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Sample records for activity including effects

  1. Liver protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid includes regulation of ADAM17 activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is used to treat primary biliary cirrhosis, intrahepatic cholestasis, and other cholestatic conditions. Although much has been learned about the molecular basis of the disease pathophysiology, our understanding of the effects of UDCA remains unclear. Possibly underlying its cytoprotective, anti-apoptotic, anti-oxidative effects, UDCA was reported to regulate the expression of TNFα and other inflammatory cytokines. However, it is not known if this effect involves also modulation of ADAM family of metalloproteinases, which are responsible for release of ectodomains of inflammatory cytokines from the cell surface. We hypothesized that UDCA modulates ADAM17 activity, resulting in amelioration of cholestasis in a murine model of bile duct ligation (BDL). Methods The effect of UDCA on ADAM17 activity was studied using the human liver hepatocellular carcinoma cell line HepG2. Untransfected cells or cells ectopically expressing human ADAM17 were cultured with or without UDCA and further activated using phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). The expression and release of ADAM17 substrates, TNFα, TGFα, and c-Met receptor (or its soluble form, sMet) were evaluated using ELISA and quantitative real-time (qRT) PCR. Immunoblotting analyses were conducted to evaluate expression and activation of ADAM17 as well as the level of ERK1/2 phosphorylation after UDCA treatment. The regulation of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) by UDCA was studied using zymography and qRT-PCR. A mouse model of acute cholestasis was induced by common BDL technique, during which mice received daily orogastric gavage with either UDCA or vehicle only. Liver injury was quantified using alkaline phosphatase (ALP), relative liver weight, and confirmed by histological analysis. ADAM17 substrates in sera were assessed using a bead multiplex assay. Results UDCA decreases amount of shed TNFα, TGFα, and sMet in cell culture media and the phosphorylation of

  2. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  3. Liver tumor promoting effect of orphenadrine in rats and its possible mechanism of action including CAR activation and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Morita, Reiko; Yafune, Atsunori; Shiraki, Ayako; Itahashi, Megu; Ishii, Yuji; Akane, Hirotoshi; Nakane, Fumiyuki; Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Shibutani, Makoto; Mitsumori, Kunitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Orphenadrine (ORPH), an anticholinergic agent, is a cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B inducer. CYP2B inducers are known to have liver tumor-promoting effects in rats. In this study, we performed a rat two-stage liver carcinogenesis bioassay to examine the tumor-promoting effect of ORPH and to clarify its possible mechanism of action. Male rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) as an initiation treatment. Two weeks after DEN administration, rats were fed a diet containing ORPH (0, 750, or 1,500 ppm) for 6 weeks. One week after the ORPH-administration rats were subjected to two-thirds partial hepatectomy for the acceleration of hepatocellular proliferation. The number and area of glutathione S-transferase placental form-positive foci significantly increased in the DEN-ORPH groups. Real-time RT-PCR revealed increased mRNA expression levels of Cyp2b1/2, Mrp2 and Cyclin D1 in the DEN-ORPH groups and of Gpx2 and Gstm3 in the DEN-High ORPH group. Microsomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and oxidative stress markers such as thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine were increased in the DEN-High ORPH group. Immunohistochemically, constitutively active/androstane receptor (CAR) were clearly localized in the nuclei of hepatocytes in the DEN-ORPH groups. These results suggest that ORPH causes nuclear translocation of CAR resulting in the induction of the liver tumor-promoting activity. Furthermore, oxidative stress resulting from ROS production is also involved in the liver tumor-promoting activity of ORPH.

  4. Effect of the Heat-exposure on Peripheral Sudomotor Activity Including the Density of Active Sweat Glands and Single Sweat Gland Output.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeong-Beom; Kim, Tae-Wook; Shin, Young-Oh; Min, Young-Ki; Yang, Hun-Mo

    2010-10-01

    Tropical inhabitants are able to tolerate heat through permanent residence in hot and often humid tropical climates. The goal of this study was to clarify the peripheral mechanisms involved in thermal sweating pre and post exposure (heat-acclimatization over 10 days) by studying the sweating responses to acetylcholine (ACh), a primary neurotransmitter of sudomotor activity, in healthy subjects (n=12). Ten percent ACh was administered on the inner forearm skin for iontophoresis. Quantitative sudomotor axon reflex testing, after iontophoresis (2 mA for 5 min) with ACH, was performed to determine directly activated (DIR) and axon reflex-mediated (AXR) sweating during ACh iontophoresis. The sweat rate, activated sweat gland density, sweat gland output per single gland activated, as well as oral and skin temperature changes were measured. The post exposure activity had a short onset time (p<0.01), higher active sweat rate [(AXR (p<0.001) and DIR (p<0.001)], higher sweat output per gland (p<0.001) and higher transepidermal water loss (p<0.001) compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The activated sweat rate in the sudomotor activity increased the output for post-exposure compared to the pre-exposure measurements. The results suggested that post-exposure activity showed a higher active sweat gland output due to the combination of a higher AXR (DIR) sweat rate and a shorter onset time. Therefore, higher sudomotor responses to ACh receptors indicate accelerated sympathetic nerve responsiveness to ACh sensitivity by exposure to environmental conditions.

  5. Establishment of reference intervals for kaolin-activated thromboelastography in dogs including an assessment of the effects of sex and anticoagulant use.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Natali; Eralp, Oya; Moritz, Andreas

    2009-09-01

    Tissue factor (TF)- and kaolin-activated thromboelastography (TEG) have been performed in a small number of healthy dogs, but reference intervals have not been assessed in a larger number of dogs. The goal of the current study was to establish reference intervals and assess intra-assay repeatability for kaolin-activated TEG in dogs. Additionally, the impact of sex and the influence of anticoagulant (native blood vs. recalcified citrate anticoagulated blood) were evaluated. Thromboelastography analyses were performed in 56 healthy dogs including German Shepherd Dogs (n = 19), Beagles (n = 15), and others (n = 22). Median age was 2 years (range: 1-6 years) and sex was evenly distributed (31 males and 25 females). To establish reference intervals, citrated whole-blood samples were collected, and TEG was performed 1 hr after sampling. Five TEG variables (R = reaction time; K = clot formation time; alpha = angle alpha; MA = maximal amplitude; G-value reflecting clot stability) were evaluated, and reference intervals were defined as the mean +/- 1.96-fold standard deviation. Intra-assay repeatability was assessed by calculating the pooled variance estimate in duplicate measurements of 6 healthy dogs. The effect of anticoagulant was assessed in 17 specimens. Reference intervals were as follows: R = 1.8-8.6 min; angle alpha = 36.9-74.6 degrees; K = 1.3-5.7 min; MA = 42.9-67.9 mm, and G = 3.2-9.6 Kdyn/cm(2). Coefficients of variation for R, K, angle alpha, MA, and G were 7.6%, 17.7%, 7.4%, 2.9%, and 6.6%, respectively. There was no significant impact of sex or anticoagulant on results. Interindividual variation was higher in native samples than in citrated whole blood. A limitation of the current study was that most of the samples were obtained from Beagles and German Shepherd Dogs. This study provides useful reference intervals for kaolin-activated TEG.

  6. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  7. Including Tidal Effects in Tsunami Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcas, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recently a new tsunami forecast system SIFT (Short-term Inundation and Forecasting of Tsunamis) has been declared operational by the National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers. The SIFT system assimilates real-time information from a network of observing systems deployed in the open ocean, to produce on-the-fly estimates of tsunami impact at specific coastal communities. These estimates are computed via the tsunami simulation code MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) and include forecast products such as tsunami arrival time, duration of the event, predicted tsunami currents, maximum sea surface elevation and expected inundation areas. These computations are performed under the assumption that the mean sea level remains constant at Mean High Water (MHW) during the entire tsunami event. This assumption produces conservative tsunami forecasts that tend to err on the side of caution with the possibility of substantial overestimates of the inundation areas. To avoid this problem and produce more accurate, operational tsunami forecasts, we investigate the effects of tsunami interaction with tides. The nonlinear dynamic interaction is simulated by first, simulating tidal elevations and currents with Oregon State University tidal model, to obtain boundary and initial conditions to force the MOST tsunami model. Tsunami boundary and initial conditions can be added to those for the tide to study the combined effect. Our results show that even at locations with strong tidal forcing, the tsunami/tide interaction effect has a weakly non-linear effect on the tsunami elevation waveform. This interaction, however, will have a significant effect on the extent of the inundation area. Based on these findings we propose a simple, linear correction to the standard MHW forecast for tsunami time series and inundation area, that can be performed on-the-fly by the SIFT system without the need for complex tidal models.

  8. Eigenstates of Moebius nanostructures including curvature effects

    SciTech Connect

    Gravesen, J.; Willatzen, M.

    2005-09-15

    Moebius-shell structures and their physical properties have recently received considerable attention experimentally and theoretically. In this work, eigenstates and associated eigenenergies are determined for a quantum-mechanical particle bounded to a Moebius shell including curvature contributions to the kinetic-energy operator. This is done using a parametrization of the Moebius shell-found by minimizing the elastic energy of the full structure-and employing differential-geometry methods. It is shown that inclusion of curvature contributions to the kinetic energy leads to splitting of the otherwise doubly degenerate groundstate and significantly alters the form of the groundstate and excited-state wavefunctions. Hence, we anticipate qualitative changes in the physical properties of Moebius-shell structures due to surface confinement and curvature effects.

  9. Effect of pH, water activity and gel micro-structure, including oxygen profiles and rheological characterization, on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Typhimurium.

    PubMed

    Theys, T E; Geeraerd, A H; Verhulst, A; Poot, K; Van Bree, I; Devlieghere, F; Moldenaers, P; Wilson, D; Brocklehurst, T; Van Impe, J F

    2008-11-30

    In this study, the growth of Salmonella Typhimurium in Tryptic Soy Broth was examined at different pH (4.50-5.50), water activity a(w) (0.970-0.992) and gelatin concentration (0%, 1% and 5% ) at 20 degrees C. Experiments in TSB with 0% gelatin were carried out in shaken erlenmeyers, in the weak 1% gelatin media in petri plates and in the firm 5% gelatin media in gel cassettes. A quantification of gel strength was performed by rheological measurements and the influence of oxygen supply on the growth of S. Typhimurium was investigated. pH, as well as a(w) as well as gelatin concentration had an influence on the growth rate. Both in broth and in gelatinized media, lowering pH or water activity caused a decrease of growth rate. In media with 1% gelatin a reduction of growth rate and maximal cell density was observed compared to broth at all conditions. However, the effects of decreasing pH and a(w) were less pronounced. A further increase in gelatin concentration to 5% gelatin caused a small or no additional drop of growth rate. The final oxygen concentration dropped from 5.5 ppm in stirred broth to anoxic values in petri plates, also when 0% and 5% gelatin media were tested in this recipient. Probably, not stirring the medium, which leads to anoxic conditions, has a more pronounced effect on the growth rate of S. Typhimurium then medium solidness. Finally, growth data were fitted with the primary model of Baranyi and Roberts [Baranyi, J. and Roberts, T. A., 1994. A dynamic approach to predicting bacterial growth in food. International Journal of Food Microbiology 23, 277-294]. An additional factor was introduced into the secondary model of Ross et al. [Ross, T. and Ratkowsky, D. A. and Mellefont, L. A. and McMeekin, T. A., 2003. Modelling the effects of temperature, water activity, pH and lactic acid concentration on the growth rate of Escherichia coli. International Journal of Food Microbiology 82, 33-43.] to incorporate the effect of gelatin concentration, next to

  10. Effects of Including Humor in Test Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMorris, Robert F.; And Others

    Two 50-item multiple-choice forms of a grammar test were developed differing only in humor being included in 20 items of one form. One hundred twenty-six (126) eighth graders received the test plus alternate forms of a questionnaire. Humor inclusion did not affect grammar scores on matched humorous/nonhumorous items nor on common post-treatment…

  11. Cascade aeroacoustics including steady loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, Hsiao-Wei D.; Fleeter, Sanford

    A mathematical model is developed to analyze the effects of airfoil and cascade geometry, steady aerodynamic loading, and the characteristics of the unsteady flow field on the discrete frequency noise generation of a blade row in an incompressible flow. The unsteady lift which generates the noise is predicted with a complex first-order cascade convected gust analysis. This model was then applied to the Gostelow airfoil cascade and variations, demonstrating that steady loading, cascade solidity, and the gust direction are significant. Also, even at zero incidence, the classical flat plate cascade predictions are unacceptable.

  12. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  13. Information for Teachers (Including Classroom Activities), Skylab Student Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC.

    This program is intended to directly involve the educational community in space experiments, many of which can be related to existing curricula. Included in this first packet are: 1) a brief description of the Skylab Program and the National Science Teachers Association-National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NSTA-NASA) Skylab Student…

  14. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  15. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  16. Modifying Physical Activities to Include Individuals with Disabilities: A Systematic Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menear, Kristi S.; Davis, Tim

    2007-01-01

    Effectively including individuals with disabilities in a physical activity setting can often be a challenge due to constraints related to equipment, class size, curriculum, and the various ability levels of individuals with and without disabilities. However, there are ways the instructor can control the environment and tasks to meet the needs of…

  17. Meson-exchange currents including energy transfer effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, W.P.; Walker, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    The standard formalism of meson-exchange currents is extended to incorporate energy transfer effects. It is possible to make such an extension, in a chirally invariant way, for several exchange currents including those involving an intermediate isobar. It is found that the ''extended'' currents still satisfy conservation of the polar vector current (CVC) and partial conservation of the axial vector current (PCAC) where appropriate. The hypothesis of axial locality is found to be valid for the currents considered. Deuteron photodisintegration at intermediate energies is then used to illustrate the numerical importance of the energy transfer effects. A brief survey is carried out for other reactions where the inclusion of energy transfer effects in the evaluation of selected meson-exchange currents is believed important.

  18. Double-photoionization of helium including quadrupole radiation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Colgan, James; Ludlow, J A; Lee, Teck - Ghee; Pindzola, M S; Robicheaux, F

    2009-01-01

    Non-perturbative time-dependent close-coupling calculations are carried out for the double photoionization of helium including both dipole and quadrupole radiation effects. At a photon energy of 800 eV, accessible at CUlTent synchrotron light sources, the quadrupole interaction contributes around 6% to the total integral double photoionization cross section. The pure quadrupole single energy differential cross section shows a local maxima at equal energy sharing, as opposed to the minimum found in the pure dipole single energy differential cross section. The sum of the pure dipole and pure quadrupole single energy differentials is insensitive to non-dipole effects at 800 eV. However, the triple differential cross section at equal energy sharing of the two ejected electrons shows strong non-dipole effects due to the quadrupole interaction that may be experimentally observable.

  19. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  20. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  1. Effect of environmental pollutants on human reproduction, including birth defects

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzel, R.B.; Cetrulo, C.L.

    1981-06-01

    Because chemicals from a wide range of environmental sources have been implicated in birth defects and reproductive failures, the effects on human reproduction of chemicals in air, in the terrestrial ecosystem, and in food were studied. Chemicals considered included nicotine, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic compounds, red dye number2, DES, PCB's, TCDD, mercury, molybdenum, nickel, selenium, strontium, and zinc. The most serious source of chemical exposure to pregnant women is cigarette smoke which exposes unborn babies to high levels of carbon monoxide, cadmium, nicotine, and benzo-a-pyrene. Fetal exposure to all teratogenic compounds must be minimized.

  2. Supersonic flow past oscillating airfoils including nonlinear thickness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Milton D

    1954-01-01

    A solution to second order in thickness is derived for harmonically oscillating two-dimensional airfoils in supersonic flow. For slow oscillations of an arbitrary profile, the result is found as a series including the third power of frequency. For arbitrary frequencies, the method of solution for any specific profile is indicated, and the explicit solution derived for a single wedge. Nonlinear thickness effects are found generally to reduce the torsional damping, and so enlarge the range of Mach numbers within which torsional instability is possible.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Jet Atomization Including Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Chen, C. P.; Balasubramanyam, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes numerical implementation of a newly developed hybrid model, T-blob/T-TAB, into an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program for primary and secondary breakup simulation of liquid jet atomization. This model extend two widely used models, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz (blob model) and the Taylor-Analogy-Breakup (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O'Rourke and Amsden to include turbulence effects. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic scales and the initial flow conditions. For the secondary breakup, an additional turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. Several assessment studies are presented and the results indicate that the existing KH and TAB models tend to under-predict the product drop size and spray angle, while the current model provides superior results when compared with the measured data.

  4. Numerical optimization of conical flow waveriders including detailed viscous effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowcutt, Kevin G.; Anderson, John D., Jr.; Capriotti, Diego

    1987-01-01

    A family of optimized hypersonic waveriders is generated and studied wherein detailed viscous effects are included within the optimization process itself. This is in contrast to previous optimized waverider work, wherein purely inviscid flow is used to obtain the waverider shapes. For the present waveriders, the undersurface is a streamsurface of an inviscid conical flowfield, the upper surface is a streamsurface of the inviscid flow over a tapered cylinder (calculated by the axisymmetric method of characteristics), and the viscous effects are treated by integral solutions of the boundary layer equations. Transition from laminar to turbulent flow is included within the viscous calculations. The optimization is carried out using a nonlinear simplex method. The resulting family of viscous hypersonic waveriders yields predicted high values of lift/drag, high enough to break the L/D barrier based on experience with other hypersonic configurations. Moreover, the numerical optimization process for the viscous waveriders results in distinctly different shapes compared to previous work with inviscid-designed waveriders. Also, the fine details of the viscous solution, such as how the shear stress is distributed over the surface, and the location of transition, are crucial to the details of the resulting waverider geometry. Finally, the moment coefficient variations and heat transfer distributions associated with the viscous optimized waveriders are studied.

  5. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  6. Mimetics of caloric restriction include agonists of lipid-activated nuclear receptors.

    PubMed

    Corton, J Christopher; Apte, Udayan; Anderson, Steven P; Limaye, Pallavi; Yoon, Lawrence; Latendresse, John; Dunn, Corrie; Everitt, Jeffrey I; Voss, Kenneth A; Swanson, Cynthia; Kimbrough, Carie; Wong, Jean S; Gill, Sarjeet S; Chandraratna, Roshantha A S; Kwak, Mi-Kyoung; Kensler, Thomas W; Stulnig, Thomas M; Steffensen, Knut R; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Mehendale, Harihara M

    2004-10-29

    The obesity epidemic in industrialized countries is associated with increases in cardiovascular disease (CVD) and certain types of cancer. In animal models, caloric restriction (CR) suppresses these diseases as well as chemical-induced tissue damage. These beneficial effects of CR overlap with those altered by agonists of nuclear receptors (NR) under control of the fasting-responsive transcriptional co-activator, peroxisome proliferator-activated co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha). In a screen for compounds that mimic CR effects in the liver, we found statistically significant overlaps between the CR transcript profile in wild-type mice and the profiles altered by agonists of lipid-activated NR, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), liver X receptor, and their obligate heterodimer partner, retinoid X receptor. The overlapping genes included those involved in CVD (lipid metabolism and inflammation) and cancer (cell fate). Based on this overlap, we hypothesized that some effects of CR are mediated by PPARalpha. As determined by transcript profiling, 19% of all gene expression changes in wild-type mice were dependent on PPARalpha, including Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14, involved in fatty acid omega-oxidation, acute phase response genes, and epidermal growth factor receptor but not increases in PGC-1alpha. CR protected the livers of wild-type mice from damage induced by thioacetamide, a liver toxicant and hepatocarcinogen. CR protection was lost in PPARalpha-null mice due to inadequate tissue repair. These results demonstrate that PPARalpha mediates some of the effects of CR and indicate that a pharmacological approach to mimicking many of the beneficial effects of CR may be possible.

  7. Suggestions for revised definitions of noise quantities, including quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. R.

    1999-03-01

    Recent advances in millimeter- and submillimeter-wavelength receivers and the development of low-noise optical amplifiers focus attention on inconsistencies and ambiguities in the standard definitions of noise quantities and the procedures for measuring them. The difficulty is caused by the zero-point (quantum) noise hf/2 W/Hz, which is present even at absolute zero temperature, and also by the nonlinear dependence at low temperature of the thermal noise power of a resistor on its physical temperature, as given by the Planck law. Until recently, these effects were insignificant in all but the most exotic experiments, and the familiar Rayleigh-Jeans noise formula P=kT W/Hz could safely be used in most situations, Now, particularly in low-noise millimeter-wave and photonic devices, the quantum noise is prominent and the nonlinearity of the Planck law can no longer be neglected. The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms gives several definitions of the noise temperature of a resistor or a port, which include: 1) the physical temperature of the resistor and 2) its available noise power density divided by Boltzmann's constant-definitions which are incompatible because of the nature of the Planck radiation law. In addition, there is no indication of whether the zero-point noise should be included as part of the noise temperature. Revised definitions of the common noise quantities are suggested, which resolve the shortcomings of the present definitions. The revised definitions have only a small effect on most RF and microwave measurements, but they provide a common consistent noise terminology from dc to light frequencies.

  8. Radiometric sensor performance model including atmospheric and IR clutter effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Rudolf; Davis, Joel S.; Duggin, Michael J.

    1997-06-01

    The computer code SENSAT developed for radiometric investigations in remote sensing was extended to include two statistical clutter models of infrared background and the prediction of the target detection probability. The first one is based on the standard deviation of scene clutter estimated from scene data, the second one is based on the power spectral density of different classes of IR background as a function of temporal or spatial frequency. The overall code consists of modules describing the optoelectronic sensor (optics, detector, signal processor), a radiative transfer code (MODTRAN) to include the atmospheric effects, and the scene module consisting of target and background. The scene is evaluated for a certain pixel at a time. However, a sequence of pixels can be simulated by varying the range, view angle, atmospheric condition, or the clutter level. The target consists of one or two subpixel surface elements, the remaining part of the pixels represents background. Multiple paths, e.g. sun-ground-target-sensor, can also be selected. An expert system, based upon the IDL language, provides user-friendly input menus, performs consistency checks, and submits the required MODTRAN and SENSAT runs. A sample case of the detection probability of a sub-pixel target in a marine cluttered background is discussed.

  9. Molecular mechanisms of action of the soy isoflavones includes activation of promiscuous nuclear receptors. A review.

    PubMed

    Ricketts, Marie-Louise; Moore, David D; Banz, William J; Mezei, Orsolya; Shay, Neil F

    2005-06-01

    Consumption of soy has been demonstrated to reduce circulating cholesterol levels, most notably reducing low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic individuals. The component or components that might be responsible for this effect is still a matter of debate or controversy among many researchers. Candidate agents include an activity of soy protein itself, bioactive peptides produced during the digestive process, or the soy isoflavones. Although soy intake may provide other health benefits including preventative or remediative effects on cancer, osteoporosis and symptoms of menopause, this review will focus on isoflavones as agents affecting lipid metabolism. Isoflavones were first discovered as a bioactive agent disrupting estrogen action in female sheep, thereby earning the often-used term 'phytoestrogens'. Subsequent work confirmed the ability of isoflavones to bind to estrogen receptors. Along with the cholesterol-lowering effect of soy intake, research that is more recent has pointed to a beneficial antidiabetic effect of soy intake, perhaps mediated by soy isoflavones. The two common categories of antidiabetic drugs acting on nuclear receptors known as peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) are the fibrates and glitazones. We and others have recently asked the research question 'do the soy isoflavones have activities as either "phytofibrates" or "phytoglitazones"?' Such an activity should be able to be confirmed both in vivo and in vitro. In both the in vivo and in vitro cases, this action has indeed been confirmed. Further work suggests a possible action of isoflavones similar to the nonestrogenic ligands that bind the estrogen-related receptors (ERRs). Recently, these receptors have been demonstrated to contribute to lipolytic processes. Finally, evaluation of receptor activation studies suggests that thyroid receptor activation may provide additional clues explaining the metabolic action of isoflavones. The recent

  10. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  11. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Credit for market promotion activities, including paid... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her...) Other market promotion activities. Credit-Back shall be granted for market promotion other than...

  12. The bispectrum of cosmic string temperature fluctuations including recombination effects

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, Donough; Hindmarsh, Mark E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk

    2015-10-01

    We calculate the cosmic microwave background temperature bispectrum from cosmic strings, including the contributions from the last scattering surface, using a well-established Gaussian model for the string energy-momentum correlation functions, and a simplified model for the cosmic fluid. We check our approximation for the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW) contribution against the bispectrum obtained from the full sky map of the cosmic string ISW signal used by the Planck team, obtaining good agreement. We validate our model for the last scattering surface contribution by comparing the predicted temperature power spectrum with that obtained from a full Boltzmann code treatment applied to the Unconnected Segment Model of a string network. We find that including the last scattering contribution has only a small impact on the upper limit on the string tension resulting from the bispectrum at Planck resolutions, and argue that the bispectrum is unlikely to be competitive with the power spectrum at any resolution.

  13. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  14. Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-03-15

    The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.

  15. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; ...

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  16. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  17. Magnetic properties of nickel halide hydrates including deuteration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFotis, G. C.; Van Dongen, M. J.; Hampton, A. S.; Komatsu, C. H.; Trowell, K. T.; Havas, K. C.; Davis, C. M.; DeSanto, C. L.; Hays, K.; Wagner, M. J.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic measurements on variously hydrated nickel chlorides and bromides, including deuterated forms, are reported. Results include locations and sizes of susceptibility maxima, Tmax and χmax, ordering temperatures Tc, Curie constants and Weiss theta in the paramagnetic regime, and primary and secondary exchange interactions from analysis of low temperature data. For the latter a 2D Heisenberg model augmented by interlayer exchange in a mean-field approximation is applied. Magnetization data to 16 kG as a function of temperature show curvature and hysteresis characteristics quite system dependent. For four materials high field magnetization data to 70 kG at 2.00 K are also obtained. Comparison is made with theoretical relations for spin-1 models. Trends are apparent, primarily that Tmax of each bromide hydrate is less than for the corresponding chloride, and that for a given halide nD2O (n=1 or 2) deuterates exhibit lesser Tmax than do nH2O hydrates. A monoclinic unit cell determined from powder X-ray diffraction data on NiBr2·2D2O is different from and slightly larger than that of NiBr2·2H2O. This provides some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties between these.

  18. Hypersonic blunt body computations including real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Vinokur, M.

    1989-01-01

    Various second-order explicit and implicit TVD shock-capturing methods, a generalization of Roe's approximate Riemann solver, and a generalized flux-vector splitting scheme are used to study two-dimensional hypersonic real-gas flows. Special attention is given to the identification of some of the elements and parameters which can affect the convergence rate for high Mach numbers or real gases, but have negligible effect for low Mach numbers, for cases involving steady-state inviscid blunt flows. Blunt body calculations at Mach numbers of greater than 15 are performed to treat real-gas effects, and impinging shock results are obtained to test the treatment of slip surfaces and complex structures. Even with the addition of improvements, the convergence rate of algorithms in the hypersonic flow regime is found to be generally slower for a real gas than for a perfect gas.

  19. Evaporating Spray in Supersonic Streams Including Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Evaporating spray plays an important role in spray combustion processes. This paper describes the development of a new finite-conductivity evaporation model, based on the two-temperature film theory, for two-phase numerical simulation using Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The model is a natural extension of the T-blob/T-TAB atomization/spray model which supplies the turbulence characteristics for estimating effective thermal diffusivity within the droplet phase. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance of this model. Validation results indicate the superiority of the finite-conductivity model in low speed parallel flow evaporating sprays. High speed cross flow spray results indicate the effectiveness of the T-blob/T-TAB model and point to the needed improvements in high speed evaporating spray modeling.

  20. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations.

  1. Cosmic-Ray Effects of Propagating Shocks Including the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for a long time (Jokipii, et al, 1993) that the e~@ects of tt he heliosphere on cosmic rays extends beyond the termination shock and into the heliosheath. The inclusion of the region beyond the termination shock into models of modulation is still relatively recent. The previously-published model resultshave all been for a stationary system. We have modi~Aed our two-dimensional heliosperic cosmic-ray simulation code to be time dependent and to include a propagating shock wave which propagates out from the Sun and into the Heliosheath. The code follows the time variation of the intensity of both galacticand anomalous cosmic rays as the shock propagates past the point of observation and beyond. The results from the model simulations will be compared with recent observational results suggesting e~@ects of the heliosheath on galacticc and anomalous cosmic rays.

  2. Atomic electron energies including relativistic effects and quantum electrodynamic corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, M.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    Atomic electron energies have been calculated relativistically. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all orbitals in all atoms with 2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. These results will serve for detailed comparison of calculations based on other approaches. The magnitude of quantum electrodynamic corrections is exhibited quantitatively for each state.

  3. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  4. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader

    2016-07-01

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  5. Hypersonic blunt body computations including real gas effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montagne, J.-L.; Yee, H. C.; Klopfer, G. H.; Vinokur, M.

    1988-01-01

    The recently developed second-order explicit and implicit total variation diminishing (TVD) shock-capturing methods of the Harten and Yee, Yee, and van Leer types in conjunction with a generalized Roe's approximate Riemann solver of Vinokur and the generalized flux-vector splittings of Vinokur and Montagne for two-dimensional hypersonic real gas flows are studied. A previous study on one-dimensional unsteady problems indicated that these schemes produce good shock-capturing capability and that the state equation does not have a large effect on the general behavior of these methods for a wide range of flow conditions for equilibrium air. The objective of this paper is to investigate the applicability and shock resolution of these schemes for two-dimensional steady-state hypersonic blunt body flows. The main contribution of this paper is to identify some of the elements and parameters which can affect the convergence rate for high Mach numbers or real gases but have negligible effect for low Mach number cases for steady-state inviscid blunt body flows.

  6. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA.

  7. Extended Glauert tip correction to include vortex rollup effects

    SciTech Connect

    Maniaci, David; Schmitz, Sven

    2016-10-03

    Wind turbine loads predictions by blade-element momentum theory using the standard tip-loss correction have been shown to over-predict loading near the blade tip in comparison to experimental data. This over-prediction is theorized to be due to the assumption of light rotor loading, inherent in the standard tip-loss correction model of Glauert. A higher- order free-wake method, WindDVE, is used to compute the rollup process of the trailing vortex sheets downstream of wind turbine blades. Results obtained serve an exact correction function to the Glauert tip correction used in blade-element momentum methods. Lastly, it is found that accounting for the effects of tip vortex rollup within the Glauert tip correction indeed results in improved prediction of blade tip loads computed by blade-element momentum methods.

  8. Inelastic deformation and phenomenological modeling of aluminum including transient effect

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, C.W.

    1980-01-01

    A review was made of several phenomenological theories which have recently been proposed to describe the inelastic deformation of crystalline solids. Hart's deformation theory has many advantages, but there are disagreements with experimental deformation at stress levels below yield. A new inelastic deformation theory was proposed, introducing the concept of microplasticity. The new model consists of five deformation elements: a friction element representing a deformation element controlled by dislocation glide, a nonrecoverable plastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the strong dislocation barriers, a microplastic element representing the dislocation leakage rate over the weak barriers, a short range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable anelastic strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the weak barriers, and a long range anelastic spring element representing the recoverable strain stored by piled-up dislocations against the strong barriers. Load relaxation and tensile testing in the plastic range were used to determine the material parameters for the plastic friction elements. The short range and long range anelastic moduli and the material parameters for the kinetics of microplasticity were determined by the measurement of anelastic loops and by performing load relaxation tests in the microplastic region. Experimental results were compared with a computer simulation of the transient deformation behavior of commercial purity aluminum. An attempt was made to correlate the material parameters and the microstructure from TEM. Stability of material parameters during inelastic deformation was discussed and effect of metallurgical variables was examined experimentally. 71 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Nuclear actin activates human transcription factor genes including the OCT4 gene.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Shota; Yamamoto, Koji; Tokunaga, Makio; Sakata-Sogawa, Kumiko; Harata, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    RNA microarray analyses revealed that nuclear actin activated many human transcription factor genes including OCT4, which is required for gene reprogramming. Oct4 is known to be activated by nuclear actin in Xenopus oocytes. Our findings imply that this process of OCT4 activation is conserved in vertebrates and among cell types and could be used for gene reprogramming of human cells.

  10. Exploring the Effects of Including Students' Ideas and Concerns on Their Participation in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2011-01-01

    As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…

  11. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  12. Heparan sulfate proteoglycans including syndecan-3 modulate BMP activity during limb cartilage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Melanie C; Li, Yingcui; Seghatoleslami, M Reza; Dealy, Caroline N; Kosher, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are involved in multiple aspects of limb development including regulation of cartilage differentiation. Several BMPs bind strongly to heparin, and heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) at the cell surface or in the extracellular matrix have recently been implicated as modulators of BMP signaling in some developing systems. Here we have explored the role of HSPGs in regulating BMP activity during limb chondrogenesis by evaluating the effects of exogenous heparan sulfate (HS), heparitinase treatment, and overexpression of the HSPG syndecan-3 on the ability of BMP2 to modulate the chondrogenic differentiation of limb mesenchymal cells in micromass culture. Exogenous HS dramatically enhances the ability of BMP2 to stimulate chondrogenesis and cartilage specific gene expression, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to stimulate chondrogenesis. Furthermore, HS stimulates BMP2-mediated phosphorylation of Smad1, Smad5, and Smad8, transcriptional mediators of BMP2 signaling, indicating that HS enhances the interaction of BMP2 with its receptors. Pretreatment of micromass cultures with heparitinase to degrade endogenous HSPGs also enhances the chondrogenic activity of BMP2, and reduces the concentration of BMP2 needed to promote chondrogenesis. Taken together these results indicate that exogenous HS or heparitinase enhance the chondrogenic activity of BMP2 by interfering with its interaction with endogenous HSPGs that would normally restrict its interaction with its receptors. Consistent with the possibility that HSPGs are negative modulators of BMP signaling during chondrogenesis, we have found that overexpression of syndecan-3, which is one of the major HSPGs normally expressed during chondrogenesis, greatly impairs the ability of BMP2 to promote cartilage differentiation. Furthermore, retroviral overexpression of syndecan-3 inhibits BMP2-mediated Smad phosphorylation in the regions of the cultures in which chondrogenesis is

  13. Solar attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-08-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control, which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  14. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  15. Implementation of the Project "Including Disabled Senior Citizens in Creative Activities in 2013-2015"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploch, Leszek

    2015-01-01

    This paper made an attempt to indicate the findings of the author's research from the experiences of the implementation of the project "Including disabled senior citizens in creative activities in 2013-2015". The issues of disabled senior citizens have been an object of interest over the recent years though it still has not had a proper…

  16. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  17. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-02-01

    In the geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances caused by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control system with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. Roll/yaw control is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators. The design also includes an active nutation damping method.

  18. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health.

  19. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test.

  20. Using assistive technology adaptations to include students with learning disabilities in cooperative learning activities.

    PubMed

    Bryant, D P; Bryant, B R

    1998-01-01

    Cooperative learning (CL) is a common instructional arrangement that is used by classroom teachers to foster academic achievement and social acceptance of students with and without learning disabilities. Cooperative learning is appealing to classroom teachers because it can provide an opportunity for more instruction and feedback by peers than can be provided by teachers to individual students who require extra assistance. Recent studies suggest that students with LD may need adaptations during cooperative learning activities. The use of assistive technology adaptations may be necessary to help some students with LD compensate for their specific learning difficulties so that they can engage more readily in cooperative learning activities. A process for integrating technology adaptations into cooperative learning activities is discussed in terms of three components: selecting adaptations, monitoring the use of the adaptations during cooperative learning activities, and evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. The article concludes with comments regarding barriers to and support systems for technology integration, technology and effective instructional practices, and the need to consider technology adaptations for students who have learning disabilities.

  1. Thymoquinone causes multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Sameh E; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Azeiz, Ahmed Z Abdel; Mohammed, Rasha A; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Kamal, Khalid B H; Rabah, Samar; Sabir, Jamal S M; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Martin, Gregory B; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a major constituent of Nigella sativa oil with reported anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity in animal cells. It also inhibits proliferation and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human skin cancer cells. The present study sought to detect the influence of TQ on dividing cells of three plant systems and on expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene-like (BAG-like) genes that might be involved during the process of cell death. BAG genes are known for the regulation of diverse physiological processes in animals, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, stress responses, and cell division. Synthetic TQ at 0.1mg/mL greatly reduced wheat seed germination rate, whereas 0.2mg/mL completely inhibited germination. An Evans blue assay revealed moderate cell death in the meristematic zone of Glycine max roots after 1h of TQ treatment (0.2mg/mL), with severe cell death occurring in this zone after 2h of treatment. Light microscopy of TQ-treated (0.2mg/mL) onion hairy root tips for 1h revealed anti-mitotic activity and also cell death-associated changes, including nuclear membrane disruption and nuclear fragmentation. Transmission electron microscopy of TQ-treated cells (0.2mg/mL) for 1h revealed shrinkage of the plasma membrane, leakage of cell lysate, degradation of cell walls, enlargement of vacuoles and condensation of nuclei. Expression of one BAG-like gene, previously associated with cell death, was induced 20 min after TQ treatment in Glycine max root tip cells. Thus, TQ has multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells and plants may serve as a useful system to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the response of eukaryotic cells to TQ.

  2. Should singing activities be included in speech and voice therapy for prepubertal children?

    PubMed

    Rinta, Tiija; Welch, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Customarily, speaking and singing have tended to be regarded as two completely separate sets of behaviors in clinical and educational settings. The treatment of speech and voice disorders has focused on the client's speaking ability, as this is perceived to be the main vocal behavior of concern. However, according to a broader voice-science perspective, given that the same vocal structure is used for speaking and singing, it may be possible to include singing in speech and voice therapy. In this article, a theoretical framework is proposed that indicates possible benefits from the inclusion of singing in such therapeutic settings. Based on a literature review, it is demonstrated theoretically why singing activities can potentially be exploited in the treatment of prepubertal children suffering from speech and voice disorders. Based on this theoretical framework, implications for further empirical research and practice are suggested.

  3. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  4. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a... Contracts and Agreements Under Isdeaa § 170.623 How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  5. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  6. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  7. Modelling of an activated primary settling tank including the fermentation process and VFA elutriation.

    PubMed

    Ribes, J; Ferrer, J; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2002-10-01

    A complete model of a primary settler including both sedimentation and biological processes is presented. It is a one-dimensional model based on the solids flux concept and the conservation of mass that uses the Takács model for the settling velocity, which is corrected by a compression function in the lower layers. The biological model is based on the ASM2 and enlarged with the fermentation model proposed by this research group. The settler was split in ten layers and the flux terms in the mass balance for each layer is obtained by means of the settling model. A pilot plant has been operated to study the primary sludge fermentation and volatile fatty acids (VFA) elutriation in a primary settler tank. The model has been tested with pilot plant experimental data with very good results. It has been able to simulate the VFA production in the settler and their elutriation with the influent wastewater for all the studied experiments. The developed model is easily applicable to secondary settlers and thickeners, also taking into account biological activity inside them.

