between the second and third peak strongly correlated with the length of the insertion. In a second experiment we tested whether various materials could be detected by using signals of different frequency compositions. Based on their electric images we were able to discriminate between objects having different resistive properties, but not between objects of complex impedances.

  14. Activities Joining Learning Objectives to Assessments in Introductory Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palen, Stacy E.; Larson, Ana M.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, accreditation boards and other governing bodies have been pushing hard for explicit learning goals and quantitative measures of assessment for general education courses such as Astronomy 101. This added assessment burden can be problematic, especially for harried adjuncts teaching multiple courses at multiple institutions. It would be helpful to have a field-tested set of combined hands-on activities and assessment tools that help instructors meet these assessment requirements. The authors have produced just such a set. We have been using hands-on activities in our classrooms for more than 15 years. These activities require no special equipment or preparation and can be completed within an hour by most students working in groups of two or three. The sections of each activity are arranged in steps, guiding the students from initial knowledge-level questions or practice to a final evaluation or synthesis of what they have just accomplished. Students thus get practice thinking at higher cognitive levels. A recent addition to these activities is the inclusion of formalized learning objectives and accompanying pre- and post-activity questions. The pre-activity questions address common misconceptions, relate familiar analogous terrestrial examples to the activity, and act as a brief refresher meta-concepts like scale factors, measurements, and basic mathematics review. The post-activity questions review the most important concepts introduced in the activity. We present a number of examples as well as a summary as to how we have initiated their use in a large lecture setting of 300 students, in smaller classrooms of 15 students, and in a community college online course.

  15. Formaldehyde activity on historical glass objects in museum microclimate.

    PubMed

    Greiner-Wronowa, Elzbieta; Pusoska, Anna

    2006-01-01

    Degradation of some cultural heritage monuments has been caused by interaction with the closest environment (micro-climate). Amount of separate compounds is very small and because of it, this fact becomes neglected. Time and temperature can induce their activity finally causing deterioration. In this category organic compounds can be interpreted as one of museum show - case element. This statement has been improved by testing glass objects and their suitable sensors (model glasses). Destructive activity of formaldehyde on historical glasses belonging to the XVIII-th c. objects with totally different compositions has been confirmed by carried out experiments. For historical material which is very limited, sensor glass method has been applied. Sensors are prepared on the base of results of chemical analyses of original glass chemical analyses and melted on laboratory scale (according to historical data). Induced corrosion for sensor supports knowledge about deterioration process in real micro-environmental conditions. The following testing methods were used: scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), optical interferometer (OI), inductively couple plasma (ICP).

  16. Pioneering Objectives and Activities on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toups, Larry; Hoffman, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Human Mars missions have been a topic of sustained interest within NASA, which continues to use its resources to examine many different mission objectives, trajectories, vehicles, and technologies, the combinations of which are often referred to as reference missions or architectures. The current investigative effort, known as the Evolvable Mars Campaign (EMC), is examining alternatives that can pioneer an extended human presence on Mars that is Earth independent. These alternatives involve combinations of all the factors just mentioned. This paper is focused on the subset of these factors involved with objectives and activities that take place on the surface of Mars. "Pioneering" is a useful phrase to encapsulate the current approach being used to address this situation - one of its primary definitions is "a person or group that originates or helps open up a new line of thought or activity or a new method or technical development". Thus, in this scenario, NASA would be embarking on a path to "pioneer" a suite of technologies and operations that will result in an Earth independent, extended stay capability for humans on Mars. This paper will describe (a) the concept of operation determined to be best suited for the initial emplacement, (b) the functional capabilities determined to be necessary for this emplacement, with representative examples of systems that could carry out these functional capabilities and one implementation example (i.e., delivery sequence) at a representative landing site, and will (c) discuss possible capabilities and operations during subsequent surface missions.

  17. High-resolution ERP mapping of cortical activation related to implicit object-location memory.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Jonathan S; Wynne, Ciara E; O'Rourke, Edel M; Commins, Seán; Roche, Richard A P

    2009-12-01

    High-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during an object recognition task which involved task-irrelevant changes in the location of studied objects. Participants categorised objects as studied or novel while data were analysed to ascertain the effect of the location changes on performance and waveform topography. Our results indicate that humans can classify objects faster and more accurately when using implicit spatial memory. Individual differences observed in object recognition proficiency were absent if objects were presented in their 'correct' location. In a second experiment we replicated the behavioural findings while manipulating viewpoint to discount scene recognition as an underlying factor. We propose a model which includes activation of the right medial temporal lobe prior to P300 elicitation to account for the prophylactic effect of implicit processing on object recognition. Hemispheric differences in parietal componentry dependant on sex of participant were also observed and are discussed in relation to differential strategies.

  18. Synchronous Parallel Emulation and Discrete Event Simulation System with Self-Contained Simulation Objects and Active Event Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinman, Jeffrey S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is embodied in a method of performing object-oriented simulation and a system having inter-connected processor nodes operating in parallel to simulate mutual interactions of a set of discrete simulation objects distributed among the nodes as a sequence of discrete events changing state variables of respective simulation objects so as to generate new event-defining messages addressed to respective ones of the nodes. The object-oriented simulation is performed at each one of the nodes by assigning passive self-contained simulation objects to each one of the nodes, responding to messages received at one node by generating corresponding active event objects having user-defined inherent capabilities and individual time stamps and corresponding to respective events affecting one of the passive self-contained simulation objects of the one node, restricting the respective passive self-contained simulation objects to only providing and receiving information from die respective active event objects, requesting information and changing variables within a passive self-contained simulation object by the active event object, and producing corresponding messages specifying events resulting therefrom by the active event objects.

  19. 43 CFR 2.31 - What must a submitter include in a detailed Exemption 4 objection statement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include a specific and detailed discussion of why the information is a trade secret or, if the information is not a trade secret, the following three categories must be addressed (unless the bureau...

  20. Differences in Neural Activation for Object-Directed Grasping in Chimpanzees and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Lauren E.; Gutman, David A.; Votaw, John R.; Schuster, David M.; Preuss, Todd M.; Orban, Guy A.; Stout, Dietrich; Parr, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    The human faculty for object-mediated action, including tool use and imitation, exceeds that of even our closest primate relatives and is a key foundation of human cognitive and cultural uniqueness. In humans and macaques, observing object-directed grasping actions activates a network of frontal, parietal, and occipitotemporal brain regions, but differences in human and macaque activation suggest that this system has been a focus of selection in the primate lineage. To study the evolution of this system, we performed functional neuroimaging in humans' closest living relatives, chimpanzees. We compare activations during performance of an object-directed manual grasping action, observation of the same action, and observation of a mimed version of the action that consisted of only movements without results. Performance and observation of the same action activated a distributed frontoparietal network similar to that reported in macaques and humans. Like humans and unlike macaques, these regions were also activated by observing movements without results. However, in a direct chimpanzee/human comparison, we also identified unique aspects of human neural responses to observed grasping. Chimpanzee activation showed a prefrontal bias, including significantly more activity in ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, whereas human activation was more evenly distributed across more posterior regions, including significantly more activation in ventral premotor cortex, inferior parietal cortex, and inferotemporal cortex. This indicates a more “bottom-up” representation of observed action in the human brain and suggests that the evolution of tool use, social learning, and cumulative culture may have involved modifications of frontoparietal interactions. PMID:23986247

  1. Neighborhood Environments and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in 11 Countries

    PubMed Central

    Cerin, Ester; Cain, Kelli L; Conway, Terry L; Dyck, Delfien Van; Hinckson, Erica; Schipperijn, Jasper; Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse De; Owen, Neville; Davey, Rachel C; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Mitáš, Josef; Orzanco-Garralda, Rosario; Salvo, Deborah; Sarmiento, Olga L; Christiansen, Lars B; Macfarlane, Duncan J; Schofield, Grant; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Environmental changes are potentially effective population-level physical activity (PA) promotion strategies. However, robust multi-site evidence to guide international action for developing activity-supportive environments is lacking. We estimated pooled associations of perceived environmental attributes with objectively-measured PA outcomes; between-site differences in such associations; and, the extent to which perceived environmental attributes explain between-site differences in PA. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 16 cities located in Belgium, Brazil, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, China, Mexico, New Zealand, Spain, United Kingdom, and USA. Participants were 6,968 adults residing in administrative units stratified by socio-economic status and transport-related walkability. Predictors were 10 perceived neighborhood environmental attributes. Outcome measures were accelerometry-assessed weekly minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and meeting the PA guidelines for cancer/weight gain prevention (420 min/week of MVPA). Results Most perceived neighborhood attributes were positively associated with the PA outcomes in the pooled, site-adjusted, single-predictor models. Associations were generalizable across geographical locations. Aesthetics and land use mix – access were significant predictors of both PA outcomes in the fully-adjusted models. Environmental attributes accounted for within-site variability in MVPA corresponding to a 3 min/d or 21 min/week standard deviation. Large between-site differences in PA outcomes were observed: 15.9% to 16.8% of these differences were explained by perceived environmental attributes. All neighborhood attributes were associated with between-site differences in the total effects of the perceived environment on PA outcomes. Conclusions Residents’ perceptions of neighborhood attributes that facilitate walking were positively associated with objectively-measured MVPA and meeting the guidelines

  2. The Relation between Infants' Activity with Objects and Attention to Object Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perone, Sammy; Madole, Kelly L.; Ross-Sheehy, Shannon; Carey, Maeve; Oakes, Lisa M.

    2008-01-01

    The authors examined the relation between infants' motor skills and attention to objects features in events in which a hand acted on an object (e.g., squeezed it) that then produced a sound (e.g., squeaking). In this study, 6- to 7-month-old infants (N = 41) were habituated to a single event and then tested with changes in appearance and action.…

  3. Active appearance pyramids for object parametrisation and fitting.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Bhalerao, Abhir; Dickenson, Edward; Hutchinson, Charles

    2016-08-01

    Object class representation is one of the key problems in various medical image analysis tasks. We propose a part-based parametric appearance model we refer to as an Active Appearance Pyramid (AAP). The parts are delineated by multi-scale Local Feature Pyramids (LFPs) for superior spatial specificity and distinctiveness. An AAP models the variability within a population with local translations of multi-scale parts and linear appearance variations of the assembly of the parts. It can fit and represent new instances by adjusting the shape and appearance parameters. The fitting process uses a two-step iterative strategy: local landmark searching followed by shape regularisation. We present a simultaneous local feature searching and appearance fitting algorithm based on the weighted Lucas and Kanade method. A shape regulariser is derived to calculate the maximum likelihood shape with respect to the prior and multiple landmark candidates from multi-scale LFPs, with a compact closed-form solution. We apply the 2D AAP on the modelling of variability in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and validate its performance on 200 studies consisting of routine axial and sagittal MRI scans. Intervertebral sagittal and parasagittal cross-sections are typically used for the diagnosis of LSS, we therefore build three AAPs on L3/4, L4/5 and L5/S1 axial cross-sections and three on parasagittal slices. Experiments show significant improvement in convergence range, robustness to local minima and segmentation precision compared with Constrained Local Models (CLMs), Active Shape Models (ASMs) and Active Appearance Models (AAMs), as well as superior performance in appearance reconstruction compared with AAMs. We also validate the performance on 3D CT volumes of hip joints from 38 studies. Compared to AAMs, AAPs achieve a higher segmentation and reconstruction precision. Moreover, AAPs have a significant improvement in efficiency, consuming about half the memory and less than 10% of

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  5. Validation of brief questionnaire measures of sun exposure and skin pigmentation against detailed and objective measures including vitamin D status.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Jessica; Lucas, Robyn M; Gies, Peter; King, Kerryn; Swaminathan, Ashwin; Allen, Martin W; Banks, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Self-reported sun exposure is commonly used in research, but how well this represents actual sun exposure is poorly understood. From February to July 2011, a volunteer sample (n = 47) of older adults (≥45 years) in Canberra, Australia, answered brief questions on time outdoors (weekdays and weekends) and natural skin color. They subsequently maintained a sun diary and wore an ultraviolet radiation (UVR) digital dosimeter for 7 days. Melanin density was estimated using reflectance spectrophotometry; lifetime sun damage was assessed using silicone casts of the back of the hand; and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration was assayed. Questionnaire-reported time outdoors correlated significantly with diary-recorded time outdoors (Spearman correlation r(s) = 0.66; 95% CI 0.46, 0.80; P < 0.001) and UVR dosimeter dose (r(s ) = 0.46; 95% CI 0.18, 0.68; P = 0.003), but not 25(OH)D concentration (r(s) = 0.24; 95% CI -0.05, 0.50; P = 0.10). Questionnaire-reported untanned skin color correlated significantly with measured melanin density at the inner upper arm (r(s) = 0.49; 95% CI 0.24, 0.68; P < 0.001). In a multiple linear regression model, statistically significant predictors of 25(OH)D concentration were self-reported frequency of physical activity, skin color and recent osteoporosis treatment (R(2) = 0.54). In this study, brief questionnaire items provided valid rankings of sun exposure and skin color, and enabled the development of a predictive model for 25(OH)D concentration.

  6. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  7. When Action Observation Facilitates Visual Perception: Activation in Visuo-Motor Areas Contributes to Object Recognition.

    PubMed

    Sim, Eun-Jin; Helbig, Hannah B; Graf, Markus; Kiefer, Markus

    2015-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests an interaction between the ventral visual-perceptual and dorsal visuo-motor brain systems during the course of object recognition. However, the precise function of the dorsal stream for perception remains to be determined. The present study specified the functional contribution of the visuo-motor system to visual object recognition using functional magnetic resonance imaging and event-related potential (ERP) during action priming. Primes were movies showing hands performing an action with an object with the object being erased, followed by a manipulable target object, which either afforded a similar or a dissimilar action (congruent vs. incongruent condition). Participants had to recognize the target object within a picture-word matching task. Priming-related reductions of brain activity were found in frontal and parietal visuo-motor areas as well as in ventral regions including inferior and anterior temporal areas. Effective connectivity analyses suggested functional influences of parietal areas on anterior temporal areas. ERPs revealed priming-related source activity in visuo-motor regions at about 120 ms and later activity in the ventral stream at about 380 ms. Hence, rapidly initiated visuo-motor processes within the dorsal stream functionally contribute to visual object recognition in interaction with ventral stream processes dedicated to visual analysis and semantic integration.

  8. Neural activity associated with distinguishing concurrent auditory objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alain, Claude; Schuler, Benjamin M.; McDonald, Kelly L.

    2002-02-01

    The neural processes underlying concurrent sound segregation were examined by using event-related brain potentials. Participants were presented with complex sounds comprised of multiple harmonics, one of which could be mistuned so that it was no longer an integer multiple of the fundamental. In separate blocks of trials, short-, middle-, and long-duration sounds were presented and participants indicated whether they heard one sound (i.e., buzz) or two sounds (i.e., buzz plus another sound with a pure-tone quality). The auditory stimuli were also presented while participants watched a silent movie in order to evaluate the extent to which the mistuned harmonic could be automatically detected. The perception of the mistuned harmonic as a separate sound was associated with a biphasic negative-positive potential that peaked at about 150 and 350 ms after sound onset, respectively. Long duration sounds also elicited a sustained potential that was greater in amplitude when the mistuned harmonic was perceptually segregated from the complex sound. The early negative wave, referred to as the object-related negativity (ORN), was present during both active and passive listening, whereas the positive wave and the mistuning-related changes in sustained potentials were present only when participants attended to the stimuli. These results are consistent with a two-stage model of auditory scene analysis in which the acoustic wave is automatically decomposed into perceptual groups that can be identified by higher executive functions. The ORN and the positive waves were little affected by sound duration, indicating that concurrent sound segregation depends on transient neural responses elicited by the discrepancy between the mistuned harmonic and the harmonic frequency expected based on the fundamental frequency of the incoming stimulus.

  9. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  10. Object Perception Impairments Predict Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Dependence in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    JEFFERSON, ANGELA L.; BARAKAT, LAMIA P.; GIOVANNETTI, TANIA; PAUL, ROBERT H.; GLOSSER, GUILA

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the contribution of object perception and spatial localization to functional dependence among Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Forty patients with probable AD completed measures assessing verbal recognition memory, working memory, object perception, spatial localization, semantic knowledge, and global cognition. Primary caregivers completed a measure of activities of daily living (ADLs) that included instrumental and basic self-care subscales (i.e., IADLs and BADLs, respectively). Stepwise multiple regressions revealed that global cognition accounted for significant portions of variance among the ADL total, IADL, and BADL scores. However, when global cognition was removed from the model, object perception was the only significant cognitive predictor of the ADL total and IADL subscale scores, accounting for 18.5% and 19.3% of the variance, respectively. When considering multiple cognitive components simultaneously, object perception and the integrity of the inferotemporal cortex is important in the completion of functional abilities in general and IADLs in particular among AD patients. PMID:16822730

  11. Design and Implementation of an Object Oriented Learning Activity System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Huan-Yu; Tseng, Shian-Shyong; Weng, Jui-Feng; Su, Jun-Ming

    2009-01-01

    With the development of e-learning technology, many specifications of instructional design have been proposed to make learning activity sharable and reusable. With the specifications and sufficient learning resources, the researches further focus on how to provide learners more appropriate learning activities to improve their learning performance.…

  12. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  13. Using Delphi to Achieve Congruent Objectives and Activities in a Pediatrics Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loughlin, Keith G.; Moore, Larry F.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the Delphi technique is demonstrated in conjunction with activity analysis to obtain consensus on and clarity of objectives and activities of full-time members of an academic medical department. The results show which activities contributed to the department objectives and which areas have a divergence of objectives. (Author/LBH)

  14. Spatiotemporal dissociation of brain activity underlying subjective awareness, objective performance and confidence.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Hill, Zachary; He, Biyu J

    2014-03-19

    Despite intense recent research, the neural correlates of conscious visual perception remain elusive. The most established paradigm for studying brain mechanisms underlying conscious perception is to keep the physical sensory inputs constant and identify brain activities that correlate with the changing content of conscious awareness. However, such a contrast based on conscious content alone would not only reveal brain activities directly contributing to conscious perception, but also include brain activities that precede or follow it. To address this issue, we devised a paradigm whereby we collected, trial-by-trial, measures of objective performance, subjective awareness, and the confidence level of subjective awareness. Using magnetoencephalography recordings in healthy human volunteers, we dissociated brain activities underlying these different cognitive phenomena. Our results provide strong evidence that widely distributed slow cortical potentials (SCPs) correlate with subjective awareness, even after the effects of objective performance and confidence were both removed. The SCP correlate of conscious perception manifests strongly in its waveform, phase, and power. In contrast, objective performance and confidence were both contributed by relatively transient brain activity. These results shed new light on the brain mechanisms of conscious, unconscious, and metacognitive processing.

  15. K-2 Social Studies Teacher Resource Guide (Objectives and Activities).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Charles, Ed.

    This guide contains units of study for use in K-2 social studies classes. Included in the introductory section is a statement concerning the Wichita school district's social studies philosophy; an overall scope and sequence of the elementary social studies curriculum; a scope and sequence for the guide; a listing of map, globe, and knowledge…

  16. Joint contrast optimization and object segmentation in active polarimetric images.

    PubMed

    Anna, Guillaume; Bertaux, Nicolas; Galland, Frédéric; Goudail, François; Dolfi, Daniel

    2012-08-15

    We present a method for automatic target detection based on the iterative interplay between an active polarimetric imager with adaptive capabilities and a snake-based image segmentation algorithm. It successfully addresses the difficult situations where the target and the background differ only by their polarimetric properties. This method illustrates the benefits of integrating digital processing algorithms at the heart of the image acquisition process rather than using them only for postprocessing.

  17. Optimization of object region and boundary extraction by energy minimization for activity recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albalooshi, Fatema A.; Asari, Vijayan K.

    2013-05-01

    Automatic video segmentation for human activity recognition has played an important role in several computer vision applications. Active contour model (ACM) has been used extensively for unsupervised adaptive segmentation and automatic object region and boundary extraction in video sequences. This paper presents optimizing Active Contour Model using recurrent architecture for automatic object region and boundary extraction in human activity video sequences. Taking advantage of the collective computational ability and energy convergence capability of the recurrent architecture, energy function of Active Contour Model is optimized with lower computational time. The system starts with initializing recurrent architecture state based on the initial boundary points and ends up with final contour which represent actual boundary points of human body region. The initial contour of the Active Contour Model is computed using background subtraction based on Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) such that background model is built dynamically and regularly updated to overcome different challenges including illumination changes, camera oscillations, and changes in background geometry. The recurrent nature is useful for dealing with optimization problems due to its dynamic nature, thus, ensuring convergence of the system. The proposed boundary detection and region extraction can be used for real time processing. This method results in an effective segmentation that is less sensitive to noise and complex environments. Experiments on different databases of human activity show that our method is effective and can be used for real-time video segmentation.

  18. Active terahertz wave imaging system for detecting hidden objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Yuner; Liu, Ming; Zhao, Yuejin

    2016-11-01

    Terahertz wave can penetrate the common dielectric materials such as clothing, cardboard boxes, plastics and so on. Besides, the low photon energy and non-ionizing characteristic of the terahertz wave are especially suitable for the safety inspection of the human body. Terahertz imaging technology has a tremendous potential in the field of security inspection such as stations, airports and other public places. Terahertz wave imaging systems are divided into two categories: active terahertz imaging systems and passive terahertz imaging systems. So far, most terahertz imaging systems work at point to point mechanical scan pattern with the method of passive imaging. The imaging results of passive imaging tend to have low contrast and the image is not clear enough. This paper designs and implements an active terahertz wave imaging system combining terahertz wave transmitting and receiving with a Cassegrain antenna. The terahertz wave at the frequency of 94GHz is created by impact ionization avalanche transit time (IMPATT) diode, focused on the feed element for Cassegrain antenna by high density polyethylene (HDPE) lens, and transmitted to the human body by Cassegrain antenna. The reflected terahertz wave goes the same way it was emitted back to the feed element for Cassegrain antenna, focused on the horn antenna of detector by another high density polyethylene lens. The scanning method is the use of two-dimensional planar mirror, one responsible for horizontal scanning, and another responsible for vertical scanning. Our system can achieve a clear human body image, has better sensitivity and resolution than passive imaging system, and costs much lower than other active imaging system in the meantime.

  19. Multi-objective optimal design of active vibration absorber with delayed feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Rong-Hua; Chen, Long-Xiang; Sun, Jian-Qiao

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a multi-objective optimal design of delayed feedback control of an actively tuned vibration absorber for a stochastically excited linear structure is investigated. The simple cell mapping (SCM) method is used to obtain solutions of the multi-objective optimization problem (MOP). The continuous time approximation (CTA) method is applied to analyze the delayed system. Stability is imposed as a constraint for MOP. Three conflicting objective functions including the peak frequency response, vibration energy of primary structure and control effort are considered. The Pareto set and Pareto front for the optimal feedback control design are presented for two examples. Numerical results have found that the Pareto optimal solutions provide effective delayed feedback control design.

  20. Female reproductive factors are associated with objectively measured physical activity in middle-aged women

    PubMed Central

    Kulmala, Janne; Aukee, Pauliina; Hakonen, Harto; Kujala, Urho M.; Lowe, Dawn A.; Kovanen, Vuokko; Tammelin, Tuija; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity improves health and may delay the onset of several chronic diseases. For women in particular, the rate of these diseases accelerates at middle age; therefore it is important to identify the determinants of health-enhancing physical activity during midlife in this population. In this study, we focused on determinants that are unique to the female sex, such as childbearing and menopause. The main objective was to characterize the level of physical activity and differences between active and inactive middle-aged Finnish women. In addition, we examined the association of physical activity with female reproductive factors at midlife. The study population consisted of 647 women aged 48 to 55 years who participated in our Estrogenic Regulation of Muscle Apoptosis (ERMA) study during the period from 2015 to 2016. Physical activity was measured objectively using hip-worn accelerometers for seven consecutive days. The outcome measures included the amounts of light intensity physical activity and moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity accumulated in bouts of at least 10 minutes (MVPA10). MVPA10 was used to determine whether women were placed in the active (≥150 min/week) or inactive (<150 min/week) group. Multiple linear regression models were performed with physical activity measures as dependent variables and cumulative reproductive history index, menopausal symptoms, and pelvic floor dysfunction as independent variables. We found that a large portion (61%) of Finnish middle-aged women did not meet the physical activity recommendations of 150 minutes of MVPA10 per week. In the studied cohort, 78% of women experienced menopausal symptoms, and 54% exhibited pelvic floor dysfunction. Perceived menopausal symptoms were associated with greater light physical activity. Perceived pelvic floor dysfunction was associated with lower MVPA10. According to the fully adjusted multiple linear regression models, reproductive factors explained 6.0% of the

  1. Synergistic Activities of Near-Earth Object Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abell, Paul

    2011-01-01

    U.S. President Obama stated on April 15, 2010 that the next goal for human spaceflight will be to send human beings to near-Earth asteroids by 2025. Missions to NEOs would undoubtedly provide a great deal of technical and engineering data on spacecraft operations for future human space exploration while conducting in-depth scientific examinations of these primitive objects. Information obtained from a human investigation of a NEO, together with ground-based observations and prior spacecraft investigations of asteroids and comets, will also provide a real measure of ground truth to data obtained from terrestrial meteorite collections. Major advances in the areas of geochemistry, impact history, thermal history, isotope analyses, mineralogy, space weathering, formation ages, thermal inertias, volatile content, source regions, solar system formation, etc. can be expected from human NEO missions. Samples directly returned from a primitive body would lead to the same kind of breakthroughs for understanding NEOs that the Apollo samples provided for understanding the Earth-Moon system and its formation history. In addition, robotic precursor and human exploration missions to NEOs would allow the NASA and its international partners to gain operational experience in performing complex tasks (e.g., sample collection, deployment of payloads, retrieval of payloads, etc.) with crew, robots, and spacecraft under microgravity conditions at or near the surface of a small body. This would provide an important synergy between the worldwide Science and Exploration communities, which will be crucial for development of future international deep space exploration architectures and has potential benefits for future exploration of other destinations beyond low-Earth orbit.

  2. Neural mechanisms of infant learning: differences in frontal theta activity during object exploration modulate subsequent object recognition

    PubMed Central

    Begus, Katarina; Southgate, Victoria; Gliga, Teodora

    2015-01-01

    Investigating learning mechanisms in infancy relies largely on behavioural measures like visual attention, which often fail to predict whether stimuli would be encoded successfully. This study explored EEG activity in the theta frequency band, previously shown to predict successful learning in adults, to directly study infants' cognitive engagement, beyond visual attention. We tested 11-month-old infants (N = 23) and demonstrated that differences in frontal theta-band oscillations, recorded during infants' object exploration, predicted differential subsequent recognition of these objects in a preferential-looking test. Given that theta activity is modulated by motivation to learn in adults, these findings set the ground for future investigation into the drivers of infant learning. PMID:26018832

  3. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  4. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  5. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  6. Assessment of Physical Activity and Energy Expenditure: An Overview of Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Hills, Andrew P.; Mokhtar, Najat; Byrne, Nuala M.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to assess energy expenditure (EE) and estimate physical activity (PA) in free-living individuals is extremely important in the global context of non-communicable diseases including malnutrition, overnutrition (obesity), and diabetes. It is also important to appreciate that PA and EE are different constructs with PA defined as any bodily movement that results in EE and accordingly, energy is expended as a result of PA. However, total energy expenditure, best assessed using the criterion doubly labeled water (DLW) technique, includes components in addition to physical activity energy expenditure, namely resting energy expenditure and the thermic effect of food. Given the large number of assessment techniques currently used to estimate PA in humans, it is imperative to understand the relative merits of each. The goal of this review is to provide information on the utility and limitations of a range of objective measures of PA and their relationship with EE. The measures discussed include those based on EE or oxygen uptake including DLW, activity energy expenditure, physical activity level, and metabolic equivalent; those based on heart rate monitoring and motion sensors; and because of their widespread use, selected subjective measures. PMID:25988109

  7. Systematic Review of Physical Activity Objectives in Extension Strategic Plans: Findings and Implications for Improved Public Health Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; Lindsay, Anne; Everette, Alicia; Gunter, Katherine B.

    2016-01-01

    Extension programming that incorporates both physical activity and dietary behaviors is necessary for the prevention of certain chronic diseases, including obesity. The purpose of the study presented here was to systematically identify the presence of physical activity objectives in the strategic plan for each Extension system in the United…

  8. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  9. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  10. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  11. [Influence of preliminary information about mass on anticipatory muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2010-01-01

    Heavy or light object fell into the cup held between thumb and index fingers of sitting subject. The anticipatory muscle activity and the grip force applied to cup depended on the mass of object while the temporal parameters (time of beginning of muscle activity, duration of the activity, the time of grip force maximum) were constant. The preliminary verbal information about mass of the falling object was enough for predictive force programming. Without such information, i.e. during fall the object of unknown mass the anticipatory activity was planned in expectation of heavy weight.

  12. Modifying the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students to include technology use (STEPS-TECH): Intervention effects on objective and subjective sleep outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larissa K; Cucalon, Maria S

    2017-02-03

    University students often have sleep issues that arise from poor sleep hygiene practices and technology use patterns. Yet, technology-related behaviors are often neglected in sleep hygiene education. This study examined whether the Sleep Treatment Education Program for Students-modified to include information regarding managing technology use (STEPS-TECH)-helps improve both subjective and objective sleep outcomes among university students. Results of an experimental study among 78 university students showed improvements in objective indicators of sleep quantity (total sleep time) and sleep quality (less awakenings) during the subsequent week for students in the STEPS-TECH intervention group compared to a control group. Exploratory analyses indicated that effects were driven by improvements in weekend days immediately following the intervention. There were also no intervention effects on subjective sleep quality or quantity outcomes. In terms of self-reported behavioral responses to educational content in the intervention, there were no group differences in sleep hygiene practices or technology use before bedtime. However, the intervention group reported less technology use during sleep periods than the control group. These preliminary findings suggest that STEPS-TECH may be a useful educational tool to help improve objective sleep and reduce technology use during sleep periods among university students.

  13. Medial Temporal Lobe Activity During Complex Discrimination of Faces, Objects, and Scenes: Effects of Viewpoint

    PubMed Central

    Barense, Morgan D.; Henson, Richard N.A.; Lee, Andy C.H.; Graham, Kim S.

    2010-01-01

    The medial temporal lobe (MTL), a set of heavily inter-connected structures including the hippocampus and underlying entorhinal, perirhinal and parahippocampal cortex, is traditionally believed to be part of a unitary system dedicated to declarative memory. Recent studies, however, demonstrated perceptual impairments in amnesic individuals with MTL damage, with hippocampal lesions causing scene discrimination deficits, and perirhinal lesions causing object and face discrimination deficits. The degree of impairment on these tasks was influenced by the need to process complex conjunctions of features: discriminations requiring the integration of multiple visual features caused deficits, whereas discriminations that could be solved on the basis of a single feature did not. Here, we address these issues with functional neuroimaging in healthy participants as they performed a version of the oddity discrimination task used previously in patients. Three different types of stimuli (faces, scenes, novel objects) were presented from either identical or different viewpoints. Consistent with studies in patients, we observed increased perirhinal activity when participants distinguished between faces and objects presented from different, compared to identical, viewpoints. The posterior hippocampus, by contrast, showed an effect of viewpoint for both faces and scenes. These findings provide convergent evidence that the MTL is involved in processes beyond long-term declarative memory and suggest a critical role for these structures in integrating complex features of faces, objects, and scenes into view-invariant, abstract representations. PMID:19499575

  14. A Comparison of Self-Reported and Objective Physical Activity Measures in Young Australian Women

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Stefanie; Young, Elisa; Bennell, Kim Louise; Tay, Ilona; Gorelik, Alexandra; Wark, John Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Background The evidence for beneficial effects of recommended levels of physical activity is overwhelming. However, 70% of Australians fail to meet these levels. In particular, physical activity participation by women falls sharply between ages 16 to 25 years. Further information about physical activity measures in young women is needed. Self-administered questionnaires are often used to measure physical activity given their ease of application, but known limitations, including recall bias, compromise the accuracy of data. Alternatives such as objective measures are commonly used to overcome this problem, but are more costly and time consuming. Objective To compare the output between the Modified Active Australia Survey (MAAS), the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), and an objective physical activity measure—the SenseWear Armband (SWA)—to evaluate the test-retest reliability of the MAAS and to determine the acceptability of the SWA among young women. Methods Young women from Victoria, Australia, aged 18 to 25 years who had participated in previous studies via Facebook advertising were recruited. Participants completed the two physical activity questionnaires online, immediately before and after wearing the armband for 7 consecutive days. Data from the SWA was blocked into 10-minute activity times. Follow-up IPAQ, MAAS, and SWA data were analyzed by comparing the total continuous and categorical activity scores, while concurrent validity of IPAQ and MAAS were analyzed by comparing follow-up scores. Test-retest reliability of MAAS was analyzed by comparing MAAS total physical activity scores at baseline and follow-up. Participants provided feedback in the follow-up questionnaire about their experience of wearing the armband to determine acceptability of the SWA. Data analyses included graphical (ie, Bland-Altman plot, scatterplot) and analytical (ie, canonical correlation, kappa statistic) methods to determine agreement between MAAS, IPAQ, and

  15. Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Rizzo, Nico S; Sjöström, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA.

  16. Function Follows Form: Activation of Shape and Function Features during Object Identification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function…

  17. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  18. A Review of Emerging Analytical Techniques for Objective Physical Activity Measurement in Humans.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cain C T; Barnes, Claire M; Stratton, Gareth; McNarry, Melitta A; Mackintosh, Kelly A; Summers, Huw D

    2017-03-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the most prevalent risk factors for non-communicable diseases in the world. A fundamental barrier to enhancing physical activity levels and decreasing sedentary behavior is limited by our understanding of associated measurement and analytical techniques. The number of analytical techniques for physical activity measurement has grown significantly, and although emerging techniques may advance analyses, little consensus is presently available and further synthesis is therefore required. The objective of this review was to identify the accuracy of emerging analytical techniques used for physical activity measurement in humans. We conducted a search of electronic databases using Web of Science, PubMed, and Google Scholar. This review included studies written in English and published between January 2010 and December 2014 that assessed physical activity using emerging analytical techniques and reported technique accuracy. A total of 2064 papers were initially retrieved from three databases. After duplicates were removed and remaining articles screened, 50 full-text articles were reviewed, resulting in the inclusion of 11 articles that met the eligibility criteria. Despite the diverse nature and the range in accuracy associated with some of the analytic techniques, the rapid development of analytics has demonstrated that more sensitive information about physical activity may be attained. However, further refinement of these techniques is needed.

  19. Induced gamma-band activity elicited by visual representation of unattended objects.

    PubMed

    Martinovic, Jasna; Gruber, Thomas; Ohla, Kathrin; Müller, Matthias M

    2009-01-01

    Object recognition is achieved through neural mechanisms reliant on the activity of distributed neural assemblies that are thought to be coordinated by synchronous firing in the gamma-band range (>20 Hz). An outstanding question focuses on the extent to which the role of gamma oscillations in object recognition is dependent on attention. Attentional mechanisms determine the allocation of perceptual resources to objects in complex scenes biasing the outcome of their mutual competitive interactions. Would object-related enhancements in gamma activity also occur for unattended objects when perceptual resources are traded off to the processing of concurrent visual material? The present electroencephalogram study investigated event-related potentials and evoked (time- and phase-locked) and induced (non-time- and phase-locked to stimulus onset) gamma-band activity (GBA) using a visual discrimination task of low or high perceptual load at fixation. The task was performed while task-irrelevant familiar or unfamiliar objects coappeared in the surrounding central area. Attentional focus was kept at fixation by varying perceptual load between trials; in such conditions, only holistic object processing or low-level perceptual processing, requiring little or no attention, are thought to occur. Although evoked GBA remained unmodulated, induced GBA enhancements, specific to familiar object presentations, were observed, thus providing evidence for cortical visual representation of unattended objects. In addition, the effect was mostly driven by object-specific activity under low load, implying that, in cluttered or complex scenes, attentional selection likely plays a more significant role in object representation.

  20. A Multi-Objective Optimization for Performance Improvement of the Z-Source Active Power Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Seyed Mohsen; Beromi, Yousef Alinejad

    2016-09-01

    The high power dissipation is one of the most important problems of the z-source inverter (ZSI). By using an appropriate optimization scheme, the losses can be significantly reduced without any negative impact on the other characteristics of the inverter. In this paper, a multi-objective optimization is implemented in order to reduce the ZSI total losses as well as to improve the z-source active power filter (APF) performance. The optimization is focused on the four important objectives including power losses of the Z-source APF, the initial cost of the system components, the voltage and current ripples, and the boost factor of the z-source network. For these purposes, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) is employed. The numerical and simulation results are presented to evaluate the optimization performance. The results show that a good balance can be achieved between the switching power losses, the voltage-current ripple levels, the component costs and the boost factor using the optimized parameters.

  1. Parallel Object Activation and Attentional Gating of Information: Evidence from Eye Movements in the Multiple Object Naming Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schotter, Elizabeth R.; Ferreira, Victor S.; Rayner, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Do we access information from any object we can see, or do we access information only from objects that we intend to name? In 3 experiments using a modified multiple object naming paradigm, subjects were required to name several objects in succession when previews appeared briefly and simultaneously in the same location as the target as well as at…

  2. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  3. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  4. Association of proximity and density of parks and objectively measured physical activity in the United States: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Carolyn; Joshi, Spruha; Rundle, Andrew; Hutson, Malo; Chong, Catherine; Weiss, Christopher C; Genkinger, Jeanine; Neckerman, Kathryn; Lovasi, Gina

    2015-08-01

    One strategy for increasing physical activity is to create and enhance access to park space. We assessed the literature on the relationship of parks and objectively measured physical activity in population-based studies in the United States (US) and identified limitations in current built environment and physical activity measurement and reporting. Five English-language scholarly databases were queried using standardized search terms. Abstracts were screened for the following inclusion criteria: 1) published between January 1990 and June 2013; 2) US-based with a sample size greater than 100 individuals; 3) included built environment measures related to parks or trails; and 4) included objectively measured physical activity as an outcome. Following initial screening for inclusion by two independent raters, articles were abstracted into a database. Of 10,949 abstracts screened, 20 articles met the inclusion criteria. Five articles reported a significant positive association between parks and physical activity. Nine studies found no association, and six studies had mixed findings. Our review found that even among studies with objectively measured physical activity, the association between access to parks and physical activity varied between studies, possibly due to heterogeneity of exposure measurement. Self-reported (vs. independently-measured) neighborhood park environment characteristics and smaller (vs. larger) buffer sizes were more predictive of physical activity. We recommend strategies for further research, employing standardized reporting and innovative study designs to better understand the relationship of parks and physical activity.

  5. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  6. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  7. Distance, shape and more: recognition of object features during active electrolocation in a weakly electric fish.

    PubMed

    von der Emde, Gerhard; Fetz, Steffen

    2007-09-01

    In the absence of light, the weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii detects and distinguishes objects in the environment through active electrolocation. In order to test which features of an object the fish use under these conditions to discriminate between differently shaped objects, we trained eight individuals in a food-rewarded, two-alternative, forced-choice procedure. All fish learned to discriminate between two objects of different shapes and volumes. When new object combinations were offered in non-rewarded test trials, fish preferred those objects that resembled the one they had been trained to (S+) and avoided objects resembling the one that had not been rewarded (S-). For a decision, fish paid attention to the relative differences between the two objects they had to discriminate. For discrimination, fish used several object features, the most important ones being volume, material and shape. The importance of shape was demonstrated by reducing the objects to their 3-dimensional contours, which sufficed for the fish to distinguish differently shaped objects. Our results also showed that fish attended strongly to the feature ;volume', because all individuals tended to avoid the larger one of two objects. When confronted with metal versus plastic objects, all fish avoided metal and preferred plastic objects, irrespective of training. In addition to volume, material and shape, fish attended to additional parameters, such as corners or rounded edges. When confronted with two unknown objects, fish weighed up the positive and negative properties of these novel objects and based their decision on the outcome of this comparison. Our results suggest that fish are able to link and assemble local features of an electrolocation pattern to construct a representation of an object, suggesting that some form of a feature extraction mechanism enables them to solve a complex object recognition task.