  8. Measuring Outcomes in Adult Weight Loss Studies That Include Diet and Physical Activity: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Millstein, Rachel A.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Measuring success of obesity interventions is critical. Several methods measure weight loss outcomes but there is no consensus on best practices. This systematic review evaluates relevant outcomes (weight loss, BMI, % body fat, and fat mass) to determine which might be the best indicator(s) of success. Methods. Eligible articles described adult weight loss interventions that included diet and physical activity and a measure of weight or BMI change and body composition change. Results. 28 full-text articles met inclusion criteria. Subjects, settings, intervention lengths, and intensities varied. All studies measured body weight (−2.9 to −17.3 kg), 9 studies measured BMI (−1.1 to −5.1 kg/m2), 20 studies measured % body fat (−0.7 to −10.2%), and 22 studies measured fat mass (−0.9 to −14.9 kg). All studies found agreement between weight or BMI and body fat mass or body fat % decreases, though there were discrepancies in degree of significance between measures. Conclusions. Nearly all weight or BMI and body composition measures agreed. Since body fat is the most metabolically harmful tissue type, it may be a more meaningful measure of health change. Future studies should consider primarily measuring % body fat, rather than or in addition to weight or BMI. PMID:25525513

  9. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  10. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2014-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  11. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  12. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... Program Design and Operations § 287.130 Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments,...

  13. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  14. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  15. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2008-09-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to have potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of such particles, and ignore interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we develop a new parameterization framework that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler Theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frankel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory, and i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH for which activation into cloud droplets is not possible, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. Parameterization formulations are developed for sectional and lognormal aerosol size distribution functions. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2 ~0.98.

  16. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    SciTech Connect

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  17. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  18. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  19. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... communication network), or portions of a web-site that target the farming or grower trade. (iii) For any... complementary product(s), or a handler selling multiple complementary products, including other nuts, with...

  20. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  1. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  2. In vitro and in vivo anti-plasmodial activity of essential oils, including hinokitiol.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Kamei, Kiyoko; Yamamura, Mariko; Nishiya, Hajime; Inouye, Shigeharu; Takahashi, Miki; Abe, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    Abstract. The anti-plasmodial activity of 47 essential oils and 10 of their constituents were screened for in vitro activity against Plasmodium falciparum. Five of these essential oils (sandalwood, caraway, monarda, nutmeg, and Thujopsis dolabrata var. hondai) and 2 constituents (thymoquinone and hinokitiol) were found to be active against P. falciparum in vitro, with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values equal to or less than 1.0 microg/ml. Furthermore, in vivo analysis using a rodent model confirmed the anti-plasmodial potential of subcutaneously administered sandalwood oil, and percutaneously administered hinokitiol and caraway oil against rodent P. berghei. Notably, these oils showed no efficacy when administered orally, intraperitoneally or intravenously. Caraway oil and hinokitiol dissolved in carrier oil, applied to the skin of hairless mice caused high levels in the blood, with concentrations exceeding their IC50 values.

  3. Parameterization of cloud droplet formation for global and regional models: including adsorption activation from insoluble CCN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, P.; Sokolik, I. N.; Nenes, A.

    2009-04-01

    Dust and black carbon aerosol have long been known to exert potentially important and diverse impacts on cloud droplet formation. Most studies to date focus on the soluble fraction of these particles, and overlook interactions of the insoluble fraction with water vapor (even if known to be hydrophilic). To address this gap, we developed a new parameterization that considers cloud droplet formation within an ascending air parcel containing insoluble (but wettable) particles externally mixed with aerosol containing an appreciable soluble fraction. Activation of particles with a soluble fraction is described through well-established Köhler theory, while the activation of hydrophilic insoluble particles is treated by "adsorption-activation" theory. In the latter, water vapor is adsorbed onto insoluble particles, the activity of which is described by a multilayer Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption isotherm modified to account for particle curvature. We further develop FHH activation theory to i) find combinations of the adsorption parameters AFHH, BFHH which yield atmospherically-relevant behavior, and, ii) express activation properties (critical supersaturation) that follow a simple power law with respect to dry particle diameter. The new parameterization is tested by comparing the parameterized cloud droplet number concentration against predictions with a detailed numerical cloud model, considering a wide range of particle populations, cloud updraft conditions, water vapor condensation coefficient and FHH adsorption isotherm characteristics. The agreement between parameterization and parcel model is excellent, with an average error of 10% and R2~0.98. A preliminary sensitivity study suggests that the sublinear response of droplet number to Köhler particle concentration is not as strong for FHH particles.

  4. Central activation of the sympathetic nervous system including the adrenals in anaesthetized guinea pigs by the muscarinic agonist talsaclidine.

    PubMed

    Walland, A; Pieper, M P

    1998-04-01

    Talsaclidine, a novel M1-receptor selective muscarinic agonist for cholinergic substitution therapy of Alzheimer's disease, activates the sympathetic nervous system in guinea pigs and dogs at the orthosympathic ganglia and the paraganglionic adrenals. Results from guinea pigs provide indirect evidence for an additional central site of action. The present investigation in anaesthetized and vagotomized guinea pigs intended to demonstrate central activation of the sympathetic nervous system directly by comparing the blood pressure effects of intracerebroventricular and intravenous injections of small doses of talsaclidine. Increasing doses of 0.2 and 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine were injected alternately into the third cerebral ventricle and intravenously in 6 guinea pigs before and after blockade of peripheral muscarinic receptors with 1 mg/kg ipratropium bromide i.v. In another group of 6 animals the injections were given into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris using the same protocol. In both groups central administration of talsaclidine caused dose-related hypertension while intravenous injections were hypotensive. Ipratropium bromide, a peripheral antimuscarinic drug, reversed this hypotensive action of intravenous talsaclidine into hypertension, but did not inhibit the effects of central administration. In contrast, atropine, an antimuscarinic drug which passes the blood-brain barrier, abolished the effect of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine injected into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 8 guinea pigs. The hypertensive effect of a first injection of 0.6 mg/kg talsaclidine into the cisterna cerebellomedullaris of 6 guinea pigs was approximately twice as large as that of a second given 90 min after bilateral adrenalectomy. Sham operation in another 6 animals was not inhibitory. The results demonstrate that talsaclidine, a selective muscarinic M1-receptor agonist, activates central parts of the sympathetic nervous system, including central projections of the adrenals by an action

  5. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  6. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  7. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  8. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  9. A spatial model of cellular molecular trafficking including active transport along microtubules.

    PubMed

    Cangiani, A; Natalini, R

    2010-12-21

    We consider models of Ran-driven nuclear transport of molecules such as proteins in living cells. The mathematical model presented is the first to take into account for the active transport of molecules along the cytoplasmic microtubules. All parameters entering the models are thoroughly discussed. The model is tested by numerical simulations based on discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods. The numerical experiments are compared to the behavior observed experimentally.

  10. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes.

  11. Study of VTOL in ground-effect flow field including temperature effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. G.; Jenkins, R. C.; Kalemaris, S. G.; Siclari, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed pressure, temperature, and velocity data were obtained for twin-fan configurations in-ground-effect and flow models to aid in predicting pressures and upwash forces on aircraft surfaces were developed. For the basic experiments, 49.5 mm-diameter jets were used, oriented normal to a simulated round plane, with pressurized, heated air providing a jet. The experimental data consisted of: (1) the effect of jet height and temperature on the ground, model, and upwash pressures, and temperatures, (2) the effect of simulated aircraft surfaces on the isolated flow field, (3) the jet-induced forces on a three-dimensional body with various strakes, (4) the effects of non-uniform coannular jets. For the uniform circular jets, temperature was varied from room temperature (24 C) to 232 C. Jet total pressure was varied between 9,300 Pascals and 31,500 Pascals. For the coannular jets, intended to represent turbofan engines, fan temperature was maintained at room temperature while core temperature was varied from room temperature to 437 C. Results are presented.

  12. Semi-Empirical Characterization of Ground Motions Including Source, Path and Nonlinear Site Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyhan, Emel

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the physical understanding of earthquake ground motion characteristics related to source, path and nonlinear site effects and our ability to model those effects with engineering models. Site database work was performed within the context of the NGA-West 2 project. Starting with the site database from original (2008) NGA project (last edited in 2006), we provided site classifications for 2538 new sites and re-classifications of previous sites. The principal site parameter is the time-averaged shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30 ), which is characterized using measurements where available, and proxy-based relationships otherwise. We improved the documentation and consistency of site descriptors used as proxies for the estimation of Vs30, developed evidence-based protocols for Vs30 estimation from available proxies, and augmented estimates of various basin depth parameters. Site factors typically have a small-strain site amplification that captures impedance and resonance effects coupled with nonlinear components. Site factors in current NEHRP Provisions are empirically-derived at relatively small ground motion levels and feature simulation-based nonlinearity. We show that current NEHRP site factors have discrepancies with respect to the site terms in the original NGA GMPEs both in the linear site amplification (especially for Classes B, C, D, and E) and the degree of nonlinearity (Classes C and D). We analyzed the NGA-West 2 dataset and simulation-based models for site amplification to develop a new model. The model has linear and nonlinear additive components. The linear component is fully empirical, being derived from worldwide ground motion data (regional effects were examined but found to not be sufficiently important to be included in the model). The model features linear Vs30-scaling in a log-log sense below a corner velocity (Vc), and no Vs30-scaling for velocities faster than Vc. The nonlinear component is

  13. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  14. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration.

  15. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  16. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  17. Analysis of hypersonic nozzles including vibrational nonequilibrium and intermolecular force effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canupp, Patrick W.; Candler, Graham V.; Perkins, John N.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1992-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics algorithm is developed for the study of high-pressure axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows. The effects of intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium are included in the analysis. The numerical simulation of gases with an arbitrary equation of state is discussed. Simulations for a high pressure nozzle (p(0) = 138 MPa) demonstrate that both intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium have a significant affect on the flow. These nonideal effects tend to increase the Mach number at the nozzle exit plane. Thus, they must be included in the design and analysis of high pressure hypersonic nozzles.

  18. [Development of asymmetric synthesis of optically active compounds including fluoroorganic molecules].

    PubMed

    Iseki, K

    1999-11-01

    The synthesis of chiral fluorinated molecules is important in the biological and medicinal chemistry fields in view of the influence of fluorine's unique properties on biological activity. In recent years, we have studied asymmetric synthesis focussing on such optically active compounds. This review describes 1) diastereoselective trifluoromethylation of chiral N-acyloxazolidinones, 2) catalytic enantioselective aldol reactions of fluorine-substituted ketene silyl acetals, and 3) catalytic enantioselective allylation of aldehydes mediated by chiral Lewis bases. The trifluoromethylation of lithium enolates of N-acyloxazolidinones with iodotrifluoromethane is mediated by triethylborane to give the corresponding trifluoromethylated products with up to 86% diastereomeric excess. The stereoselective reaction is considered to proceed through the attack of the trifluoromethyl radical on the less hindered face of the lithium imide. Difluoroketene and bromofluoroketene trimethylsilyl ethyl acetals react with various aldehydes in the presence of chiral Lewis acids to afford the corresponding desired aldols with up to 99% enantiomeric excess (ee). It is noteworthy that the aldol reactions of the fluorine-substituted acetals at -78 degrees C and at higher temperatures (-45 or -20 degrees C) provide the (+)- and (-)-aldols, respectively, with excellent-to-good enantioselectivity. Chiral phosphoramides newly prepared from (S)-proline were found to catalyze the allylation and crotylation of aromatic aldehydes with allylic trichlorosilanes in good enantioselective yields (up to 90% ee). (S,S)-Bis(alpha-methylbenzyl)formamide developed as an efficient catalyst for the allylation and crotylation of aliphatic aldehydes mediates the enantioselective addition with the assistance of hexamethylphosphoramide (HMPA) to afford the corresponding homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% ee.

  19. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  20. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase

    PubMed Central

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X.; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M.; Geiger, Otto

    2016-01-01

    Summary Phospholipids are well known for their membrane forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  1. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth.

  2. Development of electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the one-dimensional atmospheric electromagnetic cascade diffusion equations, including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and screening effects. Spectra produced by primary gamma rays of various energies are given at a number of deths in the atmosphere.

  3. Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included - FEM calculated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.

  4. Characterization of Samples from the 3H Evaporator System Including Effects of Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-05-15

    Analysis of several series of samples from the 3H Evaporator System have been completed. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of 3H operation including recycle of concentrated supernate from Tank 30H into the sludge layer of Tank 32H.

  5. Free vibration of thermally loaded panels including initial imperfections and post-buckling effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K. D.; Virgin, L. N.; Rizzi, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to consider the small amplitude free vibration characteristics of fully clamped panels under the influence of uniform heating. Included in this study are the effects of higher modes, in-plane boundary elasticity, initial imperfections, and post-buckling. Comparisons between theory and experiment reveal excellent agreement.

  6. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  7. Comparative Analysis and Approximations of Space -Charge Formation in Langmuir Electrodes Including Temperature Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdeblànquez, Eder

    2001-10-01

    Eder Valdeblànquez,Universidad del Zulia,Apartado 4011-A 526,Maracaibo,Venezuela. ABSTRACT: In this paper by space charge effect in Langmuir probes are compared for different kind of symmetries; plane, cylindrical and spherical. A detailed analysis is performed here including temperature effects, and therefore kinetic theory is used instead of fluid equations as other authors. The strongly non-linear equations obtained here have been solved first by numerical analysis and later by approximations using Bessel functions. The accuracy of each approximaton is also discussed. Space Charge effects are important in plane geometries than in the case of cylindrical or spherical symmetries.

  8. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  9. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  10. Unsteady transonic small-disturbance theory including entropy and vorticity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Modifications to unsteady transonic small disturbance theory to include entropy and vorticity effects are presented. The modifications were implemented in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations in the flutter critical transonic speed range. Entropy and vorticity effects were incorporated within the solution procedure to more accurately analyze flows with strong shock waves. The modified code includes these effects while retaining the relative simplicity and cost efficiency of the TSD formulation. Detailed descriptions are presented of the entropy and vorticity modifications along with calculated results and comparisons which assess the modified theory. These results are in good agreement with parallel Euler calculations and with experimental data. Therefore, the present method now provides the aeroelastician with an affordable capability to analyze relatively difficult transonic flows without having to solve the computationally more expensive Euler equations.

  11. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities; modifications. 440.11 Section 440.11 Aeronautics and... Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted...

  12. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective.

  13. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending time…

  14. Including nonadditive genetic effects in mating programs to maximize dairy farm profitability.

    PubMed

    Aliloo, H; Pryce, J E; González-Recio, O; Cocks, B G; Goddard, M E; Hayes, B J

    2017-02-01

    We compared the outcome of mating programs based on different evaluation models that included nonadditive genetic effects (dominance and heterozygosity) in addition to additive effects. The additive and dominance marker effects and the values of regression on average heterozygosity were estimated using 632,003 single nucleotide polymorphisms from 7,902 and 7,510 Holstein cows with calving interval and production (milk, fat, and protein yields) records, respectively. Expected progeny values were computed based on the estimated genetic effects and genotype probabilities of hypothetical progeny from matings between the available genotyped cows and the top 50 young genomic bulls. An index combining the traits based on their economic values was developed and used to evaluate the performance of different mating scenarios in terms of dollar profit. We observed that mating programs with nonadditive genetic effects performed better than a model with only additive effects. Mating programs with dominance and heterozygosity effects increased milk, fat, and protein yields by up to 38, 1.57, and 1.21 kg, respectively. The inclusion of dominance and heterozygosity effects decreased calving interval by up to 0.70 d compared with random mating. The average reduction in progeny inbreeding by the inclusion of nonadditive genetic effects in matings compared with random mating was between 0.25 to 1.57 and 0.64 to 1.57 percentage points for calving interval and production traits, respectively. The reduction in inbreeding was accompanied by an average of A$8.42 (Australian dollars) more profit per mating for a model with additive, dominance, and heterozygosity effects compared with random mating. Mate allocations that benefit from nonadditive genetic effects can improve progeny performance only in the generation where it is being implemented, and the gain from specific combining abilities cannot be accumulated over generations. Continuous updating of genomic predictions and mate

  15. Effects of narcotics, including morphine, on visual evoked potential in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuroda, Ken; Fujiwara, Akinori; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Kamei, Chiaki

    2009-01-14

    The side effects of narcotics, including morphine, on the visual system are still unclear; therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of narcotics on the visual system at each antinociceptive dose by using the evoked potential (VEP) in rats. Morphine (2 or 5 mg/kg) caused a significant increase in the amplitude of early and late VEP components (P(1)-N(1), N(1)-P(2), P(3)-N(3) and N(3)-P(4)). Fentanyl (0.02 mg/kg) also showed a significant increase in the amplitude of late VEP components (P(3)-N(3), N(3)-P(4)). The effects of morphine and fentanyl on VEP components were antagonized by naloxone (1 mg/kg). On the other hand, (+/-)-pentazocine (20 mg/kg) reduced the amplitude of the late VEP component (N(3)-P(4)), and this effect was not antagonized by naloxone. Butorphanol showed no significant changes in early and late VEP components. In conclusion, morphine stimulated the retino-geniculate-cortex pathway and the thalamus-cortical circuit through the opioid receptors, and fentanyl stimulated the thalamus-cortical circuit through the opioid receptors. It can therefore be assumed that VEP is a useful tool for examining the side effects of drugs, including narcotics, on the visual system.

  16. Vibration and damping of laminated, composite-material plates including thickness-shear effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.; Siu, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation of sinusoidally forced vibration of laminated, anisotropic plates including bending-stretching coupling, thickness-shear flexibility, all three types of inertia effects, and material damping is presented. In the analysis the effects of thickness-shear deformation are considered by the use of a shear correction factor K, analogous to that used by Mindlin for homogeneous plates. Two entirely different approaches for calculating the thickness-shear factor for a laminate are presented. Numerical examples indicate that the value of K depends on the layer properties and the stacking sequence of the laminate.

  17. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  18. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  19. An air/sea flux model including the effects of capillary waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourassa, Mark A.

    1993-01-01

    An improved model of the air/sea interface is developed. The improvements consist in including the effect of capillary (surface tension) waves on the tropical surface fluxes and the consideration of the sea state, both of which increase the magnitude of tropical surface fluxes. Changes in surface stress are most significant in the low wind-speed regions, which include the areas where westerly bursts occur. It is shown that the changes, from the regular wind conditions to those of a westerly burst or El-Nino, can double when the effects of capillary waves are considered. This implies a much stronger coupling between the ocean and the atmosphere than is predicted by other boundary layer models.

  20. Predicting the Turbulent Air-Sea Surface Fluxes, Including Spray Effects, from Weak to Strong Winds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Engineering Laboratory started in FY12 a project to study spray icing of offshore structures that is funded under ONR’s Arctic program. In January...20295. [in press, refereed] Jones, K. F., and E. L Andreas, 2012: Sea spray concentrations and the icing of fixed offshore structures . Quarterly...Including Spray Effects, from Weak to Strong Winds Edgar L Andreas NorthWest Research Associates, Inc. 25 Eagle Ridge Lebanon, New Hampshire 03766

  1. Extension of a vortex-lattice method to include the effects of leading-edge separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mook, D. T.; Maddox, S. A.

    1974-01-01

    Vortex-lattice methods have been used successfully to obtain the aerodynamic coefficients of lifting surfaces without leading-edge separation. It is shown how an existing vortex-lattice method can be modified to include the effects of leading-edge separation. The modified version is then used to calculate the aerodynamic loads on a highly swept delta wing. The results are compared with Peckham's (1958) experimental data.

  2. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  3. Experimental Investigation of a Supersonic Boundary Layer Including Favorable Pressure Gradient Effects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-21

    United States Government. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF A SUPERSONIC BOUNDARY LAYER INCLUDING FAVORABLE PRESSURE GRADIENT EFFECTS THESIS Presented to...flow to be disturbed from its original state . Aside from providing a non-intrusive method of measurement, LDV has the advantage of measuring the...providing some useful test of turbulence modeling. 4. Well-defined experimental boundary conditions: All incoming conditions (especially the state of

  4. Including hydrological self-regulating processes in peatland models: Effects on peatmoss drought projections.

    PubMed

    Nijp, Jelmer J; Metselaar, Klaas; Limpens, Juul; Teutschbein, Claudia; Peichl, Matthias; Nilsson, Mats B; Berendse, Frank; van der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M

    2017-02-15

    The water content of the topsoil is one of the key factors controlling biogeochemical processes, greenhouse gas emissions and biosphere - atmosphere interactions in many ecosystems, particularly in northern peatlands. In these wetland ecosystems, the water content of the photosynthetic active peatmoss layer is crucial for ecosystem functioning and carbon sequestration, and is sensitive to future shifts in rainfall and drought characteristics. Current peatland models differ in the degree in which hydrological feedbacks are included, but how this affects peatmoss drought projections is unknown. The aim of this paper was to systematically test whether the level of hydrological detail in models could bias projections of water content and drought stress for peatmoss in northern peatlands using downscaled projections for rainfall and potential evapotranspiration in the current (1991-2020) and future climate (2061-2090). We considered four model variants that either include or exclude moss (rain)water storage and peat volume change, as these are two central processes in the hydrological self-regulation of peatmoss carpets. Model performance was validated using field data of a peatland in northern Sweden. Including moss water storage as well as peat volume change resulted in a significant improvement of model performance, despite the extra parameters added. The best performance was achieved if both processes were included. Including moss water storage and peat volume change consistently reduced projected peatmoss drought frequency with >50%, relative to the model excluding both processes. Projected peatmoss drought frequency in the growing season was 17% smaller under future climate than current climate, but was unaffected by including the hydrological self-regulating processes. Our results suggest that ignoring these two fine-scale processes important in hydrological self-regulation of northern peatlands will have large consequences for projected climate change impact on

  5. Boundary Layer Transition over Blunt Hypersonic Vehicles Including Effects of Ablation-Induced Out-Gassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Computations are performed to study the boundary layer instability mechanisms pertaining to hypersonic flow over blunt capsules. For capsules with ablative heat shields, transition may be influenced both by out-gassing associated with surface pyrolysis and the resulting modification of surface geometry including the formation of micro-roughness. To isolate the effects of out-gassing, this paper examines the stability of canonical boundary layer flows over a smooth surface in the presence of gas injection into the boundary layer. For a slender cone, the effects of out-gassing on the predominantly second mode instability are found to be stabilizing. In contrast, for a blunt capsule flow dominated by first mode instability, out-gassing is shown to be destabilizing. Analogous destabilizing effects of outgassing are also noted for both stationary and traveling modes of crossflow instability over a blunt sphere-cone configuration at angle of attack.

  6. Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.

  7. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Cheng; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (μBI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  8. Transient Response Dynamic Module Modifications to Include Static and Kinetic Friction Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misel, J. E.; Nenno, S. B.; Takahashi, D.

    1984-01-01

    A methodology that supports forced transient response dynamic solutions when both static and kinetic friction effects are included in a structural system model is described. Modifications that support this type of nonlinear transient response solution are summarized for the transient response dynamics (TRD) NASTRAN module. An overview of specific modifications for the NASTRAN processing subroutines, INITL, TRD1C, and TRD1D, are described with further details regarding inspection of nonlinear input definitions to define the type of nonlinear solution required, along with additional initialization requirements and specific calculation subroutines to successfully solve the transient response problem. The extension of the basic NASTRAN nonlinear methodology is presented through several stages of development to the point where constraint equations and residual flexibility effects are introduced into the finite difference Newmark-Beta recurrsion formulas. Particular emphasis is placed on cost effective solutions for large finite element models such as the Space Shuttle with friction degrees of freedom between the orbiter and payloads mounted in the cargo bay. An alteration to the dynamic finite difference equations of motion is discussed, which allows one to include friction effects at reasonable cost for large structural systems such as the Space Shuttle. Data are presented to indicate the possible impact of transient friction loads to the payload designer for the Space Shuttle. Transient response solution data are also included, which compare solutions without friction forces and those with friction forces for payloads mounted in the Space Shuttle cargo bay. These data indicate that payload components can be sensitive to friction induced loads.

  9. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  10. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  11. Cellular effects of curcumin on Plasmodium falciparum include disruption of microtubules.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Rimi; Rawat, Parkash S; Cooke, Brian M; Coppel, Ross L; Patankar, Swati

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin has been widely investigated for its myriad cellular effects resulting in reduced proliferation of various eukaryotic cells including cancer cells and the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Studies with human cancer cell lines HT-29, Caco-2, and MCF-7 suggest that curcumin can bind to tubulin and induce alterations in microtubule structure. Based on this finding, we investigated whether curcumin has any effect on P. falciparum microtubules, considering that mammalian and parasite tubulin are 83% identical. IC50 of curcumin was found to be 5 µM as compared to 20 µM reported before. Immunofluorescence images of parasites treated with 5 or 20 µM curcumin showed a concentration-dependent effect on parasite microtubules resulting in diffuse staining contrasting with the discrete hemispindles and subpellicular microtubules observed in untreated parasites. The effect on P. falciparum microtubules was evident only in the second cycle for both concentrations tested. This diffuse pattern of tubulin fluorescence in curcumin treated parasites was similar to the effect of a microtubule destabilizing drug vinblastine on P. falciparum. Molecular docking predicted the binding site of curcumin at the interface of alpha and beta tubulin, similar to another destabilizing drug colchicine. Data from predicted drug binding is supported by results from drug combination assays showing antagonistic interactions between curcumin and colchicine, sharing a similar binding site, and additive/synergistic interactions of curcumin with paclitaxel and vinblastine, having different binding sites. This evidence suggests that cellular effects of curcumin are at least, in part, due to its perturbing effect on P. falciparum microtubules. The action of curcumin, both direct and indirect, on P. falciparum microtubules is discussed.

  12. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Pressing Section of a Paper Machine Including Dynamic Capillary Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printsypar, G.; Iliev, O.; Rief, S.

    2011-12-01

    Paper production is a challenging problem which attracts attention of many scientists. The process which is of our interest takes place in the pressing section of a paper machine. The paper layer is dried by means of the pressing it against fabrics, i.e. press felts. The paper-felt sandwich is transported through the press nips at high speed (for more details see [3]). Since the natural drainage of water in the felts is much longer than the drying in the pressing section we include in the consideration the dynamic capillary effect. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation proposed by Hassanizadeh and Gray (see [2]) is adopted for the pressing process. One of the other issues which is taken into account while modeling the pressing section is the appearance of fully saturated regions. We include in consideration two flow regimes: the one-phase water flow and the two-phase air-water flow. It leads to a free boundary problem. We also account for the complexity of the paper-felt sandwich porous structure. Apart from the two flow regimes the computational domain is divided by layers into nonoverlapping subdomains. Then, the system of equations describing transport processes in the pressing section is stated taking into account all these features. The presented model is discretized by the finite volume method. We carry out some numerical experiments for different configurations of the pressing section (roll press, shoe press) and for parameters which are typical for paper-felt sandwich during the paper production process. The experiments show that the dynamic capillary effect has a significant influence on the distribution of pressure even for small values of the material coefficient (see Fig. 1). The obtained results are in agreement with laboratory experiment performed in [1], which states that the distribution of the pressure is not symmetric with the maximum value occurring in front of the center of the pressing nip and the minimum value less than entry

  13. Including the Effects of Electronic Excitations and Electron-Phonon Coupling in Cascade Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Duffy, Dorothy |

    2008-07-01

    Radiation damage has traditionally been modeled using cascade simulations however such simulations generally neglect the effects of electron-ion interactions, which may be significant in high energy cascades. A model has been developed which includes the effects of electronic stopping and electron-phonon coupling in Molecular Dynamics simulations by means of an inhomogeneous Langevin thermostat. The energy lost by the atoms to electronic excitations is gained by the electronic system and the energy evolution of the electronic system is modeled by the heat diffusion equation. Energy is exchanged between the electronic system and the atoms in the Molecular Dynamics simulation by means of a Langevin thermostat, the temperature of which is the local electronic temperature. The model is applied to a 10 keV cascade simulation for Fe. (authors)

  14. Viscous-inviscid interaction method including wake effects for three-dimensional wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction method has been developed by using a three-dimensional integral boundary-layer method which produces results in good agreement with a finite-difference method in a fraction of the computer time. The integral method is stable and robust and incorporates a model for computation in a small region of streamwise separation. A locally two-dimensional wake model, accounting for thickness and curvature effects, is also included in the interaction procedure. Computation time spent in converging an interacted result is, many times, only slightly greater than that required to converge an inviscid calculation. Results are shown from the interaction method, run at experimental angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number, on a wing-body test case for which viscous effects are large. Agreement with experiment is good; in particular, the present wake model improves prediction of the spanwise lift distribution and lower surface cove pressure.

  15. Calculation of P, T-odd effects in 205TlF including electron correlation.

    PubMed

    Petrov, A N; Mosyagin, N S; Isaev, T A; Titov, A V; Ezhov, V F; Eliav, E; Kaldor, U

    2002-02-18

    A method and codes for two-step correlation calculations of heavy-atom molecules have been developed, employing the generalized relativistic effective core potential (GRECP) and relativistic coupled cluster (RCC) methods at the first step, followed by nonvariational one-center restoration of proper four-component spinors in the heavy cores. Electron correlation is included for the first time in an ab initio calculation of the interaction of the permanent P,T-odd proton electric dipole moments with the internal electromagnetic field in a molecule. Inclusion of electron correlation by GRECP/RCC has a major effect on the P,T-odd parameters of 205TlF, decreasing M by 17% and X by 22%.

  16. It is premature to include non-CO 2 effects of aviation in emission trading schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forster, Piers M. de F.; Shine, Keith P.; Stuber, Nicola

    The recent G8 Gleneagles climate statement signed on 8 July 2005 specifically mentions a determination to lessen the impact of aviation on climate [ Gleneagles, 2005. The Gleneagles communique: climate change, energy and sustainable development. http://www.fco.gov.uk/Files/kfile/PostG8_Gleneagles_Communique.pdf]. In January 2005 the European Union Emission Trading Scheme (ETS) commenced operation as the largest multi-country, multi-sector ETS in the world, albeit currently limited only to CO 2 emissions. At present the scheme makes no provision for aircraft emissions. However, the UK Government would like to see aircraft included in the ETS and plans to use its Presidencies of both the EU and G8 in 2005 to implement these schemes within the EU and perhaps internationally. Non-CO 2 effects have been included in some policy-orientated studies of the impact of aviation but we argue that the inclusion of such effects in any such ETS scheme is premature; we specifically argue that use of the Radiative Forcing Index for comparing emissions from different sources is inappropriate and that there is currently no metric for such a purpose that is likely to enable their inclusion in the near future.

  17. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    DOE PAGES

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; ...

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at amore » fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.« less

  18. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at a fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.

  19. Three-Dimensional Orbits of Earth Satellites, Including Effects of Earth Oblateness and Atmospheric Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.; Goodwin, Frederick K.; Mersman, William A.

    1958-01-01

    The principal purpose of the present paper is to present sets of equations which may be used for calculating complete trajectories of earth satellites from outer space to the ground under the influence of air drag and gravity, including oblateness effects, and to apply these to several examples of entry trajectories starting from a circular orbit. Equations of motion, based on an "instantaneous ellipse" technique, with polar angle as independent variable, were found suitable for automatic computation of orbits in which the trajectory consists of a number of revolutions. This method is suitable as long as the trajectory does not become nearly vertical. In the terminal phase of the trajectories, which are nearly vertical, equations of motion in spherical polar coordinates with time as the independent variable were found to be more suitable. In the first illustrative example the effects of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field and of atmospheric rotation were studied for equatorial orbits. The satellites were launched into circular orbits at a height of 120 miles, an altitude sufficiently high that a number of revolutions could be studied. The importance of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field is shown by the fact that a satellite launched at circular orbital speed, neglecting oblateness, has a perigee some 67,000 feet lower when oblateness forces are included in the equations of motion than when they are not included. Also, the loss in altitude per revolution is double that of a satellite following an orbit not subject to oblateness. The effect of atmospheric rotation on the loss of altitude per revolution was small. As might be surmised, the regression of the line of nodes as predicted by celestial mechanics is unchanged when drag is included. It is clear that the inclination of the orbital plane to the equator will be relatively unaffected by drag for no atmospheric rotation since the drag lies in the orbital plane in

  20. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  1. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses

    2015-11-01

    The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  2. Transmission line model for strained quantum well lasers including carrier transport and carrier heating effects.

    PubMed

    Xia, Mingjun; Ghafouri-Shiraz, H

    2016-03-01

    This paper reports a new model for strained quantum well lasers, which are based on the quantum well transmission line modeling method where effects of both carrier transport and carrier heating have been included. We have applied this new model and studied the effect of carrier transport on the output waveform of a strained quantum well laser both in time and frequency domains. It has been found that the carrier transport increases the turn-on, turn-off delay times and damping of the quantum well laser transient response. Also, analysis in the frequency domain indicates that the carrier transport causes the output spectrum of the quantum well laser in steady state to exhibit a redshift which has a narrower bandwidth and lower magnitude. The simulation results of turning-on transients obtained by the proposed model are compared with those obtained by the rate equation laser model. The new model has also been used to study the effects of pump current spikes on the laser output waveforms properties, and it was found that the presence of current spikes causes (i) wavelength blueshift, (ii) larger bandwidth, and (iii) reduces the magnitude and decreases the side-lobe suppression ratio of the laser output spectrum. Analysis in both frequency and time domains confirms that the new proposed model can accurately predict the temporal and spectral behaviors of strained quantum well lasers.

  3. Coupled microvibration analysis of a reaction wheel assembly including gyroscopic effects in its accelerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhe; Aglietti, Guglielmo S.; Ren, Weijia

    2013-10-01

    This article discusses the coupled microvibration analysis of a cantilever configured Reaction Wheel Assembly with soft-suspension system. A RWA-seismic mass coupled microvibration measurement system is presented and its model validated against test results. The importance of the RWA driving point accelerances in coupled microvibration analysis is thoroughly discussed. A RWA accelerance measurement system has been designed to measure the driving point accelerances in both static (flywheel not spinning) and dynamic (flywheel spinning) conditions. Analytically, RWA static accelerance is obtained by frequency response analysis of a finite element model. The traditionally ignored gyroscopic effects in the accelerances are included in the model and their effects with respect to traditional models are shown both theoretically and experimentally. Although at high angular speed, when nonlinearities in the microvibrations prevent an accurate simulation, it is shown that the predicted microvibrations match more closely with the test results when considering gyroscopic effects in RWA accelerances than those predicted using the traditional method. The presented coupled microvibration analysis method is also very efficient in practice and is applicable in an industrial environment.

  4. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to < 10 μm, < 25 μm and 10-25 μm by gravitational sedimentation in suspensions. We also examined the cellular effects of fine regolith simulant whose primary particle size is 5.10 μm. These regolith simulants were applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and immune response were examined after 24 h exposure. Cell membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. The cellular effects of the regolith simulant at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml were small, as compared with crystalline silica as a positive control. Secretion of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, but induction of gene expression was not observed at 24 h after exposure. Induction of cellular oxidative stress was small. Although the cellular effects tended to be stronger in the < 10 μm particles, there was no remarkable difference. These results suggest that the chemical components and particle size have little relationship to the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect.

  5. The Utility of Including the Strengths of Underage Drinking Laws in Determining Their Effect on Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Fell, James C.; Scherer, Michael; Voas, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Background To control underage drinking in the United States, which has been associated with an estimated 5,000 deaths and 2.6 million injuries or other harm annually, each state has developed a unique set of laws. Previous research examining these laws’ effectiveness has frequently focused on the laws’ existence without considering variance in sanctions, enforcement, or exemptions. Methods We scored 20 minimum legal drinking age 21 (MLDA-21) laws for their strengths and weaknesses based on (1) sanctions for violating the law, (2) exceptions or exemptions affecting application, and (3) provisions affecting the law or enforcement. We then replicated a 2009 study of the effects of six MLDA-21 laws in three different ways (using identical structural equation modeling): Study 1—eight additional years of data, no law strengths; Study 2—years from the original study, added law strengths; Study 3—additional years, law strengths, serving as an update of the six laws’ effects. Results In all three studies—and the original study—keg registration laws were associated with both an unexpected significant increase (+11%, p < .001) in underage drinking-driver ratios and a notable 25% reduction in per capita beer consumption—opposing results that are difficult to explain. In Study 3, possession and purchase laws were associated with a significant decrease in underage drinking-driver fatal crash ratios (−4.9%, p < .001; −3.6%, p < .001, respectively). Similarly, zero tolerance and use and lose laws were associated with reductions in underage drinking-driver ratios (−2.8%, p < .001; −5.3%, p < .001, respectively). Conclusions Including strengths and weaknesses of underage drinking laws is important when examining their effects on various outcomes as the model fit statistics indicated. We suggest that this will result in more accurate and more reliable estimates of the impact of the laws on various outcome measures. PMID:26148047

  6. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  7. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  8. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis.

  9. Measured backscatter and attenuation properties, including polarization effects, of various dispersions at 0.9 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. H.; Flaherty, M. I.; Partin, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The optical properties of a wide variety of atmospheric dispersions were studied using a 0.9-micron lidar system which included a GaAs laser stack transmitter emitting a horizontally polarized beam of 4 milliradians vertical divergence and 1.5 milliradians horizontal divergence. A principal means for assessing optical properties was the polarization ratio, that is, the backscattered radiation power perpendicular to the transmitter beam divided by the backscattered radiation power parallel to the beam polarization. The ratio of the backscattered fraction to the attenuation coefficient was also determined. Data on the dispersion properties of black carbon smoke, road dust, fog, fair-weather cumulus clouds, snow and rain were obtained; the adverse effects of sunlight-induced background noise on the readings is also discussed.

  10. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  11. EGFR-activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Pfäffle, Heike N; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H; Sequist, Lecia V; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-10-15

    In patients with lung cancer whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the EGF receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared with wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of cross-linker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2-M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand cross-link (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR-mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in vitro and in vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer.

  12. The role of kinetic effects, including plasma rotation and energetic particles, in resistive wall mode stability

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Reimerdes, H.; Betti, R.; Hu, B.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Manickam, J.; Podesta, M.

    2010-08-15

    The resistive wall mode (RWM) instability in high-beta tokamaks is stabilized by energy dissipation mechanisms that depend on plasma rotation and kinetic effects. Kinetic modification of ideal stability calculated with the 'MISK' code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)] is outlined. For an advanced scenario ITER [R. Aymar et al., Nucl. Fusion 41, 1301 (2001)] plasma, the present calculation finds that alpha particles are required for RWM stability at presently expected levels of plasma rotation. Kinetic stabilization theory is tested in an experiment in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] that produced marginally stable plasmas with various energetic particle contents. Plasmas with the highest and lowest energetic particle content agree with calculations predicting that increased energetic particle pressure is stabilizing but does not alter the nonmonotonic dependence of stability on plasma rotation due to thermal particle resonances. Presently, the full MISK model, including thermal particles and an isotropic slowing-down distribution function for energetic particles, overpredicts stability in NSTX experiments. Minor alteration of either effect in the theory may yield agreement; several possibilities are discussed.

  13. Effect on lamb meat quality of including thyme (Thymus zygis ssp. gracilis) leaves in ewes' diet.

    PubMed

    Nieto, Gema; Díaz, Pedro; Bañón, Sancho; Garrido, María Dolores

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of including thyme leaves (TL) in the diet of pregnant sheep on the sensorial characteristics, bacterial spoilage and oxidative stability of lamb meat stored in modified atmosphere (70% O(2):30% CO(2)). For this, thirty-six sheep were randomly assigned to three groups: control (basal diet), T(1) (3.7% thyme leaves), T(2) (7.5% thyme leaves). Meat spoilage (TV, PSY, MY, ENT, and LA), TBARS, CIELAB coordinates, metmyoglobin and the sensory characteristics of fresh lamb meat were analyzed on days 0, 7, 14 and 21. The presence of antioxidant compounds in the diet containing TL delayed (P<0.05) colour deterioration, lipid oxidation and bacterial counts, while at the same time imparting a better appearance to the fresh lamb meat. In general, this effect was more pronounced at the higher level of TL (7.5%). High Pearson's correlation coefficients were found between the sensory attributes, CIELAB coordinates and TBARS.

  14. Jet Noise Modeling for Coannular Nozzles Including the Effects of Chevrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of good predictive models for jet noise has always been plagued by the difficulty in obtaining good quality data over a wide range of conditions in different facilities.We consider such issues very carefully in selecting data to be used in developing our model. Flight effects are of critical importance, and none of the means of determining them are without significant problems. Free-jet flight simulation facilities are very useful, and can provide meaningful data so long as they can be analytically transformed to the flight frame of reference. In this report we show that different methodologies used by NASA and industry to perform this transformation produce very different results, especially in the rear quadrant; this compels us to rely largely on static data to develop our model, but we show reasonable agreement with simulated flight data when these transformation issues are considered. A persistent problem in obtaining good quality data is noise generated in the experimental facility upstream of the test nozzle: valves, elbows, obstructions, and especially the combustor can contribute significant noise, and much of this noise is of a broadband nature, easily confused with jet noise. Muffling of these sources is costly in terms of size as well as expense, and it is particularly difficult in flight simulation facilities, where compactness of hardware is very important, as discussed by Viswanathan (Ref. 13). We feel that the effects of jet density on jet mixing noise may have been somewhat obscured by these problems, leading to the variable density exponent used in most jet noise prediction procedures including our own. We investigate this issue, applying Occam s razor, (e.g., Ref. 14), in a search for the simplest physically meaningful model that adequately describes the observed phenomena. In a similar vein, we see no reason to reject the Lighthill approach; it provides a very solid basis upon which to build a predictive procedure, as we believe we

  15. Including the effects of filamentous bulking sludge during the simulation of wastewater treatment plants using a risk assessment model.

    PubMed

    Flores-Alsina, Xavier; Comas, Joaquim; Rodriguez-Roda, Ignasi; Gernaey, Krist V; Rosen, Christian

    2009-10-01

    The main objective of this paper is to demonstrate how including the occurrence of filamentous bulking sludge in a secondary clarifier model will affect the predicted process performance during the simulation of WWTPs. The IWA Benchmark Simulation Model No. 2 (BSM2) is hereby used as a simulation case study. Practically, the proposed approach includes a risk assessment model based on a knowledge-based decision tree to detect favourable conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge. Once such conditions are detected, the settling characteristics of the secondary clarifier model are automatically changed during the simulation by modifying the settling model parameters to mimic the effect of growth of filamentous bacteria. The simulation results demonstrate that including effects of filamentous bulking in the secondary clarifier model results in a more realistic plant performance. Particularly, during the periods when the conditions for the development of filamentous bulking sludge are favourable--leading to poor activated sludge compaction, low return and waste TSS concentrations and difficulties in maintaining the biomass in the aeration basins--a subsequent reduction in overall pollution removal efficiency is observed. Also, a scenario analysis is conducted to examine i) the influence of sludge retention time (SRT), the external recirculation flow rate (Q(r)) and the air flow rate in the bioreactor (modelled as k(L)a) as factors promoting bulking sludge, and ii) the effect on the model predictions when the settling properties are changed due to a possible proliferation of filamentous microorganisms. Finally, the potentially adverse effects of certain operational procedures are highlighted, since such effects are normally not considered by state-of-the-art models that do not include microbiology-related solids separation problems.

  16. [Effect of a complex treatment, including glutargin and erbisol on the blood plasma content of protein P53, apoptotic markers of type II, activity of caspases and the level of sCD 117 in patients with autonomic-vascular dystonia].

    PubMed

    Krychun, I I

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that the blood content of protein P53 diminishes by 27%, the blood level of sTRAIL increases by 22%, sCD 117 increases by 44% in patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypertonic type that is accompanied by an increase of the activity of caspases-1 however the activity of caspases-3 and - 8 as well as the blood content of TNF-alpha do not change. Multimodality therapy using glutargin does not influence on the level of the blood plasma TNF-alpha and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8, normalizes the blood content of sTRAIL and sCD 117, however does not change the plasma concentration of protein P53 which remains lower by 35% than the control indices. In patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypotonic type the concentration of blood plasma protein P53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8 correspond to the control values against a background of an almost twofold increase of the plasma sCD 117 level. The use of erbisol in a complex of therapeutic agents does not change the activity of caspases-l,-3,-8 and does not influence on the blood content of protein p53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and diminishes the plasma level of sCD 117 up to control values. A considerable elevation of the blood content of type II apoptotic factors is characteristic of the mixed type of vegeto-vascular dystonia: the level of protein p53 increases 2,4 times, TNF-alpha - 1,9 times, sTRAIL - 2,3 times that is accompanied by an increased activity of caspase-1 - 4,1 times, caspase-3 - 3,3 times, caspase-8 - 3,8 times and an increase of the plasma concentration of sCD 117 - 3,5 times. The use of erbisol and glutargin in multimodality therapy normalizes the plasma concentration of TNF-alpha and diminishes the blood content of protein P53 by 33% and sTRAIL - by 42% which, nevertheless remains higher than the control value by 58% and 36% respectively. The combined effects of glutargin and erbisol in patients of this group are characterized by a

  17. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  18. Sericea Lespedeza has no anticoccidial effect when included in the diet of chickens infected with three species of Eimeria.

    PubMed

    Rathinam, T; Gadde, U; Chapman, H D

    2014-05-28

    Anticoccidial effects of Sericea Lespedeza (SL) included in the diet at different levels were evaluated in chickens following oral infection with sporulated oocysts of either Eimeria acervulina, Eimeria maxima or Eimeria tenella. A series of experiments were conducted to determine the effect of SL upon the ability of the parasites to multiply in the intestine, and the effect on bodyweight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion following infection. Chicks infected with a low dose of oocysts (500 oocysts/bird) of E. acervulina or E. maxima did not show differences in the numbers of oocysts produced in the feces whether they were given 0, 1, 2, or 4% SL in the diet. There was no significant difference in the weight gain, feed intake, or FCR of birds infected with high doses of E. acervulina or E. maxima (200,000 or 100,000 oocysts/bird respectively) whether 0, 1, 2, or 4% SL was included in the feed. No significant difference in the numbers of oocysts in the feces, weight gain, feed intake, and FCR of birds infected with E. tenella (low dose of 500 oocysts; high dose of 50,000 oocysts per bird) whether 4% SL was included in the feed. The results of this study indicate that SL has no anticoccidial activity against Eimeria species in the chicken.

  19. Environmental assessment of biofuel chains based on ecosystem modelling, including land-use change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielle, B.; Gagnaire, N.; Massad, R.; Prieur, V.; Python, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The potential greenhouse gas (GHG) savings resulting from the displacement of fossil energy sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from arable soils occuring during feedstock production. These emissions are broadly related to fertilizer nitrogen input rates, but largely controlled by soil and climate factors which makes their estimation highly uncertain. Here, we set out to improve estimates of N2O emissions from bioenergy feedstocks by using ecosystem models and measurements and modeling of atmospheric N2O in the greater Paris (France) area. Ground fluxes were measured in two locations to assess the effect of soil type and management, crop type (including lignocellulosics such as triticale, switchgrass and miscanthus), and climate on N2O emission rates and dynamics. High-resolution maps of N2O emissions were generated over the Ile-de-France region (around Paris) with two ecosystem models using geographical databases on soils, weather data, land-use and crop management. The models were tested against ground flux measurements and the emission maps were fed into the atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE. The maps were tested by comparing the CHIMERE simulations with time series of N2O concentrations measured at various heights above the ground in two locations in 2007. The emissions of N2O, as integrated over the region, were used in a life-cycle assessment of representative biofuel pathways: bioethanol from wheat and sugar-beet (1st generation), and miscanthus (2nd generation chain); bio-diesel from oilseed rape. Effects related to direct and indirect land-use changes (in particular on soil carbon stocks) were also included in the assessment based on various land-use scenarios and literature references. The potential deployment of miscanthus was simulated by assuming it would be grown on the current sugar-beet growing area in Ile-de-France, or by converting land currently under permanent fallow

  20. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock- associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) as the mean flow. The vector Green's function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. An adjoint vector Green's function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green's function based on a locally parallel mean flow at streamwise locations of the SRANS solution. However, the developed acoustic analogy could easily be based on any adjoint vector Green's function solver, such as one that makes no assumptions about the mean flow. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green's function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with the formulation of Morris and Miller (AIAAJ 2010). A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully expanded Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise labs. In addition, two models for the so-called 'fine-scale' mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include the propagation effects, especially in the upstream direction of the jet.

  1. Modeling ozone removal to indoor materials, including the effects of porosity, pore diameter, and thickness.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-04-07

    We develop an ozone transport and reaction model to determine reaction probabilities and assess the importance of physical properties such as porosity, pore diameter, and material thickness on reactive uptake of ozone to five materials. The one-dimensional model accounts for molecular diffusion from bulk air to the air-material interface, reaction at the interface, and diffusive transport and reaction through material pore volumes. Material-ozone reaction probabilities that account for internal transport and internal pore area, γ(ipa), are determined by a minimization of residuals between predicted and experimentally derived ozone concentrations. Values of γ(ipa) are generally less than effective reaction probabilities (γ(eff)) determined previously, likely because of the inclusion of diffusion into substrates and reaction with internal surface area (rather than the use of the horizontally projected external material areas). Estimates of γ(ipa) average 1 × 10(-7), 2 × 10(-7), 4 × 10(-5), 2 × 10(-5), and 4 × 10(-7) for two types of cellulose paper, pervious pavement, Portland cement concrete, and an activated carbon cloth, respectively. The transport and reaction model developed here accounts for observed differences in ozone removal to varying thicknesses of the cellulose paper, and estimates a near constant γ(ipa) as material thickness increases from 0.02 to 0.16 cm.

  2. Optimization of composite box-beam structures including effects of subcomponent interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragon, Scott A.; Guerdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Minimum mass designs are obtained for a simple box beam structure subject to bending, torque and combined bending/torque load cases. These designs are obtained subject to point strain and linear buckling constraints. The present work differs from previous efforts in that special attention is payed to including the effects of subcomponent panel interaction in the optimal design process. Two different approaches are used to impose the buckling constraints. When the global approach is used, buckling constraints are imposed on the global structure via a linear eigenvalue analysis. This approach allows the subcomponent panels to interact in a realistic manner. The results obtained using this approach are compared to results obtained using a traditional, less expensive approach, called the local approach. When the local approach is used, in-plane loads are extracted from the global model and used to impose buckling constraints on each subcomponent panel individually. In the global cases, it is found that there can be significant interaction between skin, spar, and rib design variables. This coupling is weak or nonexistent in the local designs. It is determined that weight savings of up to 7% may be obtained by using the global approach instead of the local approach to design these structures. Several of the designs obtained using the linear buckling analysis are subjected to a geometrically nonlinear analysis. For the designs which were subjected to bending loads, the innermost rib panel begins to collapse at less than half the intended design load and in a mode different from that predicted by linear analysis. The discrepancy between the predicted linear and nonlinear responses is attributed to the effects of the nonlinear rib crushing load, and the parameter which controls this rib collapse failure mode is shown to be the rib thickness. The rib collapse failure mode may be avoided by increasing the rib thickness above the value obtained from the (linear analysis based

  3. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  4. Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies investigating the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity played a critical and formative role in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), and have been a major component of articles published in Brain, Behavior and Immunity (BBI). An analysis of papers during the first two decades of BBI from 1987–2006 revealed three behavior-related topics were most prominent: 1) stress-induced changes in immune responses, 2) immune correlates of psychopathology and personality, and 3) behavioral conditioning of immunity. Important subthemes included the effect of early rearing conditions on immune maturation in the developing infant and, subsequently, psychosocial influences affecting the decline of immunity in the senescent host. The responsiveness of cell functioning in the young and elderly helped to validate the view that our immune competence is malleable. Many technical advances in immune methods were also evident. Initially, there was a greater reliance on in vitro proliferative and cytolytic assays, while later studies were more likely to use cell subset enumerations, cytokine quantification, and indices of latent virus reactivation. The reach of PNI extended from the traditional clinical entities of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer to attain a broader relevance to inflammatory physiology, and thus to asthma, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease. There continue to be many theoretical and applied ramifications of these seminal findings. Fortunately, the initial controversies about whether psychological processes could really impinge upon and modify immune responses have now receded into the pages of history under the weight of the empirical evidence. PMID:17706917

  5. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the {Lambda}CDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}) and that of {delta}{sub de}/{delta}{sub m} with the variation of c-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}.

  6. Optical properties of halide and oxide compounds including the excitonic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shwetha, G.; Kanchana, V.

    2014-04-01

    We have studied the optical properties of alkali halide and alkaline-earth oxide compounds including the excitonic effects by using the newly developed bootstrap kernel approximation for the exchange-correlation kernel of the Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) implemented in Full-Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method in the elk code. The bootstrap calculations are computationally less expensive and give results the same quality as the Bethe-Salpeter equation. We found improved results when compared to normal Density Functional Theory calculations, and observed results are comparable with the experiments. The lower energy peak of imaginary part of dielectric spectra shifts to lower energy regions as we move from MgO to BaO indicating the decrease in the band gap of these compounds from MgO to BaO. In all the studied compounds, the lower energy peak of the imaginary part of dielectric function is due to the transition from halogen p or oxide p states to metal derived s/d states.

  7. Computation of electron diode characteristics by monte carlo method including effect of collisions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, C. M.

    1964-01-01

    Consistent field Monte Carlo method calculation for collision effect on electron-ion diode characteristics and for hard sphere electron- neutral collision effect for monoenergetic- thermionic emission

  8. Kinematic ground motion simulations on rough faults including effects of 3D stochastic velocity perturbations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graves, Robert; Pitarka, Arben

    2016-01-01

    We describe a methodology for generating kinematic earthquake ruptures for use in 3D ground‐motion simulations over the 0–5 Hz frequency band. Our approach begins by specifying a spatially random slip distribution that has a roughly wavenumber‐squared fall‐off. Given a hypocenter, the rupture speed is specified to average about 75%–80% of the local shear wavespeed and the prescribed slip‐rate function has a Kostrov‐like shape with a fault‐averaged rise time that scales self‐similarly with the seismic moment. Both the rupture time and rise time include significant local perturbations across the fault surface specified by spatially random fields that are partially correlated with the underlying slip distribution. We represent velocity‐strengthening fault zones in the shallow (<5  km) and deep (>15  km) crust by decreasing rupture speed and increasing rise time in these regions. Additional refinements to this approach include the incorporation of geometric perturbations to the fault surface, 3D stochastic correlated perturbations to the P‐ and S‐wave velocity structure, and a damage zone surrounding the shallow fault surface characterized by a 30% reduction in seismic velocity. We demonstrate the approach using a suite of simulations for a hypothetical Mw 6.45 strike‐slip earthquake embedded in a generalized hard‐rock velocity structure. The simulation results are compared with the median predictions from the 2014 Next Generation Attenuation‐West2 Project ground‐motion prediction equations and show very good agreement over the frequency band 0.1–5 Hz for distances out to 25 km from the fault. Additionally, the newly added features act to reduce the coherency of the radiated higher frequency (f>1  Hz) ground motions, and homogenize radiation‐pattern effects in this same bandwidth, which move the simulations closer to the statistical characteristics of observed motions as illustrated by comparison with recordings from

  9. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  10. The effects of emulsifying agents on disposition of lipid-soluble drugs included in fat emulsion.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuyuki; Masumitsu, Yasushi; Okudaira, Kazuho; Hayashi, Masahiro

    2004-02-01

    The uses for drug delivery systems of two soybean oil fat emulsions prepared with an emulsifying agent, phosphatidyl choline (PC) or Pluronic F-127 (PLU), were examined comparatively in vivo and in vitro. In the presence of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in vitro, the mean particle size of the PLU emulsion changed less than that of the PC emulsion. The production of non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) from the PLU emulsion in the presence of LPL was smaller than that from the PC emulsion. These in vitro results indicate that the PLU emulsion is more stable than the PC emulsion. Plasma NEFA concentration following intravenous administration of the emulsions decreased with time for the PC emulsion, but was kept lower and constant for the PLU emulsion, supporting the in vitro stability data. The order of plasma cyclosporine A (CsA) concentration following intravenous administration in the above two emulsions and the mixed solution of polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG) and dimethylamide (DMA) in rats was PLU emulsion>PC emulsion>PEG/DMA solution. The plasma concentration was maintained higher and tissue distribution lower for the PLU emulsion than for other formulations. The uptake of oil violet (OV) into the rat parenchymal cells from the PLU emulsion was approximately half that from the PC emulsion, but the uptake into the Kupffer cells was almost equal in both emulsions. In conclusion, these emulsifying agents can control plasma elimination and tissue distribution of lipophilic drugs included in the emulsion. The use of the emulsion formulation makes it possible to avoid side effects through the reduction of drug uptake into non-targeted tissues.

  11. A nonlinear generalized continuum approach for electro-elasticity including scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatulla, S.; Arockiarajan, A.; Sansour, C.

    2009-01-01

    Materials characterized by an electro-mechanically coupled behaviour fall into the category of so-called smart materials. In particular, electro-active polymers (EAP) recently attracted much interest, because, upon electrical loading, EAP exhibit a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces. This property can be utilized for actuators in electro-mechanical systems, artificial muscles and so forth. When it comes to smaller structures, it is a well-known fact that the mechanical response deviates from the prediction of classical mechanics theory. These scale effects are due to the fact that the size of the microscopic material constituents of such structures cannot be considered to be negligible small anymore compared to the structure's overall dimensions. In this context so-called generalized continuum formulations have been proven to account for the micro-structural influence to the macroscopic material response. Here, we want to adopt a strain gradient approach based on a generalized continuum framework [Sansour, C., 1998. A unified concept of elastic-viscoplastic Cosserat and micromorphic continua. J. Phys. IV Proc. 8, 341-348; Sansour, C., Skatulla, S., 2007. A higher gradient formulation and meshfree-based computation for elastic rock. Geomech. Geoeng. 2, 3-15] and extend it to also encompass the electro-mechanically coupled behaviour of EAP. The approach introduces new strain and stress measures which lead to the formulation of a corresponding generalized variational principle. The theory is completed by Dirichlet boundary conditions for the displacement field and its derivatives normal to the boundary as well as the electric potential. The basic idea behind this generalized continuum theory is the consideration of a micro- and a macro-space which together span the generalized space. As all quantities are defined in this generalized space, also the constitutive law, which is in this work conventional electro-mechanically coupled nonlinear

  12. Including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, R. E.; Macek, J. H.; Quinn, J. J.

    2013-10-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all but the strongest applied magnetic fields. However, the effects of Landau level mixing have proven difficult to model theoretically. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing on electron pairs for intermediate magnetic fields by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the pseudopotentials on the Haldane sphere.

  13. The Effects of Including Observed Means or Latent Means as Covariates in Multilevel Models for Cluster Randomized Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aydin, Burak; Leite, Walter L.; Algina, James

    2016-01-01

    We investigated methods of including covariates in two-level models for cluster randomized trials to increase power to detect the treatment effect. We compared multilevel models that included either an observed cluster mean or a latent cluster mean as a covariate, as well as the effect of including Level 1 deviation scores in the model. A Monte…

  14. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  15. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  16. Is the societal approach wide enough to include relatives? Incorporating relatives' costs and effects in a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Thomas; Levin, Lars-Ake

    2010-01-01

    It is important for economic evaluations in healthcare to cover all relevant information. However, many existing evaluations fall short of this goal, as they fail to include all the costs and effects for the relatives of a disabled or sick individual. The objective of this study was to analyse how relatives' costs and effects could be measured, valued and incorporated into a cost-effectiveness analysis. In this article, we discuss the theories underlying cost-effectiveness analyses in the healthcare arena; the general conclusion is that it is hard to find theoretical arguments for excluding relatives' costs and effects if a societal perspective is used. We argue that the cost of informal care should be calculated according to the opportunity cost method. To capture relatives' effects, we construct a new term, the R-QALY weight, which is defined as the effect on relatives' QALY weight of being related to a disabled or sick individual. We examine methods for measuring, valuing and incorporating the R-QALY weights. One suggested method is to estimate R-QALYs and incorporate them together with the patient's QALY in the analysis. However, there is no well established method as yet that can create R-QALY weights. One difficulty with measuring R-QALY weights using existing instruments is that these instruments are rarely focused on relative-related aspects. Even if generic quality-of-life instruments do cover some aspects relevant to relatives and caregivers, they may miss important aspects and potential altruistic preferences. A further development and validation of the existing caregiving instruments used for eliciting utility weights would therefore be beneficial for this area, as would further studies on the use of time trade-off or Standard Gamble methods for valuing R-QALY weights. Another potential method is to use the contingent valuation method to find a monetary value for all the relatives' costs and effects. Because cost-effectiveness analyses are used for

  17. Numerical simulation of overvoltage caused by lightning on aerial power lines, including the corona effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahcene, Z.; Bernard, G.

    1981-12-01

    A corona effect analog model is studied, and the influence of surges due to lightning on power lines is discussed. The effect of a lightning strike on lines with and without guard cables was simulated. Results show that the surge is very strongly damped as it travels away from the strike point. The corona effect lengthens front times and dampens the high frequency components of the propagated waves.

  18. A unified analytical drain current model for Double-Gate Junctionless Field-Effect Transistors including short channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raksharam; Dutta, Aloke K.

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, a unified analytical model for the drain current of a symmetric Double-Gate Junctionless Field-Effect Transistor (DG-JLFET) is presented. The operation of the device has been classified into four modes: subthreshold, semi-depleted, accumulation, and hybrid; with the main focus of this work being on the accumulation mode, which has not been dealt with in detail so far in the literature. A physics-based model, using a simplified one-dimensional approach, has been developed for this mode, and it has been successfully integrated with the model for the hybrid mode. It also includes the effect of carrier mobility degradation due to the transverse electric field, which was hitherto missing in the earlier models reported in the literature. The piece-wise models have been unified using suitable interpolation functions. In addition, the model includes two most important short-channel effects pertaining to DG-JLFETs, namely the Drain Induced Barrier Lowering (DIBL) and the Subthreshold Swing (SS) degradation. The model is completely analytical, and is thus computationally highly efficient. The results of our model have shown an excellent match with those obtained from TCAD simulations for both long- and short-channel devices, as well as with the experimental data reported in the literature.

  19. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-04

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  20. A novel method of including Landau level mixing in numerical studies of the quantum Hall effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooten, Rachel; Quinn, John; Macek, Joseph

    2013-12-01

    Landau level mixing should influence the quantum Hall effect for all except the strongest applied magnetic fields. We propose a simple method for examining the effects of Landau level mixing by incorporating multiple Landau levels into the Haldane pseudopotentials through exact numerical diagonalization. Some of the resulting pseudopotentials for the lowest and first excited Landau levels will be presented.

  1. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  2. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  3. Effect on Mail Survey Return Rates of Including Questionnaires With Follow-Up Letters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Futrell, Charles M.; Lamb, Charles W., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Two thousand questionnaires were mailed to respondents allocated among seven treatments. Controls received an initial mailing (questionnaire and cover letter) only. The remaining six treatments varied by number of follow-up mailings and whether another questionnaire copy was included. Results suggest more than one follow-up letter with a…

  4. Postbuckling behaviors of nanorods including the effects of nonlocal elasticity theory and surface stress

    SciTech Connect

    Thongyothee, Chawis Chucheepsakul, Somchai

    2013-12-28

    This paper is concerned with postbuckling behaviors of nanorods subjected to an end concentrated load. One end of the nanorod is clamped while the other end is fixed to a support that can slide in the slot. The governing equation is developed from static equilibrium and geometrical conditions by using the exact curvature corresponding to the elastica theory. The nonlocal elasticity, the effect of surface stress, and their combined effects are taken into account in Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. Differential equations in this problem can be solved numerically by using the shooting-optimization technique for the postbuckling loads and the buckled configurations. The results show that nanorods with the nonlocal elasticity effect undergo increasingly large deformation while the effect of surface stress in combination with nonlocal elasticity decreases the deflection of nanorods under the same postbuckling load.

  5. The extension of a uniform canopy reflectance model to include row effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The effect of row structure is assumed to be caused by the variation in density of vegetation across rows rather than to a profile in canopy height. The calculation of crop reflectance using vegetation density modulation across rows follows a parallel procedure to that for a uniform canopy. Predictions using the row model for wheat show that the effect of changes in sun to row azimuth are greatest in Landsat Band 5 (red band) and can result in underestimation of crop vigor.

  6. Apoptosis May Explain the Pharmacological Mode of Action and Adverse Effects of Isotretinoin, Including Teratogenicity.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2017-02-08

    Isotretinoin (13-cis retinoic acid) is the most effective sebum-suppressive drug for the treatment of severe acne. Its effect depends on sebocyte apoptosis, which results from isotretinoin-induced expression of the apoptotic protein tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin. This review proposes that the pharmacological mode of action of isotretinoin in the treatment of severe acne, acute promyelocytic leukaemia, and neuroblastoma results from apoptosis. Furthermore, apoptosis may be the underlying and unifying mechanism of the adverse effects of isotretinoin on neural crest cells (teratogenicity), hippocampal neurones (depression), epidermal keratinocytes and mucosa cells (mucocutaneous side-effects), hair follicle cells (telogen effluvium), intestinal epithelial cells (inflammatory bowel disease), skeletal muscle cells (myalgia and release of creatine kinase), and hepatocytes (release of transaminases and very low-density lipoproteins). Genetic variants of components of the apoptotic signalling cascade, such as RARA polymorphisms, might explain variations in the magnitude of isotretinoin-induced apoptotic signalling and apparently identify subgroups of patients who experience either stronger adverse effects with isotretinoin therapy or resistance to treatment.

  7. Effect of neurosteroids on a model lipid bilayer including cholesterol: An Atomic Force Microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Sacchi, Mattia; Balleza, Daniel; Vena, Giulia; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules which have a biological effect on specific membrane proteins, could also affect lipid bilayer properties possibly resulting in a modulation of the overall membrane behavior. In light of this consideration, it is important to study the possible effects of amphiphilic molecule of pharmacological interest on model systems which recapitulate some of the main properties of the biological plasma membranes. In this work we studied the effect of a neurosteroid, Allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo), on a model bilayer composed by the ternary lipid mixture DOPC/bSM/chol. We chose ternary mixtures which present, at room temperature, a phase coexistence of liquid ordered (Lo) and liquid disordered (Ld) domains and which reside near to a critical point. We found that Allo, which is able to strongly partition in the lipid bilayer, induces a marked increase in the bilayer area and modifies the relative proportion of the two phases favoring the Ld phase. We also found that the neurosteroid shifts the miscibility temperature to higher values in a way similarly to what happens when the cholesterol concentration is decreased. Interestingly, an isoform of Allo, isoAllopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), known to inhibit the effects of Allo on GABAA receptors, has an opposite effect on the bilayer properties.

  8. An animal model to investigate effectiveness and safety of conducted energy weapons (including TASER devices).

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2010-03-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law-enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without causing lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures during law-enforcement operations. The purpose of this technical note is to describe, in detail, some aspects of an anesthetized swine model used in our laboratory and to answer specific questions related to the model. In particular, tiletamine/zolazepam-induced, propofol-maintained anesthesia appears to be a useful technique for studying effects of CEW applications on muscle contraction and blood factors such as muscle enzymes. Because effects of CEWs on breathing have not been fully elucidated, a spontaneously breathing model is preferable to one in which mechanical ventilation is supplied. Placement of the swine in a supine position may facilitate measurement of muscle contractions, without compromising other physiological parameters.

  9. Thermal modeling of phase change solidification in thermal control devices including natural convection effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukanwa, A. O.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Natural convection effects in phase change thermal control devices were studied. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate natural convection effects in a phase change test cell undergoing solidification. Although natural convection effects are minimized in flight spacecraft, all phase change devices are ground tested. The mathematical approach to the problem was to first develop a transient two-dimensional conduction heat transfer model for the solidification of a normal paraffin of finite geometry. Next, a transient two-dimensional model was developed for the solidification of the same paraffin by a combined conduction-natural-convection heat transfer model. Throughout the study, n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) was used as the phase-change material in both the theoretical and the experimental work. The models were based on the transient two-dimensional finite difference solutions of the energy, continuity, and momentum equations.

  10. A New Finite-Conductivity Droplet Evaporation Model Including Liquid Turbulence Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.; Trinh, H. P.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to account for finite thermal conductivity and turbulence effects within atomizing droplets of an evaporating spray is presented in this paper. The model is an extension of the T-blob and T-TAB atomization/spray model of Trinh and Chen [9]. This finite conductivity model is based on the two-temperature film theory in which the turbulence characteristics of the droplet are used to estimate the effective thermal diffusivity for the liquid-side film thickness. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance cf this model against the published experimental data.

  11. Effect of low level laser (LLL) on cochlear and vestibular inner ear including tinnitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Lim, Eun-Seok; Kim, Young-Saeng; Chung, Yong-Won; Jung, Jae-Yun; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2006-02-01

    Objectives: 1. To investigate preventive effect of LLL on gentamicin-induced vestibular ototoxicity. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of lower level laser (LLL) in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods: 1. Twenty guinea pigs were divided into control and laser groups. Vestibular ototoxicity was induced by intratympanic injection of gentamicin into left ear. LLL was irradiated into left ear canal of animals in laser group. Vestibular function of the animals was evaluated with vertical and off-vertical axis rotation testing. 2. Forty patients with tinnitus were treated with ginkgo biloba orally and randomly divided into control and laser groups. The 20 patients of laser group received 80.4 J/cm2 of 830 nm laser, 3 times per week for 4 weeks, via transmeatal irradiation. Tinnitus was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). Results: 1. Preventive effect of LLL to gentamicin induced vestibular ototoxicity was demonstrated by preventing reduction of gain in slow harmonic acceleration test and modulation in the off-vertical axis rotation test. 2. Eleven of 20 laser group patients have shown significant improvement in VAS and THI compared to those of the control group. Conclusions: 1. LLL therapy may have preventive effect to vestibular ototoxicity. 2. LLL therapy in combination with ginkgo biloba seems to be worth trying on patients with tinnitus.

  12. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-09-07

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust{sup 2} and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  13. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload... INFORMATION CONTACT: Lisa M. Fowlkes, Deputy Bureau Chief, Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau at...

  14. Procedures for the computation of unsteady transonic flows including viscous effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rizzetta, D. P.

    1982-01-01

    Modifications of the code LTRAN2, developed by Ballhaus and Goorjian, which account for viscous effects in the computation of planar unsteady transonic flows are presented. Two models are considered and their theoretical development and numerical implementation is discussed. Computational examples employing both models are compared with inviscid solutions and with experimental data. Use of the modified code is described.

  15. Vibration and buckling of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Cooriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle and Coriolis forces on the vibration and buckling behavior of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The beam is considered to be clamped on the axis of rotation in one case, and off the axis of rotation in the other. Two methods are employed for the solution of the vibration problem: (1) one based upon a finite-difference approach using second order central differences for solution of the equations of motion, and (2) based upon the minimum of the total potential energy functional with a Ritz type of solution procedure making use of complex forms of shape functions for the dependent variables. The individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, thickness ratio and Coriolis forces on the natural frequencies and the buckling boundaries are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis effects is necessary for blades of moderate to large thickness ratios while these effects are not so important for small thickness ratio blades. The possibility of buckling due to centrifugal softening terms for large values of precone and rotation is shown.

  16. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  17. Subcortical Modulation of Spatial Attention Including Evidence that the Sprague Effect Extends to Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weddell, Rodger A.

    2004-01-01

    The Sprague effect is well-established--small tectal lesions restore visual orientation in the hemianopic field of animals with extensive unilateral geniculo-striate lesions. Studies of human midbrain visual functions are rare. This man with a midbrain tumour developed left-neglect through subsequent right frontal damage. Bilateral orientation…

  18. Effect of Including Parents in a School-Based Exercise and Nutrition Program for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopper, Chris A.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The effect of parental involvement in school-based exercise and nutrition education was investigated. Elementary students participated in school-home, school-only, or control groups. Pre- and posttesting on physical and knowledge measures indicated family involvement mainly helped improve flexibility and nutrition knowledge. School-based students…

  19. [Effect of complex sanatorium treatment including magnetotherapy on hemodynamics in patients with arterial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Efremushkin, G G; Duruda, N V

    2003-01-01

    Forty nine patients with arterial hypertension of stage I-II received combined sanatorium treatment. Of them, 21 had adjuvant total magnetotherapy. All the patients were examined for parameters of central, cerebral hemodynamics and microcirculation. The adjuvant magnetotherapy produced a beneficial effect on hypertension: clinical symptoms attenuated, arterial pressure became more stable, hemodynamics improved, duration of hospitalization reduced, requirement in hypotensive drugs diminished.

  20. Vibration and buckling of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle and Coriolis forces on the vibration and buckling behavior of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The beam is considered to be clamped on the axis of rotation in one case, and off the axis of rotation in the other. Two methods are employed for the solution of the vibration problem: (1) one based upon a finite-difference approach using second order central differences for solution of the equations of motion, and (2) based upon the minimum of the total potential energy functional with a Ritz type of solution procedure making use of complex forms of shape functions for the dependent variables. The individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, thickness ratio and Coriolis forces on the natural frequencies and the buckling boundaries are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis effects is necessary for blades of moderate to large thickness ratios while these effects are not so important for small thickness ratio blades. The possibility of buckling due to centrifugal softening terms for large values of precone and rotation is shown.

  1. A long-term stable equilibrium for synchronous binaries including tides and the byorp effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    We present theoretical evidence for the existence of a long-term stable equilibrium solution for synchronous binary asteroids accounting for mutual body tides, the binary YORP (BYORP) effect and dynamics. Synchronous binary asteroid systems consist of a rapidly spinning primary and a tidally-locked secondary, analogous to the Earth-Moon system. Tidal evolution of these systems leads to growth in the semi-major axis. Evolution from the BYORP effect can lead to both contraction and growth of the semi-major axis. There are two scenarios for joint evolution of a synchronous binary when both effects are considered: expansive and opposing evolution. During joint expansive evolution, both effects grow the semi-major axis. The system will either grow to the Hill sphere and disrupt if tidally dominated, or the mutual orbit will be de-stabilized due to runaway eccentricity growth if BYORP dominated. During joint opposing evolution, tidal and BYORP evolution act to evolve the system to a stable equilibrium. The location of this equilibrium to first order depends on just the tidal parameters, specific tidal dissipation number Q and the tidal Love number k, as well as the BYORP shape coefficient. If the observed population of small (0.1 - 10 km diameter), synchronous binaries are assumed to be in this static configuration, then our analysis shows that a monolithic geophysical model is not satisfactory, whereas the ``rubble pile'' model proposed by Goldreich & Sari (2009) is sufficient to prevent runaway eccentricity growth. The existence of this equilibrium and a secondary shape model built from observations enables direct study of asteroid geophysics through tidal theory. The existence of this equilibrium would be confirmed by a lack of migration in observational tests for the BYORP effect. Goldreich, P. & R. Sari, ApJ, 691:54-60 (2009)

  2. Including children with autism in general education classrooms. A review of effective strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G

    2001-10-01

    Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs.

  3. Dilepton yields from brown-rho scaled vector mesons including memory effects.

    PubMed

    Schenke, Björn; Greiner, Carsten

    2007-01-12

    Scenarios with dropping vector meson masses, motivated by the work of Brown and Rho, have been strongly discussed after recent NA60 Collaboration data were presented. In this Letter they are investigated within a nonequilibrium field theoretical description that includes quantum mechanical memory. Dimuon yields are calculated by application of a model for the fireball, and strong modifications are found in the comparison to quasiequilibrium calculations, which assume instantaneous adjustment of all meson properties to the surrounding medium. In addition, results for the situation of very broad excitations are presented.

  4. Renovation and Strengthening of Wooden Beams With CFRP Bands Including the Rheological Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kula, Krzysztof; Socha, Tomasz

    2016-09-01

    The paper presents a work analysis of wooden beams reinforced with glued composite bands from the top and resin inclusions, taking into account the rheology of materials. The paper presents numerical model of the multimaterial beam work including rheological phenomena described by linear equations of viscoelasticity. For the construction of this model one used MES SIMULIA ABAQUS environment in which were prepared its own procedures containing rheological models. The calculation results were compared with the literature data. One has done an analysis of the advisability of the use of CFRP reinforcements bands in terms of rheological phenomena.

  5. a Better Description of Liquid Jet Breakup Using a Spatial Model Including Viscous Effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, William Brian

    Theoretical models describing the operation and disintegration of a liquid jet are often based on an approximate solution of an inviscid jet in the temporal frame of reference. These models provide only a fair first order prediction of growth rate and breakoff length, and are based solely on a surface tension induced instability. A spatial model yielding jet growth rate and including both jet and surrounding atmosphere viscosity and density is now developed. This model is seen to reproduce all the features and limitations of the Weber viscous jet theory. When tested against experiments of water, water and glycerol mixes and binary eutectic tin/lead solder, only fair agreement is observed.

  6. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  7. Predicted residual activity of rilpivirine in HIV-1 infected patients failing therapy including NNRTIs efavirenz or nevirapine.

    PubMed

    Theys, K; Camacho, R J; Gomes, P; Vandamme, A M; Rhee, S Y

    2015-06-01

    Rilpivirine is a second-generation nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) currently indicated for first-line therapy, but its clinical benefit for HIV-1 infected patients failing first-generation NNRTIs is largely undefined. This study quantified the extent of genotypic rilpivirine resistance in viral isolates from 1212 patients upon failure of efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing antiretroviral treatment, of whom more than respectively 80% and 90% showed high-level genotypic resistance to the failing NNRTI. Of all study patients, 47% showed a rilpivirine resistance-associated mutation (RPV-RAM), whereas preserved residual rilpivirine activity was predicted in half of the patients by three genotypic drug resistance interpretation algorithms. An NNRTI-dependent impact on rilpivirine resistance was detected. Compared with the use of nevirapine, the use of efavirenz was associated with a 32% lower risk of having a RPV-RAM and a 50% lower risk of predicted reduced rilpivirine susceptibility. Most prevalent RPV-RAMs after nevirapine experience were Y181C and H221Y, whereas L100I+K103N, Y188L and K101E occurred most in efavirenz-experienced patients. Predicted rilpivirine activity was not affected by HIV-1 subtype, although frequency of individual mutations differed across subtypes. In conclusion, this genotypic resistance analysis strongly suggests that the latest NNRTI, rilpivirine, may retain activity in a large proportion of HIV-1 patients in whom resistance failed while they were on an efavirenz- or nevirapine-containing regimen, and may present an attractive option for second-line treatment given its good safety profile and dosing convenience. However, prospective clinical studies assessing the effectiveness of rilpivirine for NNRTI-experienced patients are warranted to validate knowledge derived from genotypic and phenotypic drug resistance studies.

  8. Spacecraft VHF Radio Propagation Analysis in Ocean Environments Including Atmospheric Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian; Moreno, Gerardo; Desilva, Kanishka; Jih, CIndy

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Johnson Space Center (JSC) is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space/ground environment in which they operate. This paper is to analyze a spacecraft's very high frequency (VHF) radio signal propagation and the impact to performance when landing in an ocean. Very little research work has been done for VHF radio systems in a maritime environment. Rigorous Radio Frequency (RF) modeling/simulation techniques were employed for various environmental effects. The simulation results illustrate the significance of the environmental effects on the VHF radio system performance.