  8. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  9. Career Planning Objectives of College Students and Activities Perceived As Instrumental in Their Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ard, Robert F.; Hyder, Jr., Lecter L.

    1978-01-01

    Through factor analysis, this study sought to identify common interests undergraduates have in engaging in career planning. Five objectives underlying student interest are identified. Likelihood of achieving these objectives through participation in various career planning activities is assessed. Implications for developing career planning…

  10. Locomotor activity, object exploration and space preference in children with autism and Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kawa, Rafał; Pisula, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    There have been ambiguous accounts of exploration in children with intellectual disabilities with respect to the course of that exploration, and in particular the relationship between the features of explored objects and exploratory behaviour. It is unclear whether reduced exploratory activity seen with object exploration but not with locomotor activity is autism-specific or if it is also present in children with other disabilities. The purpose of the present study was to compare preschool children with autism with their peers with Down syndrome and typical development in terms of locomotor activity and object exploration and to determine whether the complexity of explored objects affects the course of exploration activity in children with autism. In total there were 27 children in the study. The experimental room was divided into three zones equipped with experimental objects providing visual stimulation of varying levels of complexity. Our results indicate that children with autism and Down syndrome differ from children with typical development in terms of some measures of object exploration (i.e. looking at objects) and time spent in the zone with the most visually complex objects.

  11. Twin Study on Heritability of Activity, Attention, and Impulsivity as Assessed by Objective Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heiser, Philip; Heinzel-Gutenbrunner, Monika; Frey, Joachim; Smidt, Judith; Grabarkiewicz, Justyna; Friedel, Susann; Kuhnau, Wolfgang; Schmidtke, Jorg; Remschmidt, Helmut; Hebebrand, Johannes

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess heritability of activity, attention, and impulsivity by comparing young monozygotic (MZ) twins with dizygotic (DZ) twins using objective measures. Method: The OPTAx test is an infrared motion analysis to record the movement pattern during a continuous performance test. Seventeen MZ and 12 same…

  12. Small Schools Mathematics Curriculum, 9-12: Scope Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    The grade 9-12 mathematics curriculum learning objectives, activities, monitoring procedures and resources for small schools were developed during 1978-79 through the cooperative efforts of 10 Snohomish and Island County school districts, Educational Service District 189 and the Washington State Office of Public Instruction. The objectives were…

  13. Layer V perirhinal cortical ensemble activity during object exploration: a comparison between young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Burke, S N; Hartzell, A L; Lister, J P; Hoang, L T; Barnes, C A

    2012-10-01

    Object recognition memory requires the perirhinal cortex (PRC) and this cognitive function declines during normal aging. Recent electrophysiological recordings from young rats have shown that neurons in Layer V of the PRC are activated by three-dimensional objects. Thus, it is possible that age-related object recognition deficits result from alterations in PRC neuron activity in older animals. To examine this, the present study used cellular compartment analysis of temporal activity by fluorescence in situ hybridization (catFISH) with confocal microscopy to monitor cellular distributions of activity-induced Arc RNA in layer V of the PRC. Activity was monitored during two distinct epochs of object exploration. In one group of rats (6 young/6 aged) animals were placed in a familiar testing arena and allowed to explore five different three-dimensional objects for two 5-min sessions separated by a 20-min rest (AA). The second group of animals (6 young/6 aged) also explored the same objects for two 5-min sessions, but the environment was changed between the first and the second epoch (AB). Behavioral data showed that both age groups spent less time exploring objects during the second epoch, even when the environment changed, indicating successful recognition. Although the proportion of active neurons between epochs did not change in the AA group, in the AB group more neurons were active during epoch 2 of object exploration. This recruitment of neurons into the active neural ensemble could serve to signal that familiar stimuli are being encountered in a new context. When numbers of Arc positive neurons were compared between age groups, the old rats had significantly lower proportions of Arc-positive PRC neurons in both the AA and AB behavioral conditions. These data support the hypothesis that age-associated functional alterations in the PRC contribute to declines in stimulus recognition over the lifespan.

  14. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  15. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  16. Abnormal dynamics of activation of object use information in apraxia: evidence from eyetracking.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-Iin; Mirman, Daniel; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2014-07-01

    Action representations associated with object use may be incidentally activated during visual object processing, and the time course of such activations may be influenced by lexical-semantic context (e.g., Lee, Middleton, Mirman, Kalénine, & Buxbaum (2012). Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 39(1), 257-270). In this study we used the "visual world" eye-tracking paradigm to examine whether a deficit in producing skilled object-use actions (apraxia) is associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information, and assessed the neuroanatomical substrates of any such deficits. Twenty left hemisphere stroke patients, ten of whom were apraxic, performed a task requiring identification of a named object in a visual display containing manipulation-related and unrelated distractor objects. Manipulation relationships among objects were not relevant to the identification task. Objects were cued with neutral ("S/he saw the…."), or action-relevant ("S/he used the….") sentences. Non-apraxic participants looked at use-related non-target objects significantly more than at unrelated non-target objects when cued both by neutral and action-relevant sentences, indicating that action information is incidentally activated. In contrast, apraxic participants showed delayed activation of manipulation-based action information during object identification when cued by neutral sentences. The magnitude of delayed activation in the neutral sentence condition was reliably predicted by lower scores on a test of gesture production to viewed objects, as well as by lesion loci in the inferior parietal and posterior temporal lobes. However, when cued by a sentence containing an action verb, apraxic participants showed fixation patterns that were statistically indistinguishable from non-apraxic controls. In support of grounded theories of cognition, these results suggest that apraxia and temporal-parietal lesions may be associated with

  17. Abnormal dynamics of activation of object use information in apraxia: evidence from eyetracking

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chia-lin; Mirman, Daniel; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2014-01-01

    Action representations associated with object use may be incidentally activated during visual object processing, and the time course of such activations may be influenced by lexical-semantic context (e.g., Lee, Middleton, Mirman, Kalénine, & Buxbaum, 2012). In this study we used the “visual world” eye-tracking paradigm to examine whether a deficit in producing skilled object-use actions (apraxia) is associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information, and assessed the neuroanatomical substrates of any such deficits. Twenty left hemisphere stroke patients, ten of whom were apraxic, performed a task requiring identification of a named object in a visual display containing manipulation-related and unrelated distractor objects. Manipulation relationships among objects were not relevant to the identification task. Objects were cued with neutral (“S/he saw the….”), or action-relevant (“S/he used the….”) sentences. Non-apraxic participants looked at use-related non-target objects significantly more than at unrelated non-target objects when cued both by neutral and action-relevant sentences, indicating that action information is incidentally activated. In contrast, apraxic participants showed delayed activation of manipulation-based action information during object identification when cued by neutral sentences. The magnitude of delayed activation in the neutral sentence condition was reliably predicted by lower scores on a test of gesture production to viewed objects, as well as by lesion loci in the inferior parietal and posterior temporal lobes. However, when cued by a sentence containing an action verb, apraxic participants showed fixation patterns that were statistically indistinguishable from non-apraxic controls. In support of grounded theories of cognition, these results suggest that apraxia and temporal-parietal lesions may be associated with abnormalities in incidental activation of action information from objects. Further

  18. Robust segmentation of moving objects in video based on spatiotemporal visual saliency and active contour model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramadan, Hiba; Tairi, Hamid

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for automatic segmentation of moving objects in video based on spatiotemporal visual saliency and an active contour model. Our algorithm exploits the visual saliency and motion information to build a spatiotemporal visual saliency map used to extract a moving region of interest. This region is used to automatically provide the seeds for the convex active contour (CAC) model to segment the moving object accurately. The experiments show a good performance of our algorithm for moving object segmentation in video without user interaction, especially on the SegTrack dataset.

  19. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  20. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  1. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  2. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  3. The Kangaroo Book: Developmental Activities Related to the State Kindergarten Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Rhonda; And Others

    Intended for use in conjunction with the guidebook, "Early Childhood Education in South Carolina," this book of experiential activities aims to help kindergarten teachers plan an appropriate program for their children. Each activity described realizes one of the 18 objectives for kindergarten that were adopted by the South Carolina State…

  4. The Object of Activity: Making Sense of the Sense-Maker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaptelinin, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The concept of "the object of activity" plays a key role in research based on activity theory. However, the usefulness of this concept is somewhat undermined by the fact that a number of problems related to its meaning and its contexts of use remain unsolved. This article is an attempt to address some of these problems. The article focuses on 3…

  5. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education among Homeschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swenson, Sarah; Pope, Zachary; Zeng, Nan

    2016-01-01

    Despite a growing population of homeschool children in the United States, little is known regarding their physical activity (PA) levels. Without access to physical education, homeschool children may engage in inadequate PA levels. The purpose of this study was to objectively examine the activity levels of homeschool students participating in a…

  6. The application of multi-objective optimization method for activated sludge process: a review.

    PubMed

    Dai, Hongliang; Chen, Wenliang; Lu, Xiwu

    2016-01-01

    The activated sludge process (ASP) is the most generally applied biological wastewater treatment approach. Depending on the design and specific application, activated sludge wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) can achieve biological nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) removal, besides the removal of organic carbon substances. However, the effluent N and P limits are getting tighter because of increased emphasis on environmental protection, and the needs for energy conservation as well as the operational reliability. Therefore, the balance between treatment performance and cost becomes a critical issue for the operations of WWTPs, which necessitates a multi-objective optimization (MOO). Recent studies in this field have shown promise in utilizing MOO to address the multiple conflicting criteria (i.e. effluent quality, operation cost, operation stability), including studying the ASP models that are primarily responsible for the process, and developing the method of MOO in the wastewater treatment process, which facilitates better optimization of process performance. Based on a better understanding of the application of MOO for ASP, a comprehensive review is conducted to offer a clear vision of the advances, and potential areas for future research are also proposed in the field.

  7. Toward an objective indexing system for ADHD-screening using children's activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Kam, Hye Jin; Choi, Jong Pil; Park, Rae Woong

    2008-11-06

    Signs of ADHD are discernible in specific situations, and usually assessed according to subjective impressions. We performed a preliminary comparative study from children's activity at a natural classroom environment with 3-axis accelerator for a feasible objective index. From a total of 157 children (7-9 yrs) and clinically diagnosed 24 children out of them, variances in 1-min epoch mean activity had shown significant differences among the subgroups: (1) ADHD=.0194, Other Diseases=.0080, Normal=.0009; (2) ADHD=.0194, non-ADHD=.0057(p<.01, respectively). There were also significant differences in high-level activity (>1.6G) features among subgroups with the same order (p<.01, respectively). ADHD patients exhibited more dispersed activities and higher high-level activity ratio than normal. Activity features can be useful to build an objective indexing system for screening ADHD patients.

  8. Active learning of novel sound-producing objects: motor reactivation and enhancement of visuo-motor connectivity.

    PubMed

    Butler, Andrew J; James, Karin Harman

    2013-02-01

    Our experience with the world commonly involves physical interaction with objects enabling us to learn associations between multisensory information perceived during an event and our actions that create an event. The interplay among active interactions during learning and multisensory integration of object properties is not well understood. To better understand how action might enhance multisensory associative recognition, we investigated the interplay among motor and perceptual systems after active learning. Fifteen participants were included in an fMRI study during which they learned visuo-auditory-motor associations between novel objects and the sounds they produce, either through self-generated actions on the objects (active learning) or by observing an experimenter produce the actions (passive learning). Immediately after learning, behavioral and BOLD fMRI measures were collected while perceiving the objects used during unisensory and multisensory training in associative perception and recognition tasks. Active learning was faster and led to more accurate recognition of audiovisual associations than passive learning. Functional ROI analyses showed that in motor, somatosensory, and cerebellar regions there was greater activation during both the perception and recognition of actively learned associations. Finally, functional connectivity between visual- and motor-related processing regions was enhanced during the presentation of actively learned audiovisual associations. Overall, the results of the current study clarify and extend our own previous work [Butler, A. J., James, T. W., & Harman James, K. Enhanced multisensory integration and motor reactivation after active motor learning of audiovisual associations. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 23, 3515-3528, 2011] by providing several novel findings and highlighting the task-based nature of motor reactivation and retrieval after active learning.

  9. Functional Activation in the Ventral Object Processing Pathway during the First Year

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Teresa; Biondi, Marisa

    2016-01-01

    Infants' capacity to represent objects in visual working memory changes substantially during the first year of life. There is a growing body of research focused on identifying neural mechanisms that support this emerging capacity, and the extent to which visual object processing elicits different patterns of cortical activation in the infant as compared to the adult. Recent studies have identified areas in temporal and occipital cortex that mediate infants' developing capacity to track objects on the basis of their featural properties. The current research (Experiments 1 and 2) assessed patterns of activation in posterior temporal cortex and occipital cortex using fNIRS in infants 3–13 months of age as they viewed occlusion events. In the occlusion events, either the same object or featurally distinct objects emerged to each side of a screen. The outcome of these studies, combined, revealed that in infants 3–6 months, posterior temporal cortex was activated to all events, regardless of the featural properties of the objects and whether the event involved one object or two (featurally distinct) objects. Infants 7–8 infants months showed a waning posterior temporal response and by 10–13 months this response was negligible. Additional analysis showed that the age groups did not differ in their visual attention to the events and that changes in HbO were better explained by age in days than head circumference. In contrast to posterior temporal cortex, robust activation was obtained in occipital cortex across all ages tested. One interpretation of these results is that they reflect pruning of the visual object-processing network during the first year. The functional contribution of occipital and posterior temporal cortex, along with higher-level temporal areas, to infants' capacity to keep track of distinct entities in visual working memory is discussed. PMID:26778979

  10. Mid-fusiform activation during object discrimination reflects the process of differentiating structural descriptions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Steinmetz, Nicholas A; Farley, Alison B; Smith, Charles D; Joseph, Jane E

    2008-09-01

    The present study explored constraints on mid-fusiform activation during object discrimination. In three experiments, participants performed a matching task on simple line configurations, nameable objects, three dimensional (3-D) shapes, and colors. Significant bilateral mid-fusiform activation emerged when participants matched objects and 3-D shapes, as compared to when they matched two-dimensional (2-D) line configurations and colors, indicating that the mid-fusiform is engaged more strongly for processing structural descriptions (e.g., comparing 3-D volumetric shape) than perceptual descriptions (e.g., comparing 2-D or color information). In two of the experiments, the same mid-fusiform regions were also modulated by the degree of structural similarity between stimuli, implicating a role for the mid-fusiform in fine differentiation of similar visual object representations. Importantly, however, this process of fine differentiation occurred at the level of structural, but not perceptual, descriptions. Moreover, mid-fusiform activity was more robust when participants matched shape compared to color information using the identical stimuli, indicating that activity in the mid-fusiform gyrus is not driven by specific stimulus properties, but rather by the process of distinguishing stimuli based on shape information. Taken together, these findings further clarify the nature of object processing in the mid-fusiform gyrus. This region is engaged specifically in structural differentiation, a critical component process of object recognition and categorization.

  11. Destinations That Older Adults Experience Within Their GPS Activity Spaces Relation to Objectively Measured Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Winters, Meghan; Ashe, Maureen C.; Clarke, Philippa; McKay, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the relevant geography is an ongoing obstacle to effectively evaluate the influence of neighborhood built environment on physical activity. We characterized density and diversity of destinations that 77 older adults experienced within individually representative GPS activity spaces and traditional residential buffers and assessed their associations with accelerometry-measured physical activity. Traditional residential buffers had lower destination density and diversity than activity spaces. Activity spaces based only on pedestrian and bicycling trips had higher destination densities than all-mode activity spaces. Regardless of neighborhood definition, adjusted associations between destinations and physical activity generally failed to reach statistical significance. However, within pedestrian and bicycling-based activity spaces each additional destination type was associated with 243.3 more steps/day (95% confidence interval (CI) 36.0, 450.7). Traditional buffers may not accurately portray the geographic space or neighborhood resources experienced by older adults. Pedestrian and bicycling activity spaces elucidate the importance of destinations for facilitating active transportation. PMID:26783370

  12. A systematic review of reliability and objective criterion-related validity of physical activity questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is one of the four leading risk factors for global mortality. Accurate measurement of physical activity (PA) and in particular by physical activity questionnaires (PAQs) remains a challenge. The aim of this paper is to provide an updated systematic review of the reliability and validity characteristics of existing and more recently developed PAQs and to quantitatively compare the performance between existing and newly developed PAQs. A literature search of electronic databases was performed for studies assessing reliability and validity data of PAQs using an objective criterion measurement of PA between January 1997 and December 2011. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were screened and data were extracted to provide a systematic overview of measurement properties. Due to differences in reported outcomes and criterion methods a quantitative meta-analysis was not possible. In total, 31 studies testing 34 newly developed PAQs, and 65 studies examining 96 existing PAQs were included. Very few PAQs showed good results on both reliability and validity. Median reliability correlation coefficients were 0.62–0.71 for existing, and 0.74–0.76 for new PAQs. Median validity coefficients ranged from 0.30–0.39 for existing, and from 0.25–0.41 for new PAQs. Although the majority of PAQs appear to have acceptable reliability, the validity is moderate at best. Newly developed PAQs do not appear to perform substantially better than existing PAQs in terms of reliability and validity. Future PAQ studies should include measures of absolute validity and the error structure of the instrument. PMID:22938557

  13. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    PubMed Central

    Pavey, Toby G.; Caterson, Ian D.; George, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n = 82). Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6) and light (MET 1.6 < 3), moderate (MET 3 < 6), and vigorous (MET 6 < 9) physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p = 0.14) and 0.003% for liver fat (p = 0.96). Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r = 0.294, p = 0.007), but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat. PMID:27777796

  14. Detection of Coma Activity of the ACO/Quasi-Hilda Object 212P/2000YN30

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-06-01

    The quasi-Hilda object 212P/2000YN30, which has a cometary-like orbit, was found to display a dust tail structure between 2009 January and March. From orbital calculations, it is shown that this object could have been an active comet in the past before being transported to its current orbital configuration in quasi-stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter.

  15. Objectively measured versus self-reported physical activity in children and adolescents with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Götte, Miriam; Seidel, Corinna Caroline; Kesting, Sabine Verena; Rosenbaum, Dieter; Boos, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    Objective Existing research recognizes low levels of physical activity in pediatric patients with cancer, but much uncertainty exists about their capability to self-reflect physical activity levels. The objective of this study was to compare results of subjective self-reports and objective accelerometers regarding levels of daily walking as well as moderate-to-vigorous physical activities. Methods Results of the objective assessment tool StepWatchTM Activity Monitor and self-reporting with a standardized questionnaire were compared in 28 children and adolescents during cancer treatment. Results The patients were 13.8±2.8 years of age and 3.4±2.0 months after cancer diagnosis. The Bland-Altman plots indicated a fairly symmetrical under- and over-estimation for daily minutes of walking with the limits of agreement ranging from -100.8 to 87.3 min (d = -6.7 min). Mean difference for moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was almost zero but limits of agreement are ranging from -126.8 to 126.9 min. The comparison for the days with at least 60 min of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity showed a marked difference with 3.0±2.6 self-reported days versus only 0.1±0.4 measured days. Conclusions These findings suggest that physical activity in pediatric cancer patients should preferably be assessed with objective methods. Greater efforts are needed to implement supervised exercise interventions during treatment incorporating methods to improve self-reflection of physical activity. PMID:28207820

  16. The associations of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with cognitive functions in school-aged children.

    PubMed

    Syväoja, Heidi J; Tammelin, Tuija H; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the "WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children" study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  17. The Associations of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Cognitive Functions in School-Aged Children

    PubMed Central

    Syväoja, Heidi J.; Tammelin, Tuija H.; Ahonen, Timo; Kankaanpää, Anna; Kantomaa, Marko T.

    2014-01-01

    Low levels of physical activity among children have raised concerns over the effects of a physically inactive lifestyle, not only on physical health but also on cognitive prerequisites of learning. This study examined how objectively measured and self-reported physical activity and sedentary behavior are associated with cognitive functions in school-aged children. The study population consisted of 224 children from five schools in the Jyväskylä school district in Finland (mean age 12.2 years; 56% girls), who participated in the study in the spring of 2011. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured objectively for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M/GT3X accelerometer. Self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and screen time were evaluated with the questions used in the “WHO Health Behavior in School-aged Children” study. Cognitive functions including visual memory, executive functions and attention were evaluated with a computerized Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery by using five different tests. Structural equation modeling was applied to examine how objectively measured and self-reported MVPA and sedentary behavior were associated with cognitive functions. High levels of objectively measured MVPA were associated with good performance in the reaction time test. High levels of objectively measured sedentary time were associated with good performance in the sustained attention test. Objectively measured MVPA and sedentary time were not associated with other measures of cognitive functions. High amount of self-reported computer/video game play was associated with weaker performance in working memory test, whereas high amount of computer use was associated with weaker performance in test measuring shifting and flexibility of attention. Self-reported physical activity and total screen time were not associated with any measures of cognitive functions. The results of the present study propose that physical

  18. FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM: ACTIVATION OF SHAPE & FUNCTION FEATURES DURING OBJECT IDENTIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Eiling; Huffstetler, Stacy; Thompson-Schill, Sharon L.

    2011-01-01

    Most theories of semantic memory characterize knowledge of a given object as comprising a set of semantic features. But how does conceptual activation of these features proceed during object identification? We present the results of a pair of experiments that demonstrate that object recognition is a dynamically unfolding process in which function follows form. We used eye movements to explore whether activating one object’s concept leads to the activation of others that share perceptual (shape) or abstract (function) features. Participants viewed four-picture displays and clicked on the picture corresponding to a heard word. In critical trials, the conceptual representation of one of the objects in the display was similar in shape or function (i.e., its purpose) to the heard word. Importantly, this similarity was not apparent in the visual depictions (e.g., for the target “frisbee,” the shape-related object was a triangular slice of pizza – a shape that a frisbee cannot take); preferential fixations on the related object were therefore attributable to overlap of the conceptual representations on the relevant features. We observed relatedness effects for both shape and function, but shape effects occurred earlier than function effects. We discuss the implications of these findings for current accounts of the representation of semantic memory. PMID:21417543

  19. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  20. Automatic motor cortex activation for natural as compared to awkward grips of a manipulable object.

    PubMed

    Petit, Leila S; Pegna, Alan J; Harris, Irina M; Michel, Christoph M

    2006-01-01

    It has been suggested that, relative to natural objects, man-made object representations in the brain are more specifically defined by functional properties that reflect how an object is used and/or what it is used for (Warrington and Shallice 1984). We recorded 123-channel event-related potentials (ERP) in healthy participants during a mental rotation task involving a manipulable (hammer) and a non-manipulable (church) object. Both stimuli had standard and mirror-image versions rotated in four different orientations, resulting for the manipulable object in some natural and some awkward grips. Using spatial cluster analysis, time periods were determined during which the ERP maps differed between stimulus conditions. Specific maps appeared for natural versus awkward grips with the manipulable object at a very early stage (60-116 ms) as well as during a later stage (180-280 ms). Source estimations derived from the topographic data indicated that during the second time window the left motor cortex was significantly activated in the case of natural grips. We argue that the motor programs that are semantically associated with the object are automatically activated when it is presented in graspable orientations.

  1. Human brain activity related to the perception of spatial features of objects.

    PubMed

    Faillenot, I; Decety, J; Jeannerod, M

    1999-08-01

    The role of the parietal cortex in visuospatial analysis of object was investigated by cerebral blood flow measurements in seven objects using positron emission tomography. Data were acquired while subjects performed a matching task requiring the discrimination of simultaneously presented objects based on one of their spatial properties. Three properties were studied separately during three scanning conditions repeated twice:surface orientation, principal axis orientation, and size. Scans were also obtained during a sensorimotor control task (similar visual stimulation, same motor action, voluntary saccades toward each object) as well as during rest (no stimulation, eyes closed). Compared to rest, the three property matching tasks showed the same pattern of activation: the whole occipital lobe, the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the right occipitotemporal (OT) junction. Compared to the control condition, only right IPS and OT junction were significantly activated during discrimination of the spatial properties. The IPS focus was located between the superior parietal lobule and the angular gyrus, and the OT activation overlapped the posterior part of the inferior temporal gyrus and the middle occipital gyrus. These results indicate that discrimination of spatial attributes requires the activation of both the parietal and the temporal cortices of the right hemisphere and provide further evidence that the IPS plays a critical role in visuospatial analysis of objects.

  2. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  3. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  4. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  5. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  6. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  7. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  8. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  9. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  10. Movement observation specifies motor programs activated by the action observed objective.

    PubMed

    Lago, Angel; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2011-04-15

    There are human cortical areas that fire both when a person executes an action and when he observes someone performing a similar action. The observer activates a motor program that resembles the observed action. However, it is not known whether the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. In this study, using simple pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) applied over the primary motor cortex (M1), we investigated whether the Mirror System activates a muscle specific motor program, or codes the observed action in terms of its goal. The results showed that when subjects observed a static effector in front of an object, cortical excitability was enhanced even in muscles not involved in the observed movement, but that are able to achieve the goal of the action. When there was an effector-object interaction the motor program activated via action observation is muscle specific. These results suggest that when subjects observe an object related action there is an activation of a motor program based on the observed action goal, that is transformed into a muscle specific program when the subject shows an effector-object interaction.

  11. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Environment for Physical Activity Among Mexican Adults, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Salvo, Deborah; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Héctor; Hernández, Bernardo; Rivera-Dommarco, Juan A.; Pratt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Environmental supports for physical activity may help residents to be physically active. However, such supports might not help if residents’ perceptions of the built environment do not correspond with objective measures. We assessed the associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment among adults in Cuernavaca, Mexico, and examined whether certain variables modified this relationship. Methods We conducted a population-based (n = 645) study in 2011 that used objective (based on geographic information systems) and perceived (by questionnaire) measures of the following features of the built environment: residential density, mixed-land use, intersection density, and proximity to parks and transit stops. We used linear regression to assess the adjusted associations between these measures and to identify variables modifying these relationships. Results Adjusted associations were significant for all features (P < .05) except intersection density and proximity to transit stops. Significantly stronger associations between perceived and objective measures were observed among participants with low socioeconomic status, participants who did not own a motor vehicle or did not meet physical activity recommendations, and participants perceiving parks as safe. Conclusion Perceived measures of residential density, mixed-land use, and proximity to parks are associated with objective environmental measures related to physical activity. However, in Mexico, it should not be assumed that perceived measures of intersection density and proximity to transit stops are the same as objective measures. Our results are consistent with those from high-income countries in that associations between perceived and objective measures are modified by individual sociodemographic and psychosocial factors. PMID:27281391

  12. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  13. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  14. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  15. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  16. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  17. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  18. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-08-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding "hot-spots", and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations.

  19. Flux Tensor Constrained Geodesic Active Contours with Sensor Fusion for Persistent Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Bunyak, Filiz; Palaniappan, Kannappan; Nath, Sumit Kumar; Seetharaman, Gunasekaran

    2007-01-01

    This paper makes new contributions in motion detection, object segmentation and trajectory estimation to create a successful object tracking system. A new efficient motion detection algorithm referred to as the flux tensor is used to detect moving objects in infrared video without requiring background modeling or contour extraction. The flux tensor-based motion detector when applied to infrared video is more accurate than thresholding ”hot-spots”, and is insensitive to shadows as well as illumination changes in the visible channel. In real world monitoring tasks fusing scene information from multiple sensors and sources is a useful core mechanism to deal with complex scenes, lighting conditions and environmental variables. The object segmentation algorithm uses level set-based geodesic active contour evolution that incorporates the fusion of visible color and infrared edge informations in a novel manner. Touching or overlapping objects are further refined during the segmentation process using an appropriate shape-based model. Multiple object tracking using correspondence graphs is extended to handle groups of objects and occlusion events by Kalman filter-based cluster trajectory analysis and watershed segmentation. The proposed object tracking algorithm was successfully tested on several difficult outdoor multispectral videos from stationary sensors and is not confounded by shadows or illumination variations. PMID:19096530

  20. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  1. The effects of object activity distribution on multiplexing multi-pinhole SPECT

    PubMed Central

    Mok, Greta S P; Tsui, Benjamin M W; Beekman, Freek J

    2011-01-01

    We aim to study the effects of activity distribution for multiplexing multi-pinhole (MPH) SPECT. Three digital phantoms, including a hot rod, a cold rod and a cold sphere phantom, were used. Different degrees of multiplexing were obtained by (i) adjusting the MPH pattern for the same 4-pinhole collimator (scheme 1) and (ii) increasing the number of pinholes (scheme 2). Noise-free and noisy projections were generated using a 3D analytical MPH projector based on the same acquisition time. Projections were reconstructed using OS–EM without resolution recovery. Normalized mean-square-error (NMSE), noise, image profiles and signal-to-background ratios (SBR) were assessed. For the hot rod phantom, the NMSE-noise trade-offs slightly improves for multiplexing designs in scheme 2. Substantial artifacts were observed and the NMSE-noise trade-offs slightly worsened for multiplexing designs for the cold phantoms. Resolutions slightly degraded for higher degrees of multiplexing (~39–65%) for the cold rod phantom. For the cold sphere phantom, image profiles showed non-multiplexing designs better emulated the phantom, while ~20% multiplexing performs similarly as compared to non-multiplexing in SBR. Our results indicate that multiplexing can help for sparse objects but leads to a significant image degradation in non-sparse distributions. Since many tracers are not highly specific, and the gain of detection efficiency by allowing multiplexing is fairly offset by image degradations, multiplexing needs to be kept to a minimum for optimum MPH collimator designs. PMID:21454926

  2. Crocins, the active constituents of Crocus sativus L., counteracted apomorphine-induced performance deficits in the novel object recognition task, but not novel object location task, in rats.

    PubMed

    Pitsikas, Nikolaos; Tarantilis, Petros A

    2017-02-17

    Schizophrenia is a chronic mental disease that affects nearly 1% of the population worldwide. Several lines of evidence suggest that the dopaminergic (DAergic) system might be compromised in schizophrenia. Specifically, the mixed dopamine (DA) D1/D2 receptor agonist apomorphine induces schizophrenia-like symptoms in rodents, including disruption of memory abilities. Crocins are among the active components of saffron (dried stigmas of Crocus sativus L. plant) and their implication in cognition is well documented. The present study investigated whether crocins counteract non-spatial and spatial recognition memory deficits induced by apomorphine in rats. For this purpose, the novel object recognition task (NORT) and the novel object location task (NOLT) were used. The effects of compounds on mobility in a locomotor activity chamber were also investigated in rats. Post-training peripheral administration of crocins (15 and 30mg/kg) counteracted apomorphine (1mg/kg)-induced performance deficits in the NORT. Conversely, crocins did not attenuate spatial recognition memory deficits produced by apomorphine in the NOLT. The present data show that crocins reversed non-spatial recognition memory impairments produced by dysfunction of the DAergic system and modulate different aspects of memory components (storage and/or retrieval). The effects of compounds on recognition memory cannot be attributed to changes in locomotor activity. Further, our findings illustrate a functional interaction between crocins and the DAergic system that may be of relevance for schizophrenia-like behavioral deficits. Therefore, the utilization of crocins as an adjunctive agent, for the treatment of cognitive deficits observed in schizophrenic patients should be further investigated.

  3. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  4. Domain-Specific Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity in Children

    PubMed Central

    Sprengeler, Ole; Wirsik, Norman; Hebestreit, Antje; Herrmann, Diana; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about the extent that different domains contribute to total sedentary (SED), light (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). We aimed to identify domain-specific physical activity (PA) patterns in school-aged children who were assessed by questionnaire and accelerometry. For the study, 298 German school children and adolescents aged 6–17 years wore an accelerometer for one week and completed a PA recall-questionnaire for the same period. Spearman coefficients (r) were used to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and objectively measured PA in five domains (transport, school hours, physical education, leisure-time, organized sports activities). School hours mainly contributed to the total objectively measured SED, LPA and MVPA (55%, 53% and 46%, respectively), whilst sports activities contributed only 24% to total MVPA. Compared to accelerometry, the proportion of self-reported LPA and MVPA during school hours was substantially underestimated but overestimated during leisure-time. The agreement of self-reported and objectively measured PA was low for total LPA (r = 0.09, 95% CI (confidence interval): −0.03–0.20) and total MVPA (r = 0.21, 95% CI: 0.10–0.32), while moderate agreement was only found for total SED (r = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.34–0.53), LPA during transport (r = 0.59; 95% CI: 0.49–0.67) and MVPA during organized sports activities (r = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.38–0.67). Since school hours mainly contribute to total SED, LPA and MVPA and self-reported LPA and MVPA during school were importantly underestimated compared to objectively measured LPA and MVPA, the application of objective measurements is compulsory to characterize the entire activity pattern of school-aged children. PMID:28257046

  5. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  6. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  7. Hybrid multi-objective optimisation for concurrent activities consolidating two docked spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Tang, Guo-jin; Luo, Ya-zhong

    2015-12-01

    Rendezvous and docking (RVD) is a key technology for performing complicated space missions. After an RVD process, several activities are executed to consolidate two docked spacecraft into a spacecraft complex, and this task phase is referred to as a spacecraft consolidation mission. It can save the mission time to execute these activities in parallel, but a high degree of parallelism could result in a disordered execution profile and many violations of precedence constraints. To solve this contradiction, a hybrid multi-objective optimisation approach is proposed. The precedence requirements within each activity are satisfied using an encoding and scheduling process, while the precedence requirements between different activities are treated by adding release time variables. A compact-execution index is designed to express the preference of an orderly and compact execution profile. Furthermore, a multi-objective hybrid-encoding genetic algorithm is employed to find optimal solutions. Finally, the proposed approach is demonstrated for a numerical example. The results show that optimal solutions satisfying precedence requirements both within each activity and between different activities are successfully obtained, and the trade-off between saving mission time and obtaining an orderly and compact execution profile can be effectively made. The performance of the proposed method is validated by comparison with two other multi-objective genetic algorithms.

  8. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; Martínez-Gómez, David; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Manios, Yannis; Gonzalez-Gross, Marcela; Mauro, Beatrice; Molnar, Denes; Widhalm, Kurt; Marcos, Ascensión; Beghin, Laurent; Castillo, Manuel J; Sjöström, Michael

    2011-07-15

    The authors' aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.

  9. Object relations theory and activity theory: a proposed link by way of the procedural sequence model.

    PubMed

    Ryle, A

    1991-12-01

    An account of object relations theory (ORT), represented in terms of the procedural sequence model (PSM), is compared to the ideas of Vygotsky and activity theory (AT). The two models are seen to be compatible and complementary and their combination offers a satisfactory account of human psychology, appropriate for the understanding and integration of psychotherapy.

  10. OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS OF SPERM MOTILITY IN THE LAKE STURGEON, ACIPENSER FULVESCENS: ACTIVATION AND INHIBITION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An objective analysis of the duration of motility of sperm from the lake sturgeon, Acipenser fulvescens, has been performed using computer-assisted sperm motion analysis at 200 frames/s. Motility was measured in both 1993 and 1994. The percentage of activated motile sperm and the...

  11. Object discrimination through active electrolocation: Shape recognition and the influence of electrical noise.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sarah; Burt de Perera, Theresa; von der Emde, Gerhard

    2016-12-12

    The weakly electric fish Gnathonemus petersii can recognise objects using active electrolocation. Here, we tested two aspects of object recognition; first whether shape recognition might be influenced by movement of the fish, and second whether object discrimination is affected by the presence of electrical noise from conspecifics. (i) Unlike other object features, such as size or volume, no parameter within a single electrical image has been found that encodes object shape. We investigated whether shape recognition might be facilitated by movement-induced modulations (MIM) of the set of electrical images that are created as a fish swims past an object. Fish were trained to discriminate between pairs of objects that either created similar or dissimilar levels of MIM of the electrical images. As predicted, the fish were able to discriminate between objects up to a longer distance if there was a large difference in MIM between the objects than if there was a small difference. This supports an involvement of MIMs in shape recognition but the use of other cues cannot be excluded. (ii) Electrical noise might impair object recognition if the noise signals overlap with the EODs of an electrolocating fish. To avoid jamming, we predicted that fish might employ pulsing strategies to prevent overlaps. To investigate the influence of electrical noise on discrimination performance, two fish were tested either in the presence of a conspecific or of playback signals and the electric signals were recorded during the experiments. The fish were surprisingly immune to jamming by conspecifics: While the discrimination performance of one fish dropped to chance level when more than 22% of its EODs overlapped with the noise signals, the performance of the other fish was not impaired even when all its EODs overlapped. Neither of the fish changed their pulsing behaviour, suggesting that they did not use any kind of jamming avoidance strategy.

  12. New modeling of reflection interference contrast microscopy including polarization and numerical aperture effects: application to nanometric distance measurements and object profile reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Theodoly, O; Huang, Z-H; Valignat, M-P

    2010-02-02

    We have developed a new and improved optical model of reflection interference contrast microscopy (RICM) to determine with a precision of a few nanometers the absolute thickness h of thin films on a flat surface in immersed conditions. The model takes into account multiple reflections between a planar surface and a multistratified object, finite aperture illumination (INA), and, for the first time, the polarization of light. RICM intensity I is typically oscillating with h. We introduce a new normalization procedure that uses the intensity extrema of the same oscillation order for both experimental and theoretical intensity values and permits us to avoid significant error in the absolute height determination, especially at high INA. We also show how the problem of solution degeneracy can be solved by taking pictures at two different INA values. The model is applied to filled polystyrene beads and giant unilamellar vesicles of radius 10-40 microm sitting on a glass substrate. The RICM profiles I(h) can be fitted for up to two to three oscillation orders, and extrema positions are correct for up to five to seven oscillation orders. The precision of the absolute distance and of the shape of objects near a substrate is about 5 nm in a range from 0 to 500 nm, even under large numerical aperture conditions. The method is especially valuable for dynamic RICM experiments and with living cells where large illumination apertures are required.

  13. Objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Jonatan R; Segura-Jiménez, Víctor; Ortega, Francisco B; Álvarez-Gallardo, Inmaculada C; Camiletti-Moirón, Daniel; Aparicio, Virginia A; Carbonell-Baeza, Ana; Femia, Pedro; Munguía-Izquierdo, Diego; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To characterise levels of objectively measured sedentary time and physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Local Association of Fibromyalgia (Granada, Spain). Participants The study comprised 94 women with diagnosed fibromyalgia who did not have other severe somatic or psychiatric disorders, or other diseases that prevent physical loading, able to ambulate and to communicate and capable and willing to provide informed consent. Primary outcome measures Sedentary time and physical activity were measured by accelerometry and expressed as time spent in sedentary behaviours, average physical activity intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent in moderate intensity and in moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Results The proportion of women meeting the physical activity recommendations of 30 min/day of MVPA on 5 or more days a week was 60.6%. Women spent, on average, 71% of their waking time (approximately 10 h/day) in sedentary behaviours. Both sedentary behaviour and physical activity levels were similar across age groups, waist circumference and percentage body fat categories, years since clinical diagnosis, marital status, educational level and occupational status, regardless of the severity of the disease (all p>0.1). Time spent on moderate-intensity physical activity and MVPA was, however, lower in those with greater body mass index (BMI) (−6.6 min and −7 min, respectively, per BMI category increase, <25, 25–30, >30 kg/m2; p values for trend were 0.056 and 0.051, respectively). Women spent, on average, 10 min less on MVPA (p<0.001) and 22 min less on sedentary behaviours during weekends compared with weekdays (p=0.051). Conclusions These data provide an objective measure of the amount of time spent on sedentary activities and on physical activity in women with fibromyalgia. PMID:23794573

  14. Objects prompt authentic scientific activities among learners in a museum programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Kramer Lindow, Bent Erik

    2016-04-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science education as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme at a natural history museum to identify how palaeontological objects prompt scientific activity among upper secondary school students. We first construct a theoretical framework based on an analysis of the programme's palaeontological content. From this, we build our reference model, which considers the specimens used in the programme, possible palaeontological interpretations of these specimens, and the conditions inherent in the programme. We use the reference model to analyse the activities of programme participants, and illustrate how these activities are palaeontologically authentic. Finally, we discuss our findings, examining the mechanism by which the specimens prompt scientific activities. We also discuss our discipline-based approach, and how it allows us to positively identify participants' activities as authentic. We conclude by discussing the implications of our findings.