  9. Stellar evolution at high mass including the effect of a stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a stellar wind on the evolution of stars in the mass range from 15 to 120 solar masses is investigated. All the stellar models are constructed with the use of Cox-Stewart opacities. Four possible cases of mass loss are considered: (1) no mass loss at all; (2) substantial mass loss from stars in all stages of evolution; (3) heavy mass loss from red supergiants only; and (4) sudden and very heavy mass loss from luminous yellow supergiants. The assumption of mass loss during the main-sequence phase of evolution is found to lead to a lowering of the luminosity and, unless the mass loss is extremely heavy, of the effective temperature as well. A comparison of the adopted mass-loss rates with observed rates suggests that stellar winds are probably not an important factor in the evolution of main-sequence stars and supergiants unless the initial masses are greater than about 30 solar masses.

  10. A finite element stress analysis of spur gears including fillet radii and rim thickness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Spur gear stress analysis results are presented for a variety of loading conditions, support conditions, fillet radii, and rim thickness. These results are obtained using the SAP IV finite-element code. The maximum stresses, occurring at the root surface, substantially increase with decreasing rim thickness for partially supported rims (that is, with loose-fitting hubs). For fully supported rims (that is, with tight-fitting hubs), the root surface stresses slightly decrease with decreasing rim thickness. The fillet radius is found to have a significant effect upon the maximum stresses at the root surface. These stresses increase with increasing fillet radius. The fillet radius has little effect upon the internal root section stresses.

  11. Evaluation of flow characteristics of perforations including nonlinear effects with the finite-element method

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, S.M.

    1987-05-01

    This study presents results of finite-element modeling of steady-state flow in perforated natural completions. Use of a mesh chosen carefully by grid sensitivity analysis permits evaluation of flow with more precision than that achieved by previous investigators. Also, for the first time, flow characteristics of perforated completions are evaluated with the non-Darcy effect resulting form converging flow around the perforation taken into account. The results indicate confirmation of Locke's results qualitatively but 5 to 10% overprediction by the nomograph, the importance of angular phasing between adjacent perforations, the uncertainty in generally accepted severe permeability impairment in the compacted zone, and a significant reduction in productivity owing to a non-Darcy effect around the perforation for high-rate gas wells.

  12. Evaluation of flow characteristics of perforations including nonlinear effects using finite-element method

    SciTech Connect

    Tariq, S.M.

    1984-04-01

    This study presents results of finite element modelling of steady-state flow in perforated natural completions. Use of a carefully chosen mesh based on grid sensitivity analysis permits evaluation of flow with more precision than achieved by previous investigators. Also, for the first time, evaluation of flow characterstics of perforated completion is made taking into account the non-Darcy effect due to converging flow around the perforation. The results indicate: (1) confirmation of Locke's findings qualitatively but 5-10% overprediction by the nomograph (2) importance of angular phasing between adjacent perforations, (3) untenability of generally accepted severe permeability impairment in the compacted zone, and (4) significant reduction in productivity due to non-Darcy effect around the perforation for high-rate wells.

  13. Investigation of Structural Dynamics in a 2-Meter Square Solar Sail Model Including Axial Load Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Virgin, L. N.; Belvin, W. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a parameter study of the effect of boom axial loading on the global dynamics of a 2-meter solar sail scale model. The experimental model used is meant for building expertise in finite element analysis and experimental execution, not as a predecessor to any planned flight mission or particular design concept. The results here are to demonstrate the ability to predict and measure structural dynamics and mode shapes in the presence of axial loading.

  14. Three-dimensional aerodynamics of an annular airfoil cascade including loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleeter, S.; Stauter, R. C.; Manwaring, S. R.

    1989-10-01

    A series of experiments are described which investigate and quantify the effect of loading on the three-dimensional flow through a subsonic annular cascade of cambered airfoils. At two levels of loading, detailed data quantify the cascade inlet velocity, the intrapassage flow field, the airfoil surface pressure distributions, the exit flow field, and the total pressure loss distributions. Aerodynamic loading is shown to strengthen the radial pressure gradient, the passage vortex structure, the vortex-endwall boundary layer interactions, and the losses.

  15. Three-dimensional aerodynamics of an annular airfoil cascade including loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleeter, S.; Stauter, R. C.; Manwaring, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    A series of experiments are described which investigate and quantify the effect of loading on the three-dimensional flow through a subsonic annular cascade of cambered airfoils. At two levels of loading, detailed data quantify the cascade inlet velocity, the intrapassage flow field, the airfoil surface pressure distributions, the exit flow field, and the total pressure loss distributions. Aerodynamic loading is shown to strengthen the radial pressure gradient, the passage vortex structure, the vortex-endwall boundary layer interactions, and the losses.

  16. Analytic expression for the Fowler-Nordheim V- I characteristic including the series resistance effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, E.; Palumbo, F.

    2011-07-01

    It is shown in this communication that the Fowler-Nordheim (FN) tunneling expression for the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristic can be analytically inverted so that an exact expression for the voltage-current ( V- I) characteristic can be obtained. The solution of the resulting implicit equation is found using the Lambert W function, i.e. the solution of the transcendental equation we w = x. The reported expressions are supported by experimental I- V curves measured in thin (≈5 nm) SiO 2 films in MOS capacitors. The analysis includes the case of a tunneling oxide with a large series resistance. For practical purposes, a closed-form expression for W based on a Padé-type approximation is also provided.

  17. A new capability for predicting helicopter rotor and propeller noise including the effect of forward motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brown, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The governing equation and computing technique for the prediction of helicopter rotor and propeller noise are described. The method which gives both the acoustic pressure time history and spectrum of the noise includes the thickness and the loading noise. It was adapted to computers resulting in a new capability in noise prediction by removing many of the restrictions and limitations of previous theories. The capability results from the fact that the theory is developed entirely in the time domain. The formulation and the technique used are not limited to compact sources, steady level flight or to the far-field. In addition, the inputs to the computer program are normally available or are amenable to experimental measurements. This program can be used to study rotor and propeller noise with the aim of minimizing the radiated noise to reduce annoyance to the public. Several examples demonstrating the features and capability of the computer program are presented.

  18. Characteristics of NACA 4400R Series Rectangular and Tapered Airfoils, Including the Effect of Split Flaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, Harry

    1941-01-01

    At the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, tests were made in the variable-density wind tunnel of a tapered wing of 3-10-18 plan form and based on the NACA 4400R series sections. The wing was also tested with 0.2 chord spit flaps, deflected 60 deg span ratios of 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1.0 respectively. In order to get data from which to calculate the characteristics of the flapped wing, the investigation was extended to include tests of the four rectangular airfoils of the NACA 4400R series (4409R, 4412R, 4415R, and 4418R) with full-span 0.2 chord, trailing edge split flaps deflected 60 deg.

  19. A theoretical and experimental study of planing surfaces including effects of cross section and plan form

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuford, Charles L , Jr

    1957-01-01

    A summary is given of the background and present status of pure-planing theory. Data for models having sharp chines have been obtained for a rectangular flat plate and two V-bottom surfaces having constant angles of dead rise of 20 degrees and 40 degrees and also for rectangular-flat-plate surfaces having very slightly rounded chines. The theory presented in NACA Technical Note 3233 for a rectangular flat plate is revised and extended to include triangular flat plates planing with base forward and V-shaped prismatic surfaces having a constant angle of dead rise, horizontal chine flare, or vertical chine strips. The agreement between the results calculated by the proposed theory and the experimental data is satisfactory for engineering calculations of lift and center-of-pressure location.

  20. Activation of CpxRA in Haemophilus ducreyi primarily inhibits the expression of its targets, including major virulence determinants.

    PubMed

    Gangaiah, Dharanesh; Zhang, Xinjun; Fortney, Kate R; Baker, Beth; Liu, Yunlong; Munson, Robert S; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi causes chancroid, a genital ulcer disease that facilitates the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. In humans, H. ducreyi is surrounded by phagocytes and must adapt to a hostile environment to survive. To sense and respond to environmental cues, bacteria frequently use two-component signal transduction (2CST) systems. The only obvious 2CST system in H. ducreyi is CpxRA; CpxR is a response regulator, and CpxA is a sensor kinase. Previous studies by Hansen and coworkers showed that CpxR directly represses the expression of dsrA, the lspB-lspA2 operon, and the flp operon, which are required for virulence in humans. They further showed that CpxA functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vitro to maintain the expression of virulence determinants. Since a cpxA mutant is avirulent while a cpxR mutant is fully virulent in humans, CpxA also likely functions predominantly as a phosphatase in vivo. To better understand the role of H. ducreyi CpxRA in controlling virulence determinants, here we defined genes potentially regulated by CpxRA by using RNA-Seq. Activation of CpxR by deletion of cpxA repressed nearly 70% of its targets, including seven established virulence determinants. Inactivation of CpxR by deletion of cpxR differentially regulated few genes and increased the expression of one virulence determinant. We identified a CpxR binding motif that was enriched in downregulated but not upregulated targets. These data reinforce the hypothesis that CpxA phosphatase activity plays a critical role in controlling H. ducreyi virulence in vivo. Characterization of the downregulated genes may offer new insights into pathogenesis.

  1. Particle-in-cell simulations for virtual cathode oscillator including foil ablation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Gursharn; Chaturvedi, S.

    2011-06-15

    We have performed two- and three-dimensional, relativistic, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of an axially extracted virtual cathode oscillator (vircator). The simulations include, for the first time, self-consistent dynamics of the anode foil under the influence of the intense electron beam. This yields the variation of microwave output power as a function of time, including the role of anode ablation and anode-cathode gap closure. These simulations have been done using locally developed particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. The codes have been validated using two vircator designs available from the literature. The simulations reported in the present paper take account of foil ablation due to the intense electron flux, the resulting plasma expansion and shorting of the anode-cathode gap. The variation in anode transparency due to plasma formation is automatically taken into account. We find that damage is generally higher near the axis. Also, at all radial positions, there is little damage in the early stages, followed by a period of rapid erosion, followed in turn by low damage rates. A physical explanation has been given for these trends. As a result of gap closure due to plasma formation from the foil, the output microwave power initially increases, reaches a near-flat-top and then decreases steadily, reaching a minimum around 230 ns. This is consistent with a typical plasma expansion velocity of {approx}2 cm/{mu}s reported in the literature. We also find a significant variation in the dominant output frequency, from 6.3 to 7.6 GHz. This variation is small as long as the plasma density is small, up to {approx}40 ns. As the AK gap starts filling with plasma, there is a steady increase in this frequency.

  2. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-01

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2) in the temperature range 15-2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H2 between 100 and 200 K.

  3. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects.

    PubMed

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H2) and deuterium (D2) in the temperature range 15-2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H2 between 100 and 200 K.

  4. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  5. Effective time-independent studies on resonance Raman spectroscopy of trans-stilbene including the Duschinsky effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Na; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara; Zhao, Xian; Ruud, Kenneth; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    We simulate the resonance Raman spectra of trans-stilbene using a recently developed time-independent method that allows computations of the full two-dimensional spectrum as a function of the incident and scattered frequencies, including both the Franck-Condon and the Herzberg-Teller contributions. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and resonant states are described in the harmonic approximation using density functional theory PBE0/6-31+G(d,p) calculations in gas phase and in cyclohexane. The simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5000 (1985)] measured at four different excitation wavelengths, and allow us to unambiguously assign the main experimental bands. We perform an extensive comparison of the performance of four different vertical or adiabatic models for the PES of the resonant state, dissecting the effects of nuclear displacements and Duschinsky mixings on the spectra.

  6. Gender differences in episodic memory and visual working memory including the effects of age.

    PubMed

    Pauls, Franz; Petermann, Franz; Lepach, Anja Christina

    2013-01-01

    Analysing the relationship between gender and memory, and examining the effects of age on the overall memory-related functioning, are the ongoing goals of psychological research. The present study examined gender and age group differences in episodic memory with respect to the type of task. In addition, these subgroup differences were also analysed in visual working memory. A sample of 366 women and 330 men, aged between 16 and 69 years of age, participated in the current study. Results indicate that women outperformed men on auditory memory tasks, whereas male adolescents and older male adults showed higher level performances on visual episodic and visual working memory measures. However, the size of gender-linked effects varied somewhat across age groups. Furthermore, results partly support a declining performance on episodic memory and visual working memory measures with increasing age. Although age-related losses in episodic memory could not be explained by a decreasing verbal and visuospatial ability with age, women's advantage in auditory episodic memory could be explained by their advantage in verbal ability. Men's higher level visual episodic memory performance was found to result from their advantage in visuospatial ability. Finally, possible methodological, biological, and cognitive explanations for the current findings are discussed.

  7. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness.

  8. Supernova equations of state including full nuclear ensemble with in-medium effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furusawa, Shun; Sumiyoshi, Kohsuke; Yamada, Shoichi; Suzuki, Hideyuki

    2017-01-01

    We construct new equations of state for baryons at sub-nuclear densities for the use in core-collapse supernova simulations. The abundance of various nuclei is obtained together with thermodynamic quantities. The formulation is an extension of the previous model, in which we adopted the relativistic mean field theory with the TM1 parameter set for nucleons, the quantum approach for d, t, h and α as well as the liquid drop model for the other nuclei under the nuclear statistical equilibrium. We reformulate the model of the light nuclei other than d, t, h and α based on the quasi-particle description. Furthermore, we modify the model so that the temperature dependences of surface and shell energies of heavy nuclei could be taken into account. The pasta phases for heavy nuclei and the Pauli- and self-energy shifts for d, t, h and α are taken into account in the same way as in the previous model. We find that nuclear composition is considerably affected by the modifications in this work, whereas thermodynamical quantities are not changed much. In particular, the washout of shell effect has a great impact on the mass distribution above T ∼ 1 MeV. This improvement may have an important effect on the rates of electron captures and coherent neutrino scatterings on nuclei in supernova cores.

  9. A cumulus parameterization including mass fluxes, vertical momentum dynamics, and mesoscale effects

    SciTech Connect

    Donner, L.J. )

    1993-03-15

    A formulation for parameterizing cumulus convection, which treats cumulus vertical momentum dynamics and mass fluxes consistently, is presented. This approach predicts the penetrative extent of cumulus updrafts on the basis of their vertical momentum and provides a basis for treating cumulus microphysics using formulations that depend on vertical velocity. Treatments for cumulus microphysics are essential if the water budgets of convective systems are to be evaluated for treating mesoscale stratiform processes associated with convection, which are important for radiative interactions influencing climate. The water budget of the cumulus updrafts is used to drive a semi-empirical parameterization for the large-scale effects of the mesoscale circulations associated with deep convection. The parameterization was applied to two tropical thermodynamic profiles whose diagnosed forcing by convective systems differed significantly. The deepest of the updrafts penetrated the upper troposphere, while the shallower updrafts penetrated into the region of the mesoscale anvil. The relative numbers of cumulus updrafts of characteristic vertical velocities comprising the parameterized ensemble corresponded well with available observations. The large-scale heating produced by the ensemble without mesoscale circulations was concentrated at lower heights than observed or was characterized by excessive peak magnitudes. An unobserved large-scale source of water vapor was produced in the middle troposphere. When the parameterization for mesoscale effects was added, the large-scale thermal and moisture forcing predicted by the parameterization agreed well with observations for both cases. The significance of mesoscale processes suggests that future cumulus parameterization development will need to treat some radiative processes.

  10. Ducted fan acoustic radiation including the effects of nonuniform mean flow and acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter; Roy, Indranil Danda

    1993-01-01

    Forward and aft acoustic propagation and radiation from a ducted fan is modeled using a finite element discretization of the acoustic field equations. The fan noise source is introduced as equivalent body forces representing distributed blade loading. The flow in and around the nacelle is assumed to be nonuniform, reflecting the effects of forward flight and flow into the inlet. Refraction due to the fan exit jet shear layer is not represented. Acoustic treatment on the inlet and exhaust duct surfaces provides a mechanism for attenuation. In a region enclosing the fan a pressure formulation is used with the assumption of locally uniform flow. Away from the fan a velocity potential formulation is used and the flow is assumed nonuniform but irrotational. A procedure is developed for matching the two regions by making use of local duct modal amplitudes as transition state variables and determining the amplitudes by enforcing natural boundary conditions at the interface between adjacent regions in which pressure and velocity potential are used. Simple models of rotor alone and rotor/exit guide vane generated noise are used to demonstrate the calculation of the radiated acoustic field and to show the effect of acoustic treatment. The model has been used to assess the success of four techniques for acoustic lining optimization in reducing far field noise.

  11. Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors.

  12. The effects of a new therapeutic triclosan/copolymer/sodium-fluoride dentifrice on oral bacteria, including odorigenic species.

    PubMed

    Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P < or = 0.05). In the second approach, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P < or = 0.05). Finally, ex vivo treatment of oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria

  13. Adaptive data assimilation including the effect of spatial variations in observation error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frehlich, Rod

    2006-04-01

    An optimal adaptive data assimilation algorithm is derived using the maximum likelihood method based on a conditional Gaussian probability density function for the first-guess and direct observations of the state variables but including local estimates of the observation and first-guess error statistics. An interpolation of the first-guess field to the observation coordinates is not required under the assumption of locally homogeneous statistics for the random atmosphere. However, the definition of observation error requires a definition of model 'truth' which is defined as a spatial average of the continuous random atmospheric variables. Then the total observation error consists of two independent components: an instrument error and an observation sampling error defined by the spatial average of the observation and the statistics of the local turbulence. Estimates of the observation sampling error statistics are determined from an ensemble of background or first-guess fields or from the analysis of the raw data from instrumented aircraft, Doppler lidars, or radar profilers. The spatial variations of the sampling error are referenced to the local turbulence conditions at each analysis coordinate and therefore each observation can have a different observation error for each nearby analysis coordinate. The extension of the adaptive assimilation concept to include the spatial variations in observation error for statistical interpolation, 3D-Var, 4D-Var, extended Kalman filtering, and ensemble Kalman filtering is also presented for the traditional meaning of observation error, i.e. each observation is assigned a single error. The conditional analysis error is derived for a single observation at the analysis coordinate and multiple observations around the analysis point. Example calculations of the conditional analysis error are presented for a few simple set of observation and measurement geometries to demonstrate the impact of the spatially variable observation errors

  14. Acoustic Reflection and Transmission of 2-Dimensional Rotors and Stators, Including Mode and Frequency Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.

  15. The Effects of Including a Callous Unemotional Specifier for the Diagnosis of Conduct Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Rachel E.; Frick, Paul J.; Youngstrom, Eric; Findling, Robert L.; Youngstrom, Jennifer Kogos

    2011-01-01

    Background “With Significant Callous-Unemotional Traits” has been proposed as a specifier for Conduct Disorder (CD) in the upcoming revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). The impact of this specifier on children diagnosed with CD should be considered. Methods A multi-site cross-sectional design with volunteers (n=1136) in the 3rd-7th grades and 566 consecutive referrals (ages 5-18) to a community mental health center were used to estimate the prevalence rates of CD with and without the proposed specifier. In addition, the degree of emotional and behavioral (especially physical aggression) disturbance and level of impairment in youth with and without CD and with and without the specifier was evaluated. Results In the community sample, 10% to 32% of those with CD and 2% to 7% of those without CD met the callous-unemotional (CU) specifier threshold depending on informant. In the clinic-referred sample, 21% to 50% of those with CD and 14% to 32% without CD met the CU specifier threshold depending on informant. Those with CD and the specifier showed higher rates of aggression in both samples and higher rates of cruelty in the clinic-referred sample. Conclusions Results indicate between 10% and 50% of youth with CD would be designated with the proposed CU specifier. Those with CD and the specifier appear to be more severe on a number of indices, including aggression and cruelty. PMID:21950481

  16. Phase equilibria in ionic liquid-aromatic compound mixtures, including benzene fluorination effects.

    PubMed

    Blesic, Marijana; Lopes, José N Canongia; Pádua, Agílio A H; Shimizu, Karina; Gomes, Margarida F Costa; Rebelo, Luís Paulo N

    2009-05-28

    This work extends the scope of previous studies on the phase behavior of mixtures of ionic liquids with benzenes or its derivatives by determining the solid-liquid and liquid-liquid phase diagrams of mixtures containing an ionic liquid and a fluorinated benzene. The systems studied include 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide plus hexafluorobenzene or 1,3,5-trifluorobenzene and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium triflate or N-ethyl-N-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide plus benzene. The phase diagrams exhibit different kinds of solid-liquid behavior: the (usual) occurrence of eutectic points; the (not-so-usual) presence of congruent melting points and the corresponding formation of inclusion crystals; or the observation of different ionic liquid crystalline phases (polymorphism). These different types of behavior can be controlled by temperature annealing during crystallization or by the nature of the aromatic compound and can be interpreted, at a molecular level, taking into account the structure of the crystals or liquid mixtures, together with the unique characteristics of ionic liquids, namely the dual nature of their interactions with aromatic compounds.

  17. Application of Computational Stability and Control Techniques Including Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelastic Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, David M.; Edwards, John W.

    2004-01-01

    The motivation behind the inclusion of unsteady aerodynamics and aeroelastic effects in the computation of stability and control (S&C) derivatives will be discussed as they pertain to aeroelastic and aeroservoelastic analysis. This topic will be addressed in the context of two applications, the first being the estimation of S&C derivatives for a cable-mounted aeroservoelastic wind tunnel model tested in the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The second application will be the prediction of the nonlinear aeroservoelastic phenomenon known as Residual Pitch Oscillation (RPO) on the B-2 Bomber. Techniques and strategies used in these applications to compute S&C derivatives and perform flight simulations will be reviewed, and computational results will be presented.

  18. Acoustic radiation force on a heated sphere including effects of heat transfer and acoustic streaming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chun P.; Wang, Taylor G.

    1988-01-01

    A previous theoretical result on the subject of the acoustic radiation force on a heated sphere (Lee and Wang, 1984) is reexamined. For a more complete understanding, effects of heat transfer and acoustic streaming are taken into consideration. Essentially, it was found that, at high sound-pressure levels in a steady situation, the force is not affected significantly by the temperature profile, consistent with the result of an experimental work (Leung and Wang, 1985). This resolves the earlier apparent contradiction between the theory and the experiment. If excessive hot air is accumulated around the sphere, which can happen in transient situations, the force can be weakened or reversed in sign. A heat transfer model due to acoustic streaming was also found.

  19. Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.

  20. Potential energy surface for C2H4I2+ dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-24

    Previous experiments [Baer, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation (C2H4I2+•) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy; an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction C2H4I2+• - C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the C2H4I2+• reactant has a substantial effect on the role of SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for C2H4I2+• similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for C2H4I2+•, similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcal/mol. Also, we find that for this system single point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  1. The Role of Kinetic Effects, Including Plasma Rotation and Energetic Particles, in Resistive Wall Mode Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkery, John W.

    2009-11-01

    Continuous, disruption-free operation of tokamaks requires stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM). Theoretically, the RWM is thought to be stabilized by energy dissipation mechanisms that depend on plasma rotation and other parameters, with kinetic effects being emphasized.footnotetextB. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12 (2005) 057301. Experiments in NSTX show that the RWM can be destabilized in high rotation plasmas while low rotation plasmas can be stable, which calls into question the concept of a simple critical plasma rotation threshold for stability. The present work tests theoretical stabilization mechanisms against experimental discharges with various plasma rotation profiles created by applying non-resonant n=3 braking, and with various fast particle fractions. Kinetic modification of ideal stability is calculated with the MISK code, using experimental equilibrium reconstructions. Analysis of NSTX discharges with unstable RWMs predicts near-marginal mode growth rates. Trapped ions provide the dominant kinetic resonances, while fast particles contribute an important stabilizing effect. Increasing or decreasing rotation in the calculation drives the prediction farther from the marginal point, showing that unlike simpler critical rotation theories, kinetic theory allows a more complex relationship between plasma rotation and RWM stability. Results from JT-60U show that energetic particle modes can trigger RWMsfootnotetextG. Matsunaga et al., IAEA FEC 2008 Paper EX/5-2.. Kinetic theory may explain how fast particle loss can trigger RWMs through the loss of an important stabilization mechanism. These results are applied to ITER advanced scenario equilibria to determine the impact on RWM stability.

  2. Simulations of weak gravitational lensing - II. Including finite support effects in cosmic shear covariance matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; van Waerbeke, Ludovic

    2015-07-01

    Numerical N-body simulations play a central role in the assessment of weak gravitational lensing statistics, residual systematics and error analysis. In this paper, we investigate and quantify the impact of finite simulation volume on weak lensing two- and four-point statistics. These finite support (FS) effects are modelled for several estimators, simulation box sizes and source redshifts, and validated against a new large suite of 500 N-body simulations. The comparison reveals that our theoretical model is accurate to better than 5 per cent for the shear correlation function ξ+(θ) and its error. We find that the most important quantities for FS modelling are the ratio between the measured angle θ and the angular size of the simulation box at the source redshift, θbox(zs), or the multipole equivalent ℓ/ℓbox(zs). When this ratio reaches 0.1, independently of the source redshift, the shear correlation function ξ+ is suppressed by 5, 10, 20 and 25 per cent for Lbox = 1000, 500, 250 and 147 h-1 Mpc, respectively. The same effect is observed in ξ-(θ), but at much larger angles. This has important consequences for cosmological analyses using N-body simulations and should not be overlooked. We propose simple semi-analytic correction strategies that account for shape noise and survey masks, generalizable to any weak lensing estimator. From the same simulation suite, we revisit the existing non-Gaussian covariance matrix calibration of the shear correlation function, and propose a new one based on the 9-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe)+baryon acoustic oscillations+supernova cosmology. Our calibration matrix is accurate at 20 per cent down to the arcminute scale, for source redshifts in the range 0 < z < 3, even for the far off-diagonal elements. We propose, for the first time, a parametrization for the full ξ- covariance matrix, also 20 per cent accurate for most elements.

  3. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-08-29

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties.

  4. Antimicrobial Active Packaging including Chitosan Films with Thymus vulgaris L. Essential Oil for Ready-to-Eat Meat

    PubMed Central

    Quesada, Jesús; Sendra, Esther; Navarro, Casilda; Sayas-Barberá, Estrella

    2016-01-01

    An active packaging system has been designed for the shelf life extension of ready to eat meat products. The package included an inner surface coated with a chitosan film with thyme essential oil (0%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) not in direct contact with the meat. Our aim was to reduce the impact of thyme essential oil (EO) on meat sensory properties by using a chemotype with low odor intensity. The pH, color parameters, microbial populations, and sensory properties were assessed during 4 weeks of refrigerated storage. The presence of EO films reduced yeast populations, whereas aerobic mesophilic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and enterobacteria were not affected by the presence of the EO in the films. Meat color preservation (a *) was enhanced in the presence of EO, giving a better appearance to the packaged meat. The presence of the chitosan-EO layer reduced water condensation inside the package, whereas packages containing only chitosan had evident water droplets. Thyme odor was perceived as desirable in cooked meat, and the typical product odor intensity decreased by increasing the EO concentration. Further studies should point towards developing oil blends or combinations with natural antimicrobial agents to be incorporated into the film to improve its antimicrobial properties. PMID:28231152

  5. Including the effects of debris cover in a distributed glacier energy balance model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicciotti, F.; Reid, T.; Carenzo, M.; Brock, B. W.

    2010-12-01

    Distributed models of glacier energy balance, which make use of digital elevation models and extensive spatial data on local meteorology, have become very useful tools for predicting glacial ablation and runoff in recent years. They generally function by running a one-dimensional energy balance model at every point on a grid on the glacier surface - for each point in the grid the ablation is calculated based on the balance of heat fluxes at the ice-air boundary. However, one key component has been missing from distributed models to date, namely the effects of debris cover. Many glacier ablation zones are mantled in near-continuous blankets of rock debris, and debris-covered glaciers are important drivers of the water cycle in the European Alps, Andes and Himalayas. Moreover, debris covers have been seen to expand in recent years, so it is essential to assess exactly how the presence of debris may affect a glacier’s surface energy balance and potential responses to climate changes. The effects of a debris cover are complicated by the varying surface roughness, albedo and thermal properties of the debris in question, but generally a debris cover reduces glacier melt rate by insulating the glacier surface from direct solar radiation. Even on glaciers where the debris cover is not continuous, isolated patches of debris caused by rockfalls can affect the glacier evolution by introducing differential ablation across the glacier surface, thus creating ice-cored moraines that may persist after ‘clean’ parts of the glacier have wasted away. This paper presents the results of incorporating a one-dimensional ‘debris energy balance model’ called DEB-Model (Reid and Brock 2010) into a distributed melt model for Haut Glacier d’Arolla, Switzerland. DEB-Model numerically estimates debris surface temperature by considering the balance of heat fluxes at the air-debris interface, then calculates heat conduction through the debris in order to estimate melt rates at the

  6. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Comim, Fabio V.; Gutierrez, Karina; Bridi, Alessandra; Bochi, Guilherme; Chemeris, Raisa; Rigo, Melânia L.; Dau, Andressa Minussi P.; Cezar, Alfredo S.; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33), previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline); Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60%) in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD) in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL) treatment (P = 0.01). This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1). In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL); AOPP (mean ± SD) decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003). Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h. PMID:27158926

  7. Including Quantum Effects in the Dynamics of Complex (i.e., Large)Molecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.

    2006-04-27

    The development in the 1950's and 60's of crossed molecular beam methods for studying chemical reactions at the single-collision molecular level stimulated the need and desire for theoretical methods to describe these and other dynamical processes in molecular systems. Chemical dynamics theory has made great strides in the ensuing decades, so that methods are now available for treating the quantum dynamics of small molecular systems essentially completely. For the large molecular systems that are of so much interest nowadays (e.g. chemical reactions in solution, in clusters, in nano-structures, in biological systems, etc.), however, the only generally available theoretical approach is classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Much effort is currently being devoted to the development of approaches for describing the quantum dynamics of these complex systems. This paper reviews some of these approaches, especially the use of semiclassical approximations for adding quantum effects to classical MD simulations, also showing some new versions that should make these semiclassical approaches even more practical and accurate.

  8. FURTHER EXPERIMENTS ON THE ABSORPTION OF IONS BY PLANTS, INCLUDING OBSERVATIONS ON THE EFFECT OF LIGHT

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, D. R.; Davis, A. R.

    1923-01-01

    1. The conditions of illumination were found to exert a very significant influence on absorption of ions from dilute solution by Nitella. These conditions were also found to influence the penetration of Br and NO3 into the cell sap. 2. It is concluded that absorption of ions by plants from dilute solutions involves energy exchanges, with light as the ultimate source of the energy. It is suggested that the absorption is intimately related to growth and metabolism. 3. One ion may affect the removal from solution or penetration into the cell sap of another ion present in the same solution, even in solutions of extremely low concentration. It is probable that all three types of relations may exist—anion to anion, cation to cation, and anion to cation. 4. The sulfate and phosphate ions exerted far less influence on the absorption of nitrate than did chlorine and bromine ions. It is suggested as a possibility that sulfate does not penetrate readily to those surfaces at which chlorine, bromine, nitrate, and other ions may become effective. PMID:19872049

  9. Numerical simulation of wheel forming process including damage and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestriez, P.; Mariage, J. F.; Saanouni, K.; Cherouat, A.

    2004-06-01

    Ductile (or plastic) damage often occurs during some metal forming processes caused by large plastic flow localisation. Accordingly, it is primordial for numerical tools used to simulate these processes to use fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both isotropic and kinematics hardening and damage. In this work, fully coupled constitutive equations accounting for both combined isotropic and kinematic hardening with thermal effects as well as the ductile damage are used with the general purpose Finite Element code ABAQUS. First, the fully coupled constitutive equations in the framework of Continuum Damage Mechanics are presented. The associated numerical aspects are then presented using an implicit integration scheme for local time integration of the fully coupled constitutive equations and a dynamic explicit scheme to solve the associated initial and boundary value problem. This numerical approach is applied to the virtual forming of an axisymmetric wheel made in commercial steel. Starting from a cylindrical billet, the wheel is forged using rigid tools. The central hole of the billet is obtained with blanking operation. Finally the deburring operation is used to cut off the burr resulting from the forging operation. Both the temperature and the damage fields are carefully analysed for each forming stage.

  10. Real-time monitoring of matrix acidizing including the effects of diverting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.D.; Zhu, D.

    1996-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of the injection rate and pressure during matrix acidizing provides operators with a way to determine the changing skin factor as stimulation proceeds. Current methods are based either on the assumption of steady-state flow in the region around the wellbore affected by acid injection or on computer solution of the transient flow equations describing the unsteady reservoir flow process occurring during acidizing. In this paper, a new method for real-time monitoring of matrix acidizing, the inverse injectivity vs. superposition time function plot, is presented. This new method can be applied with a spreadsheet computer program or a programmable calculator and accounts for the transient flow effects occurring during matrix acidizing at multiple rates and injection pressures. The evolving skin factor during a matrix treatment is readily obtained from the diagnostic plot. Hypothetical examples show how the inverse injectivity plot can be used to assess the efficiency of stimulation and diversion. Comparisons with previously presented field cases show the new method to be a simple and accurate means of monitoring the evolving skin factor during matrix acidizing.

  11. Complete band gaps including non-local effects occur only in the relaxed micromorphic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madeo, Angela; Neff, Patrizio; d'Agostino, Marco Valerio; Barbagallo, Gabriele

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, we substantiate the claim implicitly made in previous works that the relaxed micromorphic model is the only linear, isotropic, reversibly elastic, nonlocal generalized continuum model able to describe complete band-gaps on a phenomenological level. To this end, we recapitulate the response of the standard Mindlin-Eringen micromorphic model with the full micro-distortion gradient ∇P, the relaxed micromorphic model depending only on the Curl P of the micro-distortion P, and a variant of the standard micromorphic model, in which the curvature depends only on the divergence Div P of the micro distortion. The Div-model has size-effects, but the dispersion analysis for plane waves shows the incapability of that model to even produce a partial band gap. Combining the curvature to depend quadratically on Div P and Curl P shows that such a model is similar to the standard Mindlin-Eringen model, which can eventually show only a partial band gap.

  12. A global wind resource atlas including high-resolution terrain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Badger, Jake; Olsen, Bjarke; Davis, Neil; Larsen, Xiaoli; Badger, Merete

    2015-04-01

    Currently no accurate global wind resource dataset is available to fill the needs of policy makers and strategic energy planners. Evaluating wind resources directly from coarse resolution reanalysis datasets underestimate the true wind energy resource, as the small-scale spatial variability of winds is missing. This missing variability can account for a large part of the local wind resource. Crucially, it is the windiest sites that suffer the largest wind resource errors: in simple terrain the windiest sites may be underestimated by 25%, in complex terrain the underestimate can be as large as 100%. The small-scale spatial variability of winds can be modelled using novel statistical methods and by application of established microscale models within WAsP developed at DTU Wind Energy. We present the framework for a single global methodology, which is relative fast and economical to complete. The method employs reanalysis datasets, which are downscaled to high-resolution wind resource datasets via a so-called generalization step, and microscale modelling using WAsP. This method will create the first global wind atlas (GWA) that covers all land areas (except Antarctica) and 30 km coastal zone over water. Verification of the GWA estimates will be done at carefully selected test regions, against verified estimates from mesoscale modelling and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This verification exercise will also help in the estimation of the uncertainty of the new wind climate dataset. Uncertainty will be assessed as a function of spatial aggregation. It is expected that the uncertainty at verification sites will be larger than that of dedicated assessments, but the uncertainty will be reduced at levels of aggregation appropriate for energy planning, and importantly much improved relative to what is used today. In this presentation we discuss the methodology used, which includes the generalization of wind climatologies, and the differences in local and spatially

  13. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2016-04-01

    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To

  14. A full spectral cumulus cloud parameterisation including aerosol effects: The Convective Cloud Field Model (CCFM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, T. M.; Graf, H. F.; Yano, J. I.

    2009-04-01

    The convective cloud field model is a convection parameterisation based on the representation of a full cumulus cloud spectrum using a dynamical quasi-equilibrium closure. It employs a one dimensional entraining parcel model whose properties are simulated on a refined vertical resolution (~100 m) in order to capture the complex cloud microphysical processes in convective clouds. We introduced an enhanced microphysics compared to those currently used in convection parameterisations, containing warm and mixed phase cloud microphysics processes and incorporates aerosol effects by linking the cloud droplet number concentration to the aerosol amount. Similar to the Arakawa and Schubert (1974) quasi-equilibrium closure we allow for the mutual influence of clouds via the environment. Instead of assuming instantaneous stabilisation of the environment though, the clouds are dynamically interacting for the length of the large scale model time step without necessarily adopting an equilibrium situation. The model is evaluated in single column mode (SCM) for continental and tropical convection using the ARM SGP and TWP-ICE cases. Moreover it is evaluated in global mode using the global atmospheric circulation model ECHAM5. For the SCM cases the precipitation, heating and moistening rates for the simulated period is better represented than with the Tiedtke massflux scheme which is the usual convection parameterisation within ECHAM5. Moreover, we find a clear response to an enhanced aerosol loading which generally leads to a reduction of convective precipitation. Globally, the CCFM produces slightly higher convective precipitation rates and especially responds better to convective instability over lower latitudes and the storm track regions.

  15. Mutations of Vasopressin Receptor 2 Including Novel L312S Have Differential Effects on Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tiulpakov, Anatoly; White, Carl W.; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; See, Heng B.; Chan, Audrey S.; Seeber, Ruth M.; Heng, Julian I.; Dedov, Ivan; Pavlos, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a genetic disease first described in 2 unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. Here, we describe and functionally characterize a novel vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gain-of-function mutation. An L312S substitution in the seventh transmembrane domain was identified in a boy presenting with water-induced hyponatremic seizures at the age of 5.8 years. We show that, compared with wild-type V2R, the L312S mutation results in the constitutive production of cAMP, indicative of the gain-of-function NSIAD profile. Interestingly, like the previously described F229V and I130N NSIAD-causing mutants, this appears to both occur in the absence of notable constitutive β-arrestin2 recruitment and can be reduced by the inverse agonist Tolvaptan. In addition, to understand the effect of various V2R substitutions on the full receptor “life-cycle,” we have used and further developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer intracellular localization assay using multiple localization markers validated with confocal microscopy. This allowed us to characterize differences in the constitutive and ligand-induced localization and trafficking profiles of the novel L312S mutation as well as for previously described V2R gain-of-function mutants (NSIAD; R137C and R137L), loss-of-function mutants (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; R137H, R181C, and M311V), and a putative silent V266A V2R polymorphism. In doing so, we describe differences in trafficking between unique V2R substitutions, even at the same amino acid position, therefore highlighting the value of full and thorough characterization of receptor function beyond simple signaling pathway analysis. PMID:27355191

  16. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene.