  15. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  16. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  17. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  18. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  19. ESA activities on satellite laser ranging to non-cooperative objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flohrer, Tim; Krag, Holger; Funke, Quirin; Jilete, Beatriz; Mancas, Alexandru

    2016-07-01

    Satellite laser ranging (SLR) to non-cooperative objects is an emerging technology that can contribute significantly to operational, modelling and mitigation needs set by the space debris population. ESA is conducting various research and development activities in SLR to non-cooperative objects. ESA's Space Situational Awareness (SSA) program supports specific activities in the Space Surveillance and Tracking (SST) segment. Research and development activities with operational aspects are run by ESA's Space Debris Office. At ESA SSA/SST comprises detecting, cataloguing and predicting the objects orbiting the Earth, and the derived applications. SST aims at facilitating research and development of sensor and data processing technologies and of related common components while staying complementary with, and in support of, national and multi-national European initiatives. SST promotes standardisation and interoperability of the technology developments. For SLR these goals are implemented through researching, developing, and deploying an expert centre. This centre shall coordinate the contribution of system-external loosely connected SLR sensors, and shall provide back calibration and expert evaluation support to the sensors. The Space Debris Office at ESA is responsible for all aspects related to space debris in the Agency. It is in charge of providing operational support to ESA and third party missions. Currently, the office studies the potential benefits of laser ranging to space debris objects to resolve close approaches to active satellites, to improve re-entry predictions of time and locations, and the more general SLR support during contingency situations. The office studies the determination of attitude and attitude motion of uncooperative objects with special focus on the combination of SLR, light-curve, and radar imaging data. Generating sufficiently precise information to allow for the acquisition of debris objects by a SLR sensor in a stare

  20. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  1. Utilization of 2013 BRFSS Physical Activity Data for State Cancer Control Plan Objectives: Alabama Data

    PubMed Central

    Desmond, Renee; Jackson, Bradford E.; Hunter, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Objectives All comprehensive US cancer control plans mention physical activity and implement physical activity promotion objectives as part of these cancer plans. The purpose of this investigation was to describe the physical activities reported by Alabama adults in the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BFRSS) and to compare these activities by age group and relative exercise intensity. Methods This investigation used data on 6503 respondents from the 2013 BRFSS sample of respondents from Alabama with landline and cellular telephones. Respondents were asked whether they engaged in any physical activities or aerobic exercises such as running, calisthenics, golf, gardening, or walking. Information was collected on strengthening activities such as yoga, sit-ups, push-ups, and using weight machines, free weights, and elastic bands. Relative exercise intensity was estimated for each aerobic activity by comparing the 60% maximal oxygen uptake with metabolic equivalent values. Results Approximately two-thirds (63.7%) of respondents reported that they engaged in exercise in the past 30 days; 45.4% participated in enough aerobic activity per week to meet guidelines, and 25.9% met the muscle-strengthening guidelines. Only 10.1% of respondents 65 years old and older met both aerobic and muscle-strengthening guidelines, compared with 15.2% of those 18 to 64 years old (P < 0.05). The most common activity reported for ages 18 to 64 years was walking (53.3%), followed by running (12.7%), and gardening (4.7%). Among adults aged 65 and older, the top three activities were walking (63.2%), gardening (13.3%), and use of a bicycle machine (2.9%). The activity intensity was significantly greater for walking, gardening, and household activities among older adults compared with those younger than age 65. Conclusions Because the recommended levels of physical activity are not met by a majority of Alabama residents, it is important to incorporate this information into state

  2. Cosmic bombardment V: Threat object-dispersing approaches to active planetary defense

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L. |; Ishikawa, M. |; Hyde, R.

    1995-05-24

    Earth-impacting comets and asteroids with diameters {approx}0.03 - 10 km pose the greatest threats to the terrestrial biosphere in terms of impact frequency-weighted impact consequences, and thus are of most concern to designers of active planetary defenses. Specific gravitational binding energies of such objects range from 10{sup -7} to 10{sup -2} J/gm, and are small compared with the specific energies of 1x10{sup 3} to 3x10{sup 3} J/gm required to vaporize objects of typical composition or the specific energies required to pulverize them, which are 10{sup -1} to 10 J/gm. All of these are small compared to the specific kinetic energy of these objects in the Earth- centered frame, which is 2x10{sup 5} to 2x10{sup 6} J/gm. The prospect naturally arises of negating all such threats by deflecting, pulverizing or vaporizing the objects. Pulverization-with-dispersal is an attractive option of reasonable defensive robustness. Examples of such equipments - which employ no explosives of any type - are given. Vaporization is the maximally robust defensive option, and may be invoked to negate threat objects not observed until little time is left until Earth-strike, and pulverization-with-dispersal has proven inadequate. Physically larger threats may be vaporized with nuclear explosives. No contemporary technical means of any kind appear capable of directly dispersing the -100 km diameter scale Charon- class cometary objects recently observed in the outer solar system, although such objects may be deflected to defensively useful extents. Means of implementing defenses of each of these types are proposed for specificity, and areas for optimization noted. Biospheric impacts of threat object debris are briefly considered, for bounding purposes. Experiments are suggested on cometary and asteroidal objects.

  3. Gamma-band activity as a signature for cross-modal priming of auditory object recognition by active haptic exploration.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Till R; Lorenz, Simone; Senkowski, Daniel; Engel, Andreas K

    2011-02-16

    When visual sensory information is restricted, we often rely on haptic and auditory information to recognize objects. Here we examined how haptic exploration of familiar objects affects neural processing of subsequently presented sounds of objects. Recent studies indicated that oscillatory responses, in particular in the gamma band (30-100 Hz), reflect cross-modal processing, but it is not clear which cortical networks are involved. In this high-density EEG study, we measured gamma-band activity (GBA) in humans performing a haptic-to-auditory priming paradigm. Haptic stimuli served as primes, and sounds of objects as targets. Haptic and auditory stimuli were either semantically congruent or incongruent, and participants were asked to categorize the objects represented by the sounds. Response times were shorter for semantically congruent compared with semantically incongruent inputs. This haptic-to-auditory priming effect was associated with enhanced total power GBA (250-350 ms) for semantically congruent inputs and additional effects of semantic congruency on evoked GBA (50-100 ms). Source reconstruction of total GBA using linear beamforming revealed effects of semantic congruency in the left lateral temporal lobe, possibly reflecting matching of information across modalities. For semantically incongruent inputs, total GBA was enhanced in middle frontal cortices, possibly indicating the processing or detection of conflicting information. Our findings demonstrate that semantic priming by haptic object exploration affects processing of auditory inputs in the lateral temporal lobe and suggest an important role of oscillatory activity for multisensory processing.

  4. [Participation of the primary motor cortex in programming of muscle activity during catching of falling object].

    PubMed

    Kazennikov, O V; Lipshits, M I

    2011-01-01

    Object fell into the cup that sitting subject held between thumb and index fingers. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of the primary motor cortex was performed early before and during anticipatory grip force increasing. Comparison of current EMG activity of adductor pollicis brevis and first dorsal interosseous muscles and responses of these muscles on TMS showed that responses were increased before the raising of muscle activity. From the other side only slight augmentation of responses was observed during subsequent strong muscle activation. It is assumed that the increasing of the TMS responses that occurred before the initiation of muscle activity reflects the enhancement ofthe motor cortex excitability associated to specific processes related to the motor cortex participation in programming of the muscles activities.

  5. Impact of Personalised Feedback about Physical Activity on Change in Objectively Measured Physical Activity (the FAB Study): A Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Godino, Job G.; Watkinson, Clare; Corder, Kirsten; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen; Sharp, Stephen J.; Griffin, Simon J.; van Sluijs, Esther M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Low levels of physical activity are a major public health concern, and interventions to promote physical activity have had limited success. Whether or not personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement motivates behaviour change has yet to be rigorously examined. Methods And Findings: In a parallel group, open randomised controlled trial, 466 healthy adults aged 32 to 54 years were recruited from the ongoing population-based Fenland Study (Cambridgeshire, UK). Participants were randomised to receive either no feedback until the end of the trial (control group, n=120) or one of three different types of feedback: simple, visual, or contextualised (intervention groups, n=346). The primary outcome was physical activity (physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) in kJ/kg/day and average body acceleration (ACC) in m/s2) measured objectively using a combined heart rate monitor and accelerometer (Actiheart®). The main secondary outcomes included self-reported physical activity, intention to increase physical activity, and awareness of physical activity (the agreement between self-rated and objectively measured physical activity). At 8 weeks, 391 (83.9%) participants had complete physical activity data. The intervention had no effect on objectively measured physical activity (PAEE: β=-0.92, 95% CI=-3.50 to 1.66, p=0.48 and ACC: β=0.01, 95% CI=-0.00 to 0.02, p=0.21), self-reported physical activity (β=-0.39, 95% CI=-1.59 to 0.81), or intention to increase physical activity (β=-0.05, 95% CI=-0.22 to 0.11). However, it was associated with an increase in awareness of physical activity (OR=1.74, 95% CI=1.05 to 2.89). Results did not differ according to the type of feedback. Conclusions Personalised feedback about physical activity following objective measurement increased awareness but did not result in changes in physical activity in the short term. Measurement and feedback may have a role in promoting behaviour change but are

  6. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  7. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  8. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  9. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  10. Perceiving Object Shape from Specular Highlight Deformation, Boundary Contour Deformation, and Active Haptic Manipulation

    PubMed Central

    Cheeseman, Jacob R.; Thomason, Kelsey E.; Ronning, Cecilia; Behari, Kriti; Kleinman, Kayla; Calloway, Autum B.; Lamirande, Davora

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that motion facilitates the visual perception of solid object shape, particularly when surface texture or other identifiable features (e.g., corners) are present. Conventional models of structure-from-motion require the presence of texture or identifiable object features in order to recover 3-D structure. Is the facilitation in 3-D shape perception similar in magnitude when surface texture is absent? On any given trial in the current experiments, participants were presented with a single randomly-selected solid object (bell pepper or randomly-shaped “glaven”) for 12 seconds and were required to indicate which of 12 (for bell peppers) or 8 (for glavens) simultaneously visible objects possessed the same shape. The initial single object’s shape was defined either by boundary contours alone (i.e., presented as a silhouette), specular highlights alone, specular highlights combined with boundary contours, or texture. In addition, there was a haptic condition: in this condition, the participants haptically explored with both hands (but could not see) the initial single object for 12 seconds; they then performed the same shape-matching task used in the visual conditions. For both the visual and haptic conditions, motion (rotation in depth or active object manipulation) was present in half of the trials and was not present for the remaining trials. The effect of motion was quantitatively similar for all of the visual and haptic conditions–e.g., the participants’ performance in Experiment 1 was 93.5 percent higher in the motion or active haptic manipulation conditions (when compared to the static conditions). The current results demonstrate that deforming specular highlights or boundary contours facilitate 3-D shape perception as much as the motion of objects that possess texture. The current results also indicate that the improvement with motion that occurs for haptics is similar in magnitude to that which occurs for vision. PMID:26863531

  11. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  12. Evaluation of active and passive near-millimeter-wave radiometric imaging techniques for detection of concealed objects

    SciTech Connect

    Reber, E.E.; Foote, F.B.; Schellenbaum, R.L.; Bradley, R.G.

    1981-07-01

    Active and passive radiometric imaging techniques have been used at 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths (220 and 100 GHz) to evaluate their potential use in detecting concealed objects. An evaluation of the techniques includes a particular study of their potential in detecting shielded nuclear materials and explosives carried covertly by personnel. We have previously reported images of metal objects and nuclear shielding materials that were detected when concealed under clothing. These images appear with the human body as background. Detection of contraband by radiometric imaging techniques depends upon the differences in emissivity and reflectivity of the contraband relative to human tissue. Explosives, unlike metals and metal composites, generally have high emissivities and low reflectivities that closely approximate those of human tissue making explosives difficult to detect. Samples of several common types of explosives (TNT, Detasheet, C4, and several types of water gels) have been examined at the 1.4- and 3-mm wavelengths using active and passive radiometric techniques.

  13. Medial temporal lobe activity at recognition increases with the duration of mnemonic delay during an object working memory task.

    PubMed

    Picchioni, Marco; Matthiasson, Pall; Broome, Matthew; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Mick; Mathes, Birgit; Fletcher, Paul; Williams, Steven; McGuire, Philip

    2007-11-01

    Object working memory (WM) engages a disseminated neural network, although the extent to which the length of time that data is held in WM influences regional activity within this network is unclear. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study a delayed matching to sample task in 14 healthy subjects, manipulating the duration of mnemonic delay. Across all lengths of delay, successful recognition was associated with the bilateral engagement of the inferior and middle frontal gyri and insula, the medial and inferior temporal, dorsal anterior cingulate and the posterior parietal cortices. As the length of time that data was held in WM increased, activation at recognition increased in the medial temporal, medial occipito-temporal, anterior cingulate and posterior parietal cortices. These results confirm the components of an object WM network required for successful recognition, and suggest that parts of this network, including the medial temporal cortex, are sensitive to the duration of mnemonic delay.

  14. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and the Subsequent Risk of Incident Dysglycemia

    PubMed Central

    Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Sun, Cong; Ukoumunne, Obioha C.; Pezic, Angela; Venn, Alison; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Dunstan, David W.; Barr, Elizabeth L.M.; Blair, Steven N.; Cochrane, Jenny; Zimmet, Paul Z.; Dwyer, Terence

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate pedometer-measured physical activity (PA) in 2000 and change in PA over 5 years with subsequent risk of dysglycemia by 2005. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective cohort study in Tasmania, Australia, analyzed 458 adults with normal glucose tolerance and a mean (SD) age of 49.7 (12.1) years in 2000. Variables assessed in 2000 and 2005 included PA, by pedometer and questionnaire, nutrient intake, and other lifestyle factors. Incident dysglycemia was defined as the development of impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance revealed by oral glucose tolerance testing in 2005, without type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Incident dysglycemia developed in 26 participants during the 5-year period. Higher daily steps in 2000 were independently associated with a lower 5-year risk of incident dysglycemia (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 0.87 [95% CI 0.77–0.97] per 1,000-step increment). Higher daily steps in 2005, after controlling for baseline steps in 2000 (thus reflecting change in steps over 5 years), were not associated with incident dysglycemia (AOR 1.02 [0.92–1.14]). Higher daily steps in 2000 were also associated with lower fasting blood glucose, but not 2-h plasma glucose by 2005. Further adjustment for BMI or waist circumference did not remove these associations. CONCLUSIONS Among community-dwelling adults, a higher rate of daily steps is associated with a reduced risk of incident dysglycemia. This effect appears to be not fully mediated through reduced adiposity. PMID:21562319

  15. Intrinsic Bayesian Active Contours for Extraction of Object Boundaries in Images

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Anuj

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework for incorporating prior information about high-probability shapes in the process of contour extraction and object recognition in images. Here one studies shapes as elements of an infinite-dimensional, non-linear quotient space, and statistics of shapes are defined and computed intrinsically using differential geometry of this shape space. Prior models on shapes are constructed using probability distributions on tangent bundles of shape spaces. Similar to the past work on active contours, where curves are driven by vector fields based on image gradients and roughness penalties, we incorporate the prior shape knowledge in the form of vector fields on curves. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the use of prior shape models in the estimation of object boundaries, and their success in handling partial obscuration and missing data. Furthermore, we describe the use of this framework in shape-based object recognition or classification. PMID:21076692

  16. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  17. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  18. Occipital alpha activity during stimulus processing gates the information flow to object-selective cortex.

    PubMed

    Zumer, Johanna M; Scheeringa, René; Schoffelen, Jan-Mathijs; Norris, David G; Jensen, Ole

    2014-10-01

    Given the limited processing capabilities of the sensory system, it is essential that attended information is gated to downstream areas, whereas unattended information is blocked. While it has been proposed that alpha band (8-13 Hz) activity serves to route information to downstream regions by inhibiting neuronal processing in task-irrelevant regions, this hypothesis remains untested. Here we investigate how neuronal oscillations detected by electroencephalography in visual areas during working memory encoding serve to gate information reflected in the simultaneously recorded blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signals recorded by functional magnetic resonance imaging in downstream ventral regions. We used a paradigm in which 16 participants were presented with faces and landscapes in the right and left hemifields; one hemifield was attended and the other unattended. We observed that decreased alpha power contralateral to the attended object predicted the BOLD signal representing the attended object in ventral object-selective regions. Furthermore, increased alpha power ipsilateral to the attended object predicted a decrease in the BOLD signal representing the unattended object. We also found that the BOLD signal in the dorsal attention network inversely correlated with visual alpha power. This is the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that oscillations in the alpha band are implicated in the gating of information from the visual cortex to the ventral stream, as reflected in the representationally specific BOLD signal. This link of sensory alpha to downstream activity provides a neurophysiological substrate for the mechanism of selective attention during stimulus processing, which not only boosts the attended information but also suppresses distraction. Although previous studies have shown a relation between the BOLD signal from the dorsal attention network and the alpha band at rest, we demonstrate such a relation during a visuospatial task, indicating

  19. Optical evidence for the unification of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects.

    PubMed

    Miller, J S

    1995-12-05

    There is a variety of optical evidence for some unification of different types of active galactic nuclei and quasi-stellar objects (QSOs). The case is very strong for the unification of at least some Seyfert galaxies, where polarization data show that the type assigned to the Seyfert galaxy must depend on viewing direction. It has been proposed that Fanaroff-Riley type 2 (FR2) radio galaxies are quasars seen in a direction from which the quasar is obscured, and there is some limited direct evidence for this picture. The broad absorption line QSOs may be normal QSOs seen from a special direction. Some of the sources observed to have high luminosities in the far infrared could be obscured QSOs and active nuclei. Mergers and interactions are likely to play an important role in nuclear activity, and active galaxies and QSOs could change their apparent types through these encounters followed by subsequent evolution.

  20. An active tactile sensor for detecting mechanical characteristics of contacted objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Y.; Shikida, M.; Sasaki, H.; Itoigawa, K.; Sato, K.

    2006-08-01

    We propose an active tactile sensor actuated by magnetic force. The tactile sensor has the advantage of being able to detect mechanical characteristics related to a tactile impression of contacted objects using a single sensor structure, much as human skin functions. It consists of a displacement-sensing element of piezoresistors formed on a silicon diaphragm, and a magnetic actuating element (a permanent magnet and a flat coil). The sensor has two modes of operation, quasi-static and vibration, and it can detect contact force, elasticity and damping of contacted objects by choosing between operation modes. We fabricated the piezoresistor sensing and magnetic actuating elements by applying the microelectromechanical systems technologies, and assembled them in a hybrid manner. The size of the sensor was 6.0 mm × 6.0 mm × 10 µm. As contact samples we used three different rubber materials with hardness values ranging from A20 to A60 in Shore A. We experimentally confirmed that both the resonance frequency and the Q-factor of the sensing element in the vibration mode changed with different samples. We were able to calculate the elastic and damping coefficients of the contacted rubber objects by analyzing the vibrational response of the diaphragm. From the results, we concluded that the active sensor can detect mechanical characteristics of contacted objects using a single sensor structure.

  1. Vectra DA for the objective measurement of disease activity in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Segurado, O G; Sasso, E H

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative and regular assessment of disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is required to achieve treatment targets such as remission and to optimize clinical outcomes. To assess inflammation accurately, predict joint damage and monitor treatment response, a measure of disease activity in RA should reflect the pathological processes resulting in irreversible joint damage and functional disability. The Vectra DA blood test is an objective measure of disease activity for patients with RA. Vectra DA provides an accurate, reproducible score on a scale of 1 to 100 based on the concentrations of 12 biomarkers that reflect the pathophysiologic diversity of RA. The analytical validity, clinical validity, and clinical utility of Vectra DA have been evaluated for patients with RA in registries and prospective and retrospective clinical studies. As a biomarker-based instrument for assessing disease activity in RA, the Vectra DA test can help monitor therapeutic response to methotrexate and biologic agents and assess clinically challenging situations, such as when clinical measures are confounded by non-inflammatory pain from fibromyalgia. Vectra DA scores correlate with imaging of joint inflammation and are predictive for radiographic progression, with high Vectra DA scores being associated with more frequent and severe progression and low scores being predictive for non-progression. In summary, the Vectra DA score is an objective measure of RA disease activity that quantifies inflammatory status. By predicting risk for joint damage more effectively than conventional clinical and laboratory measures, it has the potential to complement these measures and optimise clinical decision making.

  2. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  3. Detecting and discriminating novel objects: The impact of perirhinal cortex disconnection on hippocampal activity patterns

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Eman; Olarte‐Sánchez, Cristian M.; Aggleton, John P.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Perirhinal cortex provides object‐based information and novelty/familiarity information for the hippocampus. The necessity of these inputs was tested by comparing hippocampal c‐fos expression in rats with or without perirhinal lesions. These rats either discriminated novel from familiar objects (Novel‐Familiar) or explored pairs of novel objects (Novel‐Novel). Despite impairing Novel‐Familiar discriminations, the perirhinal lesions did not affect novelty detection, as measured by overall object exploration levels (Novel‐Novel condition). The perirhinal lesions also largely spared a characteristic network of linked c‐fos expression associated with novel stimuli (entorhinal cortex→CA3→distal CA1→proximal subiculum). The findings show: I) that perirhinal lesions preserve behavioral sensitivity to novelty, whilst still impairing the spontaneous ability to discriminate novel from familiar objects, II) that the distinctive patterns of hippocampal c‐fos activity promoted by novel stimuli do not require perirhinal inputs, III) that entorhinal Fos counts (layers II and III) increase for novelty discriminations, IV) that hippocampal c‐fos networks reflect proximal‐distal connectivity differences, and V) that discriminating novelty creates different pathway interactions from merely detecting novelty, pointing to top‐down effects that help guide object selection. © 2016 The Authors Hippocampus Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27398938

  4. Risk Reduction Activities for the Near-Earth Object Surveillance Satellite Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bédard, D.; Scott, L.; Wallace, B.; Harvey, W.

    every three minutes, for an average of 288 images for every 24 hours of operation. To ensure both science teams can employ the NEOSSat spacecraft to its full potential, the Mission Planning System (MPS) will automate the scheduling of both the HEOSS and NESS observation tasks. In another risk reduction effort for the NEOSSat project, a prototype of the MPS software has been developed to help in the definition of the system requirements as well as to identify and reduce the risks associated with the development of this software system. The paper will first provide an update on the status and schedule of the NEOSSat project. Then, we will present the results achieved (metrics and photometry) from the two tracked GPS spacecraft as well as the lessons learned that are being applied during the development of the joint DRDC and CSA NEOSSat micro-satellite. Finally, results obtained from the MPS prototype development will be presented with a special emphasis on the final system to be designed including a description of the functions judged to be critical based upon the risk reduction activity.

  5. Objectively measured physical activity during pregnancy: a study in obese and overweight women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Obese and overweight women may benefit from increased physical activity (PA) during pregnancy. There is limited published data describing objectively measured PA in such women. Methods A longitudinal observational study of PA intensity, type and duration using objective and subjective measurement methods. Fifty five pregnant women with booking body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were recruited from a hospital ultrasound clinic in North East England. 26 (47%) were nulliparous and 22 (40%) were obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2). PA was measured by accelerometry and self report questionnaire at 13 weeks, 26 weeks and/or 36 weeks gestation. Outcome measures were daily duration of light, moderate or vigorous activity assessed by accelerometry; calculated overall PA energy expenditure, (PAEE), and PAEE within four domains of activity based on self report. Results At median 13 weeks gestation, women recorded a median 125 mins/day light activity and 35 mins/day moderate or vigorous activity (MVPA). 65% achieved the minimum recommended 30 mins/day MVPA. This proportion was maintained at 26 weeks (62%) and 36 weeks (71%). Women achieving more than 30 mins/day MVPA in the first trimester showed a significant reduction in duration of MVPA by the third trimester (11 mins/day, p = 0.003). Walking, swimming and floor exercises were the most commonly reported recreational activities but their contribution to estimated energy expenditure was small. Conclusion Overweight and obese pregnant women can achieve and maintain recommended levels of PA throughout pregnancy. Interventions to promote PA should target changes in habitual activities at work and at home, and in particular walking. PMID:21114834

  6. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility among older people.

    PubMed

    Tsai, L-T; Portegijs, E; Rantakokko, M; Viljanen, A; Saajanaho, M; Eronen, J; Rantanen, T

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space mobility in community-dwelling older people. Life-space refers to the spatial area a person purposefully moves through in daily life (bedroom, home, yard, neighborhood, town, and beyond) and life-space mobility to the frequency of travel and the help needed when moving through different life-space areas. The study population comprised community-living 75- to 90-year-old people {n = 174; median age 79.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 7.1]}, participating in the accelerometer substudy of Life-Space Mobility in Old Age (LISPE) project. Step counts and activity time were measured by an accelerometer (Hookie "AM20 Activity Meter") for 7 days. Life-space mobility was assessed with Life-Space Assessment (LSA) questionnaire. Altogether, 16% had a life-space area restricted to the neighborhood when moving independently. Participants with a restricted life space were less physically active and about 70% of them had exceptionally low values in daily step counts (≤ 615 steps) and moderate activity time (≤ 6.8 min). Higher step counts and activity time correlated positively with life-space mobility. Prospective studies are needed to clarify the temporal order of low physical activity level and restriction in life-space mobility.

  7. Active learning in the lecture theatre using 3D printed objects

    PubMed Central

    Smith, David P.

    2016-01-01

    The ability to conceptualize 3D shapes is central to understanding biological processes. The concept that the structure of a biological molecule leads to function is a core principle of the biochemical field. Visualisation of biological molecules often involves vocal explanations or the use of two dimensional slides and video presentations. A deeper understanding of these molecules can however be obtained by the handling of objects. 3D printed biological molecules can be used as active learning tools to stimulate engagement in large group lectures. These models can be used to build upon initial core knowledge which can be delivered in either a flipped form or a more didactic manner. Within the teaching session the students are able to learn by handling, rotating and viewing the objects to gain an appreciation, for example, of an enzyme’s active site or the difference between the major and minor groove of DNA. Models and other artefacts can be handled in small groups within a lecture theatre and act as a focal point to generate conversation. Through the approach presented here core knowledge is first established and then supplemented with high level problem solving through a "Think-Pair-Share" cooperative learning strategy. The teaching delivery was adjusted based around experiential learning activities by moving the object from mental cognition and into the physical environment. This approach led to students being able to better visualise biological molecules and a positive engagement in the lecture. The use of objects in teaching allows the lecturer to create interactive sessions that both challenge and enable the student. PMID:27366318

  8. Active learning in the lecture theatre using 3D printed objects.

    PubMed

    Smith, David P

    2016-01-01

    The ability to conceptualize 3D shapes is central to understanding biological processes. The concept that the structure of a biological molecule leads to function is a core principle of the biochemical field. Visualisation of biological molecules often involves vocal explanations or the use of two dimensional slides and video presentations. A deeper understanding of these molecules can however be obtained by the handling of objects. 3D printed biological molecules can be used as active learning tools to stimulate engagement in large group lectures. These models can be used to build upon initial core knowledge which can be delivered in either a flipped form or a more didactic manner. Within the teaching session the students are able to learn by handling, rotating and viewing the objects to gain an appreciation, for example, of an enzyme's active site or the difference between the major and minor groove of DNA. Models and other artefacts can be handled in small groups within a lecture theatre and act as a focal point to generate conversation. Through the approach presented here core knowledge is first established and then supplemented with high level problem solving through a "Think-Pair-Share" cooperative learning strategy. The teaching delivery was adjusted based around experiential learning activities by moving the object from mental cognition and into the physical environment. This approach led to students being able to better visualise biological molecules and a positive engagement in the lecture. The use of objects in teaching allows the lecturer to create interactive sessions that both challenge and enable the student.

  9. Hippocampal Activation of Rac1 Regulates the Forgetting of Object Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yunlong; Du, Shuwen; Lv, Li; Lei, Bo; Shi, Wei; Tang, Yikai; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-09-12

    Forgetting is a universal feature for most types of memories. The best-defined and extensively characterized behaviors that depict forgetting are natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting [1, 2]. Molecular mechanisms underlying the active forgetting remain to be determined for memories in vertebrates. Recent progress has begun to unravel such mechanisms underlying the active forgetting [3-11] that is induced through the behavior-dependent activation of intracellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, training-induced activation of the small G protein Rac1 mediates natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting of aversive conditioning memory [3]. In mice, the activation of photoactivable-Rac1 in recently potentiated spines in a motor learning task erases the motor memory [12]. These lines of evidence prompted us to investigate a role for Rac1 in time-based natural memory decay and interference-based forgetting in mice. The inhibition of Rac1 activity in hippocampal neurons through targeted expression of a dominant-negative Rac1 form extended object recognition memory from less than 72 hr to over 72 hr, whereas Rac1 activation accelerated memory decay within 24 hr. Interference-induced forgetting of this memory was correlated with Rac1 activation and was completely blocked by inhibition of Rac1 activity. Electrophysiological recordings of long-term potentiation provided independent evidence that further supported a role for Rac1 activation in forgetting. Thus, Rac1-dependent forgetting is evolutionarily conserved from invertebrates to vertebrates.

  10. Capturing the Interrelationship between Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour in Children in the Context of Diverse Environmental Exposures.

    PubMed

    Katapally, Tarun R; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2015-09-07

    Even though physical activity and sedentary behaviour are two distinct behaviours, their interdependent relationship needs to be studied in the same environment. This study examines the influence of urban design, neighbourhood built and social environment, and household and individual factors on the interdependent relationship between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour in children in the Canadian city of Saskatoon. Saskatoon's built environment was assessed by two validated observation tools. Neighbourhood socioeconomic variables were derived from 2006 Statistics Canada Census and 2010 G5 Census projections. A questionnaire was administered to 10-14 year old children to collect individual and household data, followed by accelerometry to collect physical activity and sedentary behaviour data. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to understand the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour in the context of diverse environmental exposures. A complex set of factors including denser built environment, positive peer relationships and consistent parental support influenced the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour. In developing interventions to facilitate active living, it is not only imperative to delineate pathways through which diverse environmental exposures influence physical activity and sedentary behaviour, but also to account for the interrelationship between physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

  11. Objective evaluation of stress with the blind by the monitoring of autonomic nervous system activity.

    PubMed

    Massot, Bertrand; Baltenneck, Nicolas; Gehin, Claudine; Dittmar, Andre; McAdams, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Accessibility for the blind in an urban space must be studied under real conditions in their daily environment. A new approach for evaluating the impact of environmental conditions on blind pedestrians is the objective measure of stress by the monitoring of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity. Original techniques of data analysis and spatial representation are proposed for the detection of the ANS activity through the assessment of the electrodermal activity. Skin resistance was recorded with an EmoSense system on 10 blind subjects who followed a charted course independently. The course was 1065 meters long and consisted of various environmental conditions in an urban space. The spatial frequency of the non-specific skin resistance responses was used to provide a more relevant representation of geographic hotspots. Results of statistical analysis based on this new parameter are discussed to conclude on phenomena causing mental stress with the blind moving in an urban space.

  12. Active millimeter-wave imaging system for material analysis and object detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zech, Christian; Hülsmann, Axel; Kallfass, Ingmar; Tessmann, Axel; Zink, Martin; Schlechtweg, Michael; Leuther, Arnulf; Ambacher, Oliver

    2011-11-01

    The use of millimeter-waves for imaging purposes is becoming increasingly important, as millimeter-waves can penetrate most clothing and packaging materials, so that the detector does not require physical contact with the object. This will offer a view to the hidden content of e.g. packets or bags without the need to open them, whereby packaging and content will not be damaged. Nowadays X-ray is used, but as the millimeter-wave quantum energy is far below the ionization energy, it is less harmful for the human health. In this paper we report an active millimeter-wave imaging tomograph for material analysis and concealed object detection purposes. The system is build using in-house W-band components. The object is illuminated with low-power millimeter-waves in the frequency range between 89 and 96GHz; mirrors are used to guide and focus the beam. The object is moved through the focus point to scan the object pixel by pixel. Depending on the actual material some parts of the waves are reflected, the other parts penetrate the object. A single-antenna transmit and receive module is used for illumination and measurement of the material-specific reflected power. A second receiver module is used to measure the transmitted wave. All information is processed for amplitude and phase images by a computer algorithm. The system can be used for security, such as detecting concealed weapons, explosives or contrabands at airports and other safety areas, but also quality assurance applications, e.g. during production to detect defects. Some imaging results will be presented in this paper.

  13. Optimizing Rheumatoid Arthritis Therapy: Using Objective Measures of Disease Activity to Guide Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Owens, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) affects approximately 1.5 million individuals in the United States, or approximately 1% of the US adult population. In women, RA most often begins between age 30 and 60 years; in men, it often starts later in life. Patients with RA may have rapid declines in physical function that can begin early in the disease course. Disability increases most rapidly during the early years of the disease course, and if patients are not accurately diagnosed and do not receive appropriate care early, substantial functional declines may result. Objective To review strategies and clinical assessment tools that may optimize patient outcomes by using objective measures of disease activity. Discussion The goal of treatment for patients newly diagnosed with RA should be preventing joint damage from developing by employing early and aggressive approaches to therapy that minimize disease activity. Likewise, for established disease, treatment should be aimed at limiting the progression of existing joint damage. Substantial advances have been made in the treatment of RA over the past 2 decades, in large part as a result of better understanding of the biology of RA and the resultant introduction of biologic therapies. In 2010, an international task force published recommendations for a treat-to-target management approach to RA, much of which was based on the use of biologic drugs. This treatment strategy emphasized that the primary target in the treatment of patients with RA should be clinical remission or low disease activity. The tools necessary to measure RA disease activity are often incomplete, imprecise, or rely on a combination of physician and patient subjective evaluations. There is no one symptom, laboratory measure, or clinical tool that provides a truly accurate assessment of disease activity in patients with RA. Conclusion Thus, there is a large gap between what is recommended in clinical guidelines and the actual practice of rheumatologists

  14. Feasibility study to objectively assess activity and location of Hispanic preschoolers: a short communication.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Cerin, Ester; Robles, Jessica; Lee, Rebecca E; Kerr, Jacqueline; Butte, Nancy; Mendoza, Jason A; Thompson, Deborah; Baranowski, Tom

    2013-05-01

    Both physical and social environmental factors influence young children's physical activity, yet little is known about where Hispanic children are more likely to be active. We assessed the feasibility of simultaneously measuring, then processing objective measures of location and physical activity among Hispanic preschool children. Preschool-aged Hispanic children (n = 15) simultaneously wore QStarz BT100X global positioning system (GPS) data loggers and Actigraph GT3X accelerometers for a 24- to 36-hour period, during which time their parents completed a location and travel diary. Data were aggregated to the minute and processed using the personal activity location measurement system (PALMS). Children successfully wore the GPS data loggers and accelerometers simultaneously, 12 of which yielded data that met quality standards. The average percent correspondence between GPS- and diary-based estimates of types of location was high and Kappa statistics were moderate to excellent, ranging from 0.49-0.99. The between-method (GPS monitor, parent-reported diary) correlations of estimated participant-aggregated minutes spent on vehicle-based trips were strong. The simultaneous use of GPS and accelerometers to assess Hispanic preschool children's location and physical activity is feasible. This methodology has the potential to provide more precise findings to inform environmental interventions and policy changes to promote physical activity among Hispanic preschool children.

  15. Objectively measured habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour in obese and non-obese Malaysian children.

    PubMed

    Wafa, Sharifah Wajihah; Hamzaid, Hana; Talib, Ruzita Abd; Reilly, John J

    2014-04-01

    The present study examined objectively measured physical activity in Malaysian children and compared the differences in physical levels between obese and healthy weight children. Eighty-six obese children were matched for age and sex with 86 healthy weight children with median age 9.5 years. Habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour were measured over 5 days using Actigraph accelerometers. Time spent sedentary was significantly higher in the obese group (90% vs. 86% of daytime; p = 0.001). Moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly higher in the healthy weight group (1.2 vs. 0.7% of daytime, p < 0.001). In both healthy weight and obese children, physical activity levels were exceptionally low, although moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity was significantly lower in the obese group than the healthy weight group. Efforts to prevent and treat obesity in Malaysian children will need a substantial focus on the promotion of reductions in sedentary behaviour and increases in physical activity.

  16. The Road to Computer Literacy. Part IV: Objectives and Activities for Grades 7-9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bitter, Gary G.

    1983-01-01

    This installment of the series presents computer-oriented activities in computer awareness and programming for students in grades seven to nine who have been introduced to BASIC programming skills. Included are writing programs to solve algorithms, simulating an event, or producing graphics and sound. (EJS)

  17. Multi-object active shape model construction for abdomen segmentation: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Gollmer, Sebastian T; Simon, Martin; Bischof, Arpad; Barkhausen, Jorg; Buzug, Thorsten M

    2012-01-01

    The automatic segmentation of abdominal organs is a pre-requisite for many medical applications. Successful methods typically rely on prior knowledge about the to be segmented anatomy as it is for instance provided by means of active shape models (ASMs). Contrary to most previous ASM based methods, this work does not focus on individual organs. Instead, a more holistic approach that aims at exploiting inter-organ relationships to eventually segment a complex of organs is proposed. Accordingly, a flexible framework for automatic construction of multi-object ASMs is introduced, employed for coupled shape modeling, and used for co-segmentation of liver and spleen based on a new coupled shape/separate pose approach. Our first results indicate feasible segmentation accuracies, whereas pose decoupling leads to substantially better segmentation results and performs in average also slightly better than the standard single-object ASM approach.

  18. Specular and transparent objects in moving range cameras: active reduction of ambiguities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nygards, Jonas; Wernersson, Ake V.

    1994-10-01

    This paper is written to further understanding of the basic limitations of eye-in-hand range cameras for the handling of specular and transparent objects. The basic underlying assumption for a range camera is one diffuse reflex. Specular and transparent objects usually give multiple reflections interpreted as different types of `ghosts' in the range images. These `ghosts' are likely to cause serous errors during gripping operations. As the robot moves some of these `ghosts' move inconsistently with the true motion. In this paper we study, experimentally and theoretically, how the range measurements can be integrated in a consistent way during the motion of the robot. The paper is experimental with emphasis on parts with `optical complications' including multiple scattering. Occlusion is not studied in this paper. Some of our findings include: (1) For scenes with one plane mirror there is a complete understanding of the `deambiguation' by motion. Also, the coordinates of the mirror can be estimated without one single observation of the mirror itself. The other objects in the scene are not `mirror like.' (2) For polished steel cylinders, the inclination and radius can be estimated from the curved ray-traces on plane matte surfaces.

  19. Objective Estimates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lang, Wei; Tate, Deborah F.; Bond, Dale S.; Wing, Rena R.

    2017-01-01

    Background. This study examines factors associated with physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviors (SB) in young adults (18–35 years) and compares objective and subjective assessment measures of PA and SB. Methods. 595 young adults (27.7 ± 4.4 years; 25.5 ± 2.6 kg/m2) enrolled in the Study of Novel Approaches to Weight Gain Prevention (SNAP) trial. Hours/day spent in SB (<1.5 METs) and minutes/week spent in bout-related moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA; ≥3 METs and ≥10 min) were assessed using self-report and objective measures. Demographic factors associated with SB and MVPA were also explored (i.e., age, gender, BMI, ethnicity, work and relationship status, and number of children). Results. Objective MVPA (263 ± 246 min/wk) was greater than self-report estimates (208 ± 198 min/wk; p < 0.001) and differed by 156 ± 198 min/wk at the individual level (i.e., the absolute difference). Females, overweight participants, African Americans, and those with children participated in the least amount of MVPA. Objective estimates of SB (9.1 ± 1.8 hr/day; 64.5% of wear time) were lower than subjective estimates (10.1 ± 3.5 hr/day; p < 0.001), differing by 2.6 ± 2.5 hr/day for each participant. Conclusion. Young adults interested in weight gain prevention engage in both high levels of MVPA and SB, with participants self-reporting fewer MVPA minutes and more SB compared to objective estimates. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01183689). PMID:28116151

  20. Perceived and Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time among South Asian Women in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Curry, Whitney Babakus; Duda, Joan L.; Thompson, Janice L.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Limited self-report data suggest that South Asian (SA) women fail to meet physical activity (PA) recommendations. Recent research using objective measures reveals SA women living in the UK have higher PA levels than previously reported, and a pattern of under-reporting PA and sedentary time (ST). There is limited research on SA women’s understanding and experiences of PA/ST, and the cultural contexts and conditions within which they occur. Therefore the aims of this mixed-methods study were to compare perceived PA and ST to objectively measured data and explore PA- and ST-specific contexts, experiences, and sources of PA and ST amongst SA women in the UK. Methods: 24 women were purposively sampled to participate in a semi-structured interview from a larger study of 140 women who wore an accelerometer for 7 days. Demographic and anthropometric data were also collected. Results: Notable qualitative themes on contextualisation were of adequate PA as “keeping busy” or “being healthy”, and of ST as “lazy” or “resting in old age”. Few participants reported being sedentary, and most believed they were sufficiently physically active. Objectively measured PA/ST indicated that 66% women were less active than perceived (with regard to duration and intensity), with none able to estimate duration of ST. Discussion: Findings suggest that overall, SA women have contextualisations of PA/ST that may not coincide with those of researchers, health professionals and policy makers, and lack awareness of the intensity of PA in which they engage and the health risks of high levels of ST. These findings highlight the need for objective measures of PA and ST in this population combined with in-depth qualitative assessments to provide more accurate assessments of these behaviours. This information can subsequently be used to develop health promotion messages and interventions focusing on increasing duration and/or intensity levels of daily activities (e

  1. Straightforward multi-object video tracking for quantification of mosquito flight activity.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, David A; Lebon, Cyrille; Wood, Trevor; Rosser, Gabriel; Gouagna, Louis Clément

    2014-12-01

    Mosquito flight activity has been studied using a variety of different methodologies, and largely concentrates on female mosquito activity as vectors of disease. Video recording using standard commercially available hardware has limited accuracy for the measurement of flight activity due to the lack of depth-perception in two-dimensional images, but multi-camera observation for three dimensional trajectory reconstructions remain challenging and inaccessible to the majority of researchers. Here, in silico simulations were used to quantify the limitations of two-dimensional flight observation. We observed that, under the simulated conditions, two dimensional observation of flight was more than 90% accurate for the determination of population flight speeds and thus that two dimensional imaging can be used to provide accurate estimates of mosquito population flight speeds, and to measure flight activity over long periods of time. We optimized single camera video imaging to study male Aedes albopictus mosquitoes over a 30 h time period, and tested two different multi-object tracking algorithms for their efficiency in flight tracking. A. Albopictus males were observed to be most active at the start of the day period (06h00-08h00) with the longest period of activity in the evening (15h00-18h00) and that a single mosquito will fly more than 600 m over the course of 24 h. No activity was observed during the night period (18h00-06h00). Simplistic tracking methodologies, executable on standard computational hardware, are sufficient to produce reliable data when video imaging is optimized under laboratory conditions. As this methodology does not require overly-expensive equipment, complex calibration of equipment or extensive knowledge of computer programming, the technology should be accessible to the majority of computer-literate researchers.

  2. Reliability and Validity of Objective Measures of Physical Activity in Youth With Cerebral Palsy Who Are Ambulatory

    PubMed Central

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria; Lennon, Nancy; George, Ameeka; Forman, Jeffrey; Trost, Stewart G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical therapy for youth with cerebral palsy (CP) who are ambulatory includes interventions to increase functional mobility and participation in physical activity (PA). Thus, reliable and valid measures are needed to document PA in youth with CP. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the inter-instrument reliability and concurrent validity of 3 accelerometer-based motion sensors with indirect calorimetry as the criterion for measuring PA intensity in youth with CP. Methods Fifty-seven youth with CP (mean age=12.5 years, SD=3.3; 51% female; 49.1% with spastic hemiplegia) participated. Inclusion criteria were: aged 6 to 20 years, ambulatory, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels I through III, able to follow directions, and able to complete the full PA protocol. Protocol activities included standardized activity trials with increasing PA intensity (resting, writing, household chores, active video games, and walking at 3 self-selected speeds), as measured by weight-relative oxygen uptake (in mL/kg/min). During each trial, participants wore bilateral accelerometers on the upper arms, waist/hip, and ankle and a portable indirect calorimeter. Intraclass coefficient correlations (ICCs) were calculated to evaluate inter-instrument reliability (left-to-right accelerometer placement). Spearman correlations were used to examine concurrent validity between accelerometer output (activity and step counts) and indirect calorimetry. Friedman analyses of variance with post hoc pair-wise analyses were conducted to examine the validity of accelerometers to discriminate PA intensity across activity trials. Results All accelerometers exhibited excellent inter-instrument reliability (ICC=.94–.99) and good concurrent validity (rho=.70–.85). All accelerometers discriminated PA intensity across most activity trials. Limitations This PA protocol consisted of controlled activity trials. Conclusions Accelerometers provide valid and reliable

  3. Multi-objective decoupling algorithm for active distance control of intelligent hybrid electric vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yugong; Chen, Tao; Li, Keqiang

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel active distance control strategy for intelligent hybrid electric vehicles (IHEV) with the purpose of guaranteeing an optimal performance in view of the driving functions, optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort. Considering the complexity of driving situations, the objects of safety and ride comfort are decoupled from that of fuel economy, and a hierarchical control architecture is adopted to improve the real-time performance and the adaptability. The hierarchical control structure consists of four layers: active distance control object determination, comprehensive driving and braking torque calculation, comprehensive torque distribution and torque coordination. The safety distance control and the emergency stop algorithms are designed to achieve the safety and ride comfort goals. The optimal rule-based energy management algorithm of the hybrid electric system is developed to improve the fuel economy. The torque coordination control strategy is proposed to regulate engine torque, motor torque and hydraulic braking torque to improve the ride comfort. This strategy is verified by simulation and experiment using a forward simulation platform and a prototype vehicle. The results show that the novel control strategy can achieve the integrated and coordinated control of its multiple subsystems, which guarantees top performance of the driving functions and optimum safety, fuel economy and ride comfort.

  4. Objective Quantification of Physical Activity in Bariatric Surgery Candidates and Normal-Weight Controls

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Thomas, J. Graham; Leahey, Tricia M.; Sax, Harry C.; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G.D.; Ryder, Beth A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) is an important component of weight loss programs and may be encouraged for severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. However, few studies have determined the amount and intensity of activities undertaken preoperatively by bariatric surgery patients using objective measures. Methods Using RT3 tri-axial accelerometers, this study compared 38 bariatric surgery candidates and 20 normal-weight controls on: 1) activity counts/hour; 2) minutes/day spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) and vigorous intensity PA (VPA); and 3) level of compliance with national recommendations to accumulate 150 minutes/week of MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes. Results Surgery candidates, compared to controls, recorded significantly (Ps < 0.01) fewer activity counts/hour (13799 ± 3758 vs 19462 ± 4259) and spent fewer minutes/day engaged in MVPA (26.4 ± 23.0 vs 52.4 ± 24.7) and VPA (1.2 ± 3.4 vs 11.8 ± 9.0). More than two-thirds (68%) of surgery candidates versus 13% of NW did not accumulate any MVPA in bouts ≥ 10 minutes and only 4.5% of Ob met the weekly MVPA recommendation compared to 40% of NW. Conclusion Bariatric surgery candidates have low PA levels and rarely engage in PA bouts of sufficient duration and intensity to maintain and improve health. Additional research is needed to determine how best to increase PA in bariatric surgery candidates. PMID:19837009

  5. Object categories specific brain activity classification with simultaneous EEG-fMRI.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Rana Fayyaz; Malik, Aamir Saeed; Kamel, Nidal; Reza, Faruque

    2015-01-01

    Any kind of visual information is encoded in terms of patterns of neural activity occurring inside the brain. Decoding neural patterns or its classification is a challenging task. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and Electroencephalography (EEG) are non-invasive neuroimaging modalities to capture the brain activity pattern in term of images and electric potential respectively. To get higher spatiotemporal resolution of human brain from these two complementary neuroimaging modalities, simultaneous EEG-fMRI can be helpful. In this paper, we proposed a framework for classifying the brain activity patterns with simultaneous EEG-fMRI. We have acquired five human participants' data with simultaneous EEG-fMRI by showing different object categories. Further, combined analysis of EEG and fMRI data was carried out. Extracted information through combine analysis is passed to support vector machine (SVM) classifier for classification purpose. We have achieved better classification accuracy using simultaneous EEG-fMRI i.e., 81.8% as compared to fMRI data standalone. This shows that multimodal neuroimaging can improve the classification accuracy of brain activity patterns as compared to individual modalities reported in literature.

  6. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study.

    PubMed

    Van Dijk, Martin L; De Groot, Renate H; Savelberg, Hans H; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A

    2014-10-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents. Students in Grades 7 and 9 (N = 255) were included. Overall, we found no significant dose-response association between physical activity and academic achievement. However, in Grade 7 total physical activity volume (Total PA) was negatively associated with academic achievement, while moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was negatively associated with both academic achievement and mathematics performance. In contrast, in Grade 9 both Total PA and MVPA were positively associated with mathematics performance. In addition, the overall association between MVPA and academic achievement followed an inverted U-shaped curve. Finally, Total PA was positively associated with executive functioning, while executive functioning in turn mediated the associations between Total PA and both academic achievement and mathematics performance. These results indicate that the association between physical activity and academic achievement in adolescents is complex and might be affected by academic year, physical activity volume and intensity, and school grade.

  7. A 3D Interactive Multi-object Segmentation Tool using Local Robust Statistics Driven Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yi; Kikinis, Ron; Bouix, Sylvain; Shenton, Martha; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2012-01-01

    Extracting anatomical and functional significant structures renders one of the important tasks for both the theoretical study of the medical image analysis, and the clinical and practical community. In the past, much work has been dedicated only to the algorithmic development. Nevertheless, for clinical end users, a well designed algorithm with an interactive software is necessary for an algorithm to be utilized in their daily work. Furthermore, the software would better be open sourced in order to be used and validated by not only the authors but also the entire community. Therefore, the contribution of the present work is twofolds: First, we propose a new robust statistics based conformal metric and the conformal area driven multiple active contour framework, to simultaneously extract multiple targets from MR and CT medical imagery in 3D. Second, an open source graphically interactive 3D segmentation tool based on the aforementioned contour evolution is implemented and is publicly available for end users on multiple platforms. In using this software for the segmentation task, the process is initiated by the user drawn strokes (seeds) in the target region in the image. Then, the local robust statistics are used to describe the object features, and such features are learned adaptively from the seeds under a non-parametric estimation scheme. Subsequently, several active contours evolve simultaneously with their interactions being motivated by the principles of action and reaction — This not only guarantees mutual exclusiveness among the contours, but also no longer relies upon the assumption that the multiple objects fill the entire image domain, which was tacitly or explicitly assumed in many previous works. In doing so, the contours interact and converge to equilibrium at the desired positions of the desired multiple objects. Furthermore, with the aim of not only validating the algorithm and the software, but also demonstrating how the tool is to be used, we

  8. Monitoring for target objects: activation of right frontal and parietal cortices with increasing time on task.

    PubMed

    Coull, J T; Frackowiak, R S; Frith, C D

    1998-12-01

    The right prefrontal and parietal cortices have been implicated in attentional processing in both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging literature. However, attention is a heterogeneous collection of processes, each of which may be underpinned by different neural networks. These attentional networks may interact, such that engaging one type of attentional process could influence the efficiency of another via overlapping neural substrates. We investigated the hypothesis that right frontal and parietal cortices provide the neuroanatomical location of the functional interaction between sustained attention and the process of selectively monitoring for target objects. Six healthy volunteers performed one of two tasks which required either selective or non-selective responding. The task lasted continuously for 18 min, during which time 3 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were acquired for each task. This was repeated to obtain 12 PET measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for each subject. The right inferior frontal and parietal cortices were differentially activated by increasing time on task during the selective (S) vs non-selective (NS) task. Specifically, rCBF decreased with increasing time spent performing the NS task but not the S task. This result suggests that the normal deactivation in these areas as time on task increases is counteracted by the extra cognitive demands of selectively responding to target objects. Therefore, we have confirmed our hypothesis that right frontal and parietal cortices provide the neuroanatomical location for the modulation of object selection by sustained attention. We also identified the neuroanatomical correlates of each process separately, and confirmed earlier reports of prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activation associated with selective responding, and a fronto-parietal-thalamic network associated with sustained attention.

  9. Objectively-Measured Physical Activity and Cognitive Functioning in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Marinac, Catherine R.; Godbole, Suneeta; Kerr, Jacqueline; Natarajan, Loki; Patterson, Ruth E.; Hartman, Sheri J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognitive functioning in breast cancer survivors. Methods Participants were 136 postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Cognitive functioning was assessed using a comprehensive computerized neuropsychological test. 7-day physical activity was assessed using hip-worn accelerometers. Linear regression models examined associations of minutes per day of physical activity at various intensities on individual cognitive functioning domains. The partially adjusted model controlled for primary confounders (model 1), and subsequent adjustments were made for chemotherapy history (model 2), and BMI (model 3). Interaction and stratified models examined BMI as an effect modifier. Results Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was associated with Information Processing Speed. Specifically, ten minutes of MVPA was associated with a 1.35-point higher score (out of 100) on the Information Processing Speed domain in the partially adjusted model, and a 1.29-point higher score when chemotherapy was added to the model (both p<.05). There was a significant BMI x MVPA interaction (p=.051). In models stratified by BMI (<25 vs. ≥25 kg/m2), the favorable association between MVPA and Information Processing Speed was stronger in the subsample of overweight and obese women (p<.05), but not statistically significant in the leaner subsample. Light-intensity physical activity was not significantly associated with any of the measured domains of cognitive function. Conclusions MVPA may have favorable effects on Information Processing Speed in breast cancer survivors, particularly among overweight or obese women. Implications for Cancer Survivors Interventions targeting increased physical activity may enhance aspects of cognitive function among breast cancer survivors. PMID:25304986

  10. Objectively-measured sleep and its association with adiposity and physical activity in a sample of Canadian children.

    PubMed

    Mcneil, Jessica; Tremblay, Mark S; Leduc, Geneviève; Boyer, Charles; Bélanger, Priscilla; Leblanc, Allana G; Borghese, Michael M; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Cross-sectional associations between objectively-measured sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep timing with adiposity and physical activity were examined in a cohort of 567 children from Ottawa, Canada. Five-hundred and fifteen children (58.8% female; age: 10.0 ± 0.4 years) had valid sleep measurements and were included in the present analyses. Physical activity, sedentary time and sleep parameters were assessed over 7 days (actigraphy). Height, weight and waist circumference were measured according to standardized procedures. Percentage body fat was assessed using bioelectric impedance analysis. Light physical activity and sedentary time were greater in children with the shortest sleep durations (P < 0.0001), whereas children with the highest sleep efficiencies had lower light physical activity and more sedentary time across tertiles (P < 0.0001). In multivariable linear regression analyses, and after adjusting for a number of covariates, sleep efficiency was inversely related to all adiposity indices (P < 0.05). However, sleep duration and sleep timing were not associated with adiposity indices after controlling for covariates. Inverse associations were noted between sleep duration and light physical activity and sedentary time (P < 0.0001). Sleep efficiency (P < 0.0001), wake time and sleep timing midpoint (P < 0.05) were negatively associated with light physical activity, but positively associated with sedentary time. In conclusion, only sleep efficiency was independently correlated with adiposity in this sample of children. Participants with the shortest sleep durations or highest sleep efficiencies had greater sedentary time. More research is needed to develop better sleep recommendations in children that are based on objective measures of sleep duration, sleep efficiency and sleep timing alike.

  11. Pre- to Postoperative Physical Activity Changes in Bariatric Surgery Patients: Self-Report vs. Objective Measures

    PubMed Central

    Bond, Dale S.; Jakicic, John M.; Unick, Jessica L.; Vithiananthan, Sivamainthan; Pohl, Dieter; Roye, G. Dean; Ryder, Beth A.; Sax, Harry C.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Bariatric surgery patients report significant pre- to postoperative increases in physical activity (PA). However, it is unclear whether objective measures would corroborate these changes. The present study compared self-reported and accelerometer-based estimates of changes in moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) from pre- (pre-op) to 6 months postsurgery (post-op). Twenty bariatric surgery (65% laparoscopic-adjustable gastric banding, 35% gastric bypass) patients (46.2 ± 9.8 years, 88% female, pre-op BMI = 50.8 ± 9.7 kg/m2) wore RT3 accelerometers as an objective measure of MVPA and completed the Paffenbarger Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) as a subjective measure before and 6 months after bariatric surgery. Time (min/week) spent in MVPA was calculated for the PPAQ and RT3 (≥1-min and ≥10-min bouts) at pre-op and post-op. Self-reported MVPA increased fivefold from pre-op to post-op (44.6 ± 80.8 to 212.3 ± 212.4 min/week; P < 0.005). By contrast, the RT3 showed nonsignificant decreases in MVPA for both ≥1-min (186.0 ± 169.0 to 151.2 ± 118.3 min/week) and ≥10-min (41.3 ± 109.3 to 39.8 ± 71.3 min/ week) bouts. At pre-op, the percentage of participants who accumulated ≥150-min/week of MVPA in bouts ≥10-min according to the PPAQ and RT3 was identical (10%). However, at post-op, 55% of participants reported compliance with the recommendation compared to 5% based on RT3 measurement (P = 0.002). Objectively-measured changes in MVPA from pre-op to 6 months post-op appear to be much smaller than self-reported changes. Further research involving larger samples is needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether self-report and objective PA measures are differentially associated with surgical weight loss outcomes. PMID:20379143

  12. Systematic review of the relationships between objectively measured physical activity and health indicators in school-aged children and youth.

    PubMed

    Poitras, Veronica Joan; Gray, Casey Ellen; Borghese, Michael M; Carson, Valerie; Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Janssen, Ian; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Pate, Russell R; Connor Gorber, Sarah; Kho, Michelle E; Sampson, Margaret; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-06-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is essential for disease prevention and health promotion. Emerging evidence suggests other intensities of physical activity (PA), including light-intensity activity (LPA), may also be important, but there has been no rigorous evaluation of the evidence. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the relationships between objectively measured PA (total and all intensities) and health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Online databases were searched for peer-reviewed studies that met the a priori inclusion criteria: population (apparently healthy, aged 5-17 years), intervention/exposure/comparator (volumes, durations, frequencies, intensities, and patterns of objectively measured PA), and outcome (body composition, cardiometabolic biomarkers, physical fitness, behavioural conduct/pro-social behaviour, cognition/academic achievement, quality of life/well-being, harms, bone health, motor skill development, psychological distress, self-esteem). Heterogeneity among studies precluded meta-analyses; narrative synthesis was conducted. A total of 162 studies were included (204 171 participants from 31 countries). Overall, total PA was favourably associated with physical, psychological/social, and cognitive health indicators. Relationships were more consistent and robust for higher (e.g., MVPA) versus lower (e.g., LPA) intensity PA. All patterns of activity (sporadic, bouts, continuous) provided benefit. LPA was favourably associated with cardiometabolic biomarkers; data were scarce for other outcomes. These findings continue to support the importance of at least 60 min/day of MVPA for disease prevention and health promotion in children and youth, but also highlight the potential benefits of LPA and total PA. All intensities of PA should be considered in future work aimed at better elucidating the health benefits of PA in children and youth.

  13. To Perceive or Not Perceive: The Role of Gamma-band Activity in Signaling Object Percepts

    PubMed Central

    Castelhano, João; Rebola, José; Leitão, Bruno; Rodriguez, Eugenio; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2013-01-01

    The relation of gamma-band synchrony to holistic perception in which concerns the effects of sensory processing, high level perceptual gestalt formation, motor planning and response is still controversial. To provide a more direct link to emergent perceptual states we have used holistic EEG/ERP paradigms where the moment of perceptual “discovery” of a global pattern was variable. Using a rapid visual presentation of short-lived Mooney objects we found an increase of gamma-band activity locked to perceptual events. Additional experiments using dynamic Mooney stimuli showed that gamma activity increases well before the report of an emergent holistic percept. To confirm these findings in a data driven manner we have further used a support vector machine classification approach to distinguish between perceptual vs. non perceptual states, based on time-frequency features. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were all above 95%. Modulations in the 30–75 Hz range were larger for perception states. Interestingly, phase synchrony was larger for perception states for high frequency bands. By focusing on global gestalt mechanisms instead of local processing we conclude that gamma-band activity and synchrony provide a signature of holistic perceptual states of variable onset, which are separable from sensory and motor processing. PMID:23785494

  14. Segmenting multiple overlapping objects via a hybrid active contour model incorporating shape priors: applications to digital pathology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sahirzeeshan; Madabhushi, Anant

    2011-03-01

    Active contours and active shape models (ASM) have been widely employed in image segmentation. A major limitation of active contours, however, is in their (a) inability to resolve boundaries of intersecting objects and to (b) handle occlusion. Multiple overlapping objects are typically segmented out as a single object. On the other hand, ASMs are limited by point correspondence issues since object landmarks need to be identified across multiple objects for initial object alignment. ASMs are also are constrained in that they can usually only segment a single object in an image. In this paper, we present a novel synergistic boundary and region-based active contour model that incorporates shape priors in a level set formulation. We demonstrate an application of these synergistic active contour models using multiple level sets to segment nuclear and glandular structures on digitized histopathology images of breast and prostate biopsy specimens. Unlike previous related approaches, our model is able to resolve object overlap and separate occluded boundaries of multiple objects simultaneously. The energy functional of the active contour is comprised of three terms. The first term comprises the prior shape term, modeled on the object of interest, thereby constraining the deformation achievable by the active contour. The second term, a boundary based term detects object boundaries from image gradients. The third term drives the shape prior and the contour towards the object boundary based on region statistics. The results of qualitative and quantitative evaluation on 100 prostate and 14 breast cancer histology images for the task of detecting and segmenting nuclei, lymphocytes, and glands reveals that the model easily outperforms two state of the art segmentation schemes (Geodesic Active Contour (GAC) and Roussons shape based model) and resolves up to 92% of overlapping/occluded lymphocytes and nuclei on prostate and breast cancer histology images.

  15. Association of Objectively Measured Physical Activity with Cognitive Function in Older Adults - The REGARDS Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Wenfei; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Hutto, Brent; Blair, Steven N.; Vena, John E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; Rhodes, David; Hooker, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationship between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and cognitive function in white and black older adults. Design Cross-sectional. Setting REasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study Participants Older adults who provided valid data from accelerometer and cognitive function tests (N=7,098). Measurements Actical™ accelerometers provided estimates of PA variables for 4–7 consecutive days. PA count cut-points of 50 counts per minute (cpm) and 1065 cpm were applied to differentiate between being sedentary and light PA, and light and moderate-to-vigorous PA, respectively. Prevalence of cognitive impairment was defined by the Six-Item Screener (scored <4 out of 6). Letter fluency, animal fluency, word list learning and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (orientation and recall), were conducted to assess memory and executive function. Results Of 7,098 participants (70.1 ± 8.5 yr, 54.2% women, 31.5% black), 359 (5.1%) exhibited impaired cognition within ±12 months of PA measurement. The average proportion of time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA%) was 1.4 ± 1.9%. Participants in the highest quartile of MVPA% (approximately 258.3 min/wk of MVPA) were less likely to be cognitively impaired than those in the lowest quartile (OR [95%C.I.] = 0.65 [0.43–0.97]). MVPA% was also significantly associated with z-scores of executive function and memory (P<0.001). Similar analyses of proportion of time spent in light PA (LPA%) and sedentary time (ST%) showed no significant associations with cognitive function. Conclusion Higher levels of objectively measured MVPA%, rather than LPA% or ST%, were associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment and better performance in memory and executive function in aging people. The amount of MVPA associated with lower prevalence of cognitive impairment is consistent with meeting PA guidelines. PMID:26691697

  16. Neural activity associated with self, other, and object-based counterfactual thinking.

    PubMed

    De Brigard, Felipe; Nathan Spreng, R; Mitchell, Jason P; Schacter, Daniel L

    2015-04-01

    Previous research has shown that autobiographical episodic counterfactual thinking-i.e., mental simulations about alternative ways in which one's life experiences could have occurred-engages the brain's default network (DN). However, it remains unknown whether or not the DN is also engaged during impersonal counterfactual thoughts, specifically those involving other people or objects. The current study compares brain activity during counterfactual simulations involving the self, others and objects. In addition, counterfactual thoughts involving others were manipulated in terms of similarity and familiarity with the simulated characters. The results indicate greater involvement of DN during person-based (i.e., self and other) as opposed to object-based counterfactual simulations. However, the involvement of different regions of the DN during other-based counterfactual simulations was modulated by how close and/or similar the simulated character was perceived to be by the participant. Simulations involving unfamiliar characters preferentially recruited dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. Simulations involving unfamiliar similar characters, characters with whom participants identified personality traits, recruited lateral temporal gyrus. Finally, our results also revealed differential coupling of right hippocampus with lateral prefrontal and temporal cortex during counterfactual simulations involving familiar similar others, but with left transverse temporal gyrus and medial frontal and inferior temporal gyri during counterfactual simulations involving either oneself or unfamiliar dissimilar others. These results suggest that different brain mechanisms are involved in the simulation of personal and impersonal counterfactual thoughts, and that the extent to which regions associated with autobiographical memory are recruited during the simulation of counterfactuals involving others depends on the perceived similarity and familiarity with the simulated individuals.

  17. Classification of elastic objects by active sonar in the vicinity of shallow sea boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaunaurd, Guillermo C.; Werby, Michael F.

    1992-09-01

    Active sonar classification of submerged elastic structures becomes increasingly difficult when the structure is close to the bottom or surface of the sea. The backscattering cross-section (BSCS) of any target, which is relatively simpler to determine in deep waters, away from boundaries, becomes substantially distorted as the structure approaches either one of these environmental boundaries. Near these interfaces the classification methodology based on echo resonances that we have used in the past (viz., Appl. Mechanics Reviews 43, 171-208, (1990)) can no longer be used. By means of the examples of a spherical shell and an elastic solid sphere insonified by plane waves, we study the above mentioned degradation in BSCS in order to assess how distant the structure should be from these boundaries before the resonance features become discernible again in the echoes, and object recognition is again possible. Our approach is based on the method of images for the construction of the appropriate Green's functions, combined with a very involved two-body scattering formulation that determines the combined T-Matrix of two insonified objects, when the T-Matrix of each individual object is known. The method is extended to the time domain. We present form-functions in the frequency domain, as well as late-time responses in the time domain for both sphere and shell as they approach the mentioned boundaries. Boundary effects seem to be confined to a 'skin layer' bounded by R

  18. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  19. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  20. Parsing radiographs by integrating landmark set detection and multi-object active appearance models.

    PubMed

    Montillo, Albert; Song, Qi; Liu, Xiaoming; Miller, James V

    2013-03-13

    This work addresses the challenging problem of parsing 2D radiographs into salient anatomical regions such as the left and right lungs and the heart. We propose the integration of an automatic detection of a constellation of landmarks via rejection cascade classifiers and a learned geometric constellation subset detector model with a multi-object active appearance model (MO-AAM) initialized by the detected landmark constellation subset. Our main contribution is twofold. First, we propose a recovery method for false positive and negative landmarks which allows to handle extreme ranges of anatomical and pathological variability. Specifically we (1) recover false negative (missing) landmarks through the consensus of inferences from subsets of the detected landmarks, and (2) choose one from multiple false positives for the same landmark by learning Gaussian distributions for the relative location of each landmark. Second, we train a MO-AAM using the true landmarks for the detectors and during test, initialize the model using the detected landmarks. Our model fitting allows simultaneous localization of multiple regions by encoding the shape and appearance information of multiple objects in a single model. The integration of landmark detection method and MO-AAM reduces mean distance error of the detected landmarks from 20.0mm to 12.6mm. We assess our method using a database of scout CT scans from 80 subjects with widely varying pathology.

  1. Object tracking via background subtraction for monitoring illegal activity in crossroad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Jeong, Sunghwan; Park, Sang Hyun; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2016-07-01

    In the field of intelligent transportation system a great number of vision-based techniques have been proposed to prevent pedestrians from being hit by vehicles. This paper presents a system that can perform pedestrian and vehicle detection and monitoring of illegal activity in zebra crossings. In zebra crossing, according to the traffic light status, to fully avoid a collision, a driver or pedestrian should be warned earlier if they possess any illegal moves. In this research, at first, we detect the traffic light status of pedestrian and monitor the crossroad for vehicle pedestrian moves. The background subtraction based object detection and tracking is performed to detect pedestrian and vehicles in crossroads. Shadow removal, blob segmentation, trajectory analysis etc. are used to improve the object detection and classification performance. We demonstrate the experiment in several video sequences which are recorded in different time and environment such as day time and night time, sunny and raining environment. Our experimental results show that such simple and efficient technique can be used successfully as a traffic surveillance system to prevent accidents in zebra crossings.

  2. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object-oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  3. A Toolkit for Active Object-Oriented Databases with Application to Interoperability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Roger

    1996-01-01

    In our original proposal we stated that our research would 'develop a novel technology that provides a foundation for collaborative information processing.' The essential ingredient of this technology is the notion of 'deltas,' which are first-class values representing collections of proposed updates to a database. The Heraclitus framework provides a variety of algebraic operators for building up, combining, inspecting, and comparing deltas. Deltas can be directly applied to the database to yield a new state, or used 'hypothetically' in queries against the state that would arise if the delta were applied. The central point here is that the step of elevating deltas to 'first-class' citizens in database programming languages will yield tremendous leverage on the problem of supporting updates in collaborative information processing. In short, our original intention was to develop the theoretical and practical foundation for a technology based on deltas in an object- oriented database context, develop a toolkit for active object-oriented databases, and apply this toward collaborative information processing.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVE MAIN BELT OBJECT P/2012 F5 (GIBBS): A POSSIBLE IMPACTED ASTEROID

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, R.; Kramer, E. A.; Bauer, J. M.; Masiero, J. R.; Mainzer, A. K.

    2012-11-10

    In this work, we characterize the recently discovered active main belt object P/2012 F5 (Gibbs), which was discovered with a dust trail >7' in length in the outer main belt, 7 months prior to aphelion. We use optical imaging obtained on UT 2012 March 27 to analyze the central condensation and the long trail. We find B-band and R-band apparent magnitudes of 20.96 {+-} 0.04 mag and 19.93 {+-} 0.02 mag, respectively, which give an upper limit on the radius of the nucleus of 2.1 km. The geometric scattering cross-section of material in the trail was {approx}4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} m{sup 2}, corresponding to a mass of {approx}5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 7} kg. Analysis of infrared images taken by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer in 2010 September reveals that the object was below the detection limit, suggesting that it was less active than it was during 2012, or possibly inactive, just six months after it passed through perihelion. We set a 1{sigma} upper limit on its radius during this time of 2.9 km. P/2012 F5 (Gibbs) is dynamically stable in the outer main belt on timescales of {approx}1 Gyr, pointing toward an asteroidal origin. We find that the morphology of the ejected dust is consistent with it being produced by a single event that occurred on UT 2011 July 7 {+-} 20 days, possibly as the result of a collision with a small impactor.

  5. Correlates of objectively measured overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan school children: results from ISCOLE-Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity burden Western countries, and now, pose a growing threat to the health of children in low and middle income countries. Behavioural transitions toward more sedentary lifestyles coupled with increased consumption of high calorie foods has resulted in rising proportions of overweight/obesity and decreasing levels of physical activity in school-aged children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to investigate factors associated with overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan children aged 9 to 11 years. Methods Body composition and physical activity measures of participating children were accomplished by anthropometric assessment, accelerometry, and administration of questionnaires related to diet and lifestyle, and the school and neighbourhood environments. Data collection was conducted in the city of Nairobi as part of a larger International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. Results A total of 563 participants (46.5% boys, 53.5% girls) were included in the analyses. Of these, 3.7% were underweight, 14.4% were overweight, and 6.4% were obese based on WHO cut-points. Mean daily sedentary time was 398 minutes, time spent in light physical activity was 463 minutes, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 36 minutes based on activity cut-points developed by Treuth et al. Only 12.6% of participating children were meeting the recommendation of ≥ 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 45.7% of participants used active transportation to/from school. Increasing parental education level, total annual household income, and attending a private rather than public school were associated positively with being overweight/obese and negatively with meeting physical activity guidelines. Conclusions This study provided the evidence for an existing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity in Nairobi

  6. Mass Accretion Processes in Young Stellar Objects: Role of Intense Flaring Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlando, Salvatore; Reale, Fabio; Peres, Giovanni; Mignone, Andrea

    2014-11-01

    According to the magnetospheric accretion scenario, young low-mass stars are surrounded by circumstellar disks which they interact with through accretion of mass. The accretion builds up the star to its final mass and is also believed to power the mass outflows, which may in turn have a signicant role in removing the excess angular momentum from the star-disk system. Although the process of mass accretion is a critical aspect of star formation, some of its mechanisms are still to be fully understood. On the other hand, strong flaring activity is a common feature of young stellar objects (YSOs). In the Sun, such events give rise to perturbations of the interplanetary medium. Similar but more energetic phenomena occur in YSOs and may influence the circumstellar environment. In fact, a recent study has shown that an intense flaring activity close to the disk may strongly perturb the stability of circumstellar disks, thus inducing mass accretion episodes (Orlando et al. 2011). Here we review the main results obtained in the field and the future perspectives.

  7. Changes in muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics in response to handling objects of unknown mass magnitude.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Walaa; Farrag, Ahmed; El-Sayyad, Mohsen; Marras, William

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of mass knowledge and mass magnitude on trunk muscular activity and lumbosacral kinematics. Eighteen participants performed symmetric box lifts of three different mass magnitudes (1.1 kg, 5 kg, 15 kg) under known and unknown mass knowledge conditions. Outcome measures were normalized peak electromyography of four trunk muscles in addition to three dimensional lumbosacral angles and acceleration. The results indicated that three out of four muscles exhibited significantly greater activity when handling unknown masses (p<.05). Meanwhile, only sagittal angular acceleration was significantly higher when handling unknown masses (115.6 ± 42.7°/s(2)) compared to known masses (109.3 ± 31.5°/s(2)). Similarly, the mass magnitude and mass knowledge interaction significantly impacted the same muscles along with the sagittal lumbosacral angle and angular acceleration (p<.05) with the greatest difference between knowledge conditions being consistently occurring under the 1.1 kg mass magnitude condition. Thus, under these conditions, it was concluded that mass magnitude has more impact than mass knowledge. However, handling objects of unknown mass magnitude could be hazardous, particularly when lifting light masses, in that they can increase mechanical burden on the lumbosacral spine due to increased muscular exertion and acceleration.

  8. Wireless Synthesis and Activation of Electrochemiluminescent Thermoresponsive Janus Objects Using Bipolar Electrochemistry.

    PubMed

    Phuakkong, Oranit; Sentic, Milica; Li, Haidong; Warakulwit, Chompunuch; Limtrakul, Jumras; Sojic, Neso; Kuhn, Alexander; Ravaine, Valérie; Zigah, Dodzi

    2016-12-13

    In this work, bipolar electrochemistry (BPE) is used as a dual wireless tool to generate and to activate a thermoresponsive electrochemiluminescent (ECL) Janus object. For the first time, BPE allows regioselective growth of a poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM) hydrogel film on one side of a carbon fiber. It is achieved thanks to the local reduction of persulfate ions, which initiate radical polymerization of NIPAM. By controlling the electric field and the time of the bipolar electrochemical reactions, we are able to control the length and the thickness of the deposit. The resulting pNIPAM film is found to be swollen in water at room temperature and collapsed when heated above 32 °C. We further incorporated a covalently attached ruthenium complex luminophore, Ru(bpy)3(2+), in the hydrogel film. In the second time, BPE is used to activate remotely the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of the Ru(bpy)3(2+) moieties in the film. We take advantage of the film responsiveness to amplify the ECL signal. Upon collapse of the film, the ECL signal, which is sensitive to the distance between adjacent Ru(bpy)3(2+) centers, is strongly amplified. It is therefore shown that BPE is a versatile tool to generate highly sophisticated materials based on responsive polymers, which could lead to sensitive sensors.

  9. Intuition in the context of object perception: intuitive gestalt judgments rest on the unconscious activation of semantic representations.

    PubMed

    Bolte, Annette; Goschke, Thomas

    2008-09-01

    Intuition denotes the ability to judge stimulus properties on the basis of information that is activated in memory, but not consciously retrieved. In three experiments we show that participants discriminated better than chance fragmented line drawings depicting meaningful objects (coherent fragments) from fragments consisting of randomly displaced line segments (incoherent fragments) or from fragments which were rotated by 180 degrees (inverted fragments), even if participants did not consciously recognize the objects. Unrecognized coherent, but not incoherent or inverted fragments produced reliable priming of correct object names in a lexical decision task, indicating that coherent fragments activated an unconscious semantic object representation. Priming effects were larger for coherent fragments judged as coherent compared to coherent fragments judged as incoherent. We conclude that intuitive gestalt judgments for coherent fragments rested on the activation of semantic object representations, which biased participants' intuitive impression of "gestalt-ness" even when the underlying object representations remained unconscious.

  10. Object tracking with stereo vision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, Eric

    1994-01-01

    A real-time active stereo vision system incorporating gaze control and task directed vision is described. Emphasis is placed on object tracking and object size and shape determination. Techniques include motion-centroid tracking, depth tracking, and contour tracking.

  11. Incidental and context-responsive activation of structure- and function-based action features during object identification.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chia-lin; Middleton, Erica; Mirman, Daniel; Kalénine, Solène; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies suggest that action representations are activated during object processing, even when task-irrelevant. In addition, there is evidence that lexical-semantic context may affect such activation during object processing. Finally, prior work from our laboratory and others indicates that function-based ("use") and structure-based ("move") action subtypes may differ in their activation characteristics. Most studies assessing such effects, however, have required manual object-relevant motor responses, thereby plausibly influencing the activation of action representations. The present work uses eyetracking and a Visual World Paradigm task without object-relevant actions to assess the time course of activation of action representations, as well as their responsiveness to lexical-semantic context. In two experiments, participants heard a target word and selected its referent from an array of four objects. Gaze fixations on nontarget objects signal activation of features shared between targets and nontargets. The experiments assessed activation of structure-based (Experiment 1) or function-based (Experiment 2) distractors, using neutral sentences ("S/he saw the....") or sentences with a relevant action verb (Experiment 1: "S/he picked up the...."; Experiment 2: "S/he used the...."). We observed task-irrelevant activations of action information in both experiments. In neutral contexts, structure-based activation was relatively faster-rising but more transient than function-based activation. Additionally, action verb contexts reliably modified patterns of activation in both Experiments. These data provide fine-grained information about the dynamics of activation of function-based and structure-based actions in neutral and action-relevant contexts, in support of the "Two Action System" model of object and action processing (e.g., Buxbaum & Kalénine, 2010).

  12. Location performance objectives for the NNWSI area-to-location screening activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sinnock, S.; Fernandez, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Fifty-four objectives were identified to guide the screening of the Nevada Research and Development Area of the Nevada Test Site for relatively favorable locations for the disposal of nuclear waste in a mined geologic repository. The objectives were organized as a hierarchy composed of 4 upper-level, 12 middle-level, and 38 lower-level objectives. The four upper-level objectives account for broad national goals to contain and isolate nuclear waste in an environmentally sound and economically acceptable manner. The middle-level objectives correspond to topical categories that logically relate the upper-level objectives to site-specific concerns such as seismicity, sensitive species, and flooding hazards (represented by the lower-level objectives). The relative merits of alternative locations were compared by an application of decision analysis based on standard utility theory. The relative favorabilities of pertinent physical conditions at each alternative location were weighted in relation to the importance of objectives, and summed to produce maps indicating the most and the least favorable locations. Descriptions of the objectives were organized by the hierarchical format; they detail the applicability of each objective to geologic repository siting, previously published siting criteria corresponding to each objective, and the rationale for the weight assigned to each objective, and the pertinent attributes for evaluating locations with respect to each objective. 51 references, 47 figures, 4 tables.