  17. A diabatic representation including both valence nonadiabatic interactions and spin-orbit effects for reaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2007-09-06

    A diabatic representation is convenient in the study of electronically nonadiabatic chemical reactions because the diabatic energies and couplings are smooth functions of the nuclear coordinates and the couplings are scalar quantities. A method called the fourfold way was devised in our group to generate diabatic representations for spin-free electronic states. One drawback of diabatic states computed from the spin-free Hamiltonian, called a valence diabatic representation, for systems in which spin-orbit coupling cannot be ignored is that the couplings between the states are not zero in asymptotic regions, leading to difficulties in the calculation of reaction probabilities and other properties by semiclassical dynamics methods. Here we report an extension of the fourfold way to construct diabatic representations suitable for spin-coupled systems. In this article we formulate the method for the case of even-electron systems that yield pairs of fragments with doublet spin multiplicity. For this type of system, we introduce the further simplification of calculating the triplet diabatic energies in terms of the singlet diabatic energies via Slater's rules and assuming constant ratios of Coulomb to exchange integrals. Furthermore, the valence diabatic couplings in the triplet manifold are taken equal to the singlet ones. An important feature of the method is the introduction of scaling functions, as they allow one to deal with multibond reactions without having to include high-energy diabatic states. The global transformation matrix to the new diabatic representation, called the spin-valence diabatic representation, is constructed as the product of channel-specific transformation matrices, each one taken as the product of an asymptotic transformation matrix and a scaling function that depends on ratios of the spin-orbit splitting and the valence splittings. Thus the underlying basis functions are recoupled into suitable diabatic basis functions in a manner that

  18. A proposed 30-45 minute 4 page standard protocol to evaluate rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) that includes measures of inflammatory activity, joint damage, and longterm outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pincus, T; Brooks, R H; Callahan, L F

    1999-02-01

    A proposed 4 page, 30-45 minute standard protocol to assess rheumatoid arthritis (SPERA) is described that includes all relevant measures of inflammatory activity such as joint swelling, measures of joint damage such as joint deformity, and outcomes such as joint replacement surgery, to monitor patients in longterm observational studies. Forms are included: (1) a patient self-report modified health assessment questionnaire (MHAQ) to assess function, pain, fatigue, psychological distress, symptoms, and drugs used; (2) assessor-completed forms: "RA clinical features" --criteria for RA, functional class, family history, extraarticular disease, comorbidities, joint surgery, radiographic score, and laboratory findings. (3) A 32 joint count with 5 variables: (a) a "shorthand" normal/abnormal so that normal joints require no further detailed assessment; (b) tenderness or pain on motion; (c) swelling; (d) limited motion or deformity; (e) previous surgeries; physical measures of function, i.e., grip strength, walk time, and button test. (4) Medication review of previous disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD), work history, and years of education. The forms allow cost effective acquisition of all relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in routine clinical care, and allow recognition that measures of activity may show similar or improved values over 5-10 years, while measures of damage and outcomes indicate severe progression in the same patients. The SPERA is feasible to acquire most known relevant measures of activity, damage, and outcomes in RA in 30-45 min in usual clinical settings, to provide a complete database for analyses of longterm outcomes.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  20. Effects of vitamins, including vitamin A, on HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Saurabh; Fawzi, Wafaie

    2007-01-01

    increase lymphoid cell differentiation, which leads to an increase in CCR5 receptors. These receptors are essential for attachment of HIV to the lymphocytes and therefore, an increase in their number is likely to increase HIV replication. Vitamin A supplementation in HIV-infected children, on the other hand, has been associated with protective effects against mortality and morbidity, similar to that seen in HIV-negative children. The risk for lower respiratory tract infection and severe watery diarrhea has been shown to be lower in HIV-infected children supplemented with vitamin A. All-cause mortality and AIDS-related deaths have also been found to be lower in vitamin A-supplemented HIV-infected children. The benefits of multivitamin supplementation, particularly vitamins B, C, and E, have been more consistent across studies. Multivitamin supplementation in HIV-infected pregnant mothers has been shown to reduce the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes such as fetal loss and low birth weight. It also has been shown to decrease rates of MTCT among women who have poor nutritional or immunologic status. Further, multivitamin supplementation reduces the rate of HIV disease progression among patients in early stage of disease, thus delaying the need for ART by prolonging the pre-ART stage. In brief, there is no evidence to recommend vitamin A supplementation of HIV-infected pregnant women; however, periodic vitamin A supplementation of HIV-infected infants and children is beneficial in reducing all-cause mortality and morbidity and is recommended. Similarly, multivitamin supplementation of people infected with HIV, particularly pregnant women, is strongly suggested.

  1. Effects of aircraft noise on human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoult, M. D.; Gilfillan, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aircrft noise on human activities was investigated by developing a battery of tasks (1) representative of a range of human activities and (2) sensitive to the disruptive effects of noise. The noise used were recordings of jet aircraft and helicopter sounds at three lvels of loudness--60, 70, and 80 dB(A). Experiment 1 investigated 12 different cognitive tasks, along with two intelligibility tasks included to validate that the noises were being effective. Interference with intelligibility was essentially the same as found in the research literature, but only inconsistent effects were found on either accuracy or latency of performance on the cognitive tasks. When the tasks were grouped into four categories (Intelligibility, Matching, Verbal, and Arithmetic), reliable differences in rated annoyingness of the noises were related to the task category and to the type of noise (jet or helicopter).

  2. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  3. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  4. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  5. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  6. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  7. 14 CFR 440.11 - Duration of coverage for licensed launch, including suborbital launch, or permitted activities...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... LICENSING FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY Financial Responsibility for Licensed and Permitted Activities § 440.11...; modifications. (a) Insurance coverage required under § 440.9, or other form of financial responsibility, shall... licensed launch or permitted activities is sufficiently small that financial responsibility is no...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails § 170.137 What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and... may perform under a recreation, tourism, and trails program: (1) Transportation planning for...

  9. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  10. Numerical model of the Stromboli volcano (Italy) including the effect of magma pressure in the dyke system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apuani, T.; Corazzato, C.

    2009-02-01

    The Stromboli island, in the Aeolian archipelago (Italy), is one of the most active volcanoes in Europe. In the last 13,000 years, its growth has been complicated by four sector collapses affecting the NW flank, the latest of which resulting in the formation of Sciara del Fuoco (SdF) horseshoe-shaped depression. Slope instability phenomena are represented not only by giant deep-seated gravitational slope deformations, but also by more frequent large landslides, such as occurred in December 2002-January 2003, and shallow landslides, involving loose or weakly cemented deposits, that constitute a natural hazard and affect residential and tourists safety. It is noteworthy that in volcanic environment the instability factors are manifold and much more complex than in other non-volcanic contexts. This paper deals with the Stromboli NW flank instability, and focuses on the effects of magma pressure in the feeding system. Two main objectives have been pursued: (1) to test a methodological approach, in order to evaluate a complex instability process; (2) to contribute to the understanding of volcano deformation and collapse mechanisms and associated hazard. A numerical model was developed by the Finite Difference Method and the FLAC 4.0 code, considering a cross-section of the entire volcano, orthogonal to the SdF and including both subaerial and submerged slopes. The stability of the volcano was analysed under gravity alone, and by introducing the magma pressure effect, both related to magmastatic and overpressure components. The results indicate that gravity alone is not sufficient to affect the stability of the volcano slopes, nor is the magmastatic pressure component. If an excess magma pressure component is introduced, instability is produced in accordance with field evidences and recent slope dynamics.

  11. Wakame and Nori in restructured meats included in cholesterol-enriched diets affect the antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Adriana Schultz; González-Torres, Laura; Olivero-David, Raul; Bastida, Sara; Benedi, Juana; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2010-09-01

    The effects of diets including restructured meats (RM) containing Wakame or Nori on total liver glutathione status, and several antioxidant enzyme gene expressions and activities were tested. Six groups of ten male growing Wistar rats each were fed a mix of 85% AIN-93 M diet and 15% freeze-dried RM for 35 days. The control group (C) consumed control RM, the Wakame (W) and the Nori (N) groups, RM with 5% Wakame and 5% Nori, respectively. Animals on added cholesterol diets (CC, CW, and CN) consumed their corresponding basal diets added with cholesterol (2%) and cholic acid (0.4%). Alga and dietary cholesterol significantly interact (P < 0.002) influencing all enzyme expressions but not activities. The cholesterol supplement decreased most enzyme expression and activity. W-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of GPx, GR, Mn-SOD, and Cu,Zn-SOD and decreased that of catalase. N-RM vs. C-RM increased (P < 0.05) expression of catalase and Mn-SOD. GR activity increased in W-RM rats while SOD activity increased, but that of Se-GPx decreased in N animals. W-RM increased total and reduced glutathione and decreased the redox index. CN diet induced significantly lower plasma cholesterol levels (P < 0.001) than the CW diet. In conclusion, Nori-RM is a hypocholesterolemic food while Wakame-RM is an antioxidant food. This should be taken into account when including this kind of RM as potential functional foods in human.

  12. Job rotation: Effects on muscular activity variability.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Andres C; Barrero, Lope H

    2017-04-01

    Job rotation strategies have been used for years as an administrative intervention to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders. The benefits of job rotation have been hypothesized to occur via changes in muscular activity variability (MAV). However, the effect of job rotation on MAV has not been fully analyzed in a literature review. A wide search was conducted to identify studies testing the effect of different job rotation strategies on MAV. Twenty-six studies of acceptable quality were included. Several studies on different types of tasks supported the view that job rotation can increase muscular activity variability, particularly with strategies such as alternating tasks and pace changes. However, it remains uncertain whether such variability changes immediately translate into benefits for the worker because little evidence was found that showed simultaneous changes in different muscular groups. Additionally, variability was occasionally achieved at the expense of average activity in the assessed muscles.

  13. Etiology and Progression of Acute Muscle Tension Related Low Back Pain Occurring During Sustained Activity Including Combat Training Exercises

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-31

    myelogram consistent with HNP. b. DEGENERATIVE ARTHROSIS , SPONDYLOLYSIS, SPONDYLOLISTHESIS: (1) Radiographic findings consistent with spondylolysis...spondylolisthesis, or degenerative arthritis. This would include facet arthrosis , oseteophyte formation, disc space narrowing, anterior/posterior

  14. Application of an integrated strategy for monitoring of contaminants, including endocrine active chemicals, in Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring strategies are most effective for those chemicals whose hazards are well understood and for which sensitive and cost effective analytical methods are available. Unfortunately, such chemicals represent a minor fraction of those that may currently occur in the e...

  15. Design and synthesis of novel antimicrobials with activity against Gram-positive bacteria and mycobacterial species, including M. tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Tiruveedhula, V.V.N. Phani Babu; Witzigmann, Christopher M.; Verma, Ranjit; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Rott, Marc; Schwan, William R.; Medina-Bielski, Sara; Lane, Michelle; Close, William; Polanowski, Rebecca L.; Sherman, David; Monte, Aaron; Deschamps, Jeffrey R.; Cook, James M.

    2013-01-01

    The alarming increase in bacterial resistance over the last decade along with a dramatic decrease in new treatments for infections has led to problems in the healthcare industry. Tuberculosis (TB) is caused mainly by Mycobacterium tuberculosis which is responsible for 1.4 million deaths per year. A world-wide threat with HIV co-infected with multi and extensively drug-resistant strains of TB has emerged. In this regard, herein, novel acrylic acid ethyl ester derivatives were synthesized in simple, efficient routes and evaluated as potential agents against several Mycobacterium species. These were synthesized via a stereospecific process for structure activity relationship (SAR) studies. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) assays indicated that esters 12, 13, and 20 exhibited greater in vitro activity against Mycobacterium smegmatis than rifampin, one of the current, first-line anti-mycobacterial chemotherapeutic agents. Based on these studies the acrylic ester 20 has been developed as a potential lead compound which was found to have an MIC value of 0.4 μg/mL against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The SAR and biological activity of this series is presented; a Michael – acceptor mechanism appears to be important for potent activity of this series of analogs. PMID:24200931

  16. Autonomic control network active in Aplysia during locomotion includes neurons that express splice variants of R15-neuropeptides.

    PubMed

    Romanova, Elena V; McKay, Natasha; Weiss, Klaudiusz R; Sweedler, Jonathan V; Koester, John

    2007-01-01

    Splice-variant products of the R15 neuropeptide gene are differentially expressed within the CNS of Aplysia. The goal of this study was to test whether the neurons in the abdominal ganglion that express the peptides encoded by this gene are part of a common circuit. Expression of R15 peptides had been demonstrated previously in neuron R15. Using a combination of immunocytochemical and analytical methods, this study demonstrated that R15 peptides are also expressed in heart exciter neuron RB(HE), the two L9(G) gill motoneurons, and L40--a newly identified interneuron. Mass spectrometric profiling of individual neurons that exhibit R15 peptide-like immunoreactivity confirmed the mutually exclusive expression of two splice-variant forms of R15 peptides in different neurons. The L9(G) cells were found to co-express pedal peptide in addition to the R15 peptides. The R15 peptide-expressing neurons examined here were shown to be part of an autonomic control circuit that is active during fictive locomotion. Activity in this circuit contributes to implementing a central command that may help to coordinate autonomic activity with escape locomotion. Chronic extracellular nerve recording was used to determine the activity patterns of a subset of neurons of this circuit in vivo. These results demonstrate the potential utility of using shared patterns of neuropeptide expression as a guide for neural circuit identification.

  17. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  18. An Intramolecular Silylene Borane Capable of Facile Activation of Small Molecules, Including Metal-Free Dehydrogenation of Water.

    PubMed

    Mo, Zhenbo; Szilvási, Tibor; Zhou, Yu-Peng; Yao, Shenglai; Driess, Matthias

    2017-02-27

    The first single-component N-heterocyclic silylene borane 1 (LSi-R-BMes2 ; L=PhC(N(t) Bu)2 ; R=1,12-xanthendiyl spacer; Mes=2,4,6-Me3 C6 H2 ), acting as a frustrated Lewis pair (FLP) in small-molecule activation, can be synthesized in 65 % yields. Its HOMO is largely localized at the silicon(II) atom and the LUMO has mainly boron 2p character. In small-molecule activation 1 allows access to the intramolecular silanone-borane 3 featuring a Si=O→B interaction through reaction with O2 , N2 O, or CO2 , and formation of silanethione borane 4 from reaction with S8 . The Si(II) center in 1 undergoes immediate hydrogenation if exposed to H2 at 1 atm pressure in benzene, affording the silane borane 5-H2 , L(H2 )Si-R-BMes2 . Remarkably, no H2 activation occurs if the single silylene LSiPh and Mes3 B intermolecularly separated are exposed to dihydrogen. Unexpectedly, the pre-organized Si-B separation in 1 enables a metal-free dehydrogenation of H2 O to give the silanone-borane 3 as reactive intermediate.

  19. Atmospheric effects on active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Scot E. J.; Kansky, Jan E.

    2005-08-01

    For some beam-control applications, we can rely on the cooperation of the target when gathering information about the target location and the state of the atmosphere between the target and the beam-control system. The typical example is a cooperative point-source beacon on the target. Light from such a beacon allows the beam-control system to track the target accurately, and, if higher-order adaptive optics is to be employed, to make wave-front measurements and apply appropriate corrections with a deformable mirror. In many applications, including directed-energy weapons, the target is not cooperative. In the absence of a cooperative beacon, we must find other ways to collect the relevant information. This can be accomplished with an active-illumination system. Typically, this means shining one or more lasers at the target and observing the reflected light. In this paper, we qualitatively explore a number of difficulties inherent to active illumination, and suggest some possible mitigation techniques.

  20. Eddy Effects in the General Circulation, Spanning Mean Currents, Mesoscale Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    Eddies, and Topographic Generation, Including Submesoscale Nests Alexander F. Shchepetkin (PI) James C. McWilliams and Maarten J. Molemaker (co-PIs... submesoscale phenomena; analysis and understanding the underlying physical processes; improving parameterizations of unresolved processes...mesoscale and submesoscale eddies generated by instability and bottom topography effects. This is accompanied by development of modeling codes

  1. An Introduction to Methodological Issues When Including Non-Randomised Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Barnaby C.; Higgins, Julian P. T.; Ramsay, Craig; Shea, Beverley; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Methods need to be further developed to include non-randomised studies (NRS) in systematic reviews of the effects of health care interventions. NRS are often required to answer questions about harms and interventions for which evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) is not available. Methods used to review randomised…

  2. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  3. Hybrid approach for including electronic and nuclear quantum effects in molecular dynamics simulations of hydrogen transfer reactions in enzymes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billeter, Salomon R.; Webb, Simon P.; Iordanov, Tzvetelin; Agarwal, Pratul K.; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2001-04-01

    A hybrid approach for simulating proton and hydride transfer reactions in enzymes is presented. The electronic quantum effects are incorporated with an empirical valence bond approach. The nuclear quantum effects of the transferring hydrogen are included with a mixed quantum/classical molecular dynamics method in which the hydrogen nucleus is described as a multidimensional vibrational wave function. The free energy profiles are obtained as functions of a collective reaction coordinate. A perturbation formula is derived to incorporate the vibrationally adiabatic nuclear quantum effects into the free energy profiles. The dynamical effects are studied with the molecular dynamics with quantum transitions (MDQT) surface hopping method, which incorporates nonadiabatic transitions among the adiabatic hydrogen vibrational states. The MDQT method is combined with a reactive flux approach to calculate the transmission coefficient and to investigate the real-time dynamics of reactive trajectories. This hybrid approach includes nuclear quantum effects such as zero point energy, hydrogen tunneling, and excited vibrational states, as well as the dynamics of the complete enzyme and solvent. The nuclear quantum effects are incorporated during the generation of the free energy profiles and dynamical trajectories rather than subsequently added as corrections. Moreover, this methodology provides detailed mechanistic information at the molecular level and allows the calculation of rates and kinetic isotope effects. An initial application of this approach to the enzyme liver alcohol dehydrogenase is also presented.

  4. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females.

  5. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  6. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  7. Cardioprotective effect of spontaneous activity.

    PubMed

    Peltier, S; Novel-Chate, V; Malaisse, W J; Molnar, A; Leverve, X M; Favier, R

    2007-12-01

    In the perspective of giving a better understanding of the cardioprotective effects attributable to the tandem low caloric intake and training, Lou/C rats would be an interesting model since these animals exhibit spontaneously these two characteristics for months, without any dietary manipulations or stressor stimuli. No information was so far available on their cardiac function. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was (i) to document cardiac function before and after ischemia in this strain, and (ii) to investigate whether spontaneous wheel-running activity can improve the ability of cardiac muscle to recover its function after an ischemic period. Cardiac mechanical and metabolic functions were measured in isolated Langendorff hearts from Wistar sedentary, Lou/C sedentary, and Lou/C wheel-running male rats submitted to a 20-min low-flow ischemia and 20-min reperfusion. In Lou/C sedentary rats, rate-pressure product, an index of cardiac work, was decreased before ischemia as compared to Wistar sedentary animals (- 24 %, p < 0.05). After ischemia, cardiac mechanical function recovery did not significantly differ between these two groups. Nevertheless, flux of non-oxidative glycolysis was lower before and after ischemia in Lou/C sedentary animals than in Wistar sedentary rats. In Lou/C rats, during normoxic perfusion, wheel-running activity significantly decreased heart rate (- 15 %), oxygen consumption (- 2.2 %) and cardiac efficiency (- 37 %), whereas coronary flow and flux of non-oxidative glycolysis were significantly increased (+ 15 % and + 263 %, respectively). After ischemia, recovery of cardiac mechanical function and cardiac efficiency were improved in Lou/C wheel-running rats versus Lou/C sedentary animals (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the impact of ischemia-reperfusion is similar between Lou/C- and Wistar sedentary rats. Spontaneous wheel-running activity decreases cardiac efficiency before ischemia and confers a protection against ischemia- and

  8. New pyrrole derivatives with potent tubulin polymerization inhibiting activity as anticancer agents including hedgehog-dependent cancer.

    PubMed

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-08-14

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway.

  9. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  10. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy ameliorates diabetic nephropathy via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes

    PubMed Central

    Nagaishi, Kanna; Mizue, Yuka; Chikenji, Takako; Otani, Miho; Nakano, Masako; Konari, Naoto; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have contributed to the improvement of diabetic nephropathy (DN); however, the actual mediator of this effect and its role has not been characterized thoroughly. We investigated the effects of MSC therapy on DN, focusing on the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors, including exosomes secreted by MSCs. MSCs and MSC-conditioned medium (MSC-CM) as renal trophic factors were administered in parallel to high-fat diet (HFD)-induced type 2 diabetic mice and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced insulin-deficient diabetic mice. Both therapies showed approximately equivalent curative effects, as each inhibited the exacerbation of albuminuria. They also suppressed the excessive infiltration of BMDCs into the kidney by regulating the expression of the adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Proinflammatory cytokine expression (e.g., TNF-α) and fibrosis in tubular interstitium were inhibited. TGF-β1 expression was down-regulated and tight junction protein expression (e.g., ZO-1) was maintained, which sequentially suppressed the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition of tubular epithelial cells (TECs). Exosomes purified from MSC-CM exerted an anti-apoptotic effect and protected tight junction structure in TECs. The increase of glomerular mesangium substrate was inhibited in HFD-diabetic mice. MSC therapy is a promising tool to prevent DN via the paracrine effect of renal trophic factors including exosomes due to its multifactorial action. PMID:27721418

  11. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation.

  12. A comparison of methods of assessment of body composition including neutron activation analysis of total body nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Lukaski, H C; Mendez, J; Buskirk, E R; Cohn, S H

    1981-08-01

    Fourteen healthy men underwent determinations of total body nitrogen (TBN) by prompt gamma neutron activation analysis and total body potassium (TBK) by whole body counting to estimate the muscle and nonmuscle components of the fat-free body mass (FFBM) and their protein contents. Comparison of FFBM estimated from TBN and TBK (60.6 +/- 6.9 kg, mean +/- SD), densitometry (62.3 +/- 7.1 kg), TBK alone (62.2 +/- 8.0 kg) and TBW (63.9 +/- 7.8 kg) showed no differences among the techniques. Similarly, there were neither differences in fat mass nor percent body fat among the methods. Analysis of the chemical composition of FFBM of this group showed TBK/FFBM = 62.6 +/- 2.3 mEq/kg, TBW/FFBM = 74.6 +/- 0.2%, TBN/FFBM = 32.74 +/- 1.09 g/kg, protein/FFBM = 20.5+/- 0.7%. The calculated mineral content of the FFBM was 6.4%. These values are strikingly similar to the values calculated by direct chemical analysis. It was concluded that the combined TBN-TBK method is a valid technique for estimating body composition in man.

  13. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  14. [Anti-Candida albicans activity of essential oils including Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) oil and its component, citral].

    PubMed

    Abe, Shigeru; Sato, Yuichi; Inoue, Shigeharu; Ishibashi, Hiroko; Maruyama, Naho; Takizawa, Toshio; Oshima, Haruyuki; Yamaguchi, Hideyo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 12 essential oils, popularly used as antifungal treatments in aromatherapy, on growth of Candida albicans were investigated. Mycelial growth of C. albicans, which is known to give the fungus the capacity to invade mucosal tissues, was inhibited in the medium containing 100 micro g/ml of the oils: lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), patchouli (Pogostemon cablin) and cedarwood (Cedrus atlantica). Not only lemongrass oil but also citral, a major component of lemongrass oil (80%), in the range of 25 and 200 micro g/ml inhibited the mycelial growth but allowed yeast-form growth. More than 200 micro g/ml of citral clearly inhibited both mycelial and yeast-form growth of C. albicans. These results provide experimental evidence suggesting the potential value of lemongrass oil for the treatment of oral or vaginal candidiasis.

  15. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables.

  16. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  17. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  18. Synergistic in vitro antioxidant activity and observational clinical trial of F105, a phytochemical formulation including Citrus bergamia, in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Babish, John G; Dahlberg, Clinton J; Ou, Joseph J; Keller, William J; Gao, Wei; Kaadige, Mohan R; Brabazon, Holly; Lamb, Joseph; Soudah, Hani C; Kou, Xiaolan; Zhang, Zhe; Pacioretty, Linda M; Tripp, Matthew L

    2016-12-01

    We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen. Statistically significant changes were noted in total cholesterol (-7.3%), LDL-cholesterol (-10%), non-HDL cholesterol (-7.1%), cholesterol/HDL (-26%), and apolipoprotein B (-2.8%). A post hoc analysis of 8 subjects with HbA1c > 5.4 and HOMA-IR score > 2 or elevated triglycerides revealed additional statistically significant changes in addition to those previously observed in all subjects including triglycerides (-27%), oxLDL (-19%), LDL/HDL (-25%), triglycerides/HDL (-27%), oxLDL/HDL (-25%), and PAI-1 (-37%). A follow-up case report of a 70-year-old female patient, nonresponsive to statin therapy and placed on F105 daily, demonstrated improved cardiometabolic variables over 12 weeks similar to the subgroup. In summary, F105 was clinically well-tolerated and effective for ameliorating dyslipidemia in subjects with moderate cardiometabolic risk factors, particularly in the individuals with HbA1c > 5.4%.

  19. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared.

  20. Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on physiological and psychological variables: Implications to pilot performance (including a partially annotated bibliography)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Winger, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Heinold, M. P.; Edgar, D. M.; Kinney, N. E.; Langston, S. E.; Markley, C. L.; Anthony, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of environmental synchronizers upon circadian rhythmic stability in man and the deleterious alterations in performance and which result from changes in this stability are points of interest in a review of selected literature published between 1972 and 1980. A total of 2,084 references relevant to pilot performance and circadian phase alteration are cited and arranged in the following categories: (1) human performance, with focus on the effects of sleep loss or disturbance and fatigue; (2) phase shift in which ground based light/dark alteration and transmeridian flight studies are discussed; (3) shiftwork; (4)internal desynchronization which includes the effect of evironmental factors on rhythmic stability, and of rhythm disturbances on sleep and psychopathology; (5) chronotherapy, the application of methods to ameliorate desynchronization symptomatology; and (6) biorythm theory, in which the birthdate based biorythm method for predicting aircraft accident susceptability is critically analyzed. Annotations are provided for most citations.

  1. [Study on influence between activated carbon property and immobilized biological activated carbon purification effect].

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-zhi; Li, Wei-guang; He, Wen-jie; Han, Hong-da; Ding, Chi; Ma, Xiao-na; Qu, Yan-ming

    2006-10-01

    By means of immobilizing five kinds of activated carbon, we studied the influence between the chief activated carbon property items and immobilized bioactivated carbon (IBAC) purification effect with the correlation analysis. The result shows that the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.7 include molasses, abrasion number, hardness, tannin, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter; the activated carbon property items which the correlation coefficient is up 0.5 include pH, iodine, butane and tetrachloride. In succession, the partial correlation analysis shows that activated carbon property items mostly influencing on IBAC purification effect include molasses, hardness, abrasion number, uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter. The causation of these property items bringing influence on IBAC purification is that the activated carbon holes distribution (representative activated carbon property item is molasses) provides inhabitable location and adjust food for the dominance bacteria; the mechanical resist-crash property of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: abrasion number and hardness) have influence on the stability of biofilm; and the particle diameter size and distribution of activated carbon (representative activated carbon property items: uniform coefficient, mean particle diameter and effective particle diameter) can directly affect the force of water in IBAC filter bed, which brings influence on the dominance bacteria immobilizing on activated carbon.

  2. Evaluation of freshwater sediment quality values including apparent effects thresholds of Hyalella azteca and Microtox{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbage, J.; Batts, D.

    1995-12-31

    Data from 36 studies in Washington State were merged into a single database to derive Apparent Effects Thresholds (AETS) for freshwater sediments and to evaluate other sediment quality values. Sediments from 235 sites were analyzed for several contaminants, Bioassays tested at 30 or more of these sites included Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna and Chironomus tentans mortality, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction and growth, and Microtox{reg_sign} luminescence reduction. Adequate sample size (n > 50) and wide range of response were available for Hyalella (n = 235) and Microtox{reg_sign} (n = 61) to determine AETs for organic carbon normalized PAHs, pesticides, and PCBs, and dry weight normalized metals, phenols and chlorinated phenols. The ability of these AETs to predict response in any bioassay at the sites in the database was compared with Ontario Ministry Environment and Energy (OMEE) Sediment Quality Guidelines and the Environment Canada (EC) Interim Sediment Quality Values. Measures of sensitivity (number correctly predicted/number impacted) and efficiency (number correctly predicted/number predicted) were compared. The EC Threshold Effects Level (TEL) was the most sensitive (fewest Type 2 errors) at 92%, but the least efficient (most Type 1 errors) at 35%. The lowest AET (LAET) of Hyalella and Microtox{reg_sign}, derived from the current study, was the next most sensitive (77%) and more efficient (44%). The OMEE Severe Effects Level was the least sensitive (59%) and the most efficient (53%). The EC Probable Effects Level (PEL) was 50% efficient and 72% sensitive. Of the four sets of sediment quality values, the OMEE Severe Effects Level had the highest overall reliability (number of correct predictions of effects and non-effects/number of sites examined) in predicting bioassay effects in the Washington State freshwater sediment database.

  3. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David Michael

    1997-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. The formulation uses the principle of virtual work. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are then derived after the application of several simplifying assumptions. These equations are then modified to allow the reference surface of the plate to be located at a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described as well. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both Classical Plate Theory (CPT) and first-order Shear-Deformation Plate Theory (SDPT) are presented. The necessary steps to include the effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads in the in-plane stability equations are also outlined. Numerical results are presented using the newly implemented capability. Comparisons of results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPF are also made. Results comparing the computational effort required by the new analysis to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program are presented. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  4. Calculations of the pressure distribution on axisymmetric boattails including effects of viscous interactions and exhaust jets in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, J.; Bober, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of calculating the pressure distributions on boattails is proposed. This method accounts for viscous effects including the presence of a separated region for base flows by combining an inviscid analysis with a boundary layer analysis in an iterative calculation. Details of the reversed flow region are not considered. Some preliminary results have been obtained for boattails at subsonic free stream Mach number with turbulent boundary layers separating at the boattail base. In some cases convergence could not be obtained using the present computer program. It is possible, in principle, to extend this method to the calculation of boattail flows with pressure gradient induced separation on the boattail.

  5. Micromechanical analysis of a continuous fiber metal matrix composite including the effects of matrix viscoplasticity and evolving damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. H.; Jones, R. H.; Boyd, J. G.

    1994-03-01

    A THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS of a metal matrix continuous fiber composite is performed herein. The analysis includes the effects of matrix inelasticity and interface cracking. Due to these nonlinearities, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. Matrix inelasticity is modeled with a rate dependent viscoplasticity model. Interface fracture is modeled by the use of a nonlinear interface constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized, and results are given for a typical SiC-Ti composite at elevated temperature. Preliminary results indicate that rate dependent viscoplasticity can be a significant mechanism for dissipating the energy available for interface fracture, thus contributing to improved macroscopic ductility of the composite.

  6. Analysis of Gain-Switching Characteristics Including Strong Gain Saturation Effects in Low-Dimensional Semiconductor Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shaoqiang; Yoshita, Masahiro; Ito, Takashi; Mochizuki, Toshimitsu; Akiyama, Hidefumi; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Kamide, Kenji; Ogawa, Tetsuo

    2012-09-01

    The effects of gain nonlinearities on gain-switched short-pulse-generation characteristics are analyzed via rate equations assuming a nonlinear-gain model including a gain saturation parameter gs to quantitatively describe the strong gain-saturation nonlinearity in low-dimensional semiconductor lasers at high carrier densities. It was found that the minimum pulse width and the delay time are mainly determined by gs rather than a differential gain coefficient g0 and a gain compression factor ɛ. By tracing the temporal evolution of carrier density, photon density, and material gain during gain switching, distinctly different effects of gs, ɛ, and cavity lifetime τp on pulse generation were clarified.

  7. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-02

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure.

  8. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  9. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources.

  10. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources. PMID:27109095

  11. Calculation of heat transfer on shuttle type configurations including the effects of variable entropy at boundary layer edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    A relatively simple method is presented for including the effect of variable entropy at the boundary-layer edge in a heat transfer method developed previously. For each inviscid surface streamline an approximate shockwave shape is calculated using a modified form of Maslen's method for inviscid axisymmetric flows. The entropy for the streamline at the edge of the boundary layer is determined by equating the mass flux through the shock wave to that inside the boundary layer. Approximations used in this technique allow the heating rates along each inviscid surface streamline to be calculated independent of the other streamlines. The shock standoff distances computed by the present method are found to compare well with those computed by Maslen's asymmetric method. Heating rates are presented for blunted circular and elliptical cones and a typical space shuttle orbiter at angles of attack. Variable entropy effects are found to increase heating rates downstream of the nose significantly higher than those computed using normal-shock entropy, and turbulent heating rates increased more than laminar rates. Effects of Reynolds number and angles of attack are also shown.

  12. The sphingoid long chain base phytosphingosine activates AGC-type protein kinases in Saccharomyces cerevisiae including Ypk1, Ypk2, and Sch9.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ke; Zhang, Xiping; Lester, Robert L; Dickson, Robert C

    2005-06-17

    The Pkh1 protein kinase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a homolog of the mammalian 3-phosphoinositide-dependent kinase (PDK1), regulates downstream AGC-type protein kinases including Ypk1/2 and Pkc1, which control cell wall integrity, growth, and other processes. Phytosphingosine (PHS), a sphingoid long chain base, is hypothesized to be a lipid activator of Pkh1 and thereby controls the activity of Ypk1/2. Here we present biochemical evidence supporting this hypothesis, and in addition we demonstrate that PHS also stimulates autophosphorylation and activation of Ypk1/2. Greatest stimulation of Ypk1/2 phosphorylation and activity are achieved by inclusion of both PHS and Pkh1 in an in vitro kinase reaction. We also demonstrate for the first time that Pkh1 phosphorylates the Sch9 protein kinase in vitro and that such phosphorylation is stimulated by PHS. This is the first biochemical demonstration of Sch9 activators, and the results further support roles for long chain bases in heat stress resistance in addition to implying roles in chronological aging and cell size determination, since Sch9 functions in these processes. Thus, our data support a model in which PHS, rather than simply being an upstream activator of Pkh1, also activates kinases that are downstream targets of Pkh1 including Ypk1/2 and Sch9.

  13. Acute efficacy of fluoxetine versus sertraline and paroxetine in major depressive disorder including effects of baseline insomnia.

    PubMed

    Fava, Maurizio; Hoog, Sharon L; Judge, Rajinder A; Kopp, Joan B; Nilsson, Mary E; Gonzales, Jill S

    2002-04-01

    This study assessed whether fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine differ in efficacy and tolerability in depressed patients and the impact of baseline insomnia on outcomes. Patients (N = 284) with DSM-IV major depressive disorder were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for 10 to 16 weeks of treatment. Using the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) sleep disturbance factor score, patients were categorized into low (<4) or high (>or=4) baseline insomnia subgroups. Changes in depression and insomnia were assessed. Safety assessments included treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs), reasons for discontinuation, and AEs leading to discontinuation. In addition, AEs were evaluated within insomnia subgroups to determine emergence of activation or sedation. Depression improvement, assessed with the HAM-D-17 total score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.365) and the high (p = 0.853) and low insomnia (p = 0.415) subgroups. Insomnia improvement, assessed with the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor score, was similar among treatments in all patients (p = 0.868) and in the high (p = 0.852) and low insomnia (p = 0.982) subgroups. Analyses revealed no significant differences between treatments in the percentages of patients with substantial worsening, any worsening, worsening at endpoint, or improvement at endpoint in the HAM-D sleep disturbance factor in either insomnia subgroup. Treatments were well tolerated in most patients. No significant differences between treatments in the incidence of AEs suggestive of activation or sedation were seen in the insomnia subgroups. These data show no significant differences in acute treatment efficacy and tolerability across fluoxetine, sertraline, and paroxetine in major depressive disorder patients. Improvement in overall depression and in associated insomnia was achieved by most patients regardless of baseline insomnia.

  14. Effects of Reynolds number and model support on the supersonic aerodynamic chacteristics of a 140 deg-included-angle cone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trescot, C. D., Jr.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Howell, D. T.

    1974-01-01

    An investigation has been made in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel to determine the effects of Reynolds number and sting-support interference on the static aerodynamic characteristics of a 140 deg-included-angle cone. Base pressures and forces and moments of the model were measured at Mach numbers of 1.50, 2.00, 2.94, and 4.00 for ratios of sting diameter to model diameter that varied from 0.125 to 0.500 through an angle-of-attack range from about minus 4 deg to 13 deg. The Reynolds number, based on model diameter 4.80 in. was varied from 161,000 to 415,000.

  15. Elasto-plastic bending of cracked plates, including the effects of crack closure. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    A capability for solving elasto-plastic plate bending problems is developed using assumptions consistent with Kirchhoff plate theory. Both bending and extensional modes of deformation are admitted with the two modes becoming coupled as yielding proceeds. Equilibrium solutions are obtained numerically by determination of the stationary point of a functional which is analogous to the potential strain energy. The stationary value of the functional for each load increment is efficiently obtained through use of the conjugate gradient. This technique is applied to the problem of a large centrally through cracked plate subject to remote circular bending. Comparison is drawn between two cases of the bending problem. The first neglects the possibility of crack face interference with bending, and the second includes a kinematic prohibition against the crack face from passing through the symmetry plane. Results are reported which isolate the effects of elastoplastic flow and crack closure.

  16. Upgrade of PARC2D to include real gas effects. [computer program for flowfield surrounding aeroassist flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saladino, Anthony; Praharaj, Sarat C.; Collins, Frank G.; Seaford, C. Mark

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents a description of the changes and additions to the perfect gas PARC2D code to include chemical equilibrium effects, resulting in a code called PARCEQ2D. The work developed out of a need to have the capability of more accurately representing the flowfield surrounding the aeroassist flight experiment (AFE) vehicle. Use is made of the partition function of statistical mechanics in the evaluation of the thermochemical properties. This approach will allow the PARC code to be extended to thermal nonequilibrium when this task is undertaken in the future. The transport properties follow from formulae from the kinetic theory of gases. Results are presented for a two-dimensional AFE that compare perfect gas and real gas solutions at flight conditions, showing vast differences between the two cases.

  17. Statistical models for predicting the change in mean motion of a satellite over time including the effects of solar flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, J. M.

    1985-12-01

    This investigation derived a simple model to determine the change in mean motion over time when the actual values are unknown. A method was developed to include effects of solar flux by calculating an average value of n over 30 days. The model requires a knowledge of the mean motion for about 30 days before the time of interest to calculate this average. The analysis was done using BMDP on a CDC Cyber 6000 computer using element set data from actual satellites. This model does not attempt absolute accuracy, but is intended to be a method to quickly approximate a new mean motion when real values are not available. A limitation of this model is the amount of historical data and analyst judgement which are required.

  18. K-P-Burgers equation in negative ion-rich relativistic dusty plasma including the effect of kinematic viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev, A. N.; Deka, M. K.; Sarma, J.; Saikia, D.; Adhikary, N. C.

    2016-10-01

    The stationary solution is obtained for the K-P-Burgers equation that describes the nonlinear propagations of dust ion acoustic waves in a multi-component, collisionless, un-magnetized relativistic dusty plasma consisting of electrons, positive and negative ions in the presence of charged massive dust grains. Here, the Kadomtsev-Petviashvili (K-P) equation, three-dimensional (3D) Burgers equation, and K-P-Burgers equations are derived by using the reductive perturbation method including the effects of viscosity of plasma fluid, thermal energy, ion density, and ion temperature on the structure of a dust ion acoustic shock wave (DIASW). The K-P equation predictes the existences of stationary small amplitude solitary wave, whereas the K-P-Burgers equation in the weakly relativistic regime describes the evolution of shock-like structures in such a multi-ion dusty plasma.

  19. Development of operational models of receptor activation including constitutive receptor activity and their use to determine the efficacy of the chemokine CCL17 at the CC chemokine receptor CCR4.

    PubMed

    Slack, R J; Hall, D A

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The operational model provides a key conceptual framework for the analysis of pharmacological data. However, this model does not include constitutive receptor activity, a frequent phenomenon in modern pharmacology, particularly in recombinant systems. Here, we developed extensions of the operational model which include constitutive activity and applied them to effects of agonists at the chemokine receptor CCR4. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effects of agonists of CCR4 on [(35) S]GTPγS binding to recombinant cell membranes and on the filamentous (F-) actin content of human CD4(+) CCR4(+) T cells were determined. The basal [(35) S]GTPγS binding was changed by varying the GDP concentration whilst the basal F-actin contents of the higher expressing T cell populations were elevated, suggesting constitutive activity of CCR4. Both sets of data were analysed using the mathematical models. RESULTS The affinity of CCL17 (also known as TARC) derived from analysis of the T cell data (pK(a) = 9.61 ± 0.17) was consistent with radioligand binding experiments (9.50 ± 0.11) while that from the [(35) S]GTPγS binding experiments was lower (8.27 ± 0.09). Its intrinsic efficacy differed between the two systems (110 in T cells vs. 11). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The presence of constitutive receptor activity allows the absolute intrinsic efficacy of agonists to be determined without a contribution from the signal transduction system. Intrinsic efficacy estimated in this way is consistent with Furchgott's definition of this property. CCL17 may have a higher intrinsic efficacy at CCR4 in human T cells than that expressed recombinantly in CHO cells.

  20. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  1. SU-E-J-215: Onboard Split PET Including the Effects of Attenuation, Scatter, and Random Events

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, N; Kao, C; Thomadsen, B; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) using split PET geometry was investigated as an on-board system for functional imaging and PET marker tracking, specifically with tomotherapy. The open dual ring PET would allow measurement of both inter and intra-fractional variation, improving the delineation of tumor volume at any stage in the radiation treatment delivery process. We present results from data obtained using Monte Carlo simulations including the effects of attenuation, random events, and scatter. Methods: PET design was accomplished via Monte Carlo simulations with GATE, the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography. Images were reconstructed using Software for Image Reconstruction (STIR) with a fully 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) image reconstruction technique. Results: Monte Carlo simulations of the split PET geometry indicate that including physical factors that degrade image quality such as attenuation, random events, and scatter still prove the feasibility of near real-time PET for both inter and intra-fractional radiation delivery. The image quality of scan times under 1 minute reveals that it is possible to utilize PET scanning and reconstruction during the treatment session intrafractionally. GATE also simulates the depth information but does not correct obliqueness of the path of line of response so the data is much more realistic than the data obtained with ray tracing. Conclusion: Onboard split PET with TomoTherapy can generate quality images under 1 minute scan times without the need to correct for attenuation, scatter, random events, or depth information of the interaction.

  2. Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Wastewater Processing: Effects of Environmental Stresses Including Dormancy Cycling and Antibiotic Dosing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Larson, Brian D.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Kosiba, Michael L.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Catechis, John A.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) have been studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams during space exploration. While the technology provides a promising pre-treatment for lowering organic carbon and nitrogen content without the need for harsh stabilization chemicals, several challenges must be addressed before adoption of the technology in future missions. One challenge is the transportation of bioreactors containing intact, active biofilms as a means for rapid start-up on the International Space Station or beyond. Similarly, there could be a need for placing these biological systems into a dormant state for extended periods when the system is not in use, along with the ability for rapid restart. Previous studies indicated that there was little influence of storage condition (4 or 25 C, with or without bulk fluid) on recovery of bioreactors with immature biofilms (48 days old), but that an extensive recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy within 4 days (approximately 1 residence). Further dormancy and recovery testing is presented here that examines the role of biofilm age on recovery requirements, repeated dormancy cycle capabilities, and effects of long-duration dormancy cycles (8-9 months) on HFMB systems. Another challenge that must be addressed is the possibility of antibiotics entering the wastewater stream. Currently, for most laboratory tests of biological water processors, donors providing urine may not contribute to the study when taking antibiotics because the effects on the system are yet uncharacterized. A simulated urinary tract infection event, where an opportunistic, pathogenic organism, E. coli, was introduced to the HFMBs followed by dosing with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was completed to study the effect of the antibiotic on reactor performance and to also examine the development of

  3. Simulation of High-Voltage DC Breakdown for Angled Dielectric Insulators including Space-Charge and Gas-Collision Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldan, Manuel; Verboncoeur, John

    2012-10-01

    We report on 2D Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations of a semi-infinite, angled-dielectric Bergeron geometry with steady-state fields in background gas. The goal of this work is to develop the tools to predict and control breakdown under a wide range of parameters. We extend results in [1] with an improved PIC model [2], which includes the effects of space charge and particle distributions, enhanced secondary-emission modeling from metals and dielectrics [3], multiple electrodes, triple-point emission [4], and dielectric-surface outgassing. Breakdown voltage as a function of dielectric angle will be presented taking care to distinguish dominant effects in specific pressure regimes. Very low pressures (vacuum thru ˜100 mTorr) are dominated by multipactor avalanche while ionization and surface-charging at increased pressure (>1 Torr) drive space-charge-coupled oscillations.[4pt] [1] Jordan, N.M., et al., J. Appl. Phys., 102, 2007.[0pt] [2] Taverniers, S., et al., ICOPS 2009 Proceedings, 2009.[0pt] [3] Vaughan, J.R.M., IEEE Trans. Electron Dev., Vol. 36, No. 9, 1989, pp. 1963-1967.[0pt] [4] L. Sch"achter, Appl. Phys. Lett., Vol. 72, No. 4, pp. 421-423, 1998.

  4. Surface effects on the free vibration behavior of postbuckled circular higher-order shear deformable nanoplates including geometrical nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahmani, S.; Bahrami, M.; Ansari, R.

    2014-12-01

    This investigation deals with the free vibration characteristics of circular higher-order shear deformable nanoplates around the postbuckling configuration incorporating surface effects. Using the Gurtin-Murdoch elasticity theory, a size-dependent higher-order shear deformable plate model is developed which takes account all surface effects including surface elasticity, surface stress and surface density. Geometrical nonlinearity is considered based on the von Karman type nonlinear strain-displacement relationships. Also, in order to satisfy the balance conditions between bulk and surfaces of nanoplate, it is assumed that the normal stress is distributed cubically through the thickness of nanoplate. Hamilton's principle is utilized to derive non-classical governing differential equations of motion and related boundary conditions. Afterwards, an efficient numerical methodology based on a generalized differential quadrature (GDQ) method is employed to solve numerically the problem so as to discretize the governing partial differential equations along various edge supports using Chebyshev-Gauss-Lobatto grid points and pseudo arc-length continuation technique. A comparison between the results of present non-classical model and those of the classical plate theory is conducted. It is demonstrated that in contrast to the prebuckling domain, for a specified value of axial load in the postbuckling domain, increasing the plate thickness leads to higher frequencies.

  5. Effects of Multi-modal Physiotherapy, Including Hip Abductor Strengthening, in Patients with Iliotibial Band Friction Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Beers, Amanda; Ryan, Michael; Kasubuchi, Zenya; Fraser, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purposes of this study were to quantitatively examine hip abductor strength in patients presenting with iliotibial band friction syndrome (ITBFS) and to determine whether a multi-modal physiotherapy approach, including hip abductor strengthening, might play a role in recovery. Method: Our observational, pretest–posttest study is one of the first prospective studies in this area. Patients presenting to physiotherapy with unilateral ITBFS were recruited to participate. Participants followed a 6-week rehabilitation programme designed to strengthen hip abductors; strength was measured every 2 weeks using a hand-held dynamometer and compared bilaterally. Results: Sixteen subjects (five men, 11 women) aged 20 to 53 years participated. All but 2 reported running as one of their main physical activities. A trend toward a significant difference in hip abductor strength was found between the injured and uninjured sides at baseline, but this difference disappeared by 6 weeks. Hip abductor strength was significantly related to physical function at weeks 2, 4, and 6. Nine subjects were discharged from physiotherapy after the 6-week period, while the other 7 subjects continued attending for up to 5 months. Conclusions: Hip abductor strengthening appeared to be beneficial in the treatment of ITBFS, but further research on the use of hip abductor strengthening for treatment and prevention of ITBFS is needed. PMID:20145781

  6. Cytotoxic effects of novel phytosphingosine derivatives, including N,N-dimethylphytosphingosine and N-monomethylphytosphingosine, in human leukemia cell line HL60.

    PubMed

    Park, Sook Ryun; Cho, Hyo Jin; Moon, Kyung Jin; Chun, Kyung-Hee; Kong, Sun-Young; Yoon, Sung-Soo; Lee, Jong Seok; Park, Seonyang

    2010-01-01

    Novel phytosphingosine derivatives have been developed based on the inhibition of sphingosine kinase, which has been implicated in cell growth and inhibition of ceramide-mediated apoptosis. This study evaluated the cytotoxic effects and underlying mechanisms of action of novel phytosphingosine derivatives, including N-monomethylphytosphingosine (MMPH) and N,N-dimethylphytosphingosine (DMPH) and the pegylated forms MMPH-PEG and DMPH-PEG, in human leukemia HL60 cells. In viability and proliferation assays using WST-1, all four drugs induced suppression of cell growth and viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Among them, DMPH had the highest antileukemic activity and induced apoptosis via caspase-8, caspase-3, and caspase-9 activation. The apoptotic effect was also associated with Fas/FasL upregulation, Bid cleavage, Bcl-2 downregulation, Bax upregulation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and cytochrome c release. DMPH decreased the phosphorylation of ERK and inhibited daunorubicin-induced ERK activation. Furthermore, DMPH displayed synergistic cytotoxicity with daunorubicin in a sequence-dependent manner. Our findings indicate that DMPH has potential as an effective cytotoxic agent for leukemia.

  7. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  8. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  9. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Bons, Jeffrey; Ameri, Ali

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  10. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  11. Gravimetric response of water table fluctuations in the Sahelian Diffa site (East Niger): local effects including poro-elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Le Coz, M.; Hinderer, J.; Chalikakis, K.; Descloitres, M.

    2010-12-01

    The GHYRAF project (Gravimetry and HYdrology in AFrica) is devoted to a regional study of the relationship between hydrological and gravimetric signals in the Western African Monsoon area. Three sites are monitored in a decreasing pluviometric gradient: Djougou (North Benin), Wankama (Niamey area) and Bagara (Eastern Niger) with annual rainfalls amounting to 1200 mm, 600 mm and 350 mm, respectively. The Diffa/Bagara site is located 640m away from the Yobé temporary river, a tributary of Lake Chad fed by rainfall on the Jos Plateau (Nigeria) and that is generally flowing between mid July and January. Apart from this period, the river bed includes a series of ponds that form the top of the aquifer and that are pumped for intensive irrigated cropping. The 50m thick uppermost unconfined aquifer is locally recharged by the Yobé River and is flowing northwards. It has been explored by geophysical methods involving RMS and TDEM soundings, which provided information on its porosity and electrical conductivity, respectively. A series of nearly 50 holes drilled down to a 10 m depth in the Bagara area allowed to define the detailed sedimentary structure of the aquifer. It consists mainly of fluvial deposits with alternating layers of fine sands, coarse grained sands and clays. The sedimentary pile includes clayed layer of centimetric to metric thickness with a mean lateral extension of 300 m. The groundwater level is monitored by a series of 4 piezometers located at 25 m, 270 m, 500 m and 640 m from the river axis. The shape of the piezometric curve at the Bagara station is 0.4 m amplitude sinusoid and presents a maximum level at mid January and a minimum one near mid July. Clearly, water level fluctuations are governed by infiltration from the Yobe river with an offset controlled by the distance to it. With the 20% porosity measured by MRS, this would imply a nearly 30 nms-2 gravimetric signal, which is in fair agreement with the observed amplitude. However both the

  12. Simulation of a cold-stressed finger including the effects of wind, gloves, and cold-induced vasodilatation.

    PubMed

    Shitzer, A; Bellomo, S; Stroschein, L A; Gonzalez, R R; Pandolf, K B

    1998-06-01

    The thermal response of fingers exposed to cold weather conditions has been simulated. Energy balance equations were formulated, in a former study, for the tissue layers and the arterial, venous, and capillary blood vessels. The equations were solved by a finite difference scheme using the Thomas algorithm and the method of alternating directions. At this stage of development the model does not include any autonomic control functions. Model simulations assumed an electrical heating element to be embedded in the glove layers applied on the finger. A 1.3 W power input was calculated for maintaining finger temperatures at their pre-cold exposure level in a 0 degree C environment. Alternate assumptions of nutritional (low) and basal (high) blood flows in the finger demonstrated the dominance of this factor in maintaining finger temperatures at comfortable levels. Simulated exposures to still and windy air, at 4.17 m/s (15 km/h), indicated the profound chilling effects of wind on fingers in cold environments. Finally, the effects of variable blood flow in the finger, known as "cold-induced vasodilatation," were also investigated. Blood flow variations were assumed to be represented by periodic, symmetric triangular waves allowing for gradual opening-closing cycles of blood supply to the tip of the finger. Results of this part of the simulation were compared with measured records of bare finger temperatures. Good conformity was obtained for a plausible pattern of change in blood flow, which was assumed to be provided in its entirety to the tip of the finger alone.

  13. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.; Anderson, Melvin S.

    1998-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations that include transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Using several simplifying assumptions, linearized, stability equations are derived that describe the response of the plate just after bifurcation buckling occurs. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(c), from the centroid surface which is convenient for modeling stiffened-plate assemblies. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design program code is described. Either classical plate theory (CPT) or first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) may be selected in VICONOPT. Comparisons of numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are made. Results from the new curved-plate analysis compare well with closed-form solution results and with results from known example problems in the literature. Finally, a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression is presented.

  14. Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

  15. SmEdA vibro-acoustic modelling in the mid-frequency range including the effect of dissipative treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, H. D.; Maxit, L.; Ege, K.; Gerges, Y.; Guyader, J.-L.

    2017-04-01

    Vibro-acoustic simulation in the mid-frequency range is of interest for automotive and truck constructors. The dissipative treatments used for noise and vibration control such as viscoelastic patches and acoustic absorbing materials must be taken into account in the problem. The Statistical modal Energy distribution Analysis (SmEdA) model consists in extending Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) to the mid-frequency range by establishing power balance equations between the modes of the different subsystems. The modal basis of uncoupled-subsystems that can be estimated by the finite element method in the mid-frequency range is used as input data. SmEdA was originally developed by considering constant modal damping factors for each subsystem. However, this means that it cannot describe the local distribution of dissipative materials. To overcome this issue, a methodology is proposed here to take into account the effect of these materials. This methodology is based on the finite element models of the subsystems that include well-known homogenized material models of dissipative treatments. The Galerkin method with subsystem normal modes is used to estimate the modal damping loss factors. Cross-modal coupling terms which appear in the formulation due to the dissipative materials are assumed to be negligible. An approximation of the energy sharing between the subsystems damped by dissipative materials is then described by SmEdA. The different steps of the method are validated experimentally by applying it to a laboratory test case composed of a plate-cavity system with different configurations of dissipative treatments. The comparison between the experimental and the simulation results shows good agreement in the mid-frequency range.

  16. Bioacessibility of PAHs in fuel soot assessed by an in vitro digestive model: effect of including an absorptive sink.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyan; Pignatello, Joseph J; Tao, Shu; Xing, Baoshan

    2015-03-17

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with soot or black carbon can enter the human digestive tract by unintentional ingestion of soil or other particles. This study investigated the bioaccessibility of 11 PAHs in a composite fuel soot sample using an in vitro digestive model that included silicone sheet as an absorptive sink during the small intestinal digestion stage. The sheet was meant to simulate the passive transfer of PAHs in lumen fluid across the small intestinal epithelium, which was postulated to promote desorption of labile PAHs from the soot by steepening the soot-fluid concentration gradient. We show that the presence of silicone sheet during a 4 h default digestion time significantly increased the apparent bioaccessible fraction (Bapp, %), defined as the sum in the sheet and digestive fluid relative to the total PAH determined. The ability to increase Bapp for most PAHs leveled off above a sheet-to-soot ratio of 2.0 g per 50 mg, indicating that the sheet is an effective absorptive sink and promotes desorption in the mentioned way. Enhancement of Bapp by the sheet correlated positively with the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), even though the partition coefficient of PAH between sheet and digestive fluid (which contains bile acid micelles) correlated negatively with Kow. It was hypothesized that PAHs initially in the soot exist in labile and nonlabile states. The fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot residue after digestion, and the maximum possible (limiting) bioaccessibility (Blim) could be estimated by varying the sheet-to-soot ratio. We show conclusively that the increase in bioccessibility due to the presence of the sheet is accounted for by a corresponding decrease in fraction of labile PAH still sorbed to the soot. The Blim ranged from 30.8 to 62.4%, independent of molecular size. The nonlabile fraction of individual PAHs (69.2-37.6% in this case) is therefore large and needs to be taken into account in risk

  17. Numerical simulation for horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands: A short review including geothermal effects and solution bounding in biodegradation procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liolios, K.; Tsihrintzis, V.; Angelidis, P.; Georgiev, K.; Georgiev, I.

    2016-10-01

    Current developments on modeling of groundwater flow and contaminant transport and removal in the porous media of Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSF CWs) are first reviewed in a short way. The two usual environmental engineering approaches, the black-box and the process-based one, are briefly presented. Next, recent research results obtained by using these two approaches are briefly discussed as application examples, where emphasis is given to the evaluation of the optimal design and operation parameters concerning HSF CWs. For the black-box approach, the use of Artificial Neural Networks is discussed for the formulation of models, which predict the removal performance of HSF CWs. A novel mathematical prove is presented, which concerns the dependence of the first-order removal coefficient on the Temperature and the Hydraulic Residence Time. For the process-based approach, an application example is first discussed which concerns procedures to evaluate the optimal range of values for the removal coefficient, dependent on either the Temperature or the Hydraulic Residence Time. This evaluation is based on simulating available experimental results of pilot-scale units operated in Democritus University of Thrace, Xanthi, Greece. Further, in a second example, a novel enlargement of the system of Partial Differential Equations is presented, in order to include geothermal effects. Finally, in a third example, the case of parameters uncertainty concerning biodegradation procedures is considered and the use of upper and a novel approach is presented, which concerns the upper and the lower solution bound for the practical draft design of HSF CWs.

  18. Adverse effects of isolation: a prospective matched cohort study including 90 direct interviews of hospitalized patients in a French University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Guilley-Lerondeau, B; Bourigault, C; Guille des Buttes, A-C; Birgand, G; Lepelletier, D

    2017-01-01

    Isolation precautions in patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria or other communicable infectious agents can be associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess satisfaction and psychological impact of patients hospitalized with isolation precautions in comparison with controls. An observational prospective cohort study was performed in five different medical and surgical departments in a 3,000-bed university hospital in Western France between March and July 2012. Different scales were used to assess patient satisfaction (qualitative scale) and anxiety (Spielberger scale), including 30 patients with isolation precautions and 60 matched patients without isolation precautions over 45-hour interviews. Cases were significantly less satisfied than controls for healthcare workers (HCW) assistance in activities of daily life (p < 0.001), availability and relationships (17 % vs 5 %, p = 0.05 and 10 % vs 0%, p = 0.02, respectively). Sixty-seven percent of patients with isolation precautions were not satisfied about the quality of the information related to their infectious status control measures. The median score [range] of anxiety significantly was higher in patients with isolation precautions (52 [20-56] vs 31 [23-73], p <0.001). Isolation precautions may have negative psychological effects, leading to anxiety, and may compromise patient satisfaction according to the availability and relationship with HCW. Professionals should be aware of adverse effects of isolation and inform patients more actively with regard to their infectious status and precautions.

  19. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  20. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, KP; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22nd day and on 90th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP’AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also

  1. Experimental petrology of peridotites, including effects of water and carbon on melting in the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David H.

    2015-02-01

    shallower depths and lower temperatures within the asthenosphere and the upwelling lherzolite is enriched in water, carbonate and incompatible elements. Magmas including olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites, alkali picrites and tholeiitic picrites are consequences of increasing melt fraction and decreasing pressure at melt segregation. Major element, trace element and isotopic characteristics of island chain or `hot-spot' magmas show that they sample geochemically distinct components in the upper mantle, differing from MORB sources. There is no evidence for higher-temperature `hot-spot' magmas, relative to primitive MORB, but there is evidence for higher water, CO2 and incompatible element contents. The distinctive geochemical signatures of `hot-spot' magmas and their `fixed' position and long-lived activity relative to plate movement are attributed to melt components derived from melting at interfaces between old, oxidised subducted slabs (suspended beneath or within the deeper asthenosphere) and ambient, reduced mantle. In convergent margin volcanism, the inverted temperature gradients inferred for the mantle wedge above the subducting lithosphere introduce further complexity which can be explored by overlaying the phase relations of appropriate mantle and crustal lithologies. Water and carbonate derived from the subducted slab play significant roles, magmas are relatively oxidised, and distinctive primary magmas such as boninites, adakites and island arc ankaramites provide evidence for fluxing of melting in refractory harzburgite to lherzolite by slab-derived hydrous adakitic melt and by wedge-derived carbonatite.

  2. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active.

  3. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  4. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  5. Molecular aspects of thyroid hormone transporters, including MCT8, MCT10, and OATPs, and the effects of genetic variation in these transporters.

    PubMed

    van der Deure, Wendy M; Peeters, Robin P; Visser, Theo J

    2010-01-01

    Thyroid hormone is a pleiotropic hormone with widespread biological actions. For instance, adequate levels of thyroid hormone are critical for the development of different tissues such as the central nervous system, but are also essential for the regulation of metabolic processes throughout life. The biological activity of thyroid hormone depends not only on serum thyroid hormone levels, but is also regulated at the tissue level by the expression and activity of deiodinases, which activate thyroid hormone or mediate its degradation. In addition, thyroid hormone transporters are necessary for the uptake of thyroid hormone into target tissues. With the discovery of monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) as a specific thyroid hormone transporter and the finding that mutations in this transporter lead to a syndrome of severe psychomotor retardation and elevated serum 3,3',5-tri-iodothyronine levels known as the Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome, the interest in this area of research has greatly increased. In this review, we will focus on the molecular aspects of thyroid hormone transporters, including MCT8, MCT10, organic anion transporting polypeptides, and the effects of genetic variation in these transporters.

  6. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the NPL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Woods, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    Since 2001, four national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted four samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, the most recent being that of the NPL (UK). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 8 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR and the key comparison reference value (KCRV) have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), comparison identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18, according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the CIEMAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; García-Toraño, E.; Los Arcos, J.-M.

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, five national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted five samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the CIEMAT (Spain). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value and the degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been calculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  8. KEY COMPARISON: Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 18F to include the PTB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratel, G.; Michotte, C.; Kossert, K.; Janßen, H.

    2006-01-01

    Since 2001, six national metrology institutes (NMIs) have submitted six samples of known activity of 18F to the International Reference System (SIR) for activity comparison at the Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), the most recent being that of the PTB (Germany). The activities ranged from about 1 MBq to 18 MBq. The key comparison reference value (KCRV) has been recalculated to include the latest value, with the agreement of the CCRI(II). The degrees of equivalence between each equivalent activity measured in the SIR have been recalculated and the results are given in the form of a matrix. A graphical presentation is also given for this key comparison with identifier BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by Section II of the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation (CCRI(II)), according to the provisions of the Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  9. Effects of physical activity on cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Na, Hye-Kyung; Oliynyk, Sergiy

    2011-07-01

    Results of most epidemiological and laboratory studies suggest an inverse relationship between regular exercise and the risk of certain malignancies, such as intestinal, colon, pancreatic, breast, lung, skin, mammary, endometrial, and prostate cancer. However, physical activity can have different influence on carcinogenesis, depending on energy supply and the age of the subject as well as strength, frequency, and length of exercise. The biochemical and molecular basis of the interaction between aerobic physical activity and tumorigenic processes remains poorly understood. Physical activity may generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a different extent. Mild oxidative stress caused by moderate physical activity can activate cellular stress response signaling and potentiate cellular antioxidant defense capacity. However, accumulation of relatively large amounts of ROS as a consequence of exhaustive exercise can either directly damage DNA, causing mutation, or promote tumorigenesis by activating proinflammatory signaling. This review highlights the effects of physical activity on various malignancies in the context of redox status modulated during exercise.

  10. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  11. In vitro activity of fosfomycin against blaKPC-containing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates, including those nonsusceptible to tigecycline and/or colistin.

    PubMed

    Endimiani, Andrea; Patel, Gopi; Hujer, Kristine M; Swaminathan, Mahesh; Perez, Federico; Rice, Louis B; Jacobs, Michael R; Bonomo, Robert A

    2010-01-01

    In vitro activity of fosfomycin was evaluated against 68 bla(KPC)-possessing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpKPC) isolates, including 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains. By agar dilution, 93% of the overall KpKPC were susceptible (MIC(50/90) of 16/64 microg/ml, respectively). The subgroup of 23 tigecycline- and/or colistin-nonsusceptible strains showed susceptibility rates of 87% (MIC(50/90) of 32/128 microg/ml, respectively). Notably, 5 out of 6 extremely drug-resistant (tigecycline and colistin nonsusceptible) KpKPC were susceptible to fosfomycin. Compared to agar dilution, disk diffusion was more accurate than Etest.

  12. Natural product derivatives with bactericidal activity against Gram-positive pathogens including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joshua B; Smith, Adrienne E; Kusche, Brian R; Bessette, Bradley A; Swain, P Whitney; Bergmeier, Stephen C; McMills, Mark C; Wright, Dennis L; Priestley, Nigel D

    2010-10-01

    We have shown that the intentional engineering of a natural product biosynthesis pathway is a useful way to generate stereochemically complex scaffolds for use in the generation of combinatorial libraries that capture the structural features of both natural products and synthetic compounds. Analysis of a prototype library based upon nonactic acid lead to the discovery of triazole-containing nonactic acid analogs, a new structural class of antibiotic that exhibits bactericidal activity against drug resistant, Gram-positive pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis.

  13. Review of literature on herbicides, including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins. Volume 13: Analysis of recent literature on health effects and Volume 14: Annotated bibliography of recent literature on health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The report consists of a bibliography and critical review of scientific literature that became available during 1988 on the health effects of the herbicides (including impurities) used as defoliants in the Vietnam conflict. An attempt has been made to identify all scientific literature (including unpublished reports) relevant to the potential human health effects of the herbicidal preparation commonly referred to as Agent Orange, the herbicidal active ingredients 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetic acid and their esters, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, henceforth referred to as TCDD, known to be contaminating impurities of some phenoxy herbicide preparations, an the herbicides, picloram and cacodylic acid. The scope of the review does not include literature dealing exclusively with the chemistry, analysis, or environmental fate and effects of these compounds.

  14. Antibacterial Honey (Medihoney™): in-vitro Activity Against Clinical Isolates of MRSA, VRE, and Other Multiresistant Gram-negative Organisms Including Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    George, Narelle May; Cutting, Keith F

    2007-09-01

    The clinical use of honey has received increasing interest in recent years, particularly its use as a topical antibacterial dressing. Results thus far are extremely encouraging, and demonstrate that honey is effective against a broad range of microorganisms, including multiresistant strains. This in-vitro study complements the work of others and focuses on the impact that a standardized honey can have on multiresistant bacteria that are regularly found in wounds and are responsible for increased morbidity.

  15. Anti-Fatigue Effect by Peptide Fraction from Protein Hydrolysate of Croceine Croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) Swim Bladder through Inhibiting the Oxidative Reactions including DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yu-Qin; Zeng, Li; Yang, Zui-Su; Huang, Fang-Fang; Ding, Guo-Fang; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    The swim bladder of the croceine croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) was believed to have good curative effects in various diseases, including amnesia, insomnia, dizziness, anepithymia, and weakness after giving birth, in traditional Chinese medicine. However, there is no research focusing on the antioxidant and anti-fatigue peptides from croceine croaker swim bladders at present. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the bioactivities of peptide fractions from the protein hydrolysate of croceine croaker related to antioxidant and anti-fatigue effects. In the study, swim bladder peptide fraction (SBP-III-3) was isolated from the protein hydrolysate of the croceine croaker, and its antioxidant and anti-fatigue activities were measured using in vitro and in vivo methods. The results indicated that SBP-III-3 exhibited good scavenging activities on hydroxyl radicals (HO•) (EC50 (the concentration where a sample caused a 50% decrease of the initial concentration of HO•) = 0.867 mg/mL), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH•) (EC50 = 0.895 mg/mL), superoxide anion radical (O2−•) (EC50 = 0.871 mg/mL), and 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radical (ABTS+•) (EC50 = 0.346 mg/mL). SBP-III-3 also showed protective effects on DNA damage in a concentration-effect manner and prolonged the swimming time to exhaustion of Institute of Cancer Research (ICR) mice by 57.9%–107.5% greater than that of the control. SBP-III-3 could increase the levels of muscle glucose (9.4%–115.2% increase) and liver glycogen (35.7%–157.3%), and decrease the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactic acid (LA), and malondialdehyde (MDA) by 16.4%–22.4%, 13.9%–20.1%, and 28.0%–53.6%, respectively. SBP-III-3 also enhanced the activity of lactic dehydrogenase to scavenge excessive LA for slowing the development of fatigue. In addition, SBP-III-3 increased the activities superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase to reduce the

  16. Kinetic Structure of Large-Conductance Ca2+-activated K+ Channels Suggests that the Gating Includes Transitions through Intermediate or Secondary States

    PubMed Central

    Rothberg, Brad S.; Magleby, Karl L.

    1998-01-01

    Mechanisms for the Ca2+-dependent gating of single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels from cultured rat skeletal muscle were developed using two-dimensional analysis of single-channel currents recorded with the patch clamp technique. To extract and display the essential kinetic information, the kinetic structure, from the single channel currents, adjacent open and closed intervals were binned as pairs and plotted as two-dimensional dwell-time distributions, and the excesses and deficits of the interval pairs over that expected for independent pairing were plotted as dependency plots. The basic features of the kinetic structure were generally the same among single large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, but channel-specific differences were readily apparent, suggesting heterogeneities in the gating. Simple gating schemes drawn from the Monod- Wyman-Changeux (MWC) model for allosteric proteins could approximate the basic features of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. However, consistent differences between the observed and predicted dependency plots suggested that additional brief lifetime closed states not included in MWC-type models were involved in the gating. Adding these additional brief closed states to the MWC-type models, either beyond the activation pathway (secondary closed states) or within the activation pathway (intermediate closed states), improved the description of the Ca2+ dependence of the kinetic structure. Secondary closed states are consistent with the closing of secondary gates or channel block. Intermediate closed states are consistent with mechanisms in which the channel activates by passing through a series of intermediate conformations between the more stable open and closed states. It is the added secondary or intermediate closed states that give rise to the majority of the brief closings (flickers) in the gating. PMID:9607935

  17. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... species is included, except for certain worked African elephant ivory as provided in paragraph (f) of this..., inherited, or otherwise acquired before you changed your residence. (f) African elephant worked ivory....

  18. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... species is included, except for certain worked African elephant ivory as provided in paragraph (f) of this..., inherited, or otherwise acquired before you changed your residence. (f) African elephant worked ivory....

  19. FBI-1 can stimulate HIV-1 Tat activity and is targeted to a novel subnuclear domain that includes the Tat-P-TEFb-containing nuclear speckles.

    PubMed

    Pendergrast, P Shannon; Wang, Chen; Hernandez, Nouria; Huang, Sui

    2002-03-01

    FBI-1 is a cellular POZ-domain-containing protein that binds to the HIV-1 LTR and associates with the HIV-1 transactivator protein Tat. Here we show that elevated levels of FBI-1 specifically stimulate Tat activity and that this effect is dependent on the same domain of FBI-1 that mediates Tat-FBI-1 association in vivo. FBI-1 also partially colocalizes with Tat and Tat's cellular cofactor, P-TEFb (Cdk9 and cyclin T1), at the splicing-factor-rich nuclear speckle domain. Further, a less-soluble population of FBI-1 distributes in a novel peripheral-speckle pattern of localization as well as in other nuclear regions. This distribution pattern is dependent on the FBI-1 DNA binding domain, on the presence of cellular DNA, and on active transcription. Taken together, these results suggest that FBI-1 is a cellular factor that preferentially associates with active chromatin and that can specifically stimulate Tat-activated HIV-1 transcription.

  20. Activity of a long-acting echinocandin, CD101, determined using CLSI and EUCAST reference methods, against Candida and Aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Messer, Shawn A.; Rhomberg, Paul R.; Jones, Ronald N.; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of CD101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of Candida and Aspergillus spp. isolates. Methods CD101 and comparator agents were tested against 106 Candida spp. and 67 Aspergillus spp. isolates, including 27 isolates of Candida harbouring fks hotspot mutations and 12 itraconazole non-WT Aspergillus, using CLSI and EUCAST reference susceptibility broth microdilution (BMD) methods. Results Against WT and fks mutant Candida albicans, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis, the activity of CD101 [MIC90 = 0.06, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively (CLSI method values)] was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC90 = 0.03, 0.12 and 0.03 mg/L, respectively) and caspofungin (MIC90 = 0.12, 0.25 and 0.12 mg/L, respectively). WT Candida krusei isolates were very susceptible to CD101 (MIC = 0.06 mg/L). CD101 activity (MIC50/90 = 1/2 mg/L) was comparable to that of anidulafungin (MIC50/90 = 2/2 mg/L) against Candida parapsilosis. CD101 (MIC mode = 0.06 mg/L for C. glabrata) was 2- to 4-fold more active against fks hotspot mutants than caspofungin (MIC mode = 0.5 mg/L). CD101 was active against Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus (MEC90 range = ≤0.008–0.03 mg/L). The essential agreement between CLSI and EUCAST methods for CD101 was 92.0%–100.0% among Candida spp. and 95.0%–100.0% among Aspergillus spp. Conclusions The activity of CD101 is comparable to that of other members of the echinocandin class for the prevention and treatment of serious fungal infections. Similar results for CD101 activity versus Candida and Aspergillus spp. may be obtained with either CLSI or EUCAST BMD methods. PMID:27287236

  1. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  2. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  3. [Effect of physical activity on longevity].

    PubMed

    Wilczek, Mateusz M; Krupienicz, Andrzej

    2016-11-25

    Multiple population studies have reported a positive correlation between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and longer lifespan. It has been generally accepted that it occurs due to PA having a direct effect on longevity. However, this idea is negated by experiments on animal models and an observational study on a twin cohort published recently by Karvinen et al. This unique study includes a pairwise comparison of monozygotic twins discordant for PA, therefore eliminating any influence of genetic factors on both mortality and tendency to take up exercise. The intriguing lack of differences in lifespan in such pairs implies that PA is not an important life prolonging factor. This discovery casts doubt on the validity of PA recommendations found in numerous medical guidelines. Nevertheless, the mentioned results apply only to the plain PA - longevity relation. They do not consider health benefits of PA, for which solid evidence exists. In particular, PA clearly reduces the risk of obesity-related diseases. This may indirectly yet significantly affect the length and quality of life, even if the direct relationship between PA and lifespan will be proven false in further research.

  4. Echolocation-Based Foraging by Harbor Porpoises and Sperm Whales, Including Effects on Noise and Acoustic Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-09-01

    pulses recorded on tagged sperm whales 25 1.5.5 Chapter 5 - Modeling Sperm Whale Response to Airgun Sounds 26 1.5.6 Chapter 6-Conclusions 26 1.5.7...Modeled Transmission Loss 112 3.4 Discussion 115 Acknowledgements 123 References 123 Chapter 4. Modeling acoustic propagation of airgun array pulses ...include the lower-frequency, broadband, multi- pulsed clicks of sperm whales (Zimmer et al., 2005b), the high-frequency, broadband, impulsive clicks

  5. Enhanced Computational Toolbox Including Multiquantum Vibration-Translation (VT) & Vibration-Electronic (VE) Exchanges, Dissociation and Radiation Effects. Deliverable 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-30

    of flow parameters. PETTT, HPC, HPCMP, Real gas , dissociation, Radiation effects, multiquantum energy exchanges, Master equation, State-to-state...TRANSITIONS ON THE RELAXATION OF A N2 GAS FLOW BEHIND A SHOCK...42 APPENDIX D: STATE-SPECIFIC MODELING OF RADIATION IN REACTIVE NONEQUILIBRIUM GAS FLOWS

  6. Radiative decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model including hyperfine mixing effects

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Oexl, Bettina; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-06-01

    We study flavor-conserving radiative decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit. We discuss in some detail hyperfine mixing effects.

  7. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (vi) in the table below: Major group Species (Appendix II only) Type of specimen Quantity 1 Fishes...

  8. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (vi) in the table below: Major group Species (Appendix II only) Type of specimen Quantity 1 Fishes...

  9. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (vi) in the table below: Major group Species (Appendix II only) Type of specimen Quantity 1 Fishes...

  10. Issues Relating to Selective Reporting When Including Non-Randomized Studies in Systematic Reviews on the Effects of Healthcare Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Susan L.; Moher, David; Reeves, Barnaby C.; Shea, Beverley; Loke, Yoon; Garner, Sarah; Anderson, Laurie; Tugwell, Peter; Wells, George

    2013-01-01

    Background: Selective outcome and analysis reporting (SOR and SAR) occur when only a subset of outcomes measured and analyzed in a study is fully reported, and are an important source of potential bias. Key methodological issues: We describe what is known about the prevalence and effects of SOR and SAR in both randomized controlled trials (RCTs)…

  11. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  12. A multiblock/multigrid Euler analysis of a propfan transport with wing-mounted nacelles, including slipstream effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Brian A.; Langhi, Ronald G.; Bencze, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    A multiblock/multigrid computation of the inviscid flow over a wing-mounted propfan transport with propwash is presented. An explicit multistage scheme drives the integral Euler equations to a steady state solution, while an actuator disk approximates the slipstream effects of the propfan blades. Practical applications of detailed surface gridding, multiple block field grids and multigrid convergence acceleration are demonstrated.

  13. Robust Variance Estimation with Dependent Effect Sizes: Practical Considerations Including a Software Tutorial in Stata and SPSS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E.; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and SPSS (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding…

  14. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  15. An improved pore-network model including viscous coupling effects using direct simulation by the lattice Boltzmann method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Chiyu; Raeini, Ali Q.; Wang, Yihang; Blunt, Martin J.; Wang, Moran

    2017-02-01

    Viscous coupling during simultaneous flow of different fluid phases has a significant impact on their flow through porous media. In this work, a new multiscale strategy is proposed for multiphase flow in porous media. We use the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) to simulate two-phase flow at pore scale and obtain empirical terms for the viscous coupling inside individual pores. The empirical coupling terms are then used in a pore-network model to efficiently simulate two-phase flow through porous media at core scale. It is shown that including viscous coupling leads to better predictions of relative permeability.