  13. Associations between Objectively Measured Physical Activity, Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome in 12- to 15-Year-Old Tianjin City Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tan, Sijie; Wang, Jianxiong; Zhang, Yibing; Zhang, Chen

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The study aim was to explore associations between daily physical activity level, cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome among Chinese children. Design: We conducted a school-based, cross-sectional study. Setting: Participants including 112 boys and 121 girls were recruited from three schools in the urban suburbs of Tianjin…

  14. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  15. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  16. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  17. Objectively Measured Physical Activity in European Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Food4Me Study

    PubMed Central

    Marsaux, Cyril F. M.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Hoonhout, Jettie; Claassen, Arjan; Goris, Annelies; Forster, Hannah; Fallaize, Rosalind; Macready, Anna L.; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Kolossa, Silvia; Walsh, Marianne C.; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Manios, Yannis; Godlewska, Magdalena; Traczyk, Iwona; Lovegrove, Julie A.; Martinez, J. Alfredo; Daniel, Hannelore; Gibney, Mike; Mathers, John C.; Saris, Wim H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Comparisons of objectively measured physical activity (PA) between residents of European countries measured concurrently with the same protocol are lacking. We aimed to compare PA between the seven European countries involved in the Food4Me Study, using accelerometer data collected remotely via the Internet. Methods Of the 1607 participants recruited, 1287 (539 men and 748 women) provided at least 3 weekdays and 2 weekend days of valid accelerometer data (TracmorD) at baseline and were included in the present analyses. Results Men were significantly more active than women (physical activity level = 1.74 vs. 1.70, p < 0.001). Time spent in light PA and moderate PA differed significantly between countries but only for women. Adherence to the World Health Organization recommendation to accumulate at least 150 min of moderate-equivalent PA weekly was similar between countries for men (range: 54–65%) but differed significantly between countries for women (range: 26–49%). Prevalence estimates decreased substantially for men and women in all seven countries when PA guidelines were defined as achieving 30 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day. Conclusions We were able to obtain valid accelerometer data in real time via the Internet from 80% of participants. Although our estimates are higher compared with data from Sweden, Norway, Portugal and the US, there is room for improvement in PA for all countries involved in the Food4Me Study. PMID:26999053

  18. Active Galactic Nuclei, Quasars, BL Lac Objects and X-Ray Background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2005-01-01

    The XMM COSMOS survey is producing the large surface density of X-ray sources anticipated. The first batch of approx. 200 sources is being studied in relation to the large scale structure derived from deep optical/near-IR imaging from Subaru and CFHT. The photometric redshifts from the opt/IR imaging program allow a first look at structure vs. redshift, identifying high z clusters. A consortium of SAO, U. Arizona and the Carnegie Institute of Washington (Pasadena) has started a large program using the 6.5meter Magellan telescopes in Chile with the prime objective of identifying the XMM X-ray sources in the COSMOS field. The first series of observing runs using the new IMACS multi-slit spectrograph on Magellan will take place in January and February of 2005. Some 300 spectra per field will be taken, including 70%-80% of the XMM sources in each field. The four first fields cover the center of the COSMOS field. A VLT consortium is set to obtain bulk redshifts of the field galaxies. The added accuracy of the spectroscopic redshifts over the photo-z's will allow much lower density structures to be seen, voids and filaments. The association of X-ray selected AGNs, and quasars with these filaments, is a major motivation for our studies. Comparison to the deep VLA radio data now becoming available is about to begin.

  19. Effects of Physical Education on Objectively Determined Physical Activity in Primary School Children--Which Proportioning Is Best?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobel, Susanne; Kettner, Sarah; Erkelenz, Nanette; Kesztyus, Dorothea; Steinacker, Jurgen M.

    2015-01-01

    Physical Education (PE) can foster regular physical activity (PA) in children. However, children engage in insufficient moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) during PE. This study objectively investigated MVPA of children during a single, compared with double PE-period. In 294 children (7.1 ± 0.7 years) PA was objectively assessed. PE periods were…

  20. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  1. Objectively measured physical activity, sedentary time and sleep duration: independent and combined associations with adiposity in canadian children

    PubMed Central

    Chaput, J-P; Leduc, G; Boyer, C; Bélanger, P; LeBlanc, A G; Borghese, M M; Tremblay, M S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine independent and combined associations among objectively measured movement/non-movement behaviors (moderate-to-vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA), total sedentary time and sleep duration) and adiposity indicators in a sample of Canadian children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 507 children aged 9–11 years from Ottawa, Canada. Movement/non-movement behaviors were assessed using an Actigraph GT3X+ accelerometer over 7 days (24-h protocol). Outcomes included percentage body fat (bioelectrical impedance) and waist-to-height ratio. Results: After adjustment for age, sex, ethnicity, maturity offset, fast food consumption, annual household income and highest level of parental education, MVPA was inversely and sedentary time positively associated with adiposity indicators, whereas sleep duration was not. However, only MVPA remained significantly associated with adiposity indicators after additional adjustment for the other movement/non-movement behaviors. Combined associations using tertiles of the three movement/non-movement behaviors showed that higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity indicators, irrespective of total sedentary time and sleep duration. Conclusions: Higher levels of MVPA were associated with lower adiposity in this sample of children regardless of sedentary time and sleep duration. Although correlational in nature, these findings suggest that future efforts of obesity reduction should focus more on increasing MVPA than on reducing sedentary time or increasing sleep duration to maximize the effectiveness of interventions. PMID:24911633

  2. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for shape control of flexible beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.

    2004-08-01

    This work presents the use of a multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem for the shape control of flexible beams with an active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The design objectives are to minimize the total weight of the system, the input voltages and the steady-state error between the achieved and desired shapes. Design variables include the thickness of the constraining and viscoelastic layers, the arrangement of the ACLD patches, as well as the control gains. In order to set up an evaluator for the MOGA, the finite element method (FEM), in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model a clamped-free beam with ACLD patches to predict the dynamic behaviour of the system. As a result of the optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that ACLD treatment is suitable for shape control of flexible structures and that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  3. Multi-objective optimization of an active constrained layer damping treatment for vibration control of a rotating flexible arm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hau, L. C.; Fung, E. H. K.; Yau, D. T. W.

    2006-12-01

    This paper describes the use of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA) to solve an integrated optimization problem of a rotating flexible arm with active constrained layer damping (ACLD) treatment. The arm is rotating in a horizontal plane with triangular velocity profiles. The ACLD patch is placed at the clamped end of the arm. The design objectives are to minimize the total treatment weight, the control voltage and the tip displacement of the arm, as well as to maximize the passive damping characteristic of the arm. Design variables include the control gains, the maximum angular velocity, the shear modulus of the viscoelastic layer, the thickness of the piezoelectric constraining and viscoelastic layers, and the length of the ACLD patch. In order to evaluate the effect of different combinations of design variables on the system, the finite element method, in conjunction with the Golla-Hughes-McTavish (GHM) method, is employed to model the flexible arm with ACLD treatment to predict its dynamic behavior, in which the effects of centrifugal stiffening due to the rotation of flexible arm are taken into account. As a result of optimization, reasonable Pareto solutions are successfully obtained. It is shown that the MOGA is applicable to the present integrated optimization problem.

  4. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  5. Objects Prompt Authentic Scientific Activities among Learners in a Museum Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Achiam, Marianne; Simony, Leonora; Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer

    2016-01-01

    Although the scientific disciplines conduct practical work in different ways, all consider practical work as the essential way of connecting objects and phenomena with ideas and the abstract. Accordingly, practical work is regarded as central to science "education" as well. We investigate a practical, object-based palaeontology programme…

  6. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 9-12: Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, JoAnne, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 9-12. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  7. Action Semantic Knowledge about Objects Is Supported by Functional Motor Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein T.; Bekkering, Harold

    2009-01-01

    The present study assessed the functional organization of action semantics by asking subjects to categorize pictures of an actor holding objects with a correct or incorrect grip at either a correct or incorrect goal location. Overall, reaction times were slower if the object was presented with an inappropriate posture, and this effect was stronger…

  8. Evaluation of Low-Cost, Objective Instruments for Assessing Physical Activity in 10-11-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Teresa L.; Brusseau, Timothy; Kulinna, Pamela Hodges; McClain, James J.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2011-01-01

    This study compared step counts detected by four, low-cost, objective, physical-activity-assessment instruments and evaluated their ability to detect moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) compared to the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG). Thirty-six 10-11-year-old children wore the NL-1000, Yamax Digiwalker SW 200, Omron HJ-151, and Walk4Life…

  9. Lipopolysaccharide affects exploratory behaviors toward novel objects by impairing cognition and/or motivation in mice: Possible role of activation of the central amygdala.

    PubMed

    Haba, Ryota; Shintani, Norihito; Onaka, Yusuke; Wang, Hyper; Takenaga, Risa; Hayata, Atsuko; Baba, Akemichi; Hashimoto, Hitoshi

    2012-03-17

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a series of systemic and psychiatric changes called sickness behavior. In the present study, we characterized the LPS-induced decrease in novel object exploratory behaviors in BALB/c mice. As already reported, LPS (0.3-5 μg/mouse) induced dose- and time-dependent decreases in locomotor activity, food intake, social interaction, and exploration for novel objects, and an increase in immobility in the forced-swim test. Although the decrease in locomotor activity was ameliorated by 10h postinjection, novel object exploratory behaviors remained decreased at 24h and were observed even with the lowest dose of LPS. In an object exploration test, LPS shortened object exploration time but did not affect moving time or the frequency of object exploration. Although pre-exposure to the same object markedly decreased the duration of exploration and LPS did not change this reduction, LPS significantly impaired the exploration of a novel object that replaced the familiar one. LPS did not affect anxiety-like behaviors in open-field and elevated plus-maze tests. An LPS-induced increase in the number of c-Fos-immunoreactive cells was observed in several brain regions within 6h of LPS administration, but the number of cells quickly returned to control levels, except in the central amygdala where the increase continued for 24h. These results suggest that LPS most prominently affects object exploratory behaviors by impairing cognition and/or motivation including continuous attention and curiosity toward objects, and that this may be associated with activation of brain nuclei such as the central amygdala.

  10. Object Oriented Learning Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Ed

    2005-01-01

    We apply the object oriented software engineering (OOSE) design methodology for software objects (SOs) to learning objects (LOs). OOSE extends and refines design principles for authoring dynamic reusable LOs. Our learning object class (LOC) is a template from which individualised LOs can be dynamically created for, or by, students. The properties…

  11. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  12. Bi-objective optimization of a multiple-target active debris removal mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérend, Nicolas; Olive, Xavier

    2016-05-01

    The increasing number of space debris in Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) raises the question of future Active Debris Removal (ADR) operations. Typical ADR scenarios rely on an Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV) using one of the two following disposal strategies: the first one consists in attaching a deorbiting kit, such as a solid rocket booster, to the debris after rendezvous; with the second one, the OTV captures the debris and moves it to a low-perigee disposal orbit. For multiple-target ADR scenarios, the design of such a mission is very complex, as it involves two optimization levels: one for the space debris sequence, and a second one for the "elementary" orbit transfer strategy from a released debris to the next one in the sequence. This problem can be seen as a Time-Dependant Traveling Salesman Problem (TDTSP) with two objective functions to minimize: the total mission duration and the total propellant consumption. In order to efficiently solve this problem, ONERA has designed, under CNES contract, TOPAS (Tool for Optimal Planning of ADR Sequence), a tool that implements a Branch & Bound method developed in previous work together with a dedicated algorithm for optimizing the "elementary" orbit transfer. A single run of this tool yields an estimation of the Pareto front of the problem, which exhibits the trade-off between mission duration and propellant consumption. We first detail our solution to cope with the combinatorial explosion of complex ADR scenarios with 10 debris. The key point of this approach is to define the orbit transfer strategy through a small set of parameters, allowing an acceptable compromise between the quality of the optimum solution and the calculation cost. Then we present optimization results obtained for various 10 debris removal scenarios involving a 15-ton OTV, using either the deorbiting kit or the disposal orbit strategy. We show that the advantage of one strategy upon the other depends on the propellant margin, the maximum duration allowed

  13. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  14. Objective measures of the built environment and physical activity in children: from walkability to moveability.

    PubMed

    Buck, Christoph; Tkaczick, Tobias; Pitsiladis, Yannis; De Bourdehaudhuij, Ilse; Reisch, Lucia; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-02-01

    Features of the built environment that may influence physical activity (PA) levels are commonly captured using a so-called walkability index. Since such indices typically describe opportunities for walking in everyday life of adults, they might not be applicable to assess urban opportunities for PA in children. Particularly, the spatial availability of recreational facilities may have an impact on PA in children and should be additionally considered. We linked individual data of 400 2- to 9-year-old children recruited in the European IDEFICS study to geographic data of one German study region, based on individual network-dependent neighborhoods. Environmental features of the walkability concept and the availability of recreational facilities, i.e. playgrounds, green spaces, and parks, were measured. Relevant features were combined to a moveability index that should capture urban opportunities for PA in children. A gamma log-regression model was used to model linear and non-linear effects of individual variables on accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) stratified by pre-school children (<6 years) and school children (≥6 years). Single environmental features and the resulting indices were separately included into the model to investigate the effect of each variable on MVPA. In school children, commonly used features such as residential density [Formula: see text], intersection density [Formula: see text], and public transit density [Formula: see text] showed a positive effect on MVPA, while land use mix revealed a negative effect on MVPA [Formula: see text]. In particular, playground density [Formula: see text] and density of public open spaces, i.e., playgrounds and parks combined [Formula: see text], showed positive effects on MVPA. However, availability of green spaces showed no effect on MVPA. Different moveability indices were constructed based on the walkability index accounting for the negative impact of land use mix. Moveability

  15. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  16. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  17. DETECTION OF COMA ACTIVITY OF THE ACO/QUASI-HILDA OBJECT 212P/2000YN{sub 30}

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Y.-C.; Ip, W.-H.

    2013-06-20

    The quasi-Hilda object 212P/2000YN{sub 30}, which has a cometary-like orbit, was found to display a dust tail structure between 2009 January and March. From orbital calculations, it is shown that this object could have been an active comet in the past before being transported to its current orbital configuration in quasi-stable 3:2 resonance with Jupiter.

  18. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  20. Coherence between self-reported and objectively measured physical activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Thyregod, Mimi; Bodtger, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    The beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) in patients with COPD, as well as the methods of their assessment, are well known and described. As objective measures of PA, such as the use of motion sensors, video recordings, exercise capacity testing, and indirect calorimetry, are not easily obtained in the daily clinical life, the reliability of the more accessible self-reported measurements of PA is important. In this review, we systematically identified original studies involving COPD patients and at least one parameter of self-reported and objective exercise testing, and analyzed every article for coherence between the objectively and self-reported measured PA. The studies are few, small, and very diverse, both in their use of questionnaires and objective measurements. Self-reported assessments were found to generally overestimate the level of PA compared to measurements made objectively by activity monitors; however, more studies are needed to rely solely on the use of PA questionnaires in COPD patients. The most accurate and valid questionnaires appear to be the self-completed Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly and the interviewer-completed Stanford Seven-Day Physical Activity Recall Questionnaire, but the ideal questionnaire still awaits construction. The motion sensors are accurate and validated in this patient group, especially SenseWear™, but not easily accessible in clinical practice, as they have various technical and adhesive difficulties. PMID:27932873

  1. Prefrontal and Striatal Activity Related to Values of Objects and Locations

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soyoun; Cai, Xinying; Hwang, Jaewon; Lee, Daeyeol

    2012-01-01

    The value of an object acquired by a particular action often determines the motivation to produce that action. Previous studies found neural signals related to the values of different objects or goods in the orbitofrontal cortex, while the values of outcomes expected from different actions are broadly represented in multiple brain areas implicated in movement planning. However, how the brain combines the values associated with various objects and the information about their locations is not known. In this study, we tested whether the neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and striatum in rhesus monkeys might contribute to translating the value signals between multiple frames of reference. Monkeys were trained to perform an oculomotor intertemporal choice in which the color of a saccade target and the number of its surrounding dots signaled the magnitude of reward and its delay, respectively. In both DLPFC and striatum, temporally discounted values (DVs) associated with specific target colors and locations were encoded by partially overlapping populations of neurons. In the DLPFC, the information about reward delays and DVs of rewards available from specific target locations emerged earlier than the corresponding signals for target colors. Similar results were reproduced by a simple network model built to compute DVs of rewards in different locations. Therefore, DLPFC might play an important role in estimating the values of different actions by combining the previously learned values of objects and their present locations. PMID:22822390

  2. Control of forces applied by individual fingers engaged in restraint of an active object.

    PubMed

    Burstedt, M K; Birznieks, I; Edin, B B; Johansson, R S

    1997-07-01

    We investigated the coordination of fingertip forces in subjects who used the tips of two fingers to restrain an instrumented manipulandum with horizontally oriented grip surfaces. The grip surfaces were subjected to tangential pulling forces in the distal direction in relation to the fingers. The subjects used either the right index and middle fingers (unimanual grasp) or both index fingers (bimanual grasp) to restrain the manipulandum. To change the frictional condition at the digit-object interfaces, either both grip surfaces were covered with sandpaper or one was covered with sandpaper and the other with rayon. The forces applied normally and tangentially to the grip surfaces were measured separately at each plate along with the position of the plates. Subjects could have performed the present task successfully with many different force distributions between the digits. However, they partitioned the load in a manner that reflected the frictional condition at the local digit-object interfaces. When both digits contacted sandpaper, they typically partitioned the load symmetrically, but when one digit made contact with rayon and the other with sandpaper, the digit contacting the less slippery material (sandpaper) took up a larger part of the load. The normal forces were also influenced by the frictional condition, but they reflected the average friction at the two contact sites rather than the local friction. That is, when friction was low at one of the digit-object interfaces, only the applied normal forces increased at both digits. Thus sensory information related to the local frictional condition at the respective digit-object interfaces controlled the normal force at both digits. The normal:tangential force ratio at each digit appeared to be a controlled variable. It was adjusted independently at each digit to the minimum ratio required to prevent frictional slippage, keeping an adequate safety margin against slippage. This was accomplished by the scaling of

  3. Seasonal Variation in Objectively Assessed Physical Activity among Young Norwegian Talented Soccer Players: A Description of Daily Physical Activity Level

    PubMed Central

    Sæther, Stig A.; Aspvik, Nils P.

    2014-01-01

    ‘Practise makes perfect’ is a well-known expression in most sports, including top-level soccer. However, a high training and match load increases the risk for injury, overtraining and burnout. With the use of accelerometers and a self-report questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ physical activity (PA) level. Data were collected three times during the 2011 Norwegian Football season (March, June and October). The accelerometer output, counts·min–1 (counts per unit time registered), reports the daily PA-level for young talented soccer players. Results showed a stable PA-level across the season (March: 901.2 counts·min–1, June: 854.9 counts·min–1, October: 861.5 counts·min–1). Furthermore, comparison of five different training sessions across the season showed that the PA-level ranged from 2435.8 to 3745.4 counts·min–1. A one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences between the three measured weeks during the soccer season (p≤0.814). However, the training sessions in January had a significantly higher PA-level than those in June and October (p≤0.001). Based on these results, we discuss how potential implications of PA-level affect factors such as risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. We argue that player development must be seen as part of an overall picture in which club training and match load should be regarded as one of many variables influencing players’ PA-level. Key points It is well established that to achieve a high performance level in sport, one must implement a high training and match load in childhood and youth. With the use of accelerometers and a self-reported questionnaire, the aim of this study was to describe talented players’ total physical activity (PA) load. These results indicate that young talented soccer players must overcome large doses of PA on a weekly basis, exposing them to a high risk of injury, overtraining and burnout. PMID:25435792

  4. Objectively measured physical activity, brain atrophy, and white matter lesions in older adults with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Doi, Takehiko; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Hotta, Ryo; Nakakubo, Sho; Park, Hyuntae; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-02-01

    Physical activity may help to prevent or delay brain atrophy. Numerous studies have shown associations between physical activity and age-related changes in the brain. However, most of these studies involved self-reported physical activity, not objectively measured physical activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity, as determined using accelerometers, and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). We analyzed 323 older subjects with MCI (mean age 71.4 years) who were recruited from the participants of the Obu Study of Health Promotion for the Elderly. We recorded demographic data and measured physical activity using a tri-axial accelerometer. Physical activity was classified as light-intensity physical activity (LPA) or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Brain atrophy and the severity of white matter lesions (WML) were determined by MRI. Low levels of LPA and MVPA were associated with severe WML. Subjects with severe WML were older, had lower mobility, and had greater brain atrophy than subjects with mild WML (all P<0.05). Multivariate analysis revealed that more MVPA was associated with less brain atrophy, even after adjustment for WML (β=-0.126, P=0.015), but LPA was not (β=-0.102, P=0.136). Our study revealed that objectively measured physical activity, especially MVPA, was associated with brain atrophy in MCI subjects, even after adjusting for WML. These findings support the hypothesis that physical activity plays a crucial role in maintaining brain health.

  5. Tracking object number or information load in visual working memory: revisiting the cognitive implication of contralateral delay activity.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zaifeng; Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2011-05-01

    Two accounts prevail for the ERP component contralateral delay activity (CDA). One is that CDA tracks the number of objects stored in visual working memory (VWM), the more objects the higher amplitude (object number account). The other is that CDA reflects the maintained information load (information load account), the higher load the higher amplitude. The two accounts were tested by manipulating the information load and the object number of stored objects. Two or four arrows with low- or high-resolution information were remembered in separate blocks. In two experiments we found that the CDA-amplitude was higher for 4 arrows than for 2 arrows in low-resolution condition, yet no difference in high-resolution condition. Critically, there was no difference on CDA-amplitude among 2 low- and high-resolution objects, as well as 4 high-resolution objects, yet all were significantly lower than 4 low-resolution arrows. These results supported the object number account of CDA.

  6. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  9. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  11. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  12. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  13. A trade-off between somatosensory and auditory related brain activity during object naming but not reading.

    PubMed

    Seghier, Mohamed L; Hope, Thomas M H; Prejawa, Susan; Parker Jones, 'Ōiwi; Vitkovitch, Melanie; Price, Cathy J

    2015-03-18

    The parietal operculum, particularly the cytoarchitectonic area OP1 of the secondary somatosensory area (SII), is involved in somatosensory feedback. Using fMRI with 58 human subjects, we investigated task-dependent differences in SII/OP1 activity during three familiar speech production tasks: object naming, reading and repeatedly saying "1-2-3." Bilateral SII/OP1 was significantly suppressed (relative to rest) during object naming, to a lesser extent when repeatedly saying "1-2-3" and not at all during reading. These results cannot be explained by task difficulty but the contrasting difference between naming and reading illustrates how the demands on somatosensory activity change with task, even when motor output (i.e., production of object names) is matched. To investigate what determined SII/OP1 deactivation during object naming, we searched the whole brain for areas where activity increased as that in SII/OP1 decreased. This across subject covariance analysis revealed a region in the right superior temporal sulcus (STS) that lies within the auditory cortex, and is activated by auditory feedback during speech production. The tradeoff between activity in SII/OP1 and STS was not observed during reading, which showed significantly more activation than naming in both SII/OP1 and STS bilaterally. These findings suggest that, although object naming is more error prone than reading, subjects can afford to rely more or less on somatosensory or auditory feedback during naming. In contrast, fast and efficient error-free reading places more consistent demands on both types of feedback, perhaps because of the potential for increased competition between lexical and sublexical codes at the articulatory level.

  14. Objectively-measured physical activity in children is influenced by social indicators rather than biological lifecourse factors: Evidence from a Brazilian cohort.

    PubMed

    Knuth, Alan G; Silva, Inácio Crochemore M; van Hees, Vincent T; Cordeira, Kelly; Matijasevich, Alícia; Barros, Aluísio J D; Santos, Iná; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the longitudinal influences of early life social and biological indicators on objectively measured physical activity. All newborns in 2004 in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil were enrolled in a birth cohort study. At the age of 6years, a follow-up visit included objective assessment of overall physical activity (summarized in milli-g, 1mg=0.001g) by tri-axial wrist worn accelerometry. The associations between early life exposures, such as type of delivery, parity, birth weight, preterm delivery, maternal physical activity, socioeconomic position, and overall physical activity were examined. Valid accelerometry data were obtained from 2604 children (78.2% of the eligible individuals). Girls were less active than boys (β=-8.65mg; 95% CI -10.0; -7.30). Higher socioeconomic position was related to lower activity levels (β=-9.69mg. 95% CI -12.45; -6.93) and a similar association was found with maternal schooling. No associations were found with birthweight, type of delivery or preterm delivery. This study provides evidence for the role of some social factors in explaining children's physical activity behaviors, and minimizes the influence of some early life biological factors at determining physical activity levels.

  15. Small Schools Science Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Learning objectives and suggested activities, monitoring procedures and resources for the Washington K-3 Small Schools Science Curriculum are based on the rationale that "young children need the opportunity to observe, classify, predict, test ideas again and again in a variety of contexts, ask questions, explain, discuss ideas, fail, and succeed.…

  16. Cortical Activation Patterns during Long-Term Memory Retrieval of Visually or Haptically Encoded Objects and Locations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stock, Oliver; Roder, Brigitte; Burke, Michael; Bien, Siegfried; Rosler, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to delineate cortical networks that are activated when objects or spatial locations encoded either visually (visual encoding group, n = 10) or haptically (haptic encoding group, n = 10) had to be retrieved from long-term memory. Participants learned associations between auditorily…

  17. Intuition in the Context of Object Perception: Intuitive Gestalt Judgments Rest on the Unconscious Activation of Semantic Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolte, Annette; Goschke, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Intuition denotes the ability to judge stimulus properties on the basis of information that is activated in memory, but not consciously retrieved. In three experiments we show that participants discriminated better than chance fragmented line drawings depicting meaningful objects (coherent fragments) from fragments consisting of randomly displaced…

  18. Small Schools Music Curriculum, K-3: Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures. The Comprehensive Arts in Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ott, Mary Lou, Comp.

    By following the Washington Small Schools Curriculum format of listing learning objectives with recommended grade placement levels and suggested activities, monitoring procedures, and resources used in teaching, this music curriculum for grades K-3 encourages teacher involvement and decision making. Goals for the program focus on the student,…

  19. Effect of Modeling-Based Activities Developed Using Virtual Environments and Concrete Objects on Spatial Thinking and Mental Rotation Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yurt, Eyup; Sunbul, Ali Murat

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the effect of modeling based activities using virtual environments and concrete objects on spatial thinking and mental rotation skills was investigated. The study was designed as a pretest-posttest model with a control group, which is one of the experimental research models. The study was carried out on sixth grade students…

  20. Association between Accelerometer-Assessed Physical Activity and Objectively Measured Hearing Sensitivity among U.S. Adults with Diabetes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Gilham, Ben; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between objectively measured physical activity and hearing sensitivity among a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults with diabetes. Method: Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used. One hundred eighty-four U.S. adults with diabetes…

  1. Objective Determination of Cloud Heights and Radar Reflectivities Using a Combination of Active Remote Sensors at the ARM CART Sites.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothiaux, Eugene E.; Ackerman, Thomas P.; Mace, Gerald G.; Moran, Kenneth P.; Marchand, Roger T.; Miller, Mark A.; Martner, Brooks E.

    2000-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is deploying sensitive, millimeter-wave cloud radars at its Cloud and Radiation Test Bed (CART) sites in Oklahoma, Alaska, and the tropical western Pacific Ocean. The radars complement optical devices, including a Belfort or Vaisala laser ceilometer and a micropulse lidar, in providing a comprehensive source of information on the vertical distribution of hydrometeors overhead at the sites. An algorithm is described that combines data from these active remote sensors to produce an objective determination of hydrometeor height distributions and estimates of their radar reflectivities, vertical velocities, and Doppler spectral widths, which are optimized for accuracy. These data provide fundamental information for retrieving cloud microphysical properties and assessing the radiative effects of clouds on climate. The algorithm is applied to nine months of data from the CART site in Oklahoma for initial evaluation. Much of the algorithm's calculations deal with merging and optimizing data from the radar's four sequential operating modes, which have differing advantages and limitations, including problems resulting from range sidelobes, range aliasing, and coherent averaging. Two of the modes use advanced phase-coded pulse compression techniques to yield approximately 10 and 15 dB more sensitivity than is available from the two conventional pulse modes. Comparison of cloud-base heights from the Belfort ceilometer and the micropulse lidar confirms small biases found in earlier studies, but recent information about the ceilometer brings the agreement to within 20-30 m. Merged data of the radar's modes were found to miss approximately 5.9% of the clouds detected by the laser systems. Using data from only the radar's two less-sensitive conventional pulse modes would increase the missed detections to 22%-34%. A significant remaining problem is that the radar's lower-altitude data are often

  2. Objectively measured physical activity in Danish after-school cares: Does sport certification matter?

    PubMed

    Domazet, S L; Møller, N C; Støckel, J T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2015-12-01

    Inactivity and more sedentary time predominate the daily activity level of many of today's children. In Denmark, certified sport after-school cares have been established in order to increase children's daily physical activity (PA) level. This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the activity level among participants in certified sport after-school cares vs regular after-school cares. The study was carried out in 2011 in 10 after-school cares (5 sport/5 regular) throughout Denmark, whereof 475 children aged 5-11 years participated. PA level was assessed using Actigraph GT3X and GT3X+ activity monitors worn by the children for at least 8 consecutive days. Anthropometry and cardiorespiratory fitness were measured as well. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out to check for the differences in the PA level across the two care systems. However, there did not appear to be any differences in overall PA or in time-specific day parts (e.g., during after-school care). The activity levels were quite similar across after-school cares and were mutually high during time spent in the care facility.

  3. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity.

    PubMed

    Tompuri, Tuomo T

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor.

  4. Metabolic equivalents of task are confounded by adiposity, which disturbs objective measurement of physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Tompuri, Tuomo T.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity refers any bodily movements produced by skeletal muscles that expends energy. Hence the amount and the intensity of physical activity can be assessed by energy expenditure. Metabolic equivalents of task (MET) are multiplies of the resting metabolism reflecting metabolic rate during exercise. The standard MET is defined as 3.5 ml/min/kg. However, the expression of energy expenditure by body weight to normalize the size differences between subjects causes analytical hazards: scaling by body weight does not have a physiological, mathematical, or physical rationale. This review demonstrates by examples that false methodology may cause paradoxical observations if physical activity would be assessed by body weight scaled values such as standard METs. While standard METs are confounded by adiposity, lean mass proportional measures of energy expenditure would enable a more truthful choice to assess physical activity. While physical activity as a behavior and cardiorespiratory fitness or adiposity as a state represents major determinants of public health, specific measurements of health determinants must be understood to enable a truthful evaluation of the interactions and their independent role as a health predictor. PMID:26321958

  5. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  6. The role of oscillatory brain activity in object processing and figure-ground segmentation in human vision.

    PubMed

    Kinsey, K; Anderson, S J; Hadjipapas, A; Holliday, I E

    2011-03-01

    The perception of an object as a single entity within a visual scene requires that its features are bound together and segregated from the background and/or other objects. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to assess the hypothesis that coherent percepts may arise from the synchronized high frequency (gamma) activity between neurons that code features of the same object. We also assessed the role of low frequency (alpha, beta) activity in object processing. The target stimulus (i.e. object) was a small patch of a concentric grating of 3c/°, viewed eccentrically. The background stimulus was either a blank field or a concentric grating of 3c/° periodicity, viewed centrally. With patterned backgrounds, the target stimulus emerged--through rotation about its own centre--as a circular subsection of the background. Data were acquired using a 275-channel whole-head MEG system and analyzed using Synthetic Aperture Magnetometry (SAM), which allows one to generate images of task-related cortical oscillatory power changes within specific frequency bands. Significant oscillatory activity across a broad range of frequencies was evident at the V1/V2 border, and subsequent analyses were based on a virtual electrode at this location. When the target was presented in isolation, we observed that: (i) contralateral stimulation yielded a sustained power increase in gamma activity; and (ii) both contra- and ipsilateral stimulation yielded near identical transient power changes in alpha (and beta) activity. When the target was presented against a patterned background, we observed that: (i) contralateral stimulation yielded an increase in high-gamma (>55 Hz) power together with a decrease in low-gamma (40-55 Hz) power; and (ii) both contra- and ipsilateral stimulation yielded a transient decrease in alpha (and beta) activity, though the reduction tended to be greatest for contralateral stimulation. The opposing power changes across different regions of the gamma spectrum with

  7. Multiobjective optimization in a pseudometric objective space as applied to a general model of business activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachaturov, R. V.

    2016-09-01

    It is shown that finding the equivalence set for solving multiobjective discrete optimization problems is advantageous over finding the set of Pareto optimal decisions. An example of a set of key parameters characterizing the economic efficiency of a commercial firm is proposed, and a mathematical model of its activities is constructed. In contrast to the classical problem of finding the maximum profit for any business, this study deals with a multiobjective optimization problem. A method for solving inverse multiobjective problems in a multidimensional pseudometric space is proposed for finding the best project of firm's activities. The solution of a particular problem of this type is presented.

  8. Stand-off detection of hidden threat objects on personnel at checkpoints and in public areas using active millimetre-wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Rory S.; Lyons, Brendan N.; Lettington, Alan H.; McEnroe, Tony; Walshe, John; McNaboe, John; Curtin, Peter; Bleszynski, Stan

    2004-12-01

    The use of millimetre-wave imaging to identify threat objects such as guns and bomb material concealed on the person is well documented. However, the technology has been hindered by the performance and cost barriers typically associated with imaging at mm-wave frequencies. A novel scanning technique that minimises the receiver count while operating at very high efficiency levels has made it possible to build a cost-effective and high-performance mm-wave imager that can make security screening a commercial reality. The imager design allows for either passive or active operation and its compact form factor is suitable for practical installation in security channel situations. The uses of this technology include portal screening of personnel for high-resolution imaging of concealed threat objects or longer distance surveillance type monitoring of checkpoints and crowds. This presentation details the use of the imager in an active configuration to observe a checkpoint or crowd scene at stand-off distances of up to 50 metres. Target objects to be detected are the hidden metal components associated with suicide bomb constructions. A typical bomb consists of several explosive filled pipes strapped to the body or clusterings of small metallic objects embedded in explosives. Trials at 94GHz have yielded positive results by showing the presence of concealed metallic objects on people at distances of 25 metres. Objects detected have included simulated bomb constructions such as groups of metal pipes and clusters of nuts and bolts. These tests have been conducted using a Gunn based CW source and direct detect receiver unit. Further enhancement of the system includes the use of an FMCW front-end configuration.

  9. A Case Study Objectively Assessing Female Physical Activity Levels within the National Curriculum for Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Matthew; Daly-Smith, Andrew; Morley, David; McKenna, James

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the National Curriculum for Physical Education (NCPE) lesson themes and contexts on the profile of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Fifteen, Year 9 Physical Education (PE) lessons were assessed within the lesson themes of Outwitting Opponents (OO) (delivered through field hockey…

  10. Associations between Adolescents' Situational Motivation and Objectively-Determined Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ning, Weihong; Pope, Zachary; Gao, Zan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to examine the predictive strength of adolescents' situational motivation to their physical activity levels in physical education. Method: A total of 259 middle school students ranging from 11 to 14 years old participated in the study. Participants completed the Situational Motivation Scale in one class. Their PA levels…

  11. Parent-child interactions and objectively measured child physical activity: a cross-sectional study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents influence their children's behaviors directly through specific parenting practices and indirectly through their parenting style. Some practices such as logistical and emotional support have been shown to be positively associated with child physical activity (PA) levels, while for others (e.g...

  12. Developing a User Oriented Design Methodology for Learning Activities Using Boundary Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fragou, ?lga; Kameas, Achilles

    2013-01-01

    International Standards in High and Open and Distance Education are used for developing Open Educational Resources (OERs). Current issues in e-learning community are the specification of learning chunks and the definition of describing designs for different units of learning (activities, units, courses) in a generic though expandable format.…

  13. Characteristics of urban sidewalks/streets and objectively measured physical activity.

    PubMed

    Suminski, Richard R; Heinrich, Katie M; Poston, Walker S C; Hyder, Melissa; Pyle, Sara

    2008-03-01

    Several studies have found significant relationships between environmental characteristics (e.g., number of destinations, aesthetics) and physical activity. While a few of these studies verified that the physical activities assessed were performed in the environments examined, none have done this in an urban, neighborhood setting. This information will help efforts to inform policy decisions regarding the design of more "physically active" communities. Fourteen environmental characteristics of 60, 305-m-long segments, located in an urban, residential setting, were directly measured using standardized procedures. The number of individuals walking, jogging, and biking in the segments was assessed using an observation technique. The segments were heterogeneous with regards to several of the environmental characteristics. A total of 473 individuals were seen walking, bicycling, or jogging in the segments during 3,600 min of observation (60 min/segment). Of the 473 seen, 315 were walking, 116 bicycling, and 42 jogging. A greater number of individuals were seen walking in segments with more traffic, sidewalk defects, graffiti, and litter and less desirable property aesthetics. Only one environmental characteristic was associated with bicycling and none were significantly related with jogging. This study provides further evidence that environmental characteristics and walking are related. It also adds new information regarding the importance of scale (e.g., micro, macro) and how some environmental characteristics of urban, residential sidewalks and streets relate to physical activity.

  14. An Objective Assessment of Children's Physical Activity during the Keep It Moving! After-School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuna, John M., Jr.; Lauersdorf, Rebekah L.; Behrens, Timothy K.; Liguori, Gary; Liebert, Mina L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: After-school programs may provide valuable opportunities for children to accumulate healthful physical activity (PA). This study assessed the PA of third-, fourth-, and ?fth-grade children in the Keep It Moving! (KIM) after-school PA program, which was implemented in an ethnically diverse and low socioeconomic status school district in…

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity Is Associated with Brain Volumetric Measurements in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Klaren, Rachel E.; Hubbard, Elizabeth A.; Motl, Robert W.; Pilutti, Lara A.; Wetter, Nathan C.; Sutton, Bradley P.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Little is known about physical activity and its association with volumes of whole brain gray matter and white matter and deep gray matter structures in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). Purpose. This study examined the association between levels of physical activity and brain volumetric measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in MS. Method. 39 persons with MS wore an accelerometer for a 7-day period and underwent a brain MRI. Normalized GM volume (NGMV), normalized WM volume (NWMV), and deep GM structures were calculated from 3D T1-weighted structural brain images. We conducted partial correlations (pr) controlling for demographic and clinical variables. Results. Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was significantly associated with NGMV (pr = 0.370, p < 0.05), NWMV (pr = 0.433, p < 0.01), hippocampus (pr = 0.499, p < 0.01), thalamus (pr = 0.380, p < 0.05), caudate (pr = 0.539, p < 0.01), putamen (pr = 0.369, p < 0.05), and pallidum (pr = 0.498, p < 0.01) volumes, when controlling for sex, age, clinical course of MS, and Expanded Disability Status Scale score. There were no associations between sedentary and light physical activity with MRI outcomes. Conclusion. Our results provide the first evidence that MVPA is associated with volumes of whole brain GM and WM and deep GM structures that are involved in motor and cognitive functions in MS. PMID:26146460

  16. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  17. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  18. Rethinking Trends in Instructional Objectives: Exploring the Alignment of Objectives with Activities and Assessment in Higher Education--A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamanaka, Akio; Wu, Leon Yufeng

    2014-01-01

    This study explored higher education level syllabi to identify trends in educational objectives. Bloom's Taxonomy and various strategic models were used to classify 714 objectives from 114 sections of courses administered through a Midwest teacher education institution in the United States. 1229 verbs and verb phrases were classified through the…

  19. Quantitative modeling of the neural representation of objects: how semantic feature norms can account for fMRI activation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Kai-min Kevin; Mitchell, Tom; Just, Marcel Adam

    2011-05-15

    Recent multivariate analyses of fMRI activation have shown that discriminative classifiers such as Support Vector Machines (SVM) are capable of decoding fMRI-sensed neural states associated with the visual presentation of categories of various objects. However, the lack of a generative model of neural activity limits the generality of these discriminative classifiers for understanding the underlying neural representation. In this study, we propose a generative classifier that models the hidden factors that underpin the neural representation of objects, using a multivariate multiple linear regression model. The results indicate that object features derived from an independent behavioral feature norming study can explain a significant portion of the systematic variance in the neural activity observed in an object-contemplation task. Furthermore, the resulting regression model is useful for classifying a previously unseen neural activation vector, indicating that the distributed pattern of neural activities encodes sufficient signal to discriminate differences among stimuli. More importantly, there appears to be a double dissociation between the two classifier approaches and within- versus between-participants generalization. Whereas an SVM-based discriminative classifier achieves the best classification accuracy in within-participants analysis, the generative classifier outperforms an SVM-based model which does not utilize such intermediate representations in between-participants analysis. This pattern of results suggests the SVM-based classifier may be picking up some idiosyncratic patterns that do not generalize well across participants and that good generalization across participants may require broad, large-scale patterns that are used in our set of intermediate semantic features. Finally, this intermediate representation allows us to extrapolate the model of the neural activity to previously unseen words, which cannot be done with a discriminative classifier.