  16. A Comparison of Brunt Criteria, the Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease Activity Score (NAS) & a Proposed NAS-including fibrosis as Valid Diagnostic Scores for NASH

    PubMed Central

    Santiago-Rolón, Amarilys; Purcell, Dagmary; Rosado, Kathia; Toro, Doris H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can result in cirrhosis and end stage liver disease. It is of utmost importance to differentiate NASH from simple steatosis. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of NASH in Latino veterans with metabolic syndrome and compare histologic grading using Brunt Criteria, the NAFLD activity score (NAS), and a proposed NAS score including fibrosis. Methods Veterans with metabolic syndrome, hepatic steatosis and elevation of ALT/AST who underwent a liver biopsy from 2004-2010 were included in this study. Biopsies were evaluated by a single blinded Hepatopathologist. Steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning and fibrosis were graded per specimen. Each biopsy was evaluated using Brunt criteria, NAS and NAS plus fibrosis. Results Sixty patients were included in this study, 88.3% men with a mean age of 50.4 (± 12.8). 50.0% met criteria for NASH according to the Brunt system. When classifying biopsies using NAS, only 30.0% (18/60) had a score ≥5, while when adding fibrosis, the number of patients with a score ≥5 increased to 33 (55.0%). When evaluating the predictive ability of the two scoring systems, we found that NAS including fibrosis had a higher sensitivity than NAS (86.7% vs. 40.0%) and a lower specificity (76.7% vs. 80.0%). Conclusion In our population with metabolic syndrome and altered liver function tests, about 50-55% had steatohepatitis. There were significant differences between the scoring systems. When using NAS-plus-fibrosis more patients were recognized and the sensitivity increased. Further validation studies are required to evaluate this proposed NAS scoring System. PMID:26602577

  17. Including heavy spin effects in the prediction of a b ¯ ¯ d tetraquark with lattice QCD potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bicudo, Pedro; Scheunert, Jonas; Wagner, Marc

    2017-02-01

    We investigate spin effects in four-quark systems consisting of two heavy antibottom quarks and two light up/down quarks. To this end, we use the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. We utilize potentials of two static antiquarks in the presence of two quarks of finite mass computed via lattice QCD and solve a coupled-channel Schrödinger equation for the antibottom-antibottom separation. Without taking heavy quark spins into account, this approach predicted a u d b ¯b ¯ tetraquark bound state with quantum numbers I (JP)=0 (1+). We now extend this Born-Oppenheimer approach with coupled-channel Schrödinger equations, allowing us to incorporate effects due to the heavy b ¯ spins. We confirm the existence of the u d b ¯b ¯ tetraquark.

  18. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  19. A constitutive model for the compressive response of metallic closed-cell foams including micro-inertia effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélémy, Romain; Jacques, Nicolas; Vermeersch, François; Kerampran, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells). In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 1497-1516). Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings). From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.

  20. A computer program for full-coverage film-cooled blading analysis including the effects of a thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The program input, coolant flow and heat transfer model, and the program output are discussed. As an example, sections of the suction and pressure sides of a high temperature, high pressure turbine vane are analyzed to show the effects of a thermal barrier coating. Compared to the uncoated design, the coating halves the required coolant flow, while simultaneously reducing metal outer temperatures by over 111 K.

  1. Long-term Rotation State Evolution of Comet Nuclei Including the Effects of Jet Torques and Internal Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2012-05-01

    Many comet nuclei have been identified or are suspected to occupy non-principal axis (complex) rotation [Belton 2005, etc.] as well as have evolving rotation rates [Belton 2011, etc.]. Active areas of the surface and jets torque the nucleus during perihelion passage, while time variable internal stresses dissipate energy in the anelastic comet interior. These competing processes determine the comet’s nuclear rotation state. We developed a model for the evolution of the nuclei due to the reactive torques of a number of discrete jets located on the surface based on Neishtadt et al. [2002]. These jets are active only within a specific distance of the sun according to an empirical law determined by Marsden et al. (1973), however internal dissipation occurs as long as the body is not rotating about a principal axis. This internal dissipation is modeled according to Sharma et al. [2005] and Vokrouhlicky et al. [2009]. We average the full evolutionary equations over the rapidly changing spin angle, precession angle and true anomaly of the orbit. The averaged equations can rapidly calculate the long-term evolution of the nutation angle, cone angle and magnitude of the angular momentum vector over many perihelion passages. The averaged dynamical system is characterized by just two parameters: the first encapsulating the jet geometry and the second the coefficient of energy dissipation. Neishtadt et al. [2002] determined that there exist non-principal axis rotation fixed points, some even stable, for certain jet geometries. With the addition of internal dissipation, some of these fixed points disappear, while others remain but may change locations and classification as a function of the strength of energy dissipation at constant jet geometry. We explore this model of comet nuclei evolution to determine the rotation state of comet nuclei with changing jet geometries and constant coefficients of energy dissipation.

  2. [Effects of Hg on soil enzyme activity].

    PubMed

    Yang, Chun-Lu; Sun, Tie-Heng; He, Wen-Xiang; Chen, Su

    2007-03-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the effects of Hg on the activities of urease, invertase and neutral phosphotase in four soils. The results showed that Hg inhibited soil urease and invertase activities markedly, but its inhibitory effect differed with test soils. There was a significant logarithmic correlation between the concentration of HgCl2 and the activities of these two enzymes (P < 0.05). In test soils, the ED50 of urease activity was 87.99, 5.47, 24.05 and 19.88 mg x kg(-1), and that of invertase activity was 76.68, 727.49, 236.52 and 316.59 mg x kg(-1), respectively. Urease was more sensitive than invertase to Hg contamination, while organic matter had a protective effect on soil enzymes. Soil neutral phosphatase was not sensitive to Hg contamination, except that it was significantly activated by Hg in the meadow brown soil applied with plenty of organic fertilizer.

  3. GCKP84-general chemical kinetics code for gas-phase flow and batch processes including heat transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics code is described for complex, homogeneous ideal gas reactions in any chemical system. The main features of the GCKP84 code are flexibility, convenience, and speed of computation for many different reaction conditions. The code, which replaces the GCKP code published previously, solves numerically the differential equations for complex reaction in a batch system or one dimensional inviscid flow. It also solves numerically the nonlinear algebraic equations describing the well stirred reactor. A new state of the art numerical integration method is used for greatly increased speed in handling systems of stiff differential equations. The theory and the computer program, including details of input preparation and a guide to using the code are given.

  4. Some steady and oscillating airfoil test results, including the effects of sweep, from the tunnel spanning wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carta, F. O.; St.hilaire, A. O.; Rorke, J. B.; Jepson, W. D.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale tunnel spanning wing was built and tested. The model can be operated as either a swept or unswept wing and can be tested in steady state or oscillated sinusoidally in pitch about its quarter chord. Data is taken at mid-span with an internal 6-component balance and is also obtained from miniature pressure transducers distributed near the center span region. A description is given of the system and a brief discussion of some of the steady and unsteady results obtained to date. These are the steady load behavior to Mach numbers of approximately 1.1 and unsteady loads, including drag, at a reduced frequency of approximately 0.1.

  5. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  6. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  7. Genistein effect on xanthine oxidase activity.

    PubMed

    Sumbayev, V V

    2001-01-01

    Genistein was defined to be an allosteric xanthine oxidase inhibitor in the concentrations 0.1-4.0 microM and xanthine oxidase activator with superoxide scavenging activity in the concentrations 5.0 microM and higher. But the most effective allosteric binding with the highest affinity was observed in the genistein concentrations 0.1-1.0 microM. Intraperitoneum injections of genistein (500 micrograms/kg) during three days with the interval 24 hours decrease xanthine oxidase activity in the liver, lung and brain of the Vistar rats.

  8. On vortex-airfoil interaction noise including span-end effects, with application to open-rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; Schram, Christophe; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A linear analytical model is developed for the chopping of a cylindrical vortex by a flat-plate airfoil, with or without a span-end effect. The major interest is the contribution of the tip-vortex produced by an upstream rotating blade in the rotor-rotor interaction noise mechanism of counter-rotating open rotors. Therefore the interaction is primarily addressed in an annular strip of limited spanwise extent bounding the impinged blade segment, and the unwrapped strip is described in Cartesian coordinates. The study also addresses the interaction of a propeller wake with a downstream wing or empennage. Cylindrical vortices are considered, for which the velocity field is expanded in two-dimensional gusts in the reference frame of the airfoil. For each gust the response of the airfoil is derived, first ignoring the effect of the span end, assimilating the airfoil to a rigid flat plate, with or without sweep. The corresponding unsteady lift acts as a distribution of acoustic dipoles, and the radiated sound is obtained from a radiation integral over the actual extent of the airfoil. In the case of tip-vortex interaction noise in CRORs the acoustic signature is determined for vortex trajectories passing beyond, exactly at and below the tip radius of the impinged blade segment, in a reference frame attached to the segment. In a second step the same problem is readdressed accounting for the effect of span end on the aerodynamic response of a blade tip. This is achieved through a composite two-directional Schwarzschild's technique. The modifications of the distributed unsteady lift and of the radiated sound are discussed. The chained source and radiation models provide physical insight into the mechanism of vortex chopping by a blade tip in free field. They allow assessing the acoustic benefit of clipping the rear rotor in a counter-rotating open-rotor architecture.

  9. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  10. Ab initio effective core potentials for molecular calculations. Potentials for K to Au including the outermost core orbitals

    SciTech Connect

    Hay, P.J.; Wadt, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Ab initio effective core potentials (ECP's) have been generated to replace the innermost core electron for third-row (K--Au), fourth-row (Rb--Ag), and fifth-row (Cs--Au) atoms. The outermost core orbitals: corresponding to the ns/sup 2/np/sup 6/ configuration for the three rows here: are not replaced by the ECP but are treated on an equal footing with the nd, (n+1)s and (n+1)p valence orbitals. These ECP's have been derived for use in molecular calculations where these outer core orbitals need to be treated explicitly rather than to be replaced by an ECP. The ECP's for the forth and fifth rows also incorporate the mass--velocity and Darwin relativistic effects into the potentials. Analytic fits to the potentials are presented for use in multicenter integral evaluation. Gaussian orbital valence basis sets are developed for the (3s, 3p, 3d, 4s, 4p), (4s, 4p, 4d, 5s, 5p), and (5s, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p) ortibals of the three respective rows.

  11. Quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics: an approach for computing dynamically averaged vibrational spectra including critical nuclear quantum effects.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2007-10-18

    We have introduced a computational methodology to study vibrational spectroscopy in clusters inclusive of critical nuclear quantum effects. This approach is based on the recently developed quantum wavepacket ab initio molecular dynamics method that combines quantum wavepacket dynamics with ab initio molecular dynamics. The computational efficiency of the dynamical procedure is drastically improved (by several orders of magnitude) through the utilization of wavelet-based techniques combined with the previously introduced time-dependent deterministic sampling procedure measure to achieve stable, picosecond length, quantum-classical dynamics of electrons and nuclei in clusters. The dynamical information is employed to construct a novel cumulative flux/velocity correlation function, where the wavepacket flux from the quantized particle is combined with classical nuclear velocities to obtain the vibrational density of states. The approach is demonstrated by computing the vibrational density of states of [Cl-H-Cl]-, inclusive of critical quantum nuclear effects, and our results are in good agreement with experiment. A general hierarchical procedure is also provided, based on electronic structure harmonic frequencies, classical ab initio molecular dynamics, computation of nuclear quantum-mechanical eigenstates, and employing quantum wavepacket ab initio dynamics to understand vibrational spectroscopy in hydrogen-bonded clusters that display large degrees of anharmonicities.

  12. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  13. Towards including finite orbit effects in self-consistent calculations of ion cyclotron heating in non-Maxwellian plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, D. L.; Berry, L. A.; Jaeger, E. F.; Choi, M.

    2008-11-01

    In burning plasma experiments, the combination of neutral beam injection, high power electromagnetic heating and fusion products give rise to significant non-thermal ion populations. The resulting non-Maxwellian plasma affects ICRF wave propagation and heating. Self-consistent simulation of these effects has been achieved by an iterative coupling of a full-wave electromagnetic solver with a bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck (F-P) code under the zero banana width approximation. Investigating the effects of finite width particle orbits is possible by iterating with a Monte-Carlo calculation of the ion distribution function in place of the F-P code. Here we present progress towards coupling the all-orders global wave solver AORSA with the ORBIT-RF Monte-Carlo code. ORBIT-RF solves the Hamiltonian guiding center equations under coulomb collisions and ICRF quasi-linear (QL) heating taking the QL diffusion coefficients calculated from the AORSA wave fields as inputs. However, completing the self-consistent, time dependent calculation requires adapting the resulting Monte-Carlo particle list to a distribution function suitable for input to AORSA. Issues associated with calculating the differentiable bounce-averaged distribution function from discrete particle data will be discussed. E. F. Jaeger, et al., Phys. of Plasmas, 13, 056101-1, 2006

  14. A high-order numerical method to study hypersonic boundary-layer instability including high-temperature gas effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marxen, Olaf; Magin, Thierry; Iaccarino, Gianluca; Shaqfeh, Eric S. G.

    2011-08-01

    Prediction of laminar-turbulent transition is a key factor in the design of the heat shield of vehicles (re-)entering a planetary atmosphere. To investigate the transition by means of numerical simulation, accurate and efficient computational methods are necessary. Here, the compressible Navier-Stokes equations are solved for a gas where properties such as specific heat, thermal conductivity, viscosity, and specific gas constant depend on one or two thermodynamic variables. Our approach models a mixture of perfect gases in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The gas properties are provided either by means of direct calls to a library based on statistical mechanics and kinetic theory or indirectly in the form of look-up tables. In the first part of the paper, our method of handling a high-temperature gas in thermochemical equilibrium is described and verified. In the second part, the method is applied to the investigation of linear and non-linear boundary-layer instability. We carry out numerical simulations for a laminar flat-plate boundary layer at Mach 10 with a small, convectively amplified perturbation for both Earth and Martian atmospheres. Amplification of the perturbations shows favorable agreement with results obtained from linear theory. The secondary instability of the boundary layer in the presence of a large-amplitude two-dimensional wave is investigated. We observe that the non-linear mechanism of fundamental resonance becomes active and leads to a strong increase in amplification of three-dimensional disturbance waves.

  15. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection.

  16. Hands-on Workshops as An Effective Means of Learning Advanced Technologies Including Genomics, Proteomics and Bioinformatics

    PubMed Central

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Stearman, Robert; Kechris, Katerina; Phang, Tzu Lip; Reisdorph, Richard; Prenni, Jessica; Erle, David J.; Coldren, Christopher; Schey, Kevin; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Geraci, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Genomics and proteomics have emerged as key technologies in biomedical research, resulting in a surge of interest in training by investigators keen to incorporate these technologies into their research. At least two types of training can be envisioned in order to produce meaningful results, quality publications and successful grant applications: (1) immediate short-term training workshops and (2) long-term graduate education or visiting scientist programs. We aimed to fill the former need by providing a comprehensive hands-on training course in genomics, proteomics and informatics in a coherent, experimentally-based framework. This was accomplished through a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 10-day Genomics and Proteomics Hands-on Workshop held at National Jewish Health (NJH) and the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCD). The course content included comprehensive lectures and laboratories in mass spectrometry and genomics technologies, extensive hands-on experience with instrumentation and software, video demonstrations, optional workshops, online sessions, invited keynote speakers, and local and national guest faculty. Here we describe the detailed curriculum and present the results of short- and long-term evaluations from course attendees. Our educational program consistently received positive reviews from participants and had a substantial impact on grant writing and review, manuscript submissions and publications. PMID:24316330

  17. Effect of yoga practices on pulmonary function tests including transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO) in asthma patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Savita; Soni, Ritu; Singh, K P; Tandon, O P

    2012-01-01

    Prana is the energy, when the self-energizing force embraces the body with extension and expansion and control, it is pranayama. It may affect the milieu at the bronchioles and the alveoli particularly at the alveolo-capillary membrane to facilitate diffusion and transport of gases. It may also increase oxygenation at tissue level. Aim of our study is to compare pulmonary functions and diffusion capacity in patients of bronchial asthma before and after yogic intervention of 2 months. Sixty stable asthmatic-patients were randomized into two groups i.e group 1 (Yoga training group) and group 2 (control group). Each group included thirty patients. Lung functions were recorded on all patients at baseline, and then after two months. Group 1 subjects showed a statistically significant improvement (P<0.001) in Transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide (TLCO), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV) and slow vital capacity (SVC) after yoga practice. Quality of life also increased significantly. It was concluded that pranayama & yoga breathing and stretching postures are used to increase respiratory stamina, relax the chest muscles, expand the lungs, raise energy levels, and calm the body.

  18. An implicit finite-difference solution to the viscous shock layer, including the effects of radiation and strong blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Smith, G. L.; Perkins, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference scheme is developed for the fully coupled solution of the viscous, radiating stagnation-streamline equations, including strong blowing. Solutions are presented for both air injection and injection of carbon-phenolic ablation products into air at conditions near the peak radiative heating point in an earth entry trajectory from interplanetary return missions. A detailed radiative-transport code that accounts for the important radiative exchange processes for gaseous mixtures in local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium is utilized in the study. With minimum number of assumptions for the initially unknown parameters and profile distributions, convergent solutions to the full stagnation-line equations are rapidly obtained by a method of successive approximations. Damping of selected profiles is required to aid convergence of the solutions for massive blowing. It is shown that certain finite-difference approximations to the governing differential equations stabilize and improve the solutions. Detailed comparisons are made with the numerical results of previous investigations. Results of the present study indicate lower radiative heat fluxes at the wall for carbonphenolic ablation than previously predicted.

  19. Hands-on workshops as an effective means of learning advanced technologies including genomics, proteomics and bioinformatics.

    PubMed

    Reisdorph, Nichole; Stearman, Robert; Kechris, Katerina; Phang, Tzu Lip; Reisdorph, Richard; Prenni, Jessica; Erle, David J; Coldren, Christopher; Schey, Kevin; Nesvizhskii, Alexey; Geraci, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Genomics and proteomics have emerged as key technologies in biomedical research, resulting in a surge of interest in training by investigators keen to incorporate these technologies into their research. At least two types of training can be envisioned in order to produce meaningful results, quality publications and successful grant applications: (1) immediate short-term training workshops and (2) long-term graduate education or visiting scientist programs. We aimed to fill the former need by providing a comprehensive hands-on training course in genomics, proteomics and informatics in a coherent, experimentally-based framework. This was accomplished through a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI)-sponsored 10-day Genomics and Proteomics Hands-on Workshop held at National Jewish Health (NJH) and the University of Colorado School of Medicine (UCD). The course content included comprehensive lectures and laboratories in mass spectrometry and genomics technologies, extensive hands-on experience with instrumentation and software, video demonstrations, optional workshops, online sessions, invited keynote speakers, and local and national guest faculty. Here we describe the detailed curriculum and present the results of short- and long-term evaluations from course attendees. Our educational program consistently received positive reviews from participants and had a substantial impact on grant writing and review, manuscript submissions and publications.

  20. Flow duration of Kentucky streams through 1990; historical and monthly flow characteristics, including the effects of reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.; Burns, R.J.; Martin, G.R.; Allgeier, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents flow-duration tables and plots for selected streamflow sites in Kentucky with three or more years of continuous record through 1990. Flow duration describes the frequency with which given streamflows are equalled or exceeded. The flow-duration tables were computed using daily mean discharge values for the entire period specified and for each month of the period specified. Only complete years of record were used for the computation. For sites where the streamflow is affected by regulation, separate tables are presented for the period before regulation (unregulated), the period of record after regulation (regulated) and the entire period of record (historical). Flow-duration plots are also presented for each station using the data for the entire period specified. Where practicable, several flow-duration plots are shown together. This includes stations on the same stream, such as main-stem stations, and stations within the same watershed. For stations affected by regulation, which have up to three sets of data available for one station (unregulated, regulated, and historical), the three plots are shown together to clearly illustrate the influence of regulation in augmenting low flows and reducing high flows.

  1. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process.

  2. Physical activity and its mechanistic effects on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, A; Harrison, M; Watson, R W

    2015-09-01

    Beneficial effects of physical activity have been illustrated in numerous aspects of health. With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer and changes in physical activity of men, understanding the link between the two has important implications for changing this cancer burden. Both positive and negative associations between physical activity and prostate cancer have been previously demonstrated in observational epidemiological studies. Elucidating the biological mechanisms would lead to a better understanding of how physical activity influences the progression of prostate cancer. This review was undertaken to: (1) identify evidence in literature that demonstrates the effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle secretomes, (2) indicate the plausible signaling pathways these proteins might activate, and (3) identify evidence in literature that demonstrates the roles of the signaling pathways in prostate cancer progression and regression. We also discuss proposed biological mechanisms and signaling pathways by which physical activity may prevent the development and progression of prostate cancer. We discuss proteins involved in the normal and aberrant growth and development of the prostate gland that may be affected by physical activity. We further identify future directions for research, including a better understanding of the biological mechanisms, the need to standardize physical activity and identify mechanistic end points of physical activity that can then be correlated with outcomes.

  3. Growth and development of the arborescent cactus Stenocereus queretaroensis in a subtropical semiarid environment, including effects of gibberellic acid.

    PubMed

    Pimienta, Eulogio; Hernandez, Gerardo; Domingues, Alejandro; Nobel, Park S.

    1998-01-01

    In Stenocereus queretaroensis (Weber) Buxbaum, an arborescent cactus cultivated in Jalisco, Mexico, for its fruits but studied here in wild populations, stem extension occurred in the autumn at the beginning of the dry season, flowering and fruiting occurred in the spring at the end of the dry season, and new roots grew in the summer during the wet season. The asynchrony of vegetative and reproductive growth reduces competitive sink effects, which may be advantageous for wild populations growing in infertile rocky soils. Seasonal patterns of sugars in the roots and especially the stems of S. queretaroensis were closely related to the main phenological stages, becoming lower in concentration during periods of major stem extension. Cessation of stem extension occurred in 100-year-old plants for which injection of GA(3) reinitiated such growth. Isolated chlorenchyma cylinders had maximum extension in a bathing solution containing 0.1 &mgr;M gibberellic acid.

  4. Robust variance estimation with dependent effect sizes: practical considerations including a software tutorial in Stata and spss.

    PubMed

    Tanner-Smith, Emily E; Tipton, Elizabeth

    2014-03-01

    Methodologists have recently proposed robust variance estimation as one way to handle dependent effect sizes in meta-analysis. Software macros for robust variance estimation in meta-analysis are currently available for Stata (StataCorp LP, College Station, TX, USA) and spss (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA), yet there is little guidance for authors regarding the practical application and implementation of those macros. This paper provides a brief tutorial on the implementation of the Stata and spss macros and discusses practical issues meta-analysts should consider when estimating meta-regression models with robust variance estimates. Two example databases are used in the tutorial to illustrate the use of meta-analysis with robust variance estimates.

  5. Effects of dietary natural zeolite including plant extract on growth performance and intestinal histology in Aigamo ducks.

    PubMed

    Khambualai, O; Ruttanavut, J; Kitabatake, M; Goto, H; Erikawa, T; Yamauchi, K

    2009-01-01

    1. To investigate the growth performance and histological intestinal alterations of Aigamo ducks fed on dietary combinations of zeolite, plant extract and vermiculite (ZEM, 14-d-old Aigamo ducks were divided into 4 groups, with 3 replicates of 3 male and 3 female ducks. They were fed ad libitum on a basal commercial duck mash diet with 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 g/kg dietary ZEM for 63 d. 2. Body weight gain tended to be higher for the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg ZEM groups than for the control group at 9 weeks. 3. In light microscopic observation, most values of the intestinal villus height, villus area, cell area and cell mitosis numbers were higher in the ZEM group than those of the control in all intestinal segments, and the duodenal villus height, cell area and cell mitosis of the 0.5 g/kg ZEM group, as well as jejunal cell mitosis in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group, increased (P < 0.05). In the scanning electron microscope results, all ZEM groups showed protuberant epithelial cells and cell clusters on the villus apical surface of the duodenum and ileum. In the jejunum, villus gyri were frequently observed in the 0.1 g/kg ZEM group. These histological intestinal alterations suggest that intestinal villi and epithelial cellular functions might have been activated. 4. From the present results, dietary ZEM showed hypertrophied functions of intestinal villi and epithelial cells at the duodenum and ileum, and the 0.1 and 0.5 g/kg levels improved body weight gain. These suggest that the ZEM can be supplemented until a level of 1.0 g/kg.

  6. Effect of available entrainable material on a viscous gravity current including run-out characteristics and internal flow properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Belinda; Ancey, Christophe

    2013-04-01

    It has long been accepted that entrainment of loose material by geophysical gravity flows such as dense snow avalanches and debris flows may change their behaviour significantly. Run-out distances and bulk-flow velocities are notable examples of susceptible behaviours. It is still disputed how this has an effect but it has been noted that the availability of entrainable material is a principal parameter. Laboratory and numerical results are studied side-by-side to demonstrate the effects of a finite erodible bed of varying length and depth, which is placed in the path of a flowing gravity current. Both the current and the bed are composed of the same material. Natural geophysical flows are simulated as idealized viscous gravity currents at zero degrees inclination in order to study the link between the internal dynamics and the bulk features in the simplest case. In the laboratory, a PIV configuration using a laser sheet allows the visualization of a vertical stream-wise cross section of the flow in the transition region from rigid to erodible bed, far from the side-walls. This allows the study of the velocity field within the cross-section of the flow in the entrainable region. Run-out speeds and distances are measured after the current exits the erodible bed and flows over a rigid base once more. A relationship is sought between the released volume, the erodible bed dimensions (that is, length and depth) and the run-out characteristics of the flow. This bulk run-out behaviour is investigated with reference to the internal flow dynamics as measured by PIV. This work is supplemented by results obtained modelling the same system using the open source CFD software OpenFOAM. We were able to track the front of the current during the flow and found that even the presence of a shallow entrainable bed (3 mm deep) significantly advanced the run-out front compared to the no-bed case. A further increase in bed depth led to a slight increase in run-out. The length of the bed

  7. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  8. Seasonal effects of heat shock on bacterial populations, including artificial Vibrio parahaemolyticus exposure, in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Aagesen, Alisha M; Häse, Claudia C

    2014-04-01

    During the warmer summer months, oysters are conditioned to spawn, resulting in massive physiological efforts for gamete production. Moreover, the higher temperatures during the summer typically result in increased bacteria populations in oysters. We hypothesized that these animals are under multiple stresses that lead to possible immune system impairments during the summer months that can possibly lead to death. Here we show that in the summer and the fall animals exposed to a short heat stress respond similarly, resulting in a general trend of more bacteria being found in heat shocked animals than their non-heat shocked counterparts. We also show that naturally occurring bacterial populations are effected by a heat shock. In addition, oysters artificially contaminated with Vibrio parahaemolyticus were also affected by a heat shock. Heat shocked animals contained higher concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus in their tissues and hemolymph than control animals and this was consistent for animals examined during summer and fall. Finally, oyster hemocyte interactions with V. parahaemolyticus differed based on the time of the year. Overall, these findings demonstrate that seasonal changes and/or a short heat shock is sufficient to impact bacterial retention, particularly V. parahaemolyticus, in oysters and this line of research might lead to important considerations for animal harvesting procedures.

  9. Comparison of the quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster approaches to electron correlation including the effect of triple excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Rendell, Alistair P.

    1990-01-01

    The recently proposed quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) method is compared with the more rigorous coupled cluster (CC) approach for a variety of chemical systems. Some of these systems are well represented by a single-determinant reference function and others are not. The finite order singles and doubles correlation energy, the perturbational triples correlation energy, and a recently devised diagnostic for estimating the importance of multireference effects are considered. The spectroscopic constants of CuH, the equilibrium structure of cis-(NO)2 and the binding energies of Be3, Be4, Mg3, and Mg4 were calculated using both approaches. The diagnostic for estimating multireference character clearly demonstrates that the QCI method becomes less satisfactory than the CC approach as non-dynamical correlation becomes more important, in agreement with a perturbational analysis of the two methods and the numerical estimates of the triple excitation energies they yield. The results for CuH show that the differences between the two methods become more apparent as the chemical systems under investigation becomes more multireference in nature and the QCI results consequently become less reliable. Nonetheless, when the system of interest is dominated by a single reference determinant both QCI and CC give very similar results.

  10. Effects of Interaction Between Ventricular Assist Device Assistance and Autoregulated Mock Circulation Including Frank-Starling Mechanism and Baroreflex.

    PubMed

    Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Mahmood, Mohammad Nauzef; Müller, Indra; Turnhoff, Lisa Kathrin; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Sonntag, Simon Johannes

    2016-10-01

    A mock heart circulation loop (MHCL) is a hydraulic model simulating the human circulatory system. It allows in vitro investigations of the interaction between cardiac assist devices and the human circulatory system. In this study, a preload sensitive MHCL, the MHCLAUTO , was developed to investigate the interaction between the left ventricle and left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). The Frank-Starling mechanism was modeled by regulating the stroke volume (SV) based on the measured mean diastolic left atrial pressure (MLAPdiast ). The baroreflex autoregulation mechanism was implemented to maintain a constant mean aortic pressure (MAP) by varying ventricular contractility (Emax ), heart rate (HR), afterload/systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and unstressed venous volume (UVV). The DP3 blood pump (Medos Medizintechnik GmbH) was used to simulate the LVAD. Characteristic parameters were measured in pathological conditions both with and without LVAD to assess the hemodynamic effect of LVAD on the MHCLAUTO . The results obtained from the MHCLAUTO show a high correlation to literature data. The study demonstrates the possibility of using the MHCLAUTO as a research tool to better understand the physiological interactions between cardiac implants and human circulation.

  11. A uniaxial constitutive model for superelastic NiTi SMA including R-phase and martensite transformations and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbert, Guillaume; Saint-Sulpice, Luc; Arbab Chirani, Shabnam; Dieng, Lamine; Lecompte, Thibaut; Calloch, Sylvain; Pilvin, Philippe

    2017-02-01

    The well-known martensitic transformation is not always the unique solid-solid phase change in NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA). For this material, R-phase can occur from both austenite and martensite. In some applications, macroscopic strain of the material can be limited to 2%. In these cases, R-phase contribution can not be neglected anymore when compared with martensite. Furthermore, different thermomechanical couplings have to be taken into account to carefully predict strain rate effects and to better describe application conditions. In this paper, a new model taking into account various phase transformations with thermomechanical couplings is presented. This model is based on several transformation criteria. In most applications, SMA are used as wires, submitted to tensile-tensile loadings, in the superelasticity working range. Consequently, a uniaxial reduction of the model is presented for its simplicity. A thermodynamic framework is proposed. It enables to describe the internal variables evolution laws. The simple and fast identification process of model parameters is briefly presented. To verify the validity of the proposed model, simulation results are compared with experimental ones. The influences of testing temperature and strain amplitude on the material behavior is discussed. The damping capacity is also studied, using an energy-based criterion.

  12. Wind-tunnel investigation of an externally blown flap STOL transport model including and investigation of wall effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gentry, G. L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted in the Langley V/STOL tunnel and in a scaled version of the Ames 40- by 80-foot tunnel test section installed as a liner in the Langley V/STOL tunnel to determine the effect of test-section size on aerodynamic characteristics of the model. The model investigated was a swept-wing, jet-powered, externally blown flap (EBF) STOL transport configuration with a leading-edge slat and triple-slotted flaps. The model was an 0.1645-scale model of a 11.58-meter (38.0-ft) span model designed for tests in a 40- by 80-foot tunnel. The data compare the aerodynamic characteristics of the model with and without the tunnel liner installed. Data are presented as a function of thrust coefficient over an angle-of-attack range of 0 deg to 25 deg. A thrust-coefficient range up to approximately 4.0 was simulated, most ot the tests being conducted at a free-stream dynamic pressure of 814 Newtons/sq m (17 lb sq ft). The data are presented with a minimum of analysis.

  13. Interpretation of vector magnetograph data including magneto-optic effects. I - Azimuth angle of the transverse field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the presence of Faraday rotation in measurements of the orientation of a sunspot's transverse magnetic field is investigated. Using observations obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) vector magnetograph, the derived vector magnetic field of a simple, symmetric sunspot is used to calculate the degree of Faraday rotation in the azimuth of the transverse field as a function of wavelength from analytical expressions for the Stokes parameters. These results are then compared with the observed rotation of the field's azimuth which is derived from observations at different wavelengths within the Fe I 5250 A spectral line. From these comparisons, it is found: the observed rotation of the azimuth is simulated to a reasonable degree by the theoretical formulations if the line-formation parameter is varied over the sunspot; these variations are substantiated by the line-intensity data; for the MSFC system, Faraday rotation can be neglected for field strengths less than 1800 G and field inclinations greater than 45 deg; to minimize the effects of Faraday rotation in sunspot umbrae, MSFC magnetograph measurements must be made in the far wings of the Zeeman-sensitive spectral line.

  14. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  15. Equivalent circuit model including magnetic and thermo sources for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo-mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo-magneto-electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  16. A Theory for Stability and Buzz Pulsation Amplitude in Ram Jets and an Experimental Investigation Including Scale Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, Robert L

    1956-01-01

    From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author)

  17. Effects of Various Interventions, Including Mass Trapping with Passive Pitfall Traps, on Low-Level Bed Bug Populations in Apartments.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various interventions on low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations in occupied apartments. The first experiment was conducted in occupied apartments under three intervention conditions: never treated (Group I), recently treated with no further treatment (Group II), and recently treated with continued treatment (Group III). Each apartment was monitored with pitfall-style traps (interceptors) installed at beds and upholstered furniture (sleeping and resting areas) along with ∼18 additional interceptors throughout the apartment. The traps were inspected every 2 wk. After 22 wk, bed bugs had been eliminated (zero trap catch for eight consecutive weeks and none detected in visual inspections) in 96, 87, and 100% of the apartments in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The second experiment investigated the impact of interceptors as a control measure in apartments with low-level infestations. In the treatment group, interceptors were continuously installed at and away from sleeping and resting areas and were inspected every 2 wk for 16 wk. In the control group, interceptors were placed in a similar fashion as the treatment group but were only placed during 6–8 and 14–16 wk to obtain bed bug counts. Bed bug counts were significantly lower at 8 wk in the treatment group than in the control group. At 16 wk, bed bugs were eliminated in 50% of the apartments in the treatment group. The implications of our results in the development of bed bug management strategies and monitoring protocols are discussed.

  18. Three-energy radiography method for uniformity control of composite materials including components with different effective atomic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Galkin, Serhiy M.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Voronkin, Yevheniy F.; Kostioukevitch, Serhiy A.

    2013-09-01

    Presently, most X-ray security systems for luggage inspection use dual-energy detector. A drawback of this approach is that overlap in energy sensitivity of the low- and high-energy detectors creates the potential for ambiguity and inaccuracy. We have made an attempt to improve the identification quality of organic materials using a three-energy receiving-detecting circuit. New model calculations and several new algorithms for the detection of organic and nonorganic materials under multi-energy radiography were proposed, developed and experimentally verified. The purpose of the present work is study of the possibility of separation between substances with small effective atomic numbers for increasing the detection probability of explosives. Using a spectrum of the X-ray tube with a tungsten anode, evaluation has been carried out of the signal ratio from high-energy detector, medium-energy detector and low-energy detectors. Using differential energy sensitivity of detectors of different thickness, varying X-ray source anode voltages and filter for each array, special software it is possible to reconstruct images of the inspected object at the different energy scales. It was shown that using standard X-ray beams and specially-chosen scintillator types with different thicknesses, we can achieve accuracy in determination of Zeff up to 95%, that significantly better as compared with systems based on conventional X-ray inspection. Using two-coordinate identification palette, one can discern between imitators of explosives even when the difference in their Zeff values is small (from 7.08 to 8.07).

  19. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  20. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  1. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients.

  2. Effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, H.J.

    1988-01-01

    Previous reports have demonstrated that naphthalene inhibits oxygen consumption in Daphnia magna tissue culture cells, and intact mitochondria and submitochondrial particles. These studies were extended to algal mitochondrial respiration as well as photosynthetic activity. The authors were able to demonstrate the specific site of apparent respiratory inhibition to be coenzyme Q (ubiquinone, UQ) and later to demonstrate the molecular basis of this inhibition at ubiquinone. The authors previously could not demonstrate an effect of naphthalene on cytochrome oxidase activity. However, the observation that naphthalene can stimulate respiration in algae prompted the reinvestigation of the effect of naphthalene on the kinetics of cytochrome oxidase. Cytochrome oxidase is a multi-subunit membranous protein responsible for the oxidation of cytochrome c and the reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Because of the complicated nature and mechanism of this enzyme, the potential exists for multiple and possibly opposite effects of naphthalene on its function.

  3. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R.; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T.; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-03-31

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to 190 K and for D2 up to 140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.

  4. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ∼190 K and for D2 up to ∼140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530

  5. Antihypertensive effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ activation.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Jiménez, Rosario

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which is composed of three members encoded by distinct genes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological actions of PPARα and PPARγ and their potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target have been extensively reviewed, whereas the biological actions of PPARβ/δ and its effectiveness as a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension remain less investigated. Preclinical studies suggest that pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces antihypertensive effects in direct [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), ANG II, and DOCA-salt] and indirect (dyslipemic and gestational) models of hypertension, associated with end-organ damage protection. This review summarizes mechanistic insights into the antihypertensive effects of PPARβ/δ activators, including molecular and functional mechanisms. Pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces genomic actions including the increase of regulators of G protein-coupled signaling (RGS), acute nongenomic vasodilator effects, as well as the ability to improve the endothelial dysfunction, reduce vascular inflammation, vasoconstrictor responses, and sympathetic outflow from central nervous system. Evidence from clinical trials is also examined. These preclinical and clinical outcomes of PPARβ/δ ligands may provide a basis for the development of therapies in combating hypertension.

  6. Gadd45a and Gadd45b protect hematopoietic cells from UV-induced apoptosis via distinct signaling pathways, including p38 activation and JNK inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mamta; Gupta, Shiv Kumar; Hoffman, Barbara; Liebermann, Dan A

    2006-06-30

    Gadd45a, Gadd45b, and Gadd45g (Gadd45/MyD118/CR6) are genes that are rapidly induced by genotoxic stress and have been implicated in genotoxic stress-induced responses, notably in apoptosis. Recently, using myeloid-enriched bone marrow (BM) cells obtained from wild-type (WT), Gadd45a-deficient, and Gadd45b-deficient mice, we have shown that in hematopoietic cells Gadd45a and Gadd45b play a survival function to protect hematopoietic cells from DNA-damaging agents, including ultra violet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The present study was undertaken to decipher the molecular paths that mediate the survival functions of Gadd45a and Gadd45b against genotoxic stress induced by UV radiation. It is shown that in hematopoietic cells exposed to UV radiation Gaddd45a and Gadd45b cooperate to promote cell survival via two distinct signaling pathways involving activation of the GADD45a-p38-NF-kappaB-mediated survival pathway and GADD45b-mediated inhibition of the stress response MKK4-JNK pathway.

  7. [Food consumption in children and youth: effect of sedentary activities].

    PubMed

    Thivel, D; Chaput, J P

    2013-08-01

    Sedentary behavior has progressed with modern society, generating very low levels of energy expenditure and subsequent body weight disorders (obesity). There is also evidence that the absence of physical activity associated with short sleep time and watching television or playing video games leads to poor eating habits and favors high-energy intake. These findings have generally been reported in adults, with a few studies including data on children and adolescents. This brief review summarizes the current literature regarding the impact of such activities on food consumption and eating behavior in children and adolescents. There appears to be an uncoupling effect dissociating these activities from the sensation of hunger and thus energy intake. Children and adolescents seem to increase their energy intake during and after such activities without any alteration of their subjective appetite. In addition to considering the impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity level, future public health recommendations should also focus on associated nutritional adaptations (energy balance).