  20. Vertical dynamics of a horizontally oscillating active object in a two-dimensional granular medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ling; Ran, Xianwen; Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2016-12-01

    We use a discrete-element method simulation and analytical considerations to study the dynamics of a self-energized object, modeled as a disk, oscillating horizontally within a two-dimensional bed of denser and smaller particles. We find that, for given material parameters, the immersed object (IO) may rise, sink, or not change depth, depending on the oscillation amplitude and frequency, as well as on the initial depth. With time, the IO settles at a specific depth that depends on the oscillation parameters. We construct a phase diagram of this behavior in the oscillation frequency and velocity amplitude variable space. We explain the observed rich behavior by two competing effects: climbing on particles, which fill voids opening under the disk, and sinking due to bed fluidization. We present a cavity model that allows us to derive analytically general results, which agree very well with the observations and explain quantitatively the phase diagram. Our specific analytical results are the following. (i) Derivation of a critical frequency, fc, above which the IO cannot float up against gravity. We show that this frequency depends only on the gravitational acceleration and the IO size. (ii) Derivation of a minimal amplitude, Amin, below which the IO cannot rise even if the frequency is below fc. We show that this amplitude also depends only on the gravitational acceleration and the IO size. (iii) Derivation of a critical value, gc, of the IO's acceleration amplitude, below which the IO cannot sink. We show that the value of gc depends on the characteristics of both the IO and the granular bed, as well as on the initial IO's depth.

  1. Vertical dynamics of a horizontally oscillating active object in a two-dimensional granular medium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ling; Ran, Xianwen; Blumenfeld, Raphael

    2016-12-01

    We use a discrete-element method simulation and analytical considerations to study the dynamics of a self-energized object, modeled as a disk, oscillating horizontally within a two-dimensional bed of denser and smaller particles. We find that, for given material parameters, the immersed object (IO) may rise, sink, or not change depth, depending on the oscillation amplitude and frequency, as well as on the initial depth. With time, the IO settles at a specific depth that depends on the oscillation parameters. We construct a phase diagram of this behavior in the oscillation frequency and velocity amplitude variable space. We explain the observed rich behavior by two competing effects: climbing on particles, which fill voids opening under the disk, and sinking due to bed fluidization. We present a cavity model that allows us to derive analytically general results, which agree very well with the observations and explain quantitatively the phase diagram. Our specific analytical results are the following. (i) Derivation of a critical frequency, f_{c}, above which the IO cannot float up against gravity. We show that this frequency depends only on the gravitational acceleration and the IO size. (ii) Derivation of a minimal amplitude, A_{min}, below which the IO cannot rise even if the frequency is below f_{c}. We show that this amplitude also depends only on the gravitational acceleration and the IO size. (iii) Derivation of a critical value, g_{c}, of the IO's acceleration amplitude, below which the IO cannot sink. We show that the value of g_{c} depends on the characteristics of both the IO and the granular bed, as well as on the initial IO's depth.

  2. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  3. Local finite-amplitude wave activity as an objective diagnostic of midlatitude extreme weather

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Gang; Lu, Jian; Burrows, Alex D.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

    2015-12-28

    Midlatitude extreme weather events are responsible for a large part of climate related damage, yet our understanding of these extreme events is limited, partly due to the lack of a theoretical basis for midlatitude extreme weather. In this letter, the local finite-amplitude wave activity (LWA) of Huang and Nakamura [2015] is introduced as a diagnostic of the 500-hPa geopotential height (Z500) to characterizing midlatitude weather events. It is found that the LWA climatology and its variability associated with the Arctic Oscillation (AO) agree broadly with the previously reported blocking frequency in literature. There is a strong seasonal and spatial dependence in the trend13 s of LWA in recent decades. While there is no observational evidence for a hemispheric-scale increase in wave amplitude, robust trends in wave activity can be identified at the regional scales, with important implications for regional climate change.

  4. Working memory is not fixed-capacity: More active storage capacity for real-world objects than for simple stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Timothy F.; Störmer, Viola S.; Alvarez, George A.

    2016-01-01

    Visual working memory is the cognitive system that holds visual information active to make it resistant to interference from new perceptual input. Information about simple stimuli—colors and orientations—is encoded into working memory rapidly: In under 100 ms, working memory ‟fills up,” revealing a stark capacity limit. However, for real-world objects, the same behavioral limits do not hold: With increasing encoding time, people store more real-world objects and do so with more detail. This boost in performance for real-world objects is generally assumed to reflect the use of a separate episodic long-term memory system, rather than working memory. Here we show that this behavioral increase in capacity with real-world objects is not solely due to the use of separate episodic long-term memory systems. In particular, we show that this increase is a result of active storage in working memory, as shown by directly measuring neural activity during the delay period of a working memory task using EEG. These data challenge fixed-capacity working memory models and demonstrate that working memory and its capacity limitations are dependent upon our existing knowledge. PMID:27325767

  5. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  6. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  7. Comparison of passive ranging integral imaging and active imaging digital holography for three-dimensional object recognition.

    PubMed

    Frauel, Yann; Tajahuerce, Enrique; Matoba, Osamu; Castro, Albertina; Javidi, Bahram

    2004-01-10

    We present an overview of three-dimensional (3D) object recognition techniques that use active sensing by interferometric imaging (digital holography) and passive sensing by integral imaging. We describe how each technique can be used to retrieve the depth information of a 3D scene and how this information can then be used for 3D object recognition. We explore various algorithms for 3D recognition such as nonlinear correlation and target distortion tolerance. We also provide a comparison of the advantages and disadvantages of the two techniques.

  8. Volatile constituents of Dianthus rupicola Biv. from Sicily: activity against microorganisms affecting cellulosic objects.

    PubMed

    Casiglia, Simona; Bruno, Maurizio; Senatore, Felice

    2014-01-01

    Dianthus rupicola Biv. (cliffs carnation) is a camephytic, suffruticous, perennial plant growing up to 40 cm high. The plant is widespread in Sicily and neighbouring islands (Egadi, Lampedusa, Lipari) and in some areas of southern Italy. GC and GC-MS analyses of the essential oil distilled from the flowers showed the presence of 66 components. Its composition is characterised by the high content of thymol and carvacrol derivatives. A good antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus and Bacillussubtilis, both infesting cellulosic historical material, was shown, whereas the antioxidant capacity was determined to be quite poor.

  9. ASSOCIATIONS OF HIGH-REDSHIFT QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH ACTIVE, LOW-REDSHIFT SPIRAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Burbidge, G.; Napier, W. M. E-mail: smawmn@cardiff.ac.u

    2009-11-20

    Following the discovery in the 1960s of radio and optical QSOs it was found that some of them lie very close to low-redshift (z <= 0.01) spiral galaxies with separations of approx<2 arcmin. These were discovered both serendipitously by many observers, and systematically by Arp. They are some of the brightest QSOs in radio and optical wavelengths and are very rare. We have carried out a new statistical analysis of most of those galaxy-QSO pairs and find that the configurations have high statistical significance. We show that gravitational microlensing due to stars or other dark objects in the halos of the galaxies apparently cannot account for the excess. Sampling or identification bias likewise seems unable to explain it. Following this up we selected all approx4000 QSOs with g <= 18 from a catalog of confirmed QSOs in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, and compared them with various subsets of galaxies from the RC 3 galaxy catalog. In contrast to the earlier results, no significant excess of such QSOs was found around these galaxies. Possible reasons for the discrepancy are discussed.

  10. Physical activity and screen-media-related parenting practices have different associations with children's objectively measured physical activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children's physical activity (PA) is inversely associated with children's weight status. Parents may be an important influence on children's PA by restricting sedentary time or supporting PA. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of PA and screen-media–related [television (TV) and...

  11. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  12. Magnetar-like Activity from the Central Compact Object in the SNR RCW103

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, N.; Borghese, A.; Esposito, P.; Coti Zelati, F.; Bachetti, M.; Israel, G. L.; De Luca, A.

    2016-09-01

    The 6.67 hr periodicity and the variable X-ray flux of the central compact object (CCO) at the center of the supernova remnant RCW 103, named 1E 161348-5055, have been always difficult to interpret within the standard scenarios of an isolated neutron star (NS) or a binary system. On 2016 June 22, the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift detected a magnetar-like short X-ray burst from the direction of 1E 161348-5055, also coincident with a large long-term X-ray outburst. Here, we report on Chandra, Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and Swift (BAT and XRT) observations of this peculiar source during its 2016 outburst peak. In particular, we study the properties of this magnetar-like burst, we discover a hard X-ray tail in the CCO spectrum during outburst, and we study its long-term outburst history (from 1999 to 2016 July). We find the emission properties of 1E 161348-5055 consistent with it being a magnetar. However, in this scenario, the 6.67 hr periodicity can only be interpreted as the rotation period of this strongly magnetized NS, which therefore represents the slowest pulsar ever detected, by orders of magnitude. We briefly discuss the viable slow-down scenarios, favoring a picture involving a period of fall-back accretion after the supernova explosion, similarly to what is invoked (although in a different regime) to explain the “anti-magnetar” scenario for other CCOs.

  13. Neuroimaging reveals enhanced activation in a reach-selective brain area for objects located within participants' typical hand workspaces.

    PubMed

    Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, Adam; Culham, Jody C

    2011-11-01

    In recent years, there has been growing excitement within cognitive neuroscience about the concept of embodiment: How do the capabilities and limitations of our physical bodies affect neural representations in the brain? Neuropsychological and neurophysiological studies show clear evidence that short-term visuomotor experience can influence the encoding of the space around the body in parietal cortex. For example, tool-use may expand the neural representation of peripersonal space. But how is this initial spatial representation influenced by a lifetime of object-related interactions? To examine this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural effects of an individual's hand preferences for acting within peripersonal space. Left- and right-handed participants viewed real-world objects at different locations accessible by either the left hand, right hand, or neither hand. The superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC), an area most often implicated in reaching actions, showed enhanced visual responses for objects located within the range of space in which each group typically acts. Specifically, in right-handers, who strongly prefer grasping with the right hand, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space for the right hand only. In contrast, in left-handers, who use their two hands comparably often in visuomotor tasks, SPOC showed strongest activation for objects located within the range of space of either hand. These findings show that, even in the absence of overt responses, real 3D objects located in the individual's typical workspace for hand actions automatically invoke enhanced responses in associated visuomotor areas of the brain.

  14. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  15. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  16. Long-Term Objective Physical Activity Measurements using a Wireless Accelerometer Following Minimally Invasive Transforaminal Interbody Fusion Surgery.

    PubMed

    Phan, Kevin; Mobbs, Ralph J

    2016-04-01

    We report on a case of a patient who underwent minimally invasive transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (mi-TLIF) with objective physical activity measurements performed preoperatively and postoperatively at up to 12-months using wireless accelerometer technology. In the first postoperative month following surgery, the patient had reduced mobility, taking 2,397 steps over a distance of 1.8 km per day. However, the number of steps taken and distance travelled per day had returned to baseline levels by the second postoperative month. At one-year follow-up, the patient averaged 5,095 steps per day in the month over a distance of 3.8 km; this was a 60% improvement in both steps taken and distance travelled compared to the preoperative status. The use of wireless accelerometers is feasible in obtaining objective physical activity measurements before and after lumbar interbody fusion and may be applicable to other related spinal surgeries as well.

  17. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  18. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  19. Tracking on non-active collaborative objects from San Fernando Laser station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Manuel; Quijano, Manuel; Cortina, Luis M.; Pazos, Antonio A.; Martín-Davila, José

    2016-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of the Spanish Navy (ROA) works on satellite geodesy from the early days of the space age, when the first artificial satellite tracking telescope was installed in 1958: the Baker-Nunn camera. In 1975 a French satellite Laser ranging (SLR) station was installed and operated at ROA . Since 1980, ROA has been operating this instrument which was upgraded to a third generation and it is still keep into a continuous update to reach the highest level of operability. Since then ROA has participated in different space geodesy campaigns through the International Laser Service Stations (ILRS) or its European regional organization (EUROLAS), tracking a number of artificial satellites types : ERS, ENVISAT, LAGEOS, TOPEX- POSEIDON to name but a few. Recently we opened a new field of research: space debris tracking, which is receiving increasing importance and attention from international space agencies. The main problem is the relatively low accuracy of common used methods. It is clear that improving the predicted orbit accuracy is necessary to fulfill our aims (avoiding unnecessary anti-collision maneuvers,..). Following results obtained by other colleagues (Austria, China, USA,...) we proposed to share our time-schedule using our satellite ranging station to obtain data which will make orbital elements predictions far more accurate (sub-meter accuracy), while we still keep our tracking routines over active satellites. In this communication we report the actions fulfill until nowadays.

  20. GUIDANCE FOR THE PROPER CHARACTERIZATION AND CLASSIFICATION OF LOW SPECIFIC ACTIVITY MATERIALS AND SURFACE CONTAMINATED OBJECTS FOR DISPOSAL

    SciTech Connect

    PORTSMOUTH JH; BLACKFORD LT

    2012-02-13

    Regulatory concerns over the proper characterization of certain waste streams led CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) to develop written guidance for personnel involved in Decontamination & Decommissioning (D&D) activities, facility management and Waste Management Representatives (WMRs) involved in the designation of wastes for disposal on and off the Hanford Site. It is essential that these waste streams regularly encountered in D&D operations are properly designated, characterized and classified prior to shipment to a Treatment, Storage or Disposal Facility (TSDF). Shipments of waste determined by the classification process as Low Specific Activity (LSA) or Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO) must also be compliant with all applicable U.S. Department of Transportation (DOE) regulations as well as Department of Energy (DOE) orders. The compliant shipment of these waste commodities is critical to the Hanford Central Plateau cleanup mission. Due to previous problems and concerns from DOE assessments, CHPRC internal critiques as well as DOT, a management decision was made to develop written guidance and procedures to assist CHPRC shippers and facility personnel in the proper classification of D&D waste materials as either LSA or SCO. The guidance provides a uniform methodology for the collection and documentation required to effectively characterize, classify and identify candidate materials for shipping operations. A primary focus is to ensure that waste materials generated from D&D and facility operations are compliant with the DOT regulations when packaged for shipment. At times this can be difficult as the current DOT regulations relative to the shipment of LSA and SCO materials are often not clear to waste generators. Guidance is often sought from NUREG 1608/RAMREG-003 [3]: a guidance document that was jointly developed by the DOT and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and published in 1998. However, NUREG 1608 [3] is now thirteen years old and

  1. Fingerprints of Learned Object Recognition Seen in the fMRI Activation Patterns of Lateral Occipital Complex.

    PubMed

    Roth, Zvi N; Zohary, Ehud

    2015-09-01

    One feature of visual processing in the ventral stream is that cortical responses gradually depart from the physical aspects of the visual stimulus and become correlated with perceptual experience. Thus, unlike early retinotopic areas, the responses in the object-related lateral occipital complex (LOC) are typically immune to parameter changes (e.g., contrast, location, etc.) when these do not affect recognition. Here, we use a complementary approach to highlight changes in brain activity following a shift in the perceptual state (in the absence of any alteration in the physical image). Specifically, we focus on LOC and early visual cortex (EVC) and compare their functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to degraded object images, before and after fast perceptual learning that renders initially unrecognized objects identifiable. Using 3 complementary analyses, we find that, in LOC, unlike EVC, learned recognition is associated with a change in the multivoxel response pattern to degraded object images, such that the response becomes significantly more correlated with that evoked by the intact version of the same image. This provides further evidence that the coding in LOC reflects the recognition of visual objects.

  2. Associations of objective physical activity with insulin sensitivity and circulating adipokine profile: the Framingham Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Spartano, N L; Stevenson, M D; Xanthakis, V; Larson, M G; Andersson, C; Murabito, J M; Vasan, R S

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relation of physical activity (PA) and sedentary time (SED) to insulin sensitivity and adipokines. We assessed PA and SED using Actical accelerometers and insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in 2109 participants (free of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus) from Framingham Generation 3 and Omni 2 cohorts (mean age 46 years, 54% women). Systemic inflammation (C-reactive protein [CRP]) and circulating adipokines were measured 6 years earlier. Steps per day, moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SED per wear time (%SED) were predictor variables in multivariable regression analyses, with HOMA-IR, CRP and circulating adipokines as outcome measures. We reported that higher MVPA and more steps per day were associated with lower HOMA-IR, adjusting for %SED (β = -0.036, P = 0.002; β = -0.041, P = 0.005). Steps were inversely associated with CRP, but were directly associated with insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 levels (β = -0.111, P = 0.002; β = 3.293, P = 0.007). %SED was positively associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.033, P < 0.0001), but non-significant after adjusting for MVPA (P = 0.13). %SED was associated with higher ratio of leptin/leptin receptor (sOB-R) and higher adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (FABP)4 (β = 0.096, P < 0.0001; β = 0.593, P = 0.002). Our findings suggest differential influences of PA vs. SED on metabolic pathways, with PA modulating insulin resistance and inflammation, whereas SED influences FABPs.

  3. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  4. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  5. OBJECTIVELY MEASURED PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND SEDENTARY BEHAVIOUR PATTERNS IN CHILEAN PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Farias, Nicolas; Martino-Fuentealba, Pía; Espinoza-Silva, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    Introducción: los perjuicios de la inactividad física y de la conducta sedentaria (CS) en la salud de los niños han sido ampliamente respaldados por la evidencia. Sin embargo, existe limitada evidencia de cómo estos comportamientos se manifiestan en los preescolares. Por este motivo, este estudio tuvo como propósito evaluar los patrones de actividad física (AF) y CS de forma objetiva en preescolares chilenos. Método: 25 niños (4,8 } 0,50 años, 48% hombres) completaron la monitorización ambulatoria con el acelerómetro e inclinómetro ActivPALTM micro. Se midieron tiempos caminando, de pie y sentado/acostado, además de pasos acumulados por día, para ser comparados según día de la semana y período del día. Resultados: el tiempo promedio caminando fue de 147,2 } 52,23 minutos/día. El tiempo en CS fue de 468,3 } 92,22 minutos/día, con diferencias estadísticas entre días entre semana y fin de semana (484,8 vs. 426,8 min/día, p = 0,03). El 50% de los pasos fueron sumados en acumulaciones menores a 100 pasos/minuto, mientras un 50% del tiempo en CS fue acumulado en intervalos de duración de 35 segundos o menos. Discusión: los preescolares presentan patrones intermitentes de AF y CS. En los días entre semana se sientan más que durante el fin de semana, por lo cual se presenta una posibilidad de modificar este comportamiento durante el período de clases. Este reporte de patrones de AF y CS en preescolares presenta información valiosa para el diseño e implementación de estrategias para mejorar los niveles de AF y disminuir el tiempo en CS en preescolares.

  6. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  7. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  8. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  9. ERP correlates of object recognition memory in Down syndrome: Do active and passive tasks measure the same thing?

    PubMed

    Van Hoogmoed, A H; Nadel, L; Spanò, G; Edgin, J O

    2016-02-01

    Event related potentials (ERPs) can help to determine the cognitive and neural processes underlying memory functions and are often used to study populations with severe memory impairment. In healthy adults, memory is typically assessed with active tasks, while in patient studies passive memory paradigms are generally used. In this study we examined whether active and passive continuous object recognition tasks measure the same underlying memory process in typically developing (TD) adults and in individuals with Down syndrome (DS), a population with known hippocampal impairment. We further explored how ERPs in these tasks relate to behavioral measures of memory. Data-driven analysis techniques revealed large differences in old-new effects in the active versus passive task in TD adults, but no difference between these tasks in DS. The group with DS required additional processing in the active task in comparison to the TD group in two ways. First, the old-new effect started 150 ms later. Second, more repetitions were required to show the old-new effect. In the group with DS, performance on a behavioral measure of object-location memory was related to ERP measures across both tasks. In total, our results suggest that active and passive ERP memory measures do not differ in DS and likely reflect the use of implicit memory, but not explicit processing, on both tasks. Our findings highlight the need for a greater understanding of the comparison between active and passive ERP paradigms before they are inferred to measure similar functions across populations (e.g., infants or intellectual disability).

  10. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  11. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  12. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  13. Utility of passive photography to objectively audit built environment features of active transport journeys: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Active transport can contribute to physical activity accumulation and improved health in adults. The built environment is an established associate of active transport behaviours; however, assessment of environmental features encountered during journeys remains challenging. The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of wearable cameras to objectively audit and quantify environmental features along work-related walking and cycling routes. Methods A convenience sample of employed adults was recruited in New Zealand, in June 2011. Participants wore a SenseCam for all journeys over three weekdays and completed travel diaries and demographic questionnaires. SenseCam images for work-related active transport journeys were coded for presence of environmental features hypothesised to be related to active transport. Differences in presence of features by transport mode and in participant-reported and SenseCam-derived journey duration were determined using two-sample tests of proportion and an independent samples t-test, respectively. Results Fifteen adults participated in the study, yielding 1749 SenseCam images from 30 work-related active transport journeys for coding. Significant differences in presence of features were found between walking and cycling journeys. Almost a quarter of images were uncodeable due to being too dark to determine features. There was a non-significant tendency for respondents to under-report their journey duration. Conclusion This study provides proof of concept for the use of the SenseCam to capture built environment data in real time that may be related to active transportation. Further work is required to test and refine coding methodologies across a range of settings, travel behaviours, and demographic groups. PMID:23575288

  14. Awesome Universe: an exhibition with images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories and associated activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Farrona, A. M.

    2015-05-01

    In September 2013, an ESO exhibition was shown in Santander: ``Awesome Universe -- the Cosmos through the eyes of the European Southern Observatory". Around the exhibition, were proposed several activities: guide tours for children, younger and adults, workshops, film projections... In this way, the exhibition was visited by more than two thousand persons. We must keep in mind that Santander is a small city and its population does not usually take part in outreach activity. With this contribution, we want to teach the way in which it is possible to take advantage of science exhibitions. It made possible to show stunning images that showcase celestial objects as seen by ESO's observatories to the great majority of Santander population, and to awaken their interest in or enthusiasm for science.

  15. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary-time are associated with arterial stiffness in Brazilian young adults

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Schaan, Beatriz D.; Bielemann, Renata Moraes; Vianna, Carolina Ávila; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando C.; Ekelund, Ulf; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations between objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time with pulse wave velocity (PWV) in Brazilian young adults. Methods Cross-sectional analysis with participants of the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort who were followed-up from birth to 30 years of age. Overall physical activity (PA) assessed as the average acceleration (mg), time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA – min/day) and sedentary time (min/day) were calculated from acceleration data. Carotid-femoral PWV (m/s) was assessed using a portable ultrasound. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI) were analyzed as possible mediators. Multiple linear regression and g-computation formula were used in the analyses. Results Complete data were available for 1241 individuals. PWV was significantly lower in the two highest quartiles of overall PA (0.26 m/s) compared with the lowest quartile. Participants in the highest quartile of sedentary time had 0.39 m/s higher PWV (95%CI: 0.20; 0.57) than those in the lowest quartile. Individuals achieving ≥30 min/day in MVPA had lower PWV (β = −0.35; 95%CI: −0.56; −0.14). Mutually adjusted analyses between MVPA and sedentary time and PWV changed the coefficients, although results from sedentary time remained more consistent. WC captured 44% of the association between MVPA and PWV. DBP explained 46% of the association between acceleration and PWV. Conclusions Physical activity was inversely related to PWV in young adults, whereas sedentary time was positively associated. Such associations were only partially mediated by WC and DBP. PMID:26386211

  16. Extending the Cortical Grasping Network: Pre-supplementary Motor Neuron Activity During Vision and Grasping of Objects

    PubMed Central

    Lanzilotto, Marco; Livi, Alessandro; Maranesi, Monica; Gerbella, Marzio; Barz, Falk; Ruther, Patrick; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Bonini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Grasping relies on a network of parieto-frontal areas lying on the dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the hemispheres. However, the initiation and sequencing of voluntary actions also requires the contribution of mesial premotor regions, particularly the pre-supplementary motor area F6. We recorded 233 F6 neurons from 2 monkeys with chronic linear multishank neural probes during reaching–grasping visuomotor tasks. We showed that F6 neurons play a role in the control of forelimb movements and some of them (26%) exhibit visual and/or motor specificity for the target object. Interestingly, area F6 neurons form 2 functionally distinct populations, showing either visually-triggered or movement-related bursts of activity, in contrast to the sustained visual-to-motor activity displayed by ventral premotor area F5 neurons recorded in the same animals and with the same task during previous studies. These findings suggest that F6 plays a role in object grasping and extend existing models of the cortical grasping network. PMID:27733538

  17. Psychological Correlates of Self-Reported and Objectively Measured Physical Activity among Chinese Children—Psychological Correlates of PA

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing-Jing; Baranowski, Tom; Lau, Patrick W. C.; Chen, Tzu-An; Zhang, Shu-Ge

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese children (252 males). Moderate- to vigorous- intensity PA (MVPA) was measured by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children (PAQ-C) and with an ActiGraph GT3X accelerometer. Correlations and hierarchical regressions were performed to explore their associations. The study psychological variables were all positively related to PAQ-C and objective MVPA (r: 0.22–0.63). The associations with PAQ-C were all substantially stronger than those with accelerometry. Beyond the explained variance accounted for by demographics and social desirability, the addition of the psychological correlates accounted for 45% of the variance of the PAQ-C score, while only 13% for accelerometry-based MVPA. The associations of specific variables with the PAQ-C score (age, PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation and preference) were somewhat different from those associated with objective MVPA (PA self-efficacy, autonomous motivation, and negatively associated with female gender). This study demonstrated the importance of self-efficacy and autonomous motivation in association with PA and indicated the difference in level of their associations with different PA measures. PMID:27754396

  18. Extending the Cortical Grasping Network: Pre-supplementary Motor Neuron Activity During Vision and Grasping of Objects.

    PubMed

    Lanzilotto, Marco; Livi, Alessandro; Maranesi, Monica; Gerbella, Marzio; Barz, Falk; Ruther, Patrick; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Bonini, Luca

    2016-12-01

    Grasping relies on a network of parieto-frontal areas lying on the dorsolateral and dorsomedial parts of the hemispheres. However, the initiation and sequencing of voluntary actions also requires the contribution of mesial premotor regions, particularly the pre-supplementary motor area F6. We recorded 233 F6 neurons from 2 monkeys with chronic linear multishank neural probes during reaching-grasping visuomotor tasks. We showed that F6 neurons play a role in the control of forelimb movements and some of them (26%) exhibit visual and/or motor specificity for the target object. Interestingly, area F6 neurons form 2 functionally distinct populations, showing either visually-triggered or movement-related bursts of activity, in contrast to the sustained visual-to-motor activity displayed by ventral premotor area F5 neurons recorded in the same animals and with the same task during previous studies. These findings suggest that F6 plays a role in object grasping and extend existing models of the cortical grasping network.

  19. Investigation of trunk muscle activities during lifting using a multi-objective optimization-based model and intelligent optimization algorithms.

    PubMed

    Ghiasi, Mohammad Sadegh; Arjmand, Navid; Boroushaki, Mehrdad; Farahmand, Farzam

    2016-03-01

    A six-degree-of-freedom musculoskeletal model of the lumbar spine was developed to predict the activity of trunk muscles during light, moderate and heavy lifting tasks in standing posture. The model was formulated into a multi-objective optimization problem, minimizing the sum of the cubed muscle stresses and maximizing the spinal stability index. Two intelligent optimization algorithms, i.e., the vector evaluated particle swarm optimization (VEPSO) and nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA), were employed to solve the optimization problem. The optimal solution for each task was then found in the way that the corresponding in vivo intradiscal pressure could be reproduced. Results indicated that both algorithms predicted co-activity in the antagonistic abdominal muscles, as well as an increase in the stability index when going from the light to the heavy task. For all of the light, moderate and heavy tasks, the muscles' activities predictions of the VEPSO and the NSGA were generally consistent and in the same order of the in vivo electromyography data. The proposed methodology is thought to provide improved estimations for muscle activities by considering the spinal stability and incorporating the in vivo intradiscal pressure data.

  20. Monitoring the autonomic nervous activity as the objective evaluation of music therapy for severely and multiply disabled children.

    PubMed

    Orita, Makiko; Hayashida, Naomi; Shinkawa, Tetsuko; Kudo, Takashi; Koga, Mikitoshi; Togo, Michita; Katayama, Sotetsu; Hiramatsu, Kozaburo; Mori, Shunsuke; Takamura, Noboru

    2012-01-01

    Severely and multiply disabled children (SMDC) are frequently affected in more than one area of development, resulting in multiple disabilities. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of music therapy in SMDC using monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous system, by the frequency domain analysis of heart rate variability. We studied six patients with SMDC (3 patients with cerebral palsy, 1 patient with posttraumatic syndrome after head injury, 1 patient with herpes encephalitis sequelae, and 1 patient with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome characterized by frequent seizures, developmental delay and psychological and behavioral problems), aged 18-26 (mean 22.5 ± 3.5). By frequency domain method using electrocardiography, we measured the high frequency (HF; with a frequency ranging from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz), which represents parasympathetic activity, the low frequency/high frequency ratio, which represents sympathetic activity between the sympathetic and parasympathetic activities, and heart rate. A music therapist performed therapy to all patients through the piano playing for 50 min. We monitored each study participant for 150 min before therapy, 50 min during therapy, and 10 min after therapy. Interestingly, four of 6 patients showed significantly lower HF components during music therapy than before therapy, suggesting that these four patients might react to music therapy through the suppression of parasympathetic nervous activities. Thus, music therapy can suppress parasympathetic nervous activities in some patients with SMDC. The monitoring changes in the autonomic nervous activities could be a powerful tool for the objective evaluation of music therapy in patients with SMDC.

  1. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  2. Predicting objectively assessed physical activity from the content and regulation of exercise goals: evidence for a mediational model.

    PubMed

    Sebire, Simon J; Standage, Martyn; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2011-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), the purpose of this work was to examine effects of the content and motivation of adults' exercise goals on objectively assessed moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). After reporting the content and motivation of their exercise goals, 101 adult participants (Mage = 38.79 years; SD = 11.5) wore an ActiGraph (GT1M) accelerometer for seven days. Accelerometer data were analyzed to provide estimates of engagement in MVPA and bouts of physical activity. Goal content did not directly predict behavioral engagement; however, mediation analysis revealed that goal content predicted behavior via autonomous exercise motivation. Specifically, intrinsic versus extrinsic goals for exercise had a positive indirect effect on average daily MVPA, average daily MVPA accumulated in 10-min bouts and the number of days on which participants performed 30 or more minutes of MVPA through autonomous motivation. These results support a motivational sequence in which intrinsic versus extrinsic exercise goals influence physical activity behavior because such goals are associated with more autonomous forms of exercise motivation.

  3. Prevalence of human cell material: DNA and RNA profiling of public and private objects and after activity scenarios.

    PubMed

    van den Berge, M; Ozcanhan, G; Zijlstra, S; Lindenbergh, A; Sijen, T

    2016-03-01

    Especially when minute evidentiary traces are analysed, background cell material unrelated to the crime may contribute to detectable levels in the genetic analyses. To gain understanding on the composition of human cell material residing on surfaces contributing to background traces, we performed DNA and mRNA profiling on samplings of various items. Samples were selected by considering events contributing to cell material deposits in exemplary activities (e.g. dragging a person by the trouser ankles), and can be grouped as public objects, private samples, transfer-related samples and washing machine experiments. Results show that high DNA yields do not necessarily relate to an increased number of contributors or to the detection of other cell types than skin. Background cellular material may be found on any type of public or private item. When a major contributor can be deduced in DNA profiles from private items, this can be a different person than the owner of the item. Also when a specific activity is performed and the areas of physical contact are analysed, the "perpetrator" does not necessarily represent the major contributor in the STR profile. Washing machine experiments show that transfer and persistence during laundry is limited for DNA and cell type dependent for RNA. Skin conditions such as the presence of sebum or sweat can promote DNA transfer. Results of this study, which encompasses 549 samples, increase our understanding regarding the prevalence of human cell material in background and activity scenarios.

  4. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  5. Peculiar objects towards 3FGL J0133.3+5930: an eclipsing Be star and an active galactic nucleus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martí, Josep; Luque-Escamilla, Pedro L.; Paredes, Josep M.; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Galindo, Daniel; Ribó, Marc; Marín-Felip, Víctor

    2017-02-01

    Aims: We aim to contribute to the identification of unassociated gamma-ray sources in the galactic plane to enlarge the currently known population of gamma-ray binaries and related systems, such as radio-emitting X-ray binaries and microquasars. These objects are currently regarded as excellent test beds for the understanding of high-energy phenomena in stellar systems. Methods: Potential targets of study are selected based on cross-identification of the third Fermi Large Area Telescope catalogue with historical catalogues of luminous stars that have often been found as optical counterparts in known cases. Follow-up observations and analysis of multi-wavelength archival data are later used to seek further proofs of association beyond the simple positional agreement. Results: Current results enable us to present here the case of the Fermi source 3FGL J0133.3+5930 where two peculiar objects have been discovered inside its region of uncertainty. One of them is the star TYC 3683-985-1 (LS I +59 79) whose eclipsing binary nature is reported in this work. The other is the X-ray source Swift J0132.9+5932, which we found to be a likely low-power active galactic nucleus at z = 0.1143 ± 0.0002. If this second object is of blazar type, it could easily account for the observed gamma-ray photon flux. However, this is not confirmed at present, thus rendering the star system TYC 3683-985-1 as a still possible alternative counterpart candidate to the Fermi source.

  6. Self-reported physical activity and objective aerobic fitness: differential associations with gray matter density in healthy aging

    PubMed Central

    Zlatar, Zvinka Z.; McGregor, Keith M.; Towler, Stephen; Nocera, Joe R.; Dzierzewski, Joseph M.; Crosson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Aerobic fitness (AF) and self-reported physical activity (srPA) do not represent the same construct. However, many exercise and brain aging studies interchangeably use AF and srPA measures, which may be problematic with regards to how these metrics are associated with brain outcomes, such as morphology. If AF and PA measures captured the same phenomena, regional brain volumes associated with these measures should directly overlap. This study employed the general linear model to examine the differential association between objectively-measured AF (treadmill assessment) and srPA (questionnaire) with gray matter density (GMd) in 29 cognitively unimpaired community-dwelling older adults using voxel based morphometry. The results show significant regional variance in terms of GMd when comparing AF and srPA as predictors. Higher AF was associated with greater GMd in the cerebellum only, while srPA displayed positive associations with GMd in occipito-temporal, left perisylvian, and frontal regions after correcting for age. Importantly, only AF level, and not srPA, modified the relationship between age and GMd, such that higher levels of AF were associated with increased GMd in older age, while decreased GMd was seen in those with lower AF as a function of age. These results support existing literature suggesting that both AF and PA exert beneficial effects on GMd, but only AF served as a buffer against age-related GMd loss. Furthermore, these results highlight the need for use of objective PA measurement and comparability of tools across studies, since results vary dependent upon the measures used and whether these are objective or subjective in nature. PMID:25691866

  7. Physical environmental correlates of self-reported and objectively assessed physical activity in Belgian type 2 diabetes patients.

    PubMed

    De Greef, Karlijn; Van Dyck, Delfien; Deforche, Benedicte; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse

    2011-03-01

    Despite the well-known beneficial effects of physical activity (PA) on the long-term outcomes of type 2 diabetes patients, the majority of this patient group remains inactive. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the most important PA determinants in type 2 diabetes patients in order to develop efficacious interventions to increase PA participation. The main aim of this study was to investigate the associations of physical environmental factors with objectively assessed and self-reported PA in type 2 diabetes patients. A total of 133 type 2 diabetes patients participated in this cross-sectional study (response rate: 43.3%). All participants completed the long International PA Questionnaire and two validated questionnaires to measure physical environmental perceptions and psychosocial factors. They also wore an accelerometer and a pedometer to measure PA objectively. Selection criteria were age 35-80, BMI 25-35 kg m(-²), treated for type 2 diabetes and no PA limitations. Data were collected in 2007. Physical environmental factors contributed significantly to the explained variance of all objective and self-reported PA measures (explained variance from 4% to 18%) after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Home PA equipment, walkability, aesthetics and convenience of PA facilities were the most consistent environmental correlates. The contribution of physical environmental factors remained significant for most PA measures after taking into account the variance explained by psychosocial factors (explained variance from 4% to 10%), except for step counts and recreational walking. Physical environmental factors could be important correlates of PA in type 2 diabetes patients, even beyond the contribution of sociodemographic and psychosocial variables, but additional research is needed. Nevertheless, sociodemographic and psychosocial factors remain very important and when developing future interventions, all these multidimensional correlates should be kept in

  8. Hippocampal noradrenergic activation is necessary for object recognition memory consolidation and can promote BDNF increase and memory persistence.

    PubMed

    Mello-Carpes, Pâmela B; da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Gayer, Mateus Cristofari; Roehrs, Rafael; Izquierdo, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Previously we showed that activation of the Nucleus of the Solitary Tract (NTS)-Nucleus Paragigantocellularis (PGi)-Locus coeruleus (LC) pathway, which theoretically culminates with norepinephrine (NE) release in dorsal hippocampus (CA1 region) and basolateral amygdala (BLA) is necessary for the consolidation of object recognition (OR) memory. Here we show that, while the microinjection of the beta-noradrenergic receptor blocker timolol into CA1 impairs OR memory consolidation, the microinjection of norepinephrine (NE) promotes the persistence of this type of memory. Further, we show that OR consolidation is attended by an increase of norepinephrine (NE) levels and of the expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, which are impaired by inactivation of the NTS-PGi-LC pathway by the infusion of muscimol into the NTS.

  9. Dopamine D1 receptor activity modulates object recognition memory consolidation in the perirhinal cortex but not in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Balderas, Israela; Moreno-Castilla, Perla; Bermudez-Rattoni, Federico

    2013-10-01

    It has been proposed that distributed neuronal networks in the medial temporal lobe process different characteristics of a recognition event; the hippocampus has been associated with contextual recollection while the perirhinal cortex has been linked with familiarity. Here we show that D1 dopamine receptor activity in these two structures participates differentially in object recognition memory consolidation. The D1 receptor antagonist SCH23390 was infused bilaterally 15 min before a 5 min sample phase in either rats' perirhinal cortex or dorsal hippocampus, and they were tested 90 min for short-term memory or 24 h later for long-term memory. SCH23390 impaired long-term memory when infused in the perirhinal cortex but not when infused in the hippocampus. Conversely, when the D1 receptor agonist SKF38393 was infused 10 min before a 3 min sample phase in the perirhinal cortex, long-term memory was enhanced, however, this was not observed when the D1 agonist was infused in the hippocampus. Short-term memory was spared when SCH23390 or SKF38393 were infused in the perirhinal cortex or the dorsal hippocampus suggesting that acquisition was unaffected. These results suggest that dopaminergic transmission in these medial temporal lobe structures have a differential involvement in object recognition memory consolidation.

  10. A comparative analysis between active and passive techniques for underwater 3D reconstruction of close-range objects.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-08-20

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms.

  11. A Comparative Analysis between Active and Passive Techniques for Underwater 3D Reconstruction of Close-Range Objects

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Gianfranco; Gallo, Alessandro; Bruno, Fabio; Muzzupappa, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In some application fields, such as underwater archaeology or marine biology, there is the need to collect three-dimensional, close-range data from objects that cannot be removed from their site. In particular, 3D imaging techniques are widely employed for close-range acquisitions in underwater environment. In this work we have compared in water two 3D imaging techniques based on active and passive approaches, respectively, and whole-field acquisition. The comparison is performed under poor visibility conditions, produced in the laboratory by suspending different quantities of clay in a water tank. For a fair comparison, a stereo configuration has been adopted for both the techniques, using the same setup, working distance, calibration, and objects. At the moment, the proposed setup is not suitable for real world applications, but it allowed us to conduct a preliminary analysis on the performances of the two techniques and to understand their capability to acquire 3D points in presence of turbidity. The performances have been evaluated in terms of accuracy and density of the acquired 3D points. Our results can be used as a reference for further comparisons in the analysis of other 3D techniques and algorithms. PMID:23966193

  12. Cross-sectional association of the number of neighborhood facilities assessed using postal code with objectively measured physical activity: the Saku cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yasunaga, Akitomo; Murakami, Haruka; Morita, Akemi; Deura, Kijyo; Aiba, Naomi; Watanabe, Shaw; Miyachi, Motohiko

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to examine the association between the number of neighborhood facilities that were assessed according to postal code and objectively measured physical activity by using an accelerometer in community-dwelling Japanese people.Methods The participants included 1,274 Japanese people aged 30-84 years from the Saku cohort study. As neighborhood facilities related to physical activity, we extracted information regarding train stations, supermarkets/convenience stores, postal offices/banks, hospitals/clinics, public offices/community centers, cultural facilities/public children's houses, parks, and sports facilities by using each participant's postal code from the online version of the iTownPages directory published by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation (NTT) and the official homepage of the Saku City Government Office. We measured each participant's physical activity level using an accelerometer, and calculated the average daily step count and the average weekly period of moderate-to-vigorous intensity (≥3 metabolic equivalents of tasks [METs]) physical activity. The association between two selected physical activity-related variables and the numbers of eight types of neighborhood facilities were analyzed by multivariate logistic regression analysis for people aged 30-64 years and for those aged over 65 years.Results On multivariate logistic regression analysis, meeting the 23 METs h/week of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity was significantly and positively associated with the number of supermarkets/convenience stores in the neighborhood in both age groups. In addition, meeting the desired daily step count outlined in the Japanese National Health Promotion guidelines was positively related to the number of postal offices/banks for people aged over 65 years.Conclusion The results of this study suggest that a sufficient number of neighborhood facilities (i.e., stores, banks, and postal offices) is closely

  13. Objective measurement of weekly physical activity and sensory modulation problems in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Yang, Ai-Lun; Su, Chia-Ting

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to objectively compare the daily physical activity (PA), as indicated by moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) during a week and metabolic equivalents (METs) per minute, between children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and typically developing children. Moreover, sensory modulation problems were examined using behavioral and physiological measures. Twenty boys with ADHD (mean age 8.64 ± 2.57 years), and 20 matched typically developing boys (mean age 9.10 ± 1.79 years) participated in our study. Each child wore a PA monitor for 14 h a day, seven days a week. All participants' parents were asked to fill out daily activity logs for their children. The problems of sensory modulation were detected using sensory profile (SP) questionnaires and Sensory Challenge Protocol that measured electrodermal response (EDR) to repeated sensory stimulation. Compared with the controls, the children with ADHD had a generally higher level of PA (1.48 ± 0.10 vs. 1.60 ± 0.12 METs/min; p=001), and tended to spend more time in MVPA on weekdays (35.71%) and the weekend (57.14%). However, when analyzing hourly recorded PA, the group differences were obvious only for certain hours. Our data suggested that children with ADHD were more hyperactive in structure-free than structured settings. The ADHD group showed their sensory modulation problems on the SP but not on the EDR. We found some correlations between sensory modulation problems and hyperactivity in children with ADHD.

  14. NON-THERMAL RADIATION FROM COLLISIONS OF COMPACT OBJECTS WITH INTERMEDIATE-SCALE JETS IN ACTIVE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bednarek, W.; Banasiński, P.

    2015-07-10

    Massive black holes in active galaxies are immersed in huge concentrations of late-type stars in the galactic bulges and also early-type massive stars in the nuclear stellar clusters, which are additionally surrounded by quasi-spherical halos on a scale of several kpc that contain from a few hundred up to several thousand globular clusters (GCs). It is expected that significant numbers of red giant stars, massive stars, and also GCs can move through the jet expelled from the central engine of the active galaxy. We consider collisions of stars from the galactic bulge, nuclear cluster, and GCs with the jet plasma. As a result of such collisions, multiple shocks are expected to appear in the jet around these compact objects. Therefore, the plasma in the kpc-scale jet can be significantly disturbed. We show that particles can be accelerated on these shocks up to multi-TeV energies. TeV leptons emit synchrotron radiation, extending up to X-ray energies, and also comptonize radiation produced in a stellar cluster and also the microwave background radiation to TeV γ-ray energies. We show that such non-thermal radiation is likely to be detectable from the intermediate-scale jets of nearby active galaxies for a reasonable number of stars and GCs immersed within the jet. As an example, we calculate the expected non-thermal emission in X-ray and gamma-ray energies from the nearby radio galaxy Cen A, from which steady gamma-ray emission with a complex spectrum has recently been reported by Fermi and the HESS Observatories.

  15. ADAPTIVE OPTICS IMAGING OF QUASI-STELLAR OBJECTS WITH DOUBLE-PEAKED NARROW LINES: ARE THEY DUAL ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI?

    SciTech Connect

    Rosario, D. J.; McGurk, R. C.; Max, C. E.; Shields, G. A.; Smith, K. L.; Ammons, S. M. E-mail: mcgurk@ucsc.edu E-mail: shieldsga@mail.utexas.edu E-mail: ammons@as.arizona.edu

    2011-09-20

    Active galaxies hosting two accreting and merging supermassive black holes (SMBHs)-dual active galactic nuclei (AGNs)-are predicted by many current and popular models of black-hole-galaxy co-evolution. We present here the results of a program that has identified a set of probable dual AGN candidates based on near-infrared laser guide star adaptive optics imaging with the Keck II telescope. These candidates are selected from a complete sample of radio-quiet quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), which show double-peaked narrow AGN emission lines. Of the 12 AGNs imaged, we find 6 with double galaxy structure, of which four are in galaxy mergers. We measure the ionization of the two velocity components in the narrow AGN lines to test the hypothesis that both velocity components come from an active nucleus. The combination of a well-defined parent sample and high-quality imaging allows us to place constraints on the fraction of SDSS QSOs that host dual accreting black holes separated on kiloparsec scales: {approx}0.3%-0.65%. We derive from this fraction the time spent in a QSO phase during a typical merger and find a value that is much lower than estimates that arise from QSO space densities and galaxy merger statistics. We discuss possible reasons for this difference. Finally, we compare the SMBH mass distributions of single and dual AGNs and find little difference between the two within the limited statistics of our program, hinting that most SMBH growth happens in the later stages of a merger process.

  16. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  17. MULTI-WAVELENGTH STUDY OF FLARING ACTIVITY IN BL Lac OBJECT S5 0716+714 DURING THE 2015 OUTBURST

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Zhang, Haocheng; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-20

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. The rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  18. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  19. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    DOE PAGES

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; ...

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energymore » distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.« less

  20. Multi-wavelength study of flaring activity in BL Lac object S5 0716+714 during the 2015 outburst

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, Sunil; Zhang, Haocheng; Kushwaha, Pankaj; Singh, K. P.; Bottcher, M.; Kaur, Navpreet; Baliyan, K. S.

    2015-08-17

    We present a detailed investigation of the flaring activity observed from a BL Lac object, S5 0716+714 , during its brightest ever optical state in the second half of 2015 January. Observed almost simultaneously in the optical, X-rays, and γ-rays, a significant change in the degree of optical polarization (PD) and a swing in the position angle (PA) of polarization were recorded. A TeV (VHE) detection was also reported by the MAGIC consortium during this flaring episode. Two prominent sub-flares, peaking about five days apart, were seen in almost all of the energy bands. The multi-wavelength light curves, spectral energy distribution, and polarization are modeled using the time-dependent code developed by Zhang et al. This model assumes a straight jet threaded by large-scale helical magnetic fields taking into account the light travel time effects, incorporating synchrotron flux and polarization in 3D geometry. Furthermore, the rapid variation in PD and rotation in PA are most likely due to reconnections happening in the emission region in the jet, as suggested by the change in the ratio of toroidal to poloidal components of the magnetic field during the quiescent and flaring states.

  1. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  2. Evolution of Cosmic Objects through their Physical Activity, Proceedings of the Conference dedicated to Viktor Ambartsumian's 100th anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.; Mickaelian, A. M.; Terzian, Y.

    2010-11-01

    The book presents papers of the Proceedings of the conference dedicated to Viktor Ambarstumian's 100 anniversary held in 2008 in Yerevan and Byurakan. It is divided into 5 parts related to the sessions held during the conference: Stars and Nebulae, Pulsars / Neutron Stars, Activity in Galaxies, Cosmology, Light Scattering and Radiative Transfer, and Miscellanea. All these fields reflect extremely productive results and achievements obtained by Viktor Ambarstumian during his long scientific life. Most of the authors have used Ambarstumian's ideas to obtain new results and give new interpretations on various cosmic phenomena, which come to prove the importance of Ambarstumian's works nowadays too. The book also includes a preface by the editors, the list of participants of the conference, report on the opening session at NAS RA, and author index at the end.

  3. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B to Part 21... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964 Pt. 21, App. B Appendix B to Part 21—Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal...

  5. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  10. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  11. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  12. Next-Generation Maneuvering System with Control-Moment Gyroscopes for Extravehicular Activities Near Low-Gravity Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Michele; Jackson, Kimberly; Cohanim, Babak; Duda, Kevin R.; Rize, Jared; Dopart, Celena; Hoffman, Jeffrey; Curiel, Pedro; Studak, Joseph; Ponica, Dina; RochlisZumbado, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Looking ahead to the human exploration of Mars, NASA is planning for exploration of near-Earth asteroids and the Martian moons. Performing tasks near the surface of such low-gravity objects will likely require the use of an updated version of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) since the surface gravity is not high enough to allow astronauts to walk, or have sufficient resistance to counter reaction forces and torques during movements. The extravehicular activity (EVA) Jetpack device currently under development is based on the Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER) unit and has maneuvering capabilities to assist EVA astronauts with their tasks. This maneuvering unit has gas thrusters for attitude control and translation. When EVA astronauts are performing tasks that require ne motor control such as sample collection and equipment placement, the current control system will re thrusters to compensate for the resulting changes in center-of-mass location and moments of inertia, adversely affecting task performance. The proposed design of a next-generation maneuvering and stability system incorporates control concepts optimized to support astronaut tasks and adds control-moment gyroscopes (CMGs) to the current Jetpack system. This design aims to reduce fuel consumption, as well as improve task performance for astronauts by providing a sti er work platform. The high-level control architecture for an EVA maneuvering system using both thrusters and CMGs considers an initial assessment of tasks to be performed by an astronaut and an evaluation of the corresponding human-system dynamics. For a scenario in which the astronaut orbits an asteroid, simulation results from the current EVA maneuvering system are compared to those from a simulation of the same system augmented with CMGs, demonstrating that the forces and torques on an astronaut can be significantly reduced with the new control system actuation while conserving onboard fuel.

  13. A pilot study of actigraphy as an objective measure of SSRI activation symptoms; results from a randomized placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study

    PubMed Central

    Bussing, Regina; Reid, Adam M.; McNamara, Joseph P.H.; Meyer, Johanna M.; Guzick, Andrew G.; Mason, Dana M.; Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2015-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are an efficacious and effective treatment for pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) but have received scrutiny due to a potential side effect constellation called activation syndrome. While recent research introduced a subjective measure of activation syndrome, objective measures have not been tested. This pilot study, using data from a larger randomized-controlled trial, investigated the potential of actigraphy to provide an objective measure of activation symptoms in 44 youths with OCD beginning an SSRI medication regimen. Data were collected over the first four weeks of a multisite, parallel, double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled psychopharmacological treatment study and statistical modeling was utilized to test how activation syndrome severity predicts daily and nightly activity levels. Results indicated that youths with higher activation symptoms had lower daytime activity levels when treatment averages were analyzed; in contrast youths who experienced onset of activation symptoms one week were more likely to have higher daytime and night-time activity ratings that week. Results support actigraphy as a potential objective measure of activation symptoms. Subsequent studies are needed to confirm these findings and test clinical applications for use by clinicians to monitor activation syndrome during SSRI treatment. National Institutes of Health (5UO1 MH078594-01); NCT00382291. PMID:25535011

  14. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  15. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 7-8: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 7 and 8. The objectives listed are correlated to the…

  16. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, K-3: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades K-3. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  17. Small Schools Reading Curriculum, 4-6: Reading, Language Arts, Mathematics, Science, Social Studies. Scope, Objectives, Activities, Resources, Monitoring Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartl, David, Ed.; And Others

    Designed to assist teachers in small schools with the improvement of curriculum and instruction and to help smaller districts which do not have curriculum personnel to comply with Washington's Student Learning Objectives (SLO) Law, this guide contains reading curriculum materials for grades 4-6. The objectives listed are correlated to the Goals…

  18. Self-activating System and Method for Alerting When an Object or a Person is Left Unattended

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, William C. (Inventor); Mack, Terry L. (Inventor); Modlin, Edward A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system and method use a wireless tether comprising a transmitter and a receiver to alert a caregiver that an object has been left unattended. A detector senses the presence of the object, usually a child, located in a position such as a safety seat. The detector is operatively coupled to the transmitter. which is located near the object. The transmitter transmits at least one wireless signal when the object is in the position. The receiver, which is remotely located from the transmitter, senses at least one signal as long as the receiver is within a prescribed range of transmission. By performing a timing function, the receiver monitors the proximity of the caregiver, who maintains possession of the receiver, to the transmitter. The system communicates an alarm to the caregiver when the caregiver ventures outside the range of transmission without having removed the object from the position.

  19. Activation of response force by self-splitting objects: where are the limits of feedforward Gestalt processing?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Filipp; Weber, Andreas; Schmidt, Thomas

    2014-08-21

    Most objects can be recognized easily even when they are partly occluded. This also holds when several overlapping objects share the same surface features (self-splitting objects) which is an illustration of the grouping principle of Good Gestalt. We employed outline and filled contour stimuli in a primed flanker task to test whether the processing of self-splitting objects is in accordance with a simple feedforward model. We obtained priming effects in response time and response force for both types of stimuli, even when increasing the number of occluders up to three. The results for outline contours were in full accordance with a feedforward account. This was not the case for the results for filled contours (i.e., for self-splitting objects), especially under conditions of strong occlusion. We conclude that the implementation of the Good Gestalt principle is fast but still based on recurrent processing.

  20. A Three-Dimensional Object Orientation Detector Assisting People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Their Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang; Chang, Man-Ling; Mohua, Zhang

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated whether two people with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities to control their preferred environmental stimulation using a Nintendo Wii Remote Controller with a newly developed three-dimensional object orientation detection program (TDOODP, i.e. a new software program,…

  1. An Object Location Detector Enabling People with Developmental Disabilities to Control Environmental Stimulation through Simple Occupational Activities with Battery-Free Wireless Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Ching-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed whether two persons with developmental disabilities would be able to actively perform simple occupational activities by controlling their favorite environmental stimulation using battery-free wireless mice with a newly developed object location detection program (OLDP, i.e., a new software program turning a battery-free…

  2. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  3. The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives as a Curriculum Analysis Tool: A Solution to Some Problems Encountered While Coding Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, H. V.

    1972-01-01

    Illustrates the modifications needed to use Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives'' in providing cognitive level profiles of curriculum materials by reference to an elementary science project. Modifications take account of alternate teaching strategies and student background. (AL)

  4. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  5. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  6. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  7. Object-oriented classification of a high-spatial resolution SPOT5 image for mapping geology and landforms of active volcanoes: Semeru case study, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassouk, Zeineb; Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gupta, Avijit; Solikhin, Akhmad; Liew, Soo Chin

    2014-09-01

    The present work explores the object-oriented classification (OOC) of high-spatial resolution (HSR) satellite panchromatic imagery for mapping the geology of the persistently active Semeru volcano and its ring plain, east Java, Indonesia. A panchromatic SPOT5 image and a digital elevation model (DEM) have been used to identify geologic units, structures, landforms and deposits. The panchromatic image was georeferenced and enhanced using histogram equalization. The enhanced image was segmented into polygons using the EnviFx (©Exelis) Software. The polygons were delineated and classified on the basis of spectral (panchromatic hues and textures), topographic (slope, elevation) information and geologic/geomorphic processes. The validity of classification was evaluated by interpreting Google Earth images, aerial photographs and limited field observations. The classification consists of three hierarchical levels across the volcanic area of about 745 km2. The first operational spatial level includes seven large volcano domains based on the spectral content of the volcanic, tectonic and lithological structures, and principal catchments. The second operational level, based on contextual relationships (topography, drainage network, vegetation cover type, stratigraphy and slope dynamics), encompasses 20 geological units that range between 30 and 80 km2 in area. Among the units, the third operational level distinguishes as many as 47 geomorphological sub-units (0.25-25 km2) according to slope gradient, deposit type, mass-wasting process and weathering. The resulting map provides a detailed pattern of geologic and geomorphic features unlike previous geologic maps that identified only 11 stratigraphic units. We show that the high-spatial resolution panchromatic SPOT5 scene can help to safely map the geology and landforms of persistently active volcanoes such as Semeru. We have applied the OOC technique on one HSR GeoEye panchromatic image to map another active volcano, Merapi

  8. Constrained Objects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-11-28

    degrees of freedom. Within each object, the programmer’s job is to manage the degrees of freedom in the object by adding subobjects and constraints...other constraint satisfiction mechanisms such as propagation of values. However, Siri recomputes the state of an object by solving a combination of...languages need not be as complicated as they are; a small number of powerful constructs can do the job just as well, and perhaps more elegantly. 154

  9. The Zoo Trip: Objecting to Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poetter, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author objects to what curricularists and teachers often believe that meaningful activities in school have to be scripted, planned to the nth degree and assigned learning objectives and goals ahead of time, or they have no educational worth. Instead, he used Elliot Eisner's classic curriculum text, "The Educational…

  10. Visual object affordances: object orientation.

    PubMed

    Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike

    2007-02-01

    Five experiments systematically investigated whether orientation is a visual object property that affords action. The primary aim was to establish the existence of a pure physical affordance (PPA) of object orientation, independent of any semantic object-action associations or visually salient areas towards which visual attention might be biased. Taken together, the data from these experiments suggest that firstly PPAs of object orientation do exist, and secondly, the behavioural effects that reveal them are larger and more robust when the object appears to be graspable, and is oriented in depth (rather than just frontally) such that its leading edge appears to point outwards in space towards a particular hand of the viewer.

  11. Optimal design activated sludge process by means of multi-objective optimization: case study in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1).

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenliang; Yao, Chonghua; Lu, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Optimal design of activated sludge process (ASP) using multi-objective optimization was studied, and a benchmark process in Benchmark Simulation Model 1 (BSM1) was taken as a target process. The objectives of the study were to achieve four indexes of percentage of effluent violation (PEV), overall cost index (OCI), total volume and total suspended solids, making up four cases for comparative analysis. Models were solved by the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm in MATLAB. Results show that: ineffective solutions can be rejected by adding constraints, and newly added objectives can affect the relationship between the existing objectives; taking Pareto solutions as process parameters, the performance indexes of PEV and OCI can be improved more than with the default process parameters of BSM1, especially for N removal and resistance against dynamic NH4(+)-N in influent. The results indicate that multi-objective optimization is a useful method for optimal design ASP.

  12. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  13. Estradiol-Induced Object Recognition Memory Consolidation Is Dependent on Activation of mTOR Signaling in the Dorsal Hippocampus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortress, Ashley M.; Fan, Lu; Orr, Patrick T.; Zhao, Zaorui; Frick, Karyn M.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway is an important regulator of protein synthesis and is essential for various forms of hippocampal memory. Here, we asked whether the enhancement of object recognition memory consolidation produced by dorsal hippocampal infusion of 17[Beta]-estradiol (E[subscript 2]) is dependent on mTOR…

  14. Evidence for the Activation of Sensorimotor Information during Visual Word Recognition: The Body-Object Interaction Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Aguilera, Laura; Owen, William J.; Sears, Christopher R.

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of sensorimotor experience in two visual word recognition tasks. Body-object interaction (BOI) ratings were collected for a large set of words. These ratings assess perceptions of the ease with which a human body can physically interact with a word's referent. A set of high BOI words (e.g., "mask") and a set of low BOI…

  15. Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanover School System, MA.

    This statement of educational objectives was produced during the 1972-73 school year by the cooperative efforts of the teaching staff of the Hanover School System, Hanover, Massachusetts. The objectives were formulated by teachers working as a total group and in 13 committees: Health, Business, Music, Vocational Education, Reading, Mathematics,…

  16. Objective lens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olczak, Eugene G. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An objective lens and a method for using same. The objective lens has a first end, a second end, and a plurality of optical elements. The optical elements are positioned between the first end and the second end and are at least substantially symmetric about a plane centered between the first end and the second end.

  17. Places where preschoolers are (in)active: An observational study on Latino preschoolers and their parents using objective measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in)activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in)activity for this ethnic group. Th...

  18. Comparing Self-Reported Versus Objectively Measured Physical Activity Behavior: A Preliminary Investigation of Older Filipino American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atienza, Audie A.; King, Abby C.

    2005-01-01

    The importance of examining health behaviors, such as physical activity, among Filipino Americans is highlighted by their higher rates of chronic disease. As physical inactivity has been linked to chronic diseases (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1996), this study investigated the physical activity levels of older Filipinas. This…

  19. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  20. Application of an object-oriented programming paradigm in three-dimensional computer modeling of mechanically active gastrointestinal tissues.

    PubMed

    Rashev, P Z; Mintchev, M P; Bowes, K L

    2000-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a novel three-dimensional (3-D) object-oriented modeling approach incorporating knowledge of the anatomy, electrophysiology, and mechanics of externally stimulated excitable gastrointestinal (GI) tissues and emphasizing the "stimulus-response" principle of extracting the modeling parameters. The modeling method used clusters of class hierarchies representing GI tissues from three perspectives: 1) anatomical; 2) electrophysiological; and 3) mechanical. We elaborated on the first four phases of the object-oriented system development life-cycle: 1) analysis; 2) design; 3) implementation; and 4) testing. Generalized cylinders were used for the implementation of 3-D tissue objects modeling the cecum, the descending colon, and the colonic circular smooth muscle tissue. The model was tested using external neural electrical tissue excitation of the descending colon with virtual implanted electrodes and the stimulating current density distributions over the modeled surfaces were calculated. Finally, the tissue deformations invoked by electrical stimulation were estimated and represented by a mesh-surface visualization technique.

  1. Divergent short- and long-term effects of acute stress in object recognition memory are mediated by endogenous opioid system activation.

    PubMed

    Nava-Mesa, Mauricio O; Lamprea, Marisol R; Múnera, Alejandro

    2013-11-01

    Acute stress induces short-term object recognition memory impairment and elicits endogenous opioid system activation. The aim of this study was thus to evaluate whether opiate system activation mediates the acute stress-induced object recognition memory changes. Adult male Wistar rats were trained in an object recognition task designed to test both short- and long-term memory. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal injection of saline, 1 mg/kg naltrexone or 3 mg/kg naltrexone, four and a half hours before the sample trial. Five minutes after the injection, half the subjects were submitted to movement restraint during four hours while the other half remained in their home cages. Non-stressed subjects receiving saline (control) performed adequately during the short-term memory test, while stressed subjects receiving saline displayed impaired performance. Naltrexone prevented such deleterious effect, in spite of the fact that it had no intrinsic effect on short-term object recognition memory. Stressed subjects receiving saline and non-stressed subjects receiving naltrexone performed adequately during the long-term memory test; however, control subjects as well as stressed subjects receiving a high dose of naltrexone performed poorly. Control subjects' dissociated performance during both memory tests suggests that the short-term memory test induced a retroactive interference effect mediated through light opioid system activation; such effect was prevented either by low dose naltrexone administration or by strongly activating the opioid system through acute stress. Both short-term memory retrieval impairment and long-term memory improvement observed in stressed subjects may have been mediated through strong opioid system activation, since they were prevented by high dose naltrexone administration. Therefore, the activation of the opioid system plays a dual modulating role in object recognition memory.

  2. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  3. Balloon energy based on parametric active contour and directional Walsh-Hadamard transform and its application in tracking of texture object in texture background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvilian, Homa; Moallem, Payman; Monadjemi, Amirhassan

    2012-12-01

    One of the popular approaches in object boundary detecting and tracking is active contour models (ACM). This article presents a new balloon energy in parametric active contour for tracking a texture object in texture background. In this proposed method, by adding the balloon energy to the energy function of the parametric ACM, a precise detection and tracking of texture target in texture background has been elaborated. In this method, texture feature of contour and object points have been calculated using directional Walsh-Hadamard transform, which is a modified version of the Walsh-Hadamard. Then, by comparing the texture feature of contour points with texture feature of the target object, movement direction of the balloon has been determined, whereupon contour curves are expanded or shrunk in order to adapt to the target boundaries. The tracking process is iterated to the last frames. The comparison between our method and the active contour method based on the moment demonstrates that our method is more effective in tracking object boundary edges used for video streams with a changing background. Consequently, the tracking precision of our method is higher; in addition, it converges more rapidly due to it slower complexity.

  4. Trusted Objects

    SciTech Connect

    CAMPBELL,PHILIP L.; PIERSON,LYNDON G.; WITZKE,EDWARD L.

    1999-10-27

    In the world of computers a trusted object is a collection of possibly-sensitive data and programs that can be allowed to reside and execute on a computer, even on an adversary's machine. Beyond the scope of one computer we believe that network-based agents in high-consequence and highly reliable applications will depend on this approach, and that the basis for such objects is what we call ''faithful execution.''

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B to Part 21 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY-ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF THE DEPARTMENT...

  6. Objective reports versus subjective perceptions of crime and their relationships to accelerometer-measured physical activity in Hispanic caretaker-child dyads.

    PubMed

    van Bakergem, Margaret; Sommer, Evan C; Heerman, William J; Hipp, James Aaron; Barkin, Shari L

    2017-02-01

    Crime and safety are commonly cited barriers to physical activity (PA). We had three objectives, 1) describe the association between objective crime measures and perceptions of crime, 2) analyze the relationships between each type of crime and accelerometer-measured physical activity in caretakers and young children (ages 3-5years), and 3) explore for early gender differences in the relationship between crime and physical activity in young children. Data are from the cross-sectional baseline data of an ongoing randomized controlled trial in Nashville, Tennessee spanning September 2012 through May 2014. Data was analyzed from 480 Hispanic dyads (adult caretaker and 3-5year old child). Objective crime rate was assessed in ArcGIS and perception of crime was measured by caretaker agreement with the statement "The crime rate in my neighborhood makes it unsafe to go on walks." The primary outcome was accelerometer-measured physical activity over seven consecutive days. Objective and perceived crime were significantly positively correlated. Caretaker vigorous PA was significantly related to perceptions of crime; however, its relationship to objective crime was not significant. Child PA was not significantly related to caretaker perceptions of crime. However, interactions suggested that the relationship between crime rate and PA was significantly more negative for girls than for boys. Objective and subjective measures of crime rate are expected to be important correlates of PA, but they appear to have complex relationships that are different for adults than they are for young children, as well as for young girls compared to boys, and research has produced conflicting findings.

  7. Where did I put that? Patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment demonstrate widespread reductions in activity during the encoding of ecologically relevant object-location associations

    PubMed Central

    Hampstead, Benjamin M.; Stringer, Anthony Y.; Stilla, Randall F.; Amaraneni, Akshay; Sathian, K.

    2011-01-01

    Remembering the location of objects in the environment is both important in everyday life and difficult for patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), a clinical precursor to Alzheimer’s disease. To test the hypothesis that memory impairment for object location in aMCI reflects hippocampal dysfunction, we used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to compare patients with aMCI and healthy elderly controls (HEC) as they encoded 90 ecologically-relevant object-location associations (OLAs). Two additional OLAs, repeated a total of 45 times, served as control stimuli. Memory for these OLAs was assessed following a 1-hour delay. The groups were well matched on demographics and brain volumetrics. Behaviorally, HEC remembered significantly more OLAs than did aMCI patients. Activity differences were assessed by contrasting activation for successfully encoded novel stimuli vs. repeated stimuli. The HEC demonstrated activity within object-related (ventral visual stream), spatial location-related (dorsal visual stream), and feature binding-related cortical regions (hippocampus and other memory-related regions) as well as in frontal cortex and associated subcortical structures. Activity in most of these regions correlated with memory test performance. Although the aMCI patients demonstrated a similar activation pattern, the HEC showed significantly greater activity within each of these regions. Memory test performance in aMCI patients, in contrast to the HEC, was correlated with activity in regions involved in sensorimotor processing. We conclude that aMCI patients demonstrate widespread cerebral dysfunction, not limited to the hippocampus, and rely on encoding-related mechanisms that differ substantially from healthy individuals. PMID:21530556

  8. The clinical utility of the continuous performance test and objective measures of activity for diagnosing and monitoring ADHD in children: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hall, Charlotte L; Valentine, Althea Z; Groom, Madeleine J; Walker, Gemma M; Sayal, Kapil; Daley, David; Hollis, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is typically diagnosed using clinical observation and subjective informant reports. Once children commence ADHD medication, robust monitoring is required to detect partial or non-responses. The extent to which neuropsychological continuous performance tests (CPTs) and objective measures of activity can clinically aid the assessment and titration process in ADHD is not fully understood. This review describes the current evidence base for the use of CPTs and objectively measured activity to support the diagnostic procedure and medication management for children with ADHD. Four databases (PsycINFO, Medline, Allied and Complementary Medicine (AMED), and PsycARTICLES) were systematically searched to understand the current evidence base for (1) the use of CPTs to aid clinical assessment of ADHD; (2) the use of CPTs to aid medication management; and (3) the clinical utility of objective measures of activity in ADHD. Sixty relevant articles were identified. The search revealed six commercially available CPTs that had been reported on for their clinical use. There were mixed findings with regard to the use of CPTs to assess and manage medication, with contrasting evidence on their ability to support clinical decision-making. There was a strong evidence base for the use of objective measures of activity to aid ADHD/non-ADHD group differentiation, which appears sensitive to medication effects and would also benefit from further research on their clinical utility. The findings suggest that combining CPTs and an objective measure of activity may be particularly useful as a clinical tool and worthy of further pursuit.

  9. Psychological correlates of self-reported and objectively measured physical activity among Chinese children—psychological correlates of PA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to explore the associations among psychological correlates and physical activity (PA) in Chinese children and to further examine whether these associations varied by different PA measures. PA self-efficacy, motivation, and preference were reported in 449 8–13-year-old Chinese childr...

  10. Determining the Factors That Affect the Objectives of Pre-Service Science Teachers to Perform Outdoor Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karademir, Ersin; Erten, Sinan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine whether pre-service teachers have an aim to perform outdoor education activities within the scope of science and technology course; by which factors this aim is affected, through The Theory of Planned Behaviour and the opinions of pre-service teachers. Accordingly, the study was designed as mixed research…

  11. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  12. Posttraining activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus impairs object recognition long-term memory.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julia R; Rossato, Janine I; Monteiro, Siomara; Bevilaqua, Lia R M; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2008-09-01

    Evidence indicates that brain endocannabinoids are involved in memory processing. However, the participation of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in recognition memory has not been yet conclusively determined. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of the posttraining activation of hippocampal cannabinoid receptors on the consolidation of object recognition memory. Rats with infusion cannulae stereotaxically aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in an object recognition learning task involving exposure to two different stimulus objects. Memory retention was assessed at different times after training. In the test sessions, one of the objects presented during training was replaced by a novel one. When infused in the CA1 region immediately after training, the non-selective cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN-55,212-2 and the endocannabinoid membrane transporter inhibitor VDM-11 blocked long-term memory retention in a dose-dependent manner without affecting short-term memory, exploratory behavior, anxiety state or the functionality of the hippocampus. The amnesic effect of WIN-55,212-2 and VDM-11 was not due to state-dependency and was completely reversed by co-infusion of the CB1 receptor antagonist AM-251 and mimicked by the CB1 receptor agonist ACEA but not by the CB2 receptor agonists JWH-015 and palmitoylethanolamide. Our data indicate that activation of hippocampal CB1 receptors early after training hampers consolidation of object recognition memory.

  13. Non-fragile multi-objective static output feedback control of vehicle active suspension with time-delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Yongsu; Zhao, Dingxuan; Yang, Bin; Han, Chenghao; Han, Kyongwon

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents an approach to design a delay-dependent non-fragile H∞/L2-L∞ static output feedback (SOF) controller for active suspension with input time-delay. The control problem of quarter-car active suspension with actuator time-delay is formulated to a H∞/L2-L∞ control problem. By employing a delay-dependent Lyapunov function, new existence conditions of delay-dependent non-fragile SOF H∞ controller and L2-L∞ controller are derived, respectively, in terms of the feasibility of bilinear matrix inequalities (BMIs). Then, a procedure based on linear matrix inequality optimisation and a hybrid algorithm of the particle swarm optimisation and differential evolution is used to solve an optimisation problem with BMI constraints. Design and simulation results of non-fragile H∞/L2-L∞ controller for active suspension show that the designed controller not only can achieve the optimal performance and stability of the closed-loop system in spite of the existence of the actuator time-delay, but also has significantly improved the non-fragility characteristics over controller perturbations.

  14. Hyperactivity in boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the association between deficient behavioral inhibition, attentional processes, and objectively measured activity.

    PubMed

    Alderson, R Matt; Rapport, Mark D; Kasper, Lisa J; Sarver, Dustin E; Kofler, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary models of ADHD hypothesize that hyperactivity reflects a byproduct of inhibition deficits. The current study investigated the relationship between children's motor activity and behavioral inhibition by experimentally manipulating demands placed on the limited-resource inhibition system. Twenty-two boys (ADHD = 11, TD = 11) between the ages of 8 and 12 years completed a conventional stop-signal task, two choice-task variants (no-tone, ignore-tone), and control tasks while their motor activity was measured objectively by actigraphs placed on their nondominant wrist and ankles. All children exhibited significantly higher activity rates under all three experimental tasks relative to control conditions, and children with ADHD moved significantly more than typically developing children across conditions. No differences in activity level were observed between the inhibition and noninhibition experimental tasks for either group, indicating that activity level was primarily associated with basic attentional rather than behavioral inhibition processes.

  15. Application of instrumental neutron activation and X-ray fluorescence analysis to the examination of objects of art

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panczyk, E.; Ligeza, M.; Walis, L.

    1999-01-01

    In the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology in Warsaw in collaboration with the Department of Preservation and Restoration of Works of Art of the Academy of Fine Arts in Cracow and National Museum in Warsaw systematic studies using nuclear methods, particulary instrumental neutron activation analysis and X-ray fluorescence analysis, have been carried out on the panel paintings from the Krakowska- Nowosadecka School and Silesian School of the period from the XIV-XVII century, Chinese and Thai porcelains and mummies fillings of Egyptian sarcophagi. These studies will provide new data to the existing data base, will permit to compare materials used by various schools and individual artists.

  16. Land-Grant College Education 1910 to 1920. Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences Including Miscellaneous Subjects and Activities. Bulletin, 1924, No. 37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Walton C., Ed.

    1925-01-01

    This survey of land-grant college education is divided into five sections, published separately as follows: Part I: History and Educational Objectives of Land-Grant College Education; Part II: The Liberal Arts and Sciences and Miscellaneous Subjects in Land-Grant Colleges; Part III: Agricultural Education in Land-Grant Colleges; Part IV:…

  17. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  18. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  19. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  20. Joint associations of objectively-measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with health-related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    No studies, to my knowledge, have examined the joint effects of physical activity and sedentary behavior on health-related quality of life (HRQOL), which was the purpose of this study. Data from the 2003–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 5,536). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior were assessed using an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer, with HRQOL assessed using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 4-item HRQOL index. MVPA (βadjusted = − 0.01; 95% CI: − 0.01 to − 0.004; P < 0.001), but not sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.0003; 95% CI: − 0.001–0.0001; P = 0.37), was associated with HRQOL. MVPA was associated with HRQOL among those above the median (≥ 487.5 min/day) level of sedentary behavior (βadjusted = − 0.02; 95% CI: − 0.03 to − 0.01; P = 0.006; N = 2769). The results of this brief report do not demonstrate that sedentary behavior, independent of MVPA, is associated with HRQOL. The independent association of MVPA on HRQOL confirms previous work that used self-report measures of MVPA. PMID:26844174

  1. Altered object-in-place recognition memory, prepulse inhibition, and locomotor activity in the offspring of rats exposed to a viral mimetic during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Howland, J G; Cazakoff, B N; Zhang, Y

    2012-01-10

    Infection during pregnancy (i.e., prenatal infection) increases the risk of psychiatric illnesses such as schizophrenia and autism in the adult offspring. The present experiments examined the effects of prenatal immune challenge on behavior in three paradigms relevant to these disorders: prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, locomotor responses to an unfamiliar environment and the N-methyl-d-aspartate antagonist MK-801, and three forms of recognition memory. Pregnant Long-Evans rats were exposed to the viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (PolyI:C; 4 mg/kg, i.v.) on gestational day 15. Offspring were tested for PPI and locomotor activity before puberty (postnatal days (PNDs)35 and 36) and during young adulthood (PNDs 56 and 57). Four prepulse-pulse intervals (30, 50, 80, and 140 ms) were employed in the PPI test. Recognition memory testing was performed using three different spontaneous novelty recognition tests (object, object location, and object-in-place recognition) after PND 60. Regardless of sex, offspring of PolyI:C-treated dams showed disrupted PPI at 50-, 80-, and 140-ms prepulse-pulse intervals. In the prepubescent rats, we observed prepulse facilitation for the 30-ms prepulse-pulse interval trials that was selectively retained in the adult PolyI:C-treated offspring. Locomotor responses to MK-801 were significantly reduced before puberty, whereas responses to an unfamiliar environment were increased in young adulthood. Both male and female PolyI:C-treated offspring showed intact object and object location recognition memory, whereas male PolyI:C-treated offspring displayed significantly impaired object-in-place recognition memory. Females were unable to perform the object-in-place test. The present results demonstrate that prenatal immune challenge during mid/late gestation disrupts PPI and locomotor behavior. In addition, the selective impairment of object-in-place recognition memory suggests tasks that depend on prefrontal

  2. The concept of sign in the work of Vygotsky, Winnicott and Bakhtin: further integration of object relations theory and activity theory.

    PubMed

    Leiman, M

    1992-09-01

    In a recent paper Ryle introduced the idea of integrating object relations theory and activity theory, a conceptual tradition originated by Vygotsky and developed by a number of Soviet psychologists during the previous decades. A specific aspect of this integrative perspective will be examined, implied in Ryle's paper but not elaborated by him. It is the issue of sign mediation which was Vygotsky's primary contribution to the methodological problems of modern psychology. The aim is to show that object relations theory, especially the work of Winnicott, may bring fresh understanding into Vygotsky's early notions. It is further claimed that, by introducing the contribution of Mikhail Bakhtin and his circle to the notion of sign mediation, the profundity in Winnicott's understanding of the transitional object and of the potential space may be more fully appreciated. At the same time the ideas of Winnicott and Bakhtin will jointly clarify the limitations in Vygotsky's sign conception.