  8. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122

  9. Effect of gentamicin on heparin activity.

    PubMed

    Tyler, L S; Rehder, T L; Davis, R B

    1981-04-01

    The importance of the effect of gentamicin on heparin activity was investigated. Heparin activity was assessed using the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin clotting time (TCT), and Factor X heparin assay. Drug concentrations used were 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, and 0.4 units/ml heparin with 40, 80, and 400 microgram/ml gentamicin, in vitro in human plasma. The drugs were precipitated at concentrations of 10, 20, 30, and 40 units/ml heparin with 4 and 40 mg/ml gentamicin. After centrifuging, the supernate was diluted to 0.1-0.4 units/ml heparin for assay. There was no change in heparin activity in the presence of gentamicin (in the unprecipitated solutions) as measured by the TCT, Factor X assay, and the APTT; however, APTT was prolonged by gentamicin. In the precipitated samples, heparin activity was lost in the precipitate. No significant clinical interaction that would affect the therapeutic efficacy of heparin was demonstrated except for a pharmaceutical incompatibility between gentamicin and heparin. The APTT, performed with ellagic acid as an activator, is prolonged by gentamicin.

  10. The "Mozart effect" on epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Daaboul, Y; Fino, J J; Shaw, G L

    1998-07-01

    The "Mozart Effect," using the Piano Sonata in D Major (K.448), was examined in patients with seizures. In 23 of 29 instances significant decreases in epileptiform activity were noted from patients even in coma, with status epilepticus or with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). The effect may be immediate or require 40-300 sec to manifest itself. The change in the amount of ictal activity in one patient in coma was from 62% before the music to 21% during Mozart. Amplitudes of these discharges also have often decreased. Examples of PLEDs on both temporal areas are shown in which the effect was only on the left temporal area but in other patients only on the right temporal area. Brain maps during the music showed theta and alpha activity decreased on the central areas, while delta waves increased on the frontal midline area. The basis of this effect is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex with its highly structured radial columns seen throughout both hemispheres may resonate with the superior architecture of Mozart's music.

  11. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  12. Effect of Laser Irradiation on Enzyme Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakami, Satoshi; Kashii, Masafumi; Kitano, Hiroshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Takano, Kazufumi; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Doi, Masaaki; Sugamoto, Kazuomi; Yoshikawa, Hideki; Sasaki, Takatomo

    2005-11-01

    We previously developed a protein crystallization technique using a femtosecond laser and protein crystal processing and detaching techniques using a pulsed UV laser. In this study, we examine the effect of laser irradiation on protein integrity. After several kinds of laser were irradiated on part of a solution of glycerol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from Leuconostoc mesenteroides, we measured the enzyme activity. Femtosecond and deep-UV laser irradiations have little influence on the whole enzyme activity, whereas the enzyme lost its activity upon high-power near-infrared laser irradiation at a wavelength of 1547 nm. These results suggest that suitable laser irradiation has no remarkable destructive influence on protein crystallization or crystal processing.

  13. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  14. OVERVIEW OF EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS AND PCBS ON DEVELOPMENTAL, IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE, AND HORMONE-RELATED EFFECTS IN MAMMALS, INCLUDING HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to TCDD and related compounds leads to a plethora of effects in multiple species, tissues and stages of development. The response spectrum ranges from simple biochemical alterations to overtly toxic responses, including lethality. Many of the effects of TCDD and relate...

  15. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  16. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research.

  17. Implementation of a comprehensive program including psycho-social and treatment literacy activities to improve adherence to HIV care and treatment for a pediatric population in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Van Winghem, Joelle; Telfer, Barbara; Reid, Tony; Ouko, Judith; Mutunga, Angela; Jama, Zaina; Vakil, Shobha

    2008-01-01

    Background To achieve good clinical outcomes with HAART, patient adherence to treatment and care is a key factor. Since the literature on how to care for pediatric HIV patients is limited, we describe here adherence interventions implemented in our comprehensive care program in a resource-limited setting in Kenya. Methods We based our program on factors reported to influence adherence to HIV care and treatment. We describe, in detail, our program with respect to how we adapted our clinical settings, implemented psycho-social support activities for children and their caregivers and developed treatment literacy for children and teenagers living with HIV/AIDS. Results This paper focused on the details of the program, with the treatment outcomes as secondary. However, our program appeared to have been effective; for 648 children under 15 years of age who were started on HAART, the Kaplan-Meier mortality survival estimate was 95.27% (95%CI 93.16–96.74) at 12 months after the time of initiation of HAART. Conclusion Our model of pediatric HIV/AIDS care, focused on a child-centered approach with inclusion of caregivers and extended family, addressed the main factors influencing treatment adherence. It appeared to produce good results and is replicable in resource-limited settings. PMID:19025581

  18. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  19. Identification and characterization of PERK activators by phenotypic screening and their effects on NRF2 activation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Wensheng; Pariollaud, Marie; Wixted, William E; Chitnis, Nilesh; Fornwald, James; Truong, Maggie; Pao, Christina; Liu, Yan; Ames, Robert S; Callahan, James; Solari, Roberto; Sanchez, Yolanda; Diehl, Alan; Li, Hu

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress plays a critical role to restore the homeostasis of protein production in eukaryotic cells. This vital process is hence involved in many types of diseases including COPD. PERK, one branch in the ER stress signaling pathways, has been reported to activate NRF2 signaling pathway, a known protective response to COPD. Based on this scientific rationale, we aimed to identify PERK activators as a mechanism to achieve NRF2 activation. In this report, we describe a phenotypic screening assay to identify PERK activators. This assay measures phosphorylation of GFP-tagged eIF2α upon PERK activation via a cell-based LanthaScreen technology. To obtain a robust assay with sufficient signal to background and low variation, multiple parameters were optimized including GFP-tagged eIF2α BacMam concentration, cell density and serum concentration. The assay was validated by a tool compound, Thapsigargin, which induces phosphorylation of eIF2α. In our assay, this compound showed maximal signal window of approximately 2.5-fold with a pEC50 of 8.0, consistent with literature reports. To identify novel PERK activators through phosphorylation of eIF2α, a focused set of 8,400 compounds was screened in this assay at 10 µM. A number of hits were identified and validated. The molecular mechanisms for several selected hits were further characterized in terms of PERK activation and effects on PERK downstream components. Specificity of these compounds in activating PERK was demonstrated with a PERK specific inhibitor and in PERK knockout mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. In addition, these hits showed NRF2-dependent anti-oxidant gene induction. In summary, our phenotypic screening assay is demonstrated to be able to identify PERK specific activators. The identified PERK activators could potentially be used as chemical probes to further investigate this pathway as well as the link between PERK activation and NRF2 pathway activation.

  20. Sex hormone activity in alcohol addiction: integrating organizational and activational effects.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Bernd; Müller, Christian P; Stoessel, Christina; Sperling, Wolfgang; Biermann, Teresa; Hillemacher, Thomas; Bleich, Stefan; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    There are well-known sex differences in the epidemiology and etiopathology of alcohol dependence. Male gender is a crucial risk factor for the onset of alcohol addiction. A directly modifying role of testosterone in alcohol addiction-related behavior is well established. Sex hormones exert both permanent (organizational) and transient (activational) effects on the human brain. The sensitive period for these effects lasts throughout life. In this article, we present a novel early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction. We propose that early exposure to sex hormones triggers structural (organizational) neuroadaptations. These neuroadaptations affect cellular and behavioral responses to adult sex hormones, sensitize the brain's reward system to the reinforcing properties of alcohol and modulate alcohol addictive behavior later in life. This review outlines clinical findings related to the early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction (handedness, the second-to-fourth-finger length ratio, and the androgen receptor and aromatase) and includes clinical and preclinical literature regarding the activational effects of sex hormones in alcohol drinking behavior. Furthermore, we discuss the role of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and -gonadal axes and the opioid system in mediating the relationship between sex hormone activity and alcohol dependence. We conclude that a combination of exposure to sex hormones in utero and during early development contributes to the risk of alcohol addiction later in life. The early sex hormone activity model of alcohol addiction may prove to be a valuable tool in the development of preventive and therapeutic strategies.

  1. Effective diffusivity in active Brownian suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkholder, Eric; Brady, John

    2016-11-01

    We study the single-particle diffusion of a Brownian probe of size R in a suspension comprised of a Newtonian solvent and a dilute dispersion of active Brownian particles (ABPs) with size a, characteristic swim velocity U0, and a reorientation time τR. These ABPs, or "swimmers," have a run length l =U0τR , and a mechanical activity ksTs =ζaU02τR / 6 , where ζa is the Stokes drag coefficient of a swimmer. When the swimmers are inactive, collisions between the probe and the swimmers sterically hinder the probe's diffusive motion. When the activity of the swimmers is greater than the Boltzmann energy, ksTs >kB T , rather than being sterically hindered, the probe diffusivity is actually greater than its Stokes-Einstein-Sutherland diffusivity due to the mechanical energy imparted to the probe upon collisions with the swimmers. The active contribution to the effective diffusivity is a non-monotonic function of the swimmers' run length compared to the contact length between the probe and a swimmer: l / (R + a) . Comparisons are made to previous theoretical and experimental investigations of the hydrodynamic diffusion of a colloidal particle in a dilute suspension of swimming bacteria. NSF Grant No. CBET 1437570.

  2. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium.

    PubMed

    Collis, J; Brown, D L; Hubbard, M E; O'Dea, R D

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid-structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The 'active' nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection-reaction-diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits.

  3. Synthesis and evaluation of the potential deleterious effects of ZnO nanomaterials (nanoneedles and nanoflowers) on blood components, including albumin, erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastrello, Bruna; Paracatu, Luana Chiquetto; de Carvalho Bertozo, Luiza; Paino, Iêda Maria Martinez; Lisboa-Filho, Paulo Noronha; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias

    2016-07-01

    The application of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles in biomaterials has increased significantly in the recent years. Here, we aimed to study the potential deleterious effects of ZnO on blood components, including human serum albumin (HSA), erythrocytes and human isolated primary neutrophils. To test the influence of the morphology of the nanomaterials, ZnO nanoneedles (ZnO-nn) and nanoflowers (ZnO-nf) were synthesized. The zeta potential and mean size of ZnO-nf and ZnO-nn suspensions in phosphate-buffered saline were -10.73 mV and 3.81 nm and -5.27 mV and 18.26 nm, respectively. The incubation of ZnO with HSA did not cause its denaturation as verified by the absence of significant alterations in the intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence and in the circular dichroism spectrum of the protein. The capacity of HSA as a drug carrier was not affected as verified by employing site I and II fluorescent markers. Neither type of ZnO was able to provoke the activation of neutrophils, as verified by lucigenin- and luminol-dependent chemiluminescence and by the extracellular release of hydrogen peroxide. ZnO-nf, but not ZnO-nn, induced the haemolysis of erythrocytes. In conclusion, our results reinforce the concept that ZnO nanomaterials are relatively safe for usage in biomaterials. A potential exception is the capacity of ZnO-nf to promote the lysis of erythrocytes, a discovery that shows the importance of the morphology in the toxicity of nanoparticles.

  4. Immunomodulatory effects of endogenous and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Pomorska, Dorota K; Gach, Katarzyna; Janecka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The main role of endogenous opioid peptides is the modulation of pain. Opioid peptides exert their analgesic activity by binding to the opioid receptors distributed widely in the central nervous system (CNS). However, opioid receptors are also found on tissues and organs outside the CNS, including the cells of the immune system, indicating that opioids are capable of exerting additional effects in periphery. Morphine, which is a gold standard in the treatment of chronic pain, is well-known for its immunosuppressive effects. Much less is known about the immunomodulatory effects exerted by endogenous (enkephalins, endorphins, dynorphins and endomorphins) and synthetic peptides activating opioid receptors. In this review we tried to summarize opioid peptide-mediated modulation of immune cell functions which can be stimulatory as well as inhibitory.

  5. Relative contribution of effects included in contemporary groups for adjusted and actual 120-day and 210-day weights in Nelore cattle in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pascoa, Lillian; de los Reyes, Arcadio; Elzo, Mauricio A.; Ferreira, Jorge L.; Bezerra, Luiz A.F.; Lôbo, Raysildo B.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the relative magnitude of effects included in contemporary groups (CG) and their interactions with adjusted and actual 120 d and 210 d weights in 72,731 male and female Nelore calves born from 1985 to 2005 in 40 herds from PMGRN (Genetic Improvement Program of Nelore). Ten models with different CG structures were compared. The analyses were done using the general linear models (GLM) procedure run in SAS software. All of the effects included in the CG for each model were significant (p < 0.001) for the four traits analyzed. Inclusion of semester or trimester of birth as part of a CG was more appropriate than its use as an independent effect in the model because it accounted for interactions with the other effects in the CG. Calf sex (CS) and dam age at calving (DAC) had similar effects across the models, which suggested independence from other effects in these models. The corresponding age deviation effect had a larger impact on actual weight at 120 d than any other effect in all of the models tested. The use of actual weights in models with no CS effect in CG provides an alternative that would allow better genetic connectedness among CGs and greater accuracy in genetic evaluations. PMID:22215959

  6. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance.

  7. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones.

  8. Long persistence effects of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrenn, Gordon L.

    1990-03-01

    The identification of the physical processes which perturb the dynamic equilibrium of the charged particle populations in the terrestrial magnetosphere is investigated. A planetary index was used and it was proved that the introduction of a persistence factor for a derived index, a time weighted accumulation of recent values, gives a better correlation with an estimation of characteristic persistence times in order to establish the temporal response of observed effects in relation to available measures of geomagnetic activity. The analysis procedure was illustrated by results pertaining to ionospheric foF2, cold plasma concentration at geosynchronous orbit and ring current strength.

  9. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  10. The Response of a Two-Wire Transmission Line to Incident Field and Voltage Excitation, Including the Effects of Higher Order Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    8217 INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF HIGHER "ORDER MODES Syracuse University Yehuda Leviatan Arlon T. Adams APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED] C9 2...GRANT NUMSERf() Yecthuda Leviatan Arlon T. Adams F30602-79-C-0011 9. PERNORMING ORGANIZATION NAME ANO ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT, TASK

  11. Regulatory effects of fisetin on microglial activation.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Jing-Yuan; Chang, Pei-Chun; Shen, Yi-Chun; Lin, Chingju; Tsai, Cheng-Fang; Chen, Jia-Hong; Yeh, Wei-Lan; Wu, Ling-Hsuan; Lin, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Yu-Shu; Lu, Dah-Yuu

    2014-06-26

    Increasing evidence suggests that inflammatory processes in the central nervous system that are mediated by microglial activation play a key role in neurodegeneration. Fisetin, a plant flavonol commonly found in fruits and vegetables, is frequently added to nutritional supplements due to its antioxidant properties. In the present study, treatment with fisetin inhibited microglial cell migration and ROS (reactive oxygen species) production. Treatment with fisetin also effectively inhibited LPS plus IFN-γ-induced nitric oxide (NO) production, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in microglial cells. Furthermore, fisetin also reduced expressions of iNOS and NO by stimulation of peptidoglycan, the major component of the Gram-positive bacterium cell wall. Fisetin also inhibited the enhancement of LPS/IFN-γ- or peptidoglycan-induced inflammatory mediator IL (interlukin)-1 β expression. Besides the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of fisetin, our study also elucidates the manner in fisetin-induced an endogenous anti-oxidative enzyme HO (heme oxygenase)-1 expression. Moreover, the regulatory molecular mechanism of fisetin-induced HO-1 expression operates through the PI-3 kinase/AKT and p38 signaling pathways in microglia. Notably, fisetin also significantly attenuated inflammation-related microglial activation and coordination deficit in mice in vivo. These findings suggest that fisetin may be a candidate agent for the development of therapies for inflammation-related neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Dystonia redefined as central non-paretic loss of control of muscle action: a concept including inability to activate muscles required for a specific movement, or 'negative dystonia'.

    PubMed

    Mezaki, Takahiro

    2007-01-01

    Dystonia is defined as a syndrome of sustained muscle contractions, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, or abnormal postures. Although this definition comprises an essential feature of dystonia, the clinical observation indicates that there is an additional aspect of dystonia; failure to adequately activate muscles required for specific movement, exemplified by the lack of contractions of the levator palpebrae superioris muscles in apraxia of lid opening, as well as by inability to activate appropriate muscles in cervical dystonia or in the paretic form of writer's cramp, and possibly by dropped head syndrome or camptocormia seen in parkinsonian patients without apparent truncal dystonia or rigidity. Taking this "negative dystonia" into consideration, the author proposes a revised definition of dystonia as a symptom characterized by the central non-paretic loss of voluntary control of muscle activities, which may result in either excessive or deficient contractions of muscles, frequently causing twisting and repetitive movements, limitation of movements, or abnormal postures.

  13. Effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2010-03-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK is found in most mammalian tissues including the brain. As a key metabolic and stress sensor/effector, AMPK is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation, vigorous exercise, or heat shock. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that changes in AMPK activation not only signal unmet metabolic needs, but also are involved in sensing and responding to 'cell stress', including ischemia. The downstream effect of AMPK activation is dependent on many factors, including the severity of the stressor as well as the tissue examined. This review discusses recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in the brain/neuronal cells and vasculature that have contributed to our understanding of AMPK in stroke. Recent data on the potential role of AMPK in angiogenesis and neurogenesis and the interaction of AMPK with 3-hydroxy-3-methy-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) agents are highlighted. The interaction between AMPK and nitric oxide signaling is also discussed.

  14. Effects of AMP-activated protein kinase in cerebral ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun; McCullough, Louise D

    2010-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK is found in most mammalian tissues including the brain. As a key metabolic and stress sensor/effector, AMPK is activated under conditions of nutrient deprivation, vigorous exercise, or heat shock. However, it is becoming increasingly recognized that changes in AMPK activation not only signal unmet metabolic needs, but also are involved in sensing and responding to ‘cell stress', including ischemia. The downstream effect of AMPK activation is dependent on many factors, including the severity of the stressor as well as the tissue examined. This review discusses recent in vitro and in vivo studies performed in the brain/neuronal cells and vasculature that have contributed to our understanding of AMPK in stroke. Recent data on the potential role of AMPK in angiogenesis and neurogenesis and the interaction of AMPK with 3-hydroxy-3-methy-glutaryl-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) agents are highlighted. The interaction between AMPK and nitric oxide signaling is also discussed. PMID:20010958

  15. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  16. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance.

  17. Effective equations governing an active poroelastic medium

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we consider the spatial homogenization of a coupled transport and fluid–structure interaction model, to the end of deriving a system of effective equations describing the flow, elastic deformation and transport in an active poroelastic medium. The ‘active’ nature of the material results from a morphoelastic response to a chemical stimulant, in which the growth time scale is strongly separated from other elastic time scales. The resulting effective model is broadly relevant to the study of biological tissue growth, geophysical flows (e.g. swelling in coals and clays) and a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. absorbant hygiene products). The key contribution of this work is the derivation of a system of homogenized partial differential equations describing macroscale growth, coupled to transport of solute, that explicitly incorporates details of the structure and dynamics of the microscopic system, and, moreover, admits finite growth and deformation at the pore scale. The resulting macroscale model comprises a Biot-type system, augmented with additional terms pertaining to growth, coupled to an advection–reaction–diffusion equation. The resultant system of effective equations is then compared with other recent models under a selection of appropriate simplifying asymptotic limits. PMID:28293138

  18. Comparison of activation effects in {gamma}-ray detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, P.R.; Evans, H.E.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Flatman, J.C.; Cosby, M.; Knight, P.; Moss, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    Activation induced by cosmic and trapped radiation in {gamma}-ray detector materials represents a significant source of background for space-based detector systems. Selection of detector materials should therefore include consideration of this background source. Results are presented from measurements of induced radioactivity in different scintillators activated either as a result of irradiation by mono-energetic protons at accelerator facilities, or flight on board the Space Shuttle. Radiation transport computer codes are used to help compare the effects observed from the scintillators, by identifying and quantifying the influence on the background spectra from more than one hundred of the radionuclides produced by spallation. For the space experiment data, the simulation results also permit determination of the contributions to detector activation from the different sources of radiation in the Shuttle cabin.

  19. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  20. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  1. [Effects of agricultural activities and transgenic crops on agricultural biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xi-Tao; Luo, Hong-Bing; Li, Jun-Sheng; Huang, Hai; Liu, Yong-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural biodiversity is a key part of the ecosystem biodiversity, but it receives little concern. The monoculture, environmental pollution and habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural activities have threatened agricultural biodiversity over the past 50 years. To optimize agricultural management measures for crop production and environmental protection, we reviewed the effects of agricultural activities, including cultivation patterns, plastic mulching, chemical additions and the cultivation of transgenic crops, on agricultural biodiversity. The results showed that chemical pesticides and fertilizers had the most serious influence and the effects of transgenic crops varied with other factors like the specific transgene inserted in crops. The environmental risk of transgenic crops should be assessed widely through case-by-case methods, particularly its potential impacts on agricultural biodiversity. It is important to consider the protection of agricultural biodiversity before taking certain agricultural practices, which could improve agricultural production and simultaneously reduce the environmental impacts.

  2. Mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, derived from mefloquine and arenecarbaldehydes: In vitro activity including against the multidrug-resistant tuberculosis strain T113.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Raoni S B; Kaiser, Carlos R; Lourenço, Maria C S; Bezerra, Flavio A F M; de Souza, Marcus V N; Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Henriques, Maria das Graças M de O; Costa, Thadeu

    2012-01-01

    Ten new mefloquine-oxazolidine derivatives, 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(aryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline (1: aryl=substituted phenyl) and 4-[(1S,8aR)-3-(heteroaryl)hexahydro[1,3]oxazolo[3,4-a]pyridin-1-yl]-2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinoline [2: heteroaryl=5-nitrothien-2-yl (2a); 5-nitrofuran-2-yl (2b) and 4H-imidazol-2-yl) (2c)], have been synthesized and evaluated against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Compounds 1f (aryl=3-ethoxyphenyl), 1g (Ar=3,4,5-(MeO)(3)-C(6)H(2)) and 2c were slightly more active than mefloquine (MIC=33μM) with MICs=24.5, 22.5 and 27.4, respectively, whereas compounds 1e (aryl=3,4-(MeO)(2)-C(6)H(3)) and 2a (MICs=11.9 and 12.1μM, respectively) were ca. 2.7 times more active than mefloquine, with a better tuberculostatic activity than the first line tuberculostatic agent ethambutol (MIC=15.9). The compounds were also assayed against the MDR strain T113 and the same MICs were observed. Thus the new derivatives have advantages over such anti-TB drugs as isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol and ofloxacin, for which this strain is resistant. The most active compounds were not cytotoxic to Murine Macrophages Cells in a concentration near their MIC values.

  3. A Flight Investigation of the Damping in Roll and Rolling Effectiveness Including Aeroelastic Effects of Rocket Propelled Missile Models Having Cruciform, Triangular, Interdigitated Wings and Tails

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hopko, R. N.

    1951-01-01

    The damping in roll and rolling effectiveness of two models of a missile having cruciform, triangular, interdigitated wings and tails have been determined through a Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.8 by utilizing rocket-propelled test vehicles. Results indicate that the damping in roll was relatively constant over the Mach umber range investigated. The rolling effectiveness was essentially constant at low supersonic speeds and increased with increasing mach numbers in excess of 1.4 over the Mach number range investigated. Aeroelastic effects increase the rolling-effectiveness parameters pb/2V divided by delta and decrease both the rolling-moment coefficient due to wing deflection and the damping-in-roll coefficient.

  4. Changes in free amino acid content and activities of amination and transamination enzymes in yeasts grown on different inorganic nitrogen sources, including hydroxylamine.

    PubMed

    Norkrans, B; Tunblad-Johansson, I

    1981-01-01

    This study concerns inter- and intraspecific differences between yeasts at assimilation of different nitrogen sources. Alterations in the content of free amino acids in cells and media as well as in the related enzyme activities during growth were studied. The hydroxylamine (HA)-tolerant Endomycopsis lipolytica was examined and compared with the nitrate-reducing Cryptococcus albidus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, requiring fully reduced nitrogen for growth. Special attention was paid to alanine, aspartic acid, and glutamic acid, the amino acids closely related to the Krebs cycle keto acids. The amino acids were analyzed as their n-propyl N-acetyl esters by gas-liquid chromatography (GLC). The composition of the amino acid pool was similar for the three yeasts. Glutamic acid was predominant; in early log-phase cells of E. lipolytica contents of 200-234 micromol . g(-1) dry weight were found. A positive correlation between the specific growth rate and the size of the amino acid pool was observed. The assimilation of ammonia was mediated by glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). The NADP-GDH was the dominating enzyme in all three yeasts showing the highest specific activity in Cr. albidus grown on nitrate (6980 nmol . (min(-1)).(mg protein(-1)). Glutamine synthetase (GS) displayed a high specific activity in S. cerevisiae, which also had a high amount of glutamine. The assimilation of HA did not differ greatly from the assimilation of ammonium in E. lipolytica. The existing differences could rather be explained as provoked by the concentration of available nitrogen.

  5. Effects of flavonoids on aromatase activity, an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Pelissero, C; Lenczowski, M J; Chinzi, D; Davail-Cuisset, B; Sumpter, J P; Fostier, A

    1996-02-01

    In the study, the inhibitory effect of flavonoids, including isoflavonic phytoestrogens, on the ovarian aromatase enzyme complex from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was assessed in vitro. Some of the compounds tested on fish were also tested on human placental aromatase activity as a comparison between the two sources of enzyme. It was found that flavone, dl-aminoglutethimide, apigenin, quercetin, 7,4'- dihydroxyflavone, alpha-naphthoflavone and equol were potent inhibitors of the ovarian aromatase activity in rainbow trout. Relative potencies (RP) of these compounds compared to flavone (assigned an effect of 1) were, respectively, 19.0, 8.7, 5.3, 3.7, 3.2 and 0.9. Two other phytoestrogens, namely biochanin A and genistein, slightly inhibited aromatase activity. Finally, 7-hydroxyflavone, formononetin, daidzein, coumestrol, chrysin, flavanone and estradiol-17beta did not inhibit ovarian aromatase activity at doses up to 1000 microM. Experiments on human placental aromatase showed inhibitory effects of dl-aminoglutethimide, flavone, flavanone and equol with RP values of 2.8. 1, 1.5 and 0.4, respectively. These results are in accordance with previous studies. The influence of the experimental procedure on IC50 values and RP is discussed.

  6. Study protocol for a natural experiment in a lower socioeconomic area to examine the health-related effects of refurbishment to parks including built-shade (ShadePlus)

    PubMed Central

    Dobbinson, S J; Veitch, J; Salmon, J; Wakefield, M; Staiger, P K; MacInnis, R J; Simmons, J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Parks in disadvantaged suburbs often have low quality and few amenities, which is likely to result in them being underutilised for recreation and physical activity. Refurbishment of parks, including shade, walking paths and other amenities, may have broad health-related benefits. Methods and analysis The study design, methods and planned analyses for a natural experiment examining the effects of refurbishments including built-shade added to parks in disadvantaged outer suburbs of Melbourne are described. Three intervention parks and three comparison parks matched for equivalence of park and neighbourhood characteristics were selected. Using mixed methods, the outcomes will be assessed during three consecutive spring–summer periods (T1: 2013–2014; T2: 2014–2015: T3: 2015–2016). Primary outcomes included: observed park use, physical activity and shade use. Self-reported social connectedness, community engagement and psychological well-being were assessed as secondary outcomes. Ethics and dissemination This study was approved by Cancer Council Victoria's Human Research Ethics Committee. Studies such as ShadePlus can improve understanding of the broader effects of park refurbishments (including physical activity levels and sun protection behaviours, as well as social connectedness and psychological well-being). The study findings will be disseminated through established urban planning and parks and recreation networks, peer review publications and conference presentations.

  7. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO.

  8. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  9. Combined QM/MM Molecular Dynamics Study on a Condensed-Phase SN2 Reaction at Nitrogen:  The Effect of Explicitly Including Solvent Polarization.

    PubMed

    Geerke, Daan P; Thiel, Stephan; Thiel, Walter; van Gunsteren, Wilfred F

    2007-07-01

    In a previous combined QM/MM molecular dynamics (MD) study from our laboratory on the identity SN2 reaction between a chloride anion and an amino chloride in liquid dimethyl ether (DME), an increase in the free energy activation barrier was observed in the condensed phase when compared to the gas-phase activation energy. Here we reproduce these findings, but when comparing the condensed-phase potential of mean force (PMF) with the free energy profile in the gas phase (obtained from Monte Carlo simulations), we observe a smaller solvent effect on the activation barrier of the reaction. In a next step, we introduce an explicit description of electronic polarization in the MM (solvent) part of the system. A polarizable force field for liquid DME was developed based on the charge-on-spring (COS) model, which was calibrated to reproduce thermodynamic properties of the nonpolarizable model in classical MD simulations. The COS model was implemented into the MNDO/GROMOS interface in a special version of the QM/MM software ChemShell, which was used to investigate the effect of solvent polarization on the free energy profile of the reaction under study. A higher activation barrier was obtained using the polarizable solvent model than with the nonpolarizable force field, due to a better solvation of and a stronger polarization of solvent molecules around the separate reactants. The obtained PMFs were subjected to an energy-entropy decomposition of the relative solvation free energies of the reactant complex along the reaction coordinate, to investigate in a quantitative manner whether the solvent (polarization) effects are mainly due to favorable QM-MM (energetic) interactions.

  10. Computer programs for calculating pressure distributions including vortex effects on supersonic monoplane or cruciform wing-body-tail combinations with round or elliptical bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Computer programs are presented which are capable of calculating detailed aerodynamic loadings and pressure distributions acting on pitched and rolled supersonic missile configurations which utilize bodies of circular or elliptical cross sections. The applicable range of angle of attack is up to 20 deg, and the Mach number range is 1.3 to about 2.5. Effects of body and fin vortices are included in the methods, as well as arbitrary deflections of canard or fin panels.

  11. The value of including boys in an HPV vaccination programme: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Andres-Beck, B; Goldie, S J

    2007-11-05

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of including boys vs girls alone in a pre-adolescent vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in Brazil. Using demographic, epidemiological, and cancer data from Brazil, we developed a dynamic transmission model of HPV infection between males and females. Model-projected reductions in HPV incidence under different vaccination scenarios were applied to a stochastic model of cervical carcinogenesis to project lifetime costs and benefits. We assumed vaccination prevented HPV-16 and -18 infections in individuals not previously infected, and protection was lifelong. Coverage was varied from 0-90% in both genders, and cost per-vaccinated individual was varied from IUSD 25 to 400. At 90% coverage, vaccinating girls alone reduced cancer risk by 63%; including boys at this coverage level provided only 4% further cancer reduction. At a cost per-vaccinated individual of USD 50, vaccinating girls alone was including boys ranged from USD 810-18,650 per YLS depending on coverage. For all coverage levels, increasing coverage in girls was more effective and less costly than including boys in the vaccination programme. In a resource-constrained setting such as Brazil, our results support that the first priority in reducing cervical cancer mortality should be to vaccinate pre-adolescent girls.

  12. The Brd4 Extraterminal Domain Confers Transcription Activation Independent of pTEFb by Recruiting Multiple Proteins, Including NSD3 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Shaila; Sowa, Mathew E.; Ottinger, Matthias; Smith, Jennifer A.; Shi, Yang; Harper, J. Wade; Howley, Peter M.

    2011-01-01

    Bromodomain protein 4 (Brd4) plays critical roles in development, cancer progression, and virus-host pathogenesis. To gain mechanistic insight into the various biological functions of Brd4, we performed a proteomic analysis to identify and characterize Brd4-associated cellular proteins. We found that the extraterminal (ET) domain, whose function has to date not been determined, interacts with NSD3, JMJD6, CHD4, GLTSCR1, and ATAD5. These ET-domain interactions were also conserved for Brd2 and Brd3, the other human BET proteins tested. We demonstrated that GLTSCR1, NSD3, and JMJD6 impart a pTEFb-independent transcriptional activation function on Brd4. NSD3 as well as JMJD6 is recruited to regulated genes in a Brd4-dependent manner. Moreover, we found that depletion of Brd4 or NSD3 reduces H3K36 methylation, demonstrating that the Brd4/NSD3 complex regulates this specific histone modification. Our results indicate that the Brd4 ET domain through the recruitment of the specific effectors regulates transcriptional activity. In particular, we show that one of these effectors, NSD3, regulates transcription by modifying the chromatin microenvironment at Brd4 target genes. Our study thus identifies the ET domain as a second important transcriptional regulatory domain for Brd4 in addition to the carboxyl-terminal domain (CTD) that interacts with pTEFb. PMID:21555454

  13. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  15. Effects of including surface depressions in the application of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Jones, John W.; Buell, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents an extension of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System that accounts for the effect of a large number of water-holding depressions in the land surface on the hydrologic response of a basin. Several techniques for developing the inputs needed by this extension also are presented. These techniques include the delineation of the surface depressions, the generation of volume estimates for the surface depressions, and the derivation of model parameters required to describe these surface depressions. This extension is valuable for applications in basins where surface depressions are too small or numerous to conveniently model as discrete spatial units, but where the aggregated storage capacity of these units is large enough to have a substantial effect on streamflow. In addition, this report documents several new model concepts that were evaluated in conjunction with the depression storage functionality, including: ?hydrologically effective? imperviousness, rates of hydraulic conductivity, and daily streamflow routing. All of these techniques are demonstrated as part of an application in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia. Simulated solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, and water balances match observations well, with small errors for the first two simulated data in June and August because of differences in temperatures from the calibration and evaluation periods for those months. Daily runoff simulations show increasing accuracy with streamflow and a good fit overall. Including surface depression storage in the model has the effect of decreasing daily streamflow for all but the lowest flow values. The report discusses the choices and resultant effects involved in delineating and parameterizing these features. The remaining enhancements to the model and its application provide a more realistic description of basin geography and hydrology that serve to constrain the calibration process to more physically realistic parameter values.

  16. The Effectiveness of Staff Support: Evaluating Active Support Training Using a Conditional Probability Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felce, David; Bowley, Clare; Baxter, Helen; Jones, Edwin; Lowe, Kathy; Emerson, Eric

    2000-01-01

    Active Support, a package of procedures which includes activity planning, support planning, and training on providing effective assistance, was evaluated in five community residences serving 19 adults with severe mental retardation. Findings indicated that the likelihood of a resident engaging in activity significantly increased following staff…

  17. The ethanol extract of Scutellaria baicalensis and the active compounds induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis including upregulation of p53 and Bax in human lung cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Jiayu; Morgan, Winston A.; Sanchez-Medina, Alberto; Corcoran, Olivia

    2011-08-01

    Despite a lack of scientific authentication, Scutellaria baicalensis is clinically used in Chinese medicine as a traditional adjuvant to chemotherapy of lung cancer. In this study, cytotoxicity assays demonstrated that crude ethanolic extracts of S. baicalensis were selectively toxic to human lung cancer cell lines A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1 compared with normal human lung fibroblasts. The active compounds baicalin, baicalein and wogonin did not exhibit such selectivity. Following exposure to the crude extracts, cellular protein expression in the cancer cell lines was assessed using 2D gel electrophoresis coupled with MALDI-TOF-MS/Protein Fingerprinting. The altered protein expression indicated that cell growth arrest and apoptosis were potential mechanisms of cytotoxicity. These observations were supported by PI staining cell cycle analysis using flow cytometry and Annexin-V apoptotic analysis by fluorescence microscopy of cancer cells treated with the crude extract and pure active compounds. Moreover, specific immunoblotting identification showed the decreased expression of cyclin A results in the S phase arrest of A549 whereas the G{sub 0}/G{sub 1} phase arrest in SK-MES-1 cells results from the decreased expression of cyclin D1. Following treatment, increased expression in the cancer cells of key proteins related to the enhancement of apoptosis was observed for p53 and Bax. These results provide further insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical use of this herb as an adjuvant to lung cancer therapy. - Research Highlights: > Scutellaria baicalensis is a clinical adjuvant to lung cancer chemotherapy in China. > Scutellaria ethanol extracts selectively toxic to A549, SK-LU-1 and SK-MES-1. > Baicalin, baicalein and wogonin were toxic to all lung cancer cell lines. > Proteomics identified increased p53 and BAX in response to Scutellaria extracts.

  18. Heterogeneity in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Includes Expression of Ribosome Hibernation Factors in the Antibiotic-Tolerant Subpopulation and Hypoxia-Induced Stress Response in the Metabolically Active Population

    PubMed Central

    Williamson, Kerry S.; Richards, Lee A.; Perez-Osorio, Ailyn C.; Pitts, Betsey; McInnerney, Kathleen; Stewart, Philip S.

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria growing in biofilms are physiologically heterogeneous, due in part to their adaptation to local environmental conditions. Here, we characterized the local transcriptome responses of Pseudomonas aeruginosa growing in biofilms by using a microarray analysis of isolated biofilm subpopulations. The results demonstrated that cells at the top of the biofilms had high mRNA abundances for genes involved in general metabolic functions, while mRNA levels for these housekeeping genes were low in cells at the bottom of the biofilms. Selective green fluorescent protein (GFP) labeling showed that cells at the top of the biofilm were actively dividing. However, the dividing cells had high mRNA levels for genes regulated by the hypoxia-induced regulator Anr. Slow-growing cells deep in the biofilms had little expression of Anr-regulated genes and may have experienced long-term anoxia. Transcripts for ribosomal proteins were associated primarily with the metabolically active cell fraction, while ribosomal RNAs were abundant throughout the biofilms, indicating that ribosomes are stably maintained even in slowly growing cells. Consistent with these results was the identification of mRNAs for ribosome hibernation factors (the rmf and PA4463 genes) at the bottom of the biofilms. The dormant biofilm cells of a P. aeruginosa Δrmf strain had decreased membrane integrity, as shown by propidium iodide staining. Using selective GFP labeling and cell sorting, we show that the dividing cells are more susceptible to killing by tobramycin and ciprofloxacin. The results demonstrate that in thick P. aeruginosa biofilms, cells are physiologically distinct spatially, with cells deep in the biofilm in a viable but antibiotic-tolerant slow-growth state. PMID:22343293

  19. In Planta Expression Screens of Phytophthora infestans RXLR Effectors Reveal Diverse Phenotypes, Including Activation of the Solanum bulbocastanum Disease Resistance Protein Rpi-blb2[W

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Young, Carolyn; Lee, Minkyoung; Oliva, Ricardo; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Cano, Liliana M.; Win, Joe; Bos, Jorunn I.B.; Liu, Hsin-Yin; van Damme, Mireille; Morgan, William; Choi, Doil; Van der Vossen, Edwin A.G.; Vleeshouwers, Vivianne G.A.A.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2009-01-01

    The Irish potato famine pathogen Phytophthora infestans is predicted to secrete hundreds of effector proteins. To address the challenge of assigning biological functions to computationally predicted effector genes, we combined allele mining with high-throughput in planta expression. We developed a library of 62 infection-ready P. infestans RXLR effector clones, obtained using primer pairs corresponding to 32 genes and assigned activities to several of these genes. This approach revealed that 16 of the 62 examined effectors cause phenotypes when expressed inside plant cells. Besides the well-studied AVR3a effector, two additional effectors, PexRD