  3. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  4. Low-level and high-level modulations of fixational saccades and high frequency oscillatory brain activity in a visual object classification task

    PubMed Central

    Kosilo, Maciej; Wuerger, Sophie M.; Craddock, Matt; Jennings, Ben J.; Hunt, Amelia R.; Martinovic, Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Until recently induced gamma-band activity (GBA) was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, induced GBA in the electroencephalogram (EEG) is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature fixational saccades. Recent studies have demonstrated that fixational saccades also reflect high-level representational processes. Do high-level as opposed to low-level factors influence fixational saccades? What is the effect of these factors on artifact-free GBA? To investigate this, we conducted separate eye tracking and EEG experiments using identical designs. Participants classified line drawings as objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, contours were defined along different directions in cardinal color space: S-cone-isolating, intermediate isoluminant, or a full-color stimulus, the latter containing an additional achromatic component. Prior to the classification task, object discrimination thresholds were measured and stimuli were scaled to matching suprathreshold levels for each participant. In both experiments, behavioral performance was best for full-color stimuli and worst for S-cone isolating stimuli. Saccade rates 200–700 ms after stimulus onset were modulated independently by low and high-level factors, being higher for full-color stimuli than for S-cone isolating stimuli and higher for objects. Low-amplitude evoked GBA and total GBA were observed in very few conditions, showing that paradigms with isoluminant stimuli may not be ideal for eliciting such responses. We conclude that cortical loops involved in the processing of objects are preferentially excited by stimuli that contain achromatic information. Their activation can lead to relatively early exploratory eye movements even for foveally-presented stimuli. PMID:24391611

  5. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample.

    PubMed

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-10-23

    Although associations between a person's neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents' perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14-2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan.

  6. Perceived and Objective Measures of Neighborhood Walkability and Physical Activity among Adults in Japan: A Multilevel Analysis of a Nationally Representative Sample

    PubMed Central

    Hanibuchi, Tomoya; Nakaya, Tomoki; Yonejima, Mayuko; Honjo, Kaori

    2015-01-01

    Although associations between a person’s neighborhood and their health have been studied internationally, most studies have been limited to a few cities or towns. Therefore, we used a nationally representative sample to explore whether perceived and objective neighborhood walkability was associated with the physical activity of residents. Data were analyzed from the Japanese General Social Surveys of 2010 (n = 2395; 1114 men and 1281 women). Perceived walkability was scored using factor analysis for the respondents’ perceptions of neighborhood conditions, while objective walkability was measured using the geographic information system approach. Finally, multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to examine whether neighborhood walkability was associated with the frequency of leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among respondents. We found that perceived walkability was positively associated with the frequency of LTPA (odds ratio of the highest quartile was 1.53 (1.14–2.05) compared with the lowest quartile); however, objective walkability showed no association. When stratified by gender, an association between perceived walkability and LTPA was observed among women, but only a marginally significant association was present between objective walkability and LTPA among men. We conclude that the association between neighborhood walkability and LTPA can be partially generalized across Japan. PMID:26512682

  7. On the Need of Objective Vigilance Monitoring: Effects of Sleep Loss on Target Detection and Task-Negative Activity Using Combined EEG/fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Czisch, Michael; Wehrle, Renate; Harsay, Helga A.; Wetter, Thomas C.; Holsboer, Florian; Sämann, Philipp G.; Drummond, Sean P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep loss affects attention by reducing levels of arousal and alertness. The neural mechanisms underlying the compensatory efforts of the brain to maintain attention and performance after sleep deprivation (SD) are not fully understood. Previous neuroimaging studies of SD have not been able to separate the effects of reduced arousal from the effects of SD on cerebral responses to cognitive challenges. Here, we used a simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) approach to study the effects of 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Specifically, we focused on changes in selective attention processes as induced by an active acoustic oddball task, with the ability to isolate runs with objective EEG signs of high (SDalert) or reduced (SDsleepy) vigilance. In the SDalert condition, oddball task-related activity appears to be sustained by compensatory co-activation of insular regions, but task-negative activity in the right posterior node of the default mode network is altered following TSD. In the SDsleepy condition, oddball task-positive activity was massively impaired, but task-negative activation was showing levels comparable with the control condition after a well-rested night. Our results suggest that loss of strict negative correlation between oddball task-positive and task-negative activation reflects the effects of TSD, while the actual state of vigilance during task performance can affects either task-related or task-negative activity, depending on the exact vigilance level. PMID:22557992

  8. Pupil size signals mental effort deployed during multiple object tracking and predicts brain activity in the dorsal attention network and the locus coeruleus.

    PubMed

    Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus Handal; Espeseth, Thomas; Endestad, Tor; van de Pavert, Steven Harry Pieter; Laeng, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Attentional effort relates to the allocation of limited-capacity attentional resources to meet current task demands and involves the activation of top-down attentional systems in the brain. Pupillometry is a sensitive measure of this intensity aspect of top-down attentional control. Studies relate pupillary changes in response to cognitive processing to activity in the locus coeruleus (LC), which is the main hub of the brain's noradrenergic system and it is thought to modulate the operations of the brain's attentional systems. In the present study, participants performed a visual divided attention task known as multiple object tracking (MOT) while their pupil sizes were recorded by use of an infrared eye tracker and then were tested again with the same paradigm while brain activity was recorded using fMRI. We hypothesized that the individual pupil dilations, as an index of individual differences in mental effort, as originally proposed by Kahneman (1973), would be a better predictor of LC activity than the number of tracked objects during MOT. The current results support our hypothesis, since we observed pupil-related activity in the LC. Moreover, the changes in the pupil correlated with activity in the superior colliculus and the right thalamus, as well as cortical activity in the dorsal attention network, which previous studies have shown to be strongly activated during visual tracking of multiple targets. Follow-up pupillometric analyses of the MOT task in the same individuals also revealed that individual differences to cognitive load can be remarkably stable over a lag of several years. To our knowledge this is the first study using pupil dilations as an index of attentional effort in the MOT task and also relating these to functional changes in the brain that directly implicate the LC-NE system in the allocation of processing resources.

  9. Walkability parameters, active transportation and objective physical activity: moderating and mediating effects of motor vehicle ownership in a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Neighborhood walkability has been associated with physical activity in several studies. However, as environmental correlates of physical activity may be context specific, walkability parameters need to be investigated separately in various countries and contexts. Furthermore, the mechanisms by which walkability affects physical activity have been less investigated. Based on previous research, we hypothesized that vehicle ownership is a potential mediator. We investigated the associations between walkability parameters and physical activity, and the mediating and moderating effects of vehicle ownership on these associations in a large sample of Swedish adults. Methods Residential density, street connectivity and land use mix were assessed within polygon-based network buffers (using Geographic Information Systems) for 2,178 men and women. Time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity was assessed by accelerometers, and walking and cycling for transportation were assessed by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Associations were examined by linear regression and adjusted for socio-demographic characteristics. The product of coefficients approach was used to investigate the mediating effect of vehicle ownership. Results Residential density and land use mix, but not street connectivity, were significantly associated with time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and walking for transportation. Cycling for transportation was not associated with any of the walkability parameters. Vehicle ownership mediated a significant proportion of the association between the walkability parameters and physical activity outcomes. For residential density, vehicle ownership mediated 25% of the association with moderate to vigorous physical activity and 20% of the association with the amount of walking for transportation. For land use mix, the corresponding proportions were 34% and 14%. Vehicle ownership did not moderate any of the associations

  10. Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.

  11. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  12. The Friendly Object

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prangnell, Peter

    1969-01-01

    If buildings and cities are made as friendly objects, they will invite and precipitate participation. They will stimulate our creative powers, which are the basis of growth in all our activities. (CK)

  13. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  14. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  15. Early object relations into new objects.

    PubMed

    Downey, T W

    2001-01-01

    Two strands of change are suggested by this review, one maturational, the other therapeutic or developmental (Hartmann and Kris, 1945). By "maturational" I mean to suggest energies that infuse the individual from earliest life in a manner that includes object relations, but for the healthy exercise of which object relations per se need not be of central and crucial importance. Within wide limits such energies may be delayed until growth conditions prevail without significant distortion of certain of the organism's ego functions. Therapeutic change is analogous to developmental change in that both involve the crucial presence of another to release energies. In therapeutic change these are energies that have been repressed beyond the reach of developmental dynamics. In everyday development crisis and synthesis alternate in conjunction with new and emerging objects to add to the psychological structures brought to the fore by maturation. In many instances, as we see with John, over time and in a less focussed manner, developmental changes can approximate therapeutic change and visa versa. Freud-Dann in their "experiment" pursued one line, in which the equipmental delay brought on by extremely adverse living circumstances was redressed by providing an interpersonally enriching, loving, developmentally facilitating milieu. The sketches of individual children and John's subsequent story provide a perspective into what becomes the stuff of growth and what remains the stuff of neurosis. The developmental reserves and ego resilience of these children were impressive but probably not extraordinary. Usual growth ensued as soon as they were provided with the rich soil of Bulldogs Bank instead of the desert sand of the Tereszin concentration camp. However, no one can escape such adverse circumstances without having taken in the stuff of neurosis. Affects and percepts that were not assimilatable or even available to consciousness at the time remain buried in the unconscious

  16. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  17. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  18. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  19. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  20. Carbonic anhydrase activation enhances object recognition memory in mice through phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase in the cortex and the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Canto de Souza, Lucas; Provensi, Gustavo; Vullo, Daniela; Carta, Fabrizio; Scozzafava, Andrea; Costa, Alessia; Schmidt, Scheila Daiane; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Supuran, Claudiu T; Blandina, Patrizio

    2017-03-09

    Rats injected with by d-phenylalanine, a carbonic anhydrase (CA) activator, enhanced spatial learning, whereas rats given acetazolamide, a CA inhibitor, exhibited impairments of fear memory consolidation. However, the related mechanisms are unclear. We investigated if CAs are involved in a non-spatial recognition memory task assessed using the object recognition test (ORT). Systemic administration of acetazolamide to male CD1 mice caused amnesia in the ORT and reduced CA activity in brain homogenates, while treatment with d-phenylalanine enhanced memory and increased CA activity. We provided also the first evidence that d-phenylalanine administration rapidly activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways, a critical step for memory formation, in the cortex and the hippocampus, two brain areas involved in memory processing. Effects elicited by d-phenylalanine were completely blunted by co-administration of acetazolamide, but not of 1-N-(4-sulfamoylphenyl-ethyl)-2,4,6-trimethylpyridinium perchlorate ((C18),) a CA inhibitor that, differently from acetazolamide, does not cross the blood brain barrier. Our results strongly suggest that brain but not peripheral CAs activation potentiates memory as a result of ERK pathway enhanced activation.

  1. PREPARING INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MAGER, ROBERT F.

    THIS PROGRAMED TEXT INCLUDES A SELF-TEST OF ITS CONTENTS AND DEMONSTRATES HOW TO SPECIFY INSTRUCTIONAL OBJECTIVES BY BEHAVIOR OBSERVABLE IN A LEARNER, AND HOW TO WRITE OBJECTIVES, DEFINE DESIRED TERMINAL BEHAVIOR, AND STATE CRITERIA OF SUCCESSFUL LEARNING. THIS DOCUMENT IS AVAILABLE FOR $1.75 FROM FEARON PUBLISHERS, INC., 2165 PARK BLVD., PALO…

  2. Manipulator for hollow objects

    DOEpatents

    Cawley, William E.; Frantz, Charles E.

    1977-01-01

    A device for gripping the interior of a tubular object to pull it out of a body in which it has become stuck includes an expandable rubber tube having a plurality of metal cables lodged in the exterior of the rubber tube so as to protrude slightly therefrom, means for inflating the tube and means for pulling the tube longitudinally of the tubular object.

  3. Lifestyle Advice Combined with Personalized Estimates of Genetic or Phenotypic Risk of Type 2 Diabetes, and Objectively Measured Physical Activity: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    van Sluijs, Esther M. F.; Marteau, Theresa M.; Sutton, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Background Information about genetic and phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes is now widely available and is being incorporated into disease prevention programs. Whether such information motivates behavior change or has adverse effects is uncertain. We examined the effect of communicating an estimate of genetic or phenotypic risk of type 2 diabetes in a parallel group, open, randomized controlled trial. Methods and Findings We recruited 569 healthy middle-aged adults from the Fenland Study, an ongoing population-based, observational study in the east of England (Cambridgeshire, UK). We used a computer-generated random list to assign participants in blocks of six to receive either standard lifestyle advice alone (control group, n = 190) or in combination with a genetic (n = 189) or a phenotypic (n = 190) risk estimate for type 2 diabetes (intervention groups). After 8 wk, we measured the primary outcome, objectively measured physical activity (kJ/kg/day), and also measured several secondary outcomes (including self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, anxiety, and perceived risk). The study was powered to detect a between-group difference of 4.1 kJ/kg/d at follow-up. 557 (98%) participants completed the trial. There were no significant intervention effects on physical activity (difference in adjusted mean change from baseline: genetic risk group versus control group 0.85 kJ/kg/d (95% CI −2.07 to 3.77, p = 0.57); phenotypic risk group versus control group 1.32 (95% CI −1.61 to 4.25, p = 0.38); and genetic risk group versus phenotypic risk group −0.47 (95% CI −3.40 to 2.46, p = 0.75). No significant differences in self-reported diet, self-reported weight, worry, and anxiety were observed between trial groups. Estimates of perceived risk were significantly more accurate among those who received risk information than among those who did not. Key limitations include the recruitment of a sample that may not be representative of the UK population, use of self

  4. Antibacterial Honey (Medihoney™): in-vitro Activity Against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, VRE, and Other Multiresistant Gram-negative Organisms Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    George, Narelle May; Cutting, Keith F

    2007-09-01

    The clinical use of honey has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly its use as a topical antibacterial dressing. Results thus far are extremely encouraging, and demonstrate that honey is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including multiresistant strains. This in-vitro study complements the work of others and focuses on the impact that a standardized honey can have on multiresistant bacteria that are regularly found in wounds and are responsible for increased morbidity.

  5. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO.

  6. Hypocholesterolaemic Activity of Lupin Peptides: Investigation on the Crosstalk between Human Enterocytes and Hepatocytes Using a Co-Culture System Including Caco-2 and HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lammi, Carmen; Zanoni, Chiara; Ferruzza, Simonetta; Ranaldi, Giulia; Sambuy, Yula; Arnoldi, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Literature indicates that peptic and tryptic peptides derived from the enzymatic hydrolysis of lupin protein are able to modulate cholesterol metabolism in human hepatic HepG2 cells and that part of these peptides are absorbed in a small intestine model based on differentiated human Caco-2 cells. In this paper, a co-culture system, including Caco-2 and HepG2 cells, was investigated with two objectives: (a) to verify whether cholesterol metabolism in HepG2 cells was modified by the peptides absorption through Caco-2 cells; (b) to investigate how lupin peptides influence cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells. The experiments showed that the absorbed peptides, not only maintained their bioactivity on HepG2 cells, but that this activity was improved by the crosstalk of the two cells systems in co-culture. In addition, lupin peptides showed a positive influence on cholesterol metabolism in Caco-2 cells, decreasing the proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) secretion. PMID:27455315

  7. Within-Subject Associations between Mood Dimensions and Non-exercise Activity: An Ambulatory Assessment Approach Using Repeated Real-Time and Objective Data

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Markus; Tost, Heike; Reinhard, Iris; Zipf, Alexander; Salize, Hans-Joachim; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich W.

    2016-01-01

    A physically active lifestyle has been related to positive health outcomes and high life expectancy, but the underlying psychological mechanisms maintaining physical activity are rarely investigated. Tremendous technological progress yielding sophisticated methodological approaches, i.e., ambulatory assessment, have recently enabled the study of these mechanisms in everyday life. In practice, accelerometers allow to continuously and objectively monitor physical activity. The combination with e-diaries makes it feasible to repeatedly assess mood states in real-time and real life and to relate them to physical activity. This state-of-the-art methodology comes with several advantages, like bypassing systematic distortions of retrospective methods, avoiding distortions seen in laboratory settings, and revealing an objective physical activity assessment. Most importantly, ambulatory assessment studies enable to analyze how physical activity and mood wax and wane within persons over time in contrast to existing studies on physical activity and mood which mostly investigated between-person associations. However, there are very few studies on how mood dimensions (i.e., feeling well, energetic and calm) drive non-exercise activity (NEA; such as climbing stairs) within persons. Recent reviews argued that some of these studies have methodological limitations, e.g., scarcely representative samples, short study periods, physical activity assessment via self-reports, and low sampling frequencies. To overcome these limitations, we conducted an ambulatory assessment study in a community-based sample of 106 adults over 1 week. Participants were asked to report mood ratings on e-diaries and to wear an accelerometer in daily life. We conducted multilevel analyses to investigate whether mood predicted NEA, which was defined as the mean acceleration within the 10-min interval directly following an e-diary assessment. Additionally, we analyzed the effects of NEA on different time frames

  8. The Brd4 Extraterminal Domain Confers Transcription Activation Independent of pTEFb by Recruiting Multiple Proteins, Including NSD3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaila; Sowa, Mathew E.; Ottinger, Matthias; Smith, Jennifer A.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into the various biological functions of Brd4, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify and characterize Brd4-associated cellular proteins. We found that the extraterminal (ET) domain, whose function has to date not been determined, interacts with NSD3, JMJD6, CHD4, GLTSCR1, and ATAD5. These ET-domain interactions were also conserved for Brd2 and Brd3, the other human BET proteins tested. We demonstrated that GLTSCR1, NSD3, and JMJD6 impart a pTEFb-independent transcriptional activation function on Brd4. NSD3 as well as JMJD6 is recruited to regulated genes in a Brd4-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that depletion of Brd4 or NSD3 reduces H3K36 methylation, demonstrating that the Brd4/NSD3 complex regulates this specific histone modification. Our results indicate that the Brd4 ET domain through the recruitment of the specific effectors regulates transcriptional activity. In particular, we show that one of these effectors, NSD3, regulates transcription by modifying the chromatin microenvironment at Brd4 target genes. Our study thus identifies the ET domain as a second important transcriptional regulatory domain for Brd4 in addition to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with pTEFb. PMID:21555454

  9. Application of Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) in detecting and quantifying forest loss caused by artisanal gold mining activities in Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Guyana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengisteab, B. S.; Blesius, L.; Hennessy, L.

    2014-12-01

    Artisanal gold mining in Guyana is mostly done in forest covered areas, causing forest loss and land degradation. Data from the Guyana Geology and Mining commission show there has been an increase of 2074% between 1986 and 2009. Our analysis of Landsat data between 1986 and 2013 for a part of the Upper Mazaruni area shows an increase from 34.2 to 278.4 hectares, which amounts to more than 800%. While the frequent coverage of Landsat data is useful for multitemporal studies, the lower resolution may not be adequate for accurate detection of mining sites. Therefore, RapidEye imagery from 2011 at a resolution of 5m was used to detect gold mining activity and to compare the results with the Landsat study. Processing was conducted in eCognition, an object-based image analysis (OBIA) software. OBIA is an image processing technique that has proven to be advantageous over traditional pixel based image processing techniques, with the primary advantage being the ability of the approach in combining both the spatial and spectral information. The satellite image was subjected to segmentation at multiple scales and classified using fuzzy sets of membership functions. Classification explicitly incorporated the different scales in order to accommodate different sizes of real-world objects and spatial relationships were utilized to establish connections between related objects. For example the presence or absence of water in pits, or the existence of sediments in the river may serve as additional indicators of mining sites besides the spectral components. Preliminary results show that OBIA approach was able to successfully detect and quantify small scale mining activities in the basin, and that the Landsat data were giving an acceptable estimate of mining sites over time. Keywords:Object Based Image Analysis, Gold Mining, Remote Sensing, Guyana

  10. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  11. Application of solid-phase microextraction with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry for the early detection of active moulds on historical woollen objects.

    PubMed

    Sawoszczuk, Tomasz; Syguła-Cholewińska, Justyna; Del Hoyo-Meléndez, Julio M

    2017-02-01

    The goal of this work was to determine the microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by moulds growing on wool in search of particular volatiles mentioned in the literature as indicators of active mould growth. The keratinolytically active fungi were inoculated on two types of media: (1) samples of wool placed on broths, and (2) on broths containing amino acids that are elements of the structure of keratin. All samples were prepared inside 20 mL vials (closed system). In the first case (1) the broths did not contain any sources of organic carbon, nitrogen, or sulfur, i.e. wool was the only nutrient for the moulds. A third type of sample was historical wool prepared in a Petri dish without a broth and inoculated with a keratinolytically active mould (open system). The microbial volatiles emitted by moulds were sampled with the headspace solid-phase microextraction method. Volatiles extracted on solid-phase microextraction fibers were analyzed in a gas chromatography with mass spectrometry system. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of chromatograms were carried out in search of indicators of metabolic activity. The results showed that there are three groups of volatiles that can be used for the detection of active forms of moulds on woollen objects.

  12. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  13. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  14. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  15. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  16. Regarding "Semi-active control of the rocking motion of monolithic art objects" [Journal of Sound and Vibration, 374 (2016) 1-16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2016-09-01

    The Editor wishes to make the reader aware that the paper "Semi-active control of the rocking motion of monolithic art objects" by R. Ceravolo, M.L. Pecorelli, and L.Z. Fragonara, did not contain a direct citation of the fundamental and original work by D. Konstantinidis and N. Makris entitled "Experimental and analytical studies on the seismic response of free-standing and anchored laboratory equipment", Report No. PEER 2005/07. Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research (PEER) Center, University of California, Berkeley, 2005. The Editor regrets that this omission was not noted at the time that the above paper was accepted and published.

  17. Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS detection of increasing gamma-ray activity from the high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buson, S.; Magill, J. D.; Dorner, D.; Biland, A.; Mirzoyan, R.; Mukherjee, R.

    2016-04-01

    The Fermi-LAT, FACT, MAGIC and VERITAS collaborations report the detection of enhanced gamma-ray activity from a source positionally consistent with the very-high-energy peaked BL Lac object 1ES 1959+650 (a.k.a 3FGL J2000.0+6509, in the 3rd LAT source catalog, 3FGL, Acero et al. 2015, ApJS 218, 23) with radio coordinates (J2000) R.A.: 299.999384 deg, Dec.: 65.148514 deg (Beasley et al. 2002, ApJS, 141, 13). This source has a redshift z=0.047 (Schachter et al. 1993, ApJ, 412, 541).

  18. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  19. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha

    2008-01-01

    Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

  20. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  1. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with higher levels of objectively measured sedentary behaviour and lower levels of physical activity than matched healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    Hallsworth, Kate; Thoma, Christian; Moore, Sarah; Ploetz, Thomas; Anstee, Quentin M; Taylor, Roy; Day, Christopher P; Trenell, Michael I

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims Physical activity is a key determinant of metabolic control and is recommended for people with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), usually alongside weight loss and dietary change. To date, no studies have reported the relationship between objectively measured sedentary behaviour and physical activity, liver fat and metabolic control in people with NAFLD, limiting the potential to target sedentary behaviour in clinical practice. This study determined the level of sedentary behaviour and physical activity in people with NAFLD, and investigated links between physical activity, liver fat and glucose control. Methods Sedentary behaviour, physical activity and energy expenditure were assessed in 37 adults with NAFLD using a validated multisensor array over 7 days. Liver fat and glucose control were assessed, respectively, by 1H-MRS and fasting blood samples. Patterns of sedentary behaviour were assessed by power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts fitted from raw sedentary data. An age and sex-matched healthy control group wore the activity monitor for the same time period. Results People with NAFLD spent approximately half an hour extra a day being sedentary (1318±68 vs1289±60 mins/day; p<0.05) and walked 18% fewer steps (8483±2926 vs 10377±3529 steps/day; p<0.01). As a consequence, active energy expenditure was reduced by 40% (432±258 vs 732±345 kcal/day; p<0.01) and total energy expenditure was lower in NAFLD (2690±440 vs 2901±511 kcal/day; p<0.01). Power law analyses of the lengths of sedentary bouts demonstrated that patients with NAFLD also have a lower number of transitions from being sedentary to active compared with controls (13±0.03 vs15±0.03%; p<0.05). Conclusions People with NAFLD spend more time sedentary and undertake less physical activity on a daily basis than healthy controls. High levels of sedentary behaviour and low levels of physical activity represent a therapeutic target that may prevent

  2. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  3. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  4. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  5. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  6. Students' objectively measured physical activity levels and engagement as a function of between-class and between-student differences in motivation toward physical education.

    PubMed

    Aelterman, Nathalie; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Van Keer, Hilde; Van den Berghe, Lynn; De Meyer, Jotie; Haerens, Leen

    2012-08-01

    Despite evidence for the utility of self-determination theory in physical education, few studies used objective indicators of physical activity and mapped out between-class, relative to between-student, differences in physical activity. This study investigated whether moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and rated collective engagement in physical education were associated with autonomous motivation, controlled motivation, and amotivation at the between-class and between-student levels. Participants were 739 pupils (46.3% boys, Mage = 14.36 ±1.94) from 46 secondary school classes in Flanders (Belgium). Multilevel analyses indicated that 37% and 63% of the variance in MVPA was explained by between-student and between-class differences, respectively. Students' personal autonomous motivation related positively to MVPA. Average autonomous class motivation was positively related to between-class variation in MVPA and collective engagement. Average controlled class motivation and average class amotivation were negatively associated with collective engagement. The findings are discussed in light of self-determination theory's emphasis on quality of motivation.

  7. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  8. A comparison of the cluster-span threshold and the union of shortest paths as objective thresholds of EEG functional connectivity networks from Beta activity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Smith, Keith; Abasolo, Daniel; Escudero, Javier; Smith, Keith; Abasolo, Daniel; Escudero, Javier; Escudero, Javier; Smith, Keith; Abasolo, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    The Cluster-Span Threshold (CST) is a recently introduced unbiased threshold for functional connectivity networks. This binarisation technique offers a natural trade-off of sparsity and density of information by balancing the ratio of closed to open triples in the network topology. Here we present findings comparing it with the Union of Shortest Paths (USP), another recently proposed objective method. We analyse standard network metrics of binarised networks for sensitivity to clinical Alzheimer's disease in the Beta band of Electroencephalogram activity. We find that the CST outperforms the USP, as well as subjective thresholds based on fixing the network density, as a sensitive threshold for distinguishing differences in the functional connectivity between Alzheimer's disease patients and control. This study provides the first evidence of the usefulness of the CST for clinical research purposes.

  9. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-12-28

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver's input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice.

  10. A study of ultraviolet absorption lines through the complete Galactic halo by the analysis of HST faint object spectrograph spectra of active Galactic nuclei, 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burks, Geoffrey S.; Bartko, Frank; Shull, J. Michael; Stocke, John T.; Sachs, Elise R.; Burbidge, E. Margaret; Cohen, Ross D.; Junkkarinen, Vesa T.; Harms, Richard J.; Massa, Derck

    1994-01-01

    The ultraviolet (1150 - 2850 A) spectra of a number of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) observed with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Faint Object Spectrograph (FOS) have been used to study the properties of the Galactic halo. The objects that served as probes are 3C 273, PKS 0454-220, Pg 1211+143, CSO 251, Ton 951, and PG 1351+640. The equivalent widths of certain interstellar ions have been measured, with special attention paid to the C IV/C II and Si IV/Si II ratios. These ratios have been intercompared, and the highest values are found in the direction of 3C 273, where C IV/C II = 1.2 and Si IV/Si II greater than 1. These high ratios may be due to a nearby supernova remnant, rather than to ionized gas higher up in the Galactic halo. Our data give some support to the notion that QSO metal-line systems may arise from intervening galaxies which contain high supernova rates, galactic fountains, and turbulent mixing layers.

  11. An analogy between effects of ultra-low doses of biologically active substances on biological objects and properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid 3He-B.

    PubMed

    Boldyreva, Liudmila B

    2011-07-01

    The effects of ultra-low doses (ULDs) of biologically active substances (BASs) (with concentrations of 10(-13)M or lower) on biological objects (BOs), such as cells, organisms, etc., and the properties of spin supercurrents in superfluid (3)He-B are discussed. It is shown that the effects of ULDs of BASs on biologic objects can be specified by the same set of physical characteristics and described by the same mathematical relations as those used for the specification and description of the properties of spin supercurrents between spin structures in superfluid (3)He-B. This is based on the up-to-date physical concepts: 1) the physical vacuum has the properties of superfluid (3)He-B; 2) all quantum entities (hence, the BAS and the BO, which consist of such entities) produce spin structures in the physical vacuum. The photon being a quantum entity, the features of the effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation on BOs can be explained using the same approach.

  12. VERITAS Detection of γ-Ray Flaring Activity From the BL Lac Object 1ES 1727+502 During Bright Moonlight Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Archambault, S.; Archer, A.; Beilicke, M.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Biteau, J.; Bouvier, A.; Bugaev, V.; Cardenzana, J. V.; Cerruti, M.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Dickinson, H. J.; Dumm, J.; Eisch, J. D.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Fleischhack, H.; Fortin, P.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Griffin, S.; Griffiths, S. T.; Grube, J.; Gyuk, G.; Håkansson, N.; Hanna, D.; Holder, J.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kertzman, M.; Khassen, Y.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Kumar, S.; Lang, M. J.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; McCann, A.; Meagher, K.; Millis, J.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; Nieto, D.; O'Faoláin de Bhróithe, A.; Ong, R. A.; Otte, A. N.; Park, N.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Prokoph, H.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reyes, L. C.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Smith, A. W.; Staszak, D.; Telezhinsky, I.; Tucci, J. V.; Tyler, J.; Varlotta, A.; Vincent, S.; Wakely, S. P.; Weinstein, A.; Welsing, R.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; Veritas Collaboration; Hughes, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    During moonlit nights, observations with ground-based Cherenkov telescopes at very high energies (VHEs, E\\gt 100 GeV) are constrained since the photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the telescope camera are extremely sensitive to the background moonlight. Observations with the VERITAS telescopes in the standard configuration are performed only with a moon illumination less than 35% of full moon. Since 2012, the VERITAS collaboration has implemented a new observing mode under bright moonlight, by either reducing the voltage applied to the PMTs (reduced-high-voltage; RHV configuration), or by utilizing UV-transparent filters. While these operating modes result in lower sensitivity and increased energy thresholds, the extension of the available observing time is useful for monitoring variable sources such as blazars and sources requiring spectral measurements at the highest energies. In this paper we report the detection of γ-ray flaring activity from the BL Lac object 1ES 1727+502 during RHV observations. This detection represents the first evidence of VHE variability from this blazar. The integral flux is (1.1+/- 0.2)× {10}-11 {{cm}}-2 {{{s}}}-1 above 250 GeV, which is about five times higher than the low-flux state. The detection triggered additional VERITAS observations during standard dark-time. Multiwavelength observations with the FLWO 48″ telescope, and the Swift and Fermi satellites are presented and used to produce the first spectral energy distribution (SED) of this object during γ-ray flaring activity. The SED is then fitted with a standard synchrotron-self-Compton model, placing constraints on the properties of the emitting region and of the acceleration mechanism at the origin of the relativistic particle population in the jet.

  13. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  14. The OKS persistent in-memory object manager

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.; Mapelli, L.; Soloviev, I.; Ryabov, Yu.

    1998-08-01

    The OKS (Object Kernel Support) is a library to support a simple, active persistent in-memory object manager. It is suitable for applications which need to create persistent structured information with fast access but do not require full database functionality. It can be used as the frame of configuration databases and real-time object managers for Data Acquisition and Detector Control Systems in such fields as setup, diagnostics and general configuration description. OKS is based on an object model that supports objects, classes, associations, methods, inheritance, polymorphism, object identifiers, composite objects, integrity constraints, schema evolution, data migration and active notification. OKS stores the class definitions and their instances in portable ASCII files. It provides query facilities, including indices support. The OKS has a C++ API (Application Program Interface) and includes Motif based GUI applications to design class schema and to manipulate objects. OKS has been developed on top of the Rogue Wave Tools h++ C++ class library.

  15. Objects in Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    Objects in motion attract children. The following activity helps children explore the motion of bodies riding in a vehicle and safely demonstrates the answer to their questions, "Why do I need a seatbelt?" Children will enjoy moving the cup around, even if all they "see" is a cup rather than understanding it represents a car. They will understand…

  16. Light, Including Ultraviolet

    PubMed Central

    Maverakis, Emanual; Miyamura, Yoshinori; Bowen, Michael P.; Correa, Genevieve; Ono, Yoko; Goodarzi, Heidi

    2009-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light is intricately linked to the functional status of the cutaneous immune system. In susceptible individuals, UV radiation can ignite pathogenic inflammatory pathways leading to allergy or autoimmunity. In others, this same UV radiation can be used as a phototherapy to suppress pathogenic cutaneous immune responses. These vastly different properties are a direct result of UV light’s ability to ionize molecules in the skin and thereby chemically alter them. Sometimes these UV-induced chemical reactions are essential, the formation of pre-vitamin D3 from 7-dehydrocholesterol, for example. In other instances they can be potentially detrimental. UV radiation can ionize a cell’s DNA causing adjacent pyrimidine bases to chemically bond to each other. To prevent malignant transformation, a cell may respond to this UV-induced DNA damage by undergoing apoptosis. Although this pathway prevents skin cancer it also has the potential of inducing or exacerbating autoreactive immune responses by exposing the cell’s nuclear antigens. Ultaviolet-induced chemical reactions can activate the immune system by a variety of other mechanisms as well. In response to UV irradiation keratinocytes secrete cytokines and chemokines, which activate and recruit leukocytes to the skin. In some individuals UV-induced chemical reactions can synthesize novel antigens resulting in a photoallergy. Alternatively, photosensitizing molecules can damage cells by initiating sunburn-like phototoxic reactions. Herein we review all types of UV-induced skin reactions, especially those involving the immune system. PMID:20018479

  17. Objectively assessed physical activity and lower limb function and prospective associations with mortality and newly diagnosed disease in UK older adults: an OPAL four-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Kenneth R.; Ku, Po-Wen; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Davis, Mark G.; Simmonds, Bethany A. J.; Thompson, Janice L.; Stathi, Afroditi; Gray, Selena F.; Sharp, Deborah J.; Coulson, Joanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: objective measures of physical activity and function with a diverse cohort of UK adults in their 70s and 80s were used to investigate relative risk of all-cause mortality and diagnoses of new diseases over a 4-year period. Participants: two hundred and forty older adults were randomly recruited from 12 general practices in urban and suburban areas of a city in the United Kingdom. Follow-up included 213 of the baseline sample. Methods: socio-demographic variables, height and weight, and self-reported diagnosed diseases were recorded at baseline. Seven-day accelerometry was used to assess total physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous activity and sedentary time. A log recorded trips from home. Lower limb function was assessed using the Short Physical Performance Battery. Medical records were accessed on average 50 months post baseline, when new diseases and deaths were recorded. Analyses: ANOVAs were used to assess socio-demographic, physical activity and lower limb function group differences in diseases at baseline and new diseases during follow-up. Regression models were constructed to assess the prospective associations between physical activity and function with mortality and new disease. Results: for every 1,000 steps walked per day, the risk of mortality was 36% lower (hazard ratios 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44–0.91, P = 0.013). Low levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (incident rate ratio (IRR) 1.67, 95% CI 1.04–2.68, P = 0.030) and low frequency of trips from home (IRR 1.41, 95% CI 0.98–2.05, P = 0.045) were associated with diagnoses of more new diseases. Conclusion: physical activity should be supported for adults in their 70s and 80s, as it is associated with reduced risk of mortality and new disease development. PMID:25377744

  18. Secure content objects

    DOEpatents

    Evans, William D.

    2009-02-24

    A secure content object protects electronic documents from unauthorized use. The secure content object includes an encrypted electronic document, a multi-key encryption table having at least one multi-key component, an encrypted header and a user interface device. The encrypted document is encrypted using a document encryption key associated with a multi-key encryption method. The encrypted header includes an encryption marker formed by a random number followed by a derivable variation of the same random number. The user interface device enables a user to input a user authorization. The user authorization is combined with each of the multi-key components in the multi-key encryption key table and used to try to decrypt the encrypted header. If the encryption marker is successfully decrypted, the electronic document may be decrypted. Multiple electronic documents or a document and annotations may be protected by the secure content object.

  19. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  20. Nighttime activity of moving objects, their mapping and statistic making, on the example of applying thermal imaging and advanced image processing to the research of nocturnal mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pregowski, Piotr; Owadowska, Edyta; Pietrzak, Jan; Zwolenik, Slawomir

    2005-09-01

    The paper presents method of acquiring a new form of statistical information about the changes at scenery, overseen by thermal imaging camera in static configuration. This type of imagers reach uniquely high efficiency during nighttime surveillance and targeting. The technical issue we have solved, resulted from the problem: how to verify the hypothesis that small, nocturnal rodents, like bank voles, use common paths inside their range and that they form a common, rather stable system? Such research has been especially difficult because the mentioned mammals are secretive, move with various speed and due to low contrast to their natural surroundings - as leaves or grass - nearly impossible for other kind of observations from a few meters distance. The main advantage of the elaborated method showed to be both adequately filtered long thermal movies for manual analyses, as well as auto-creation of the synthetic images which present maps of invisible paths and activity of their usage. Additional file with logs describing objects and their dislocations as the ".txt" files allows various, more detailed studies of animal behavior. The obtained results proved that this original method delivers a new, non-invasive, powerful and dynamic concept of solving various ecological problems. Creation of networks consisted of uncooled thermal imagers - of significantly increased availability - with data transmissions to digital centers allows to investigate of moving - particularly heat generated - objects in complete darkness, much wider and much more efficiently than up today. Thus, although our system was elaborated for ecological studies, a similar one can be considered as a tool for chosen tasks in the optical security areas.

  1. Dimension Reduction for Object Ranking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamishima, Toshihiro; Akaho, Shotaro

    Ordered lists of objects are widely used as representational forms. Such ordered objects include Web search results and bestseller lists. Techniques for processing such ordinal data are being developed, particularly methods for an object ranking task: i.e., learning functions used to sort objects from sample orders. In this article, we propose two dimension reduction methods specifically designed to improve prediction performance in an object ranking task.

  2. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  3. Infants' Knowledge of Objects: Beyond Object Files and Object Tracking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carey, Susan; Xu, Fei

    2001-01-01

    Examines evidence that the research community studying infants' object concept and the community concerned with adult object-based attention have been studying the same natural kind. Maintains that the discovery that the object representations of young infants are the same as the object files of mid-level visual cognition has implications for both…

  4. Inquiry-Based Learning Using Everyday Objects: Hands-On Instructional Strategies That Promote Active Learning in Grades 3-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarado, Amy Edmonds; Herr, Patricia R.

    This book explores the concept of using everyday objects as a process initiated both by students and teachers, encouraging growth in student observation, inquisitiveness, and reflection in learning. After "Introduction: Welcome to Inquiry-Based Learning using Everyday Objects (Object-Based Inquiry), there are nine chapters in two parts. Part 1,…

  5. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Riding the Behavioral Objective Bandwagon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Joseph H.

    1974-01-01

    The author presents several guidelines for writing behavioral objectives for counseling. These include: (1) maintaining perspective; (2) establishing the criteria of performance; and (3) keeping fluid. (RP)

  7. Fractional order PID control design for semi-active control of smart base-isolated structures: A multi-objective cuckoo search approach.

    PubMed

    Zamani, Abbas-Ali; Tavakoli, Saeed; Etedali, Sadegh

    2017-03-01

    Fractional order PID (FOPID) controllers are introduced as a general form of classical PID controllers using fractional calculus. As this controller provides good disturbance rejection and is robust against plant uncertainties it is appropriate for the vibration mitigation in structures. In this paper, an FOPID controller is designed to adjust the contact force of piezoelectric friction dampers for semi-active control of base-isolated structures during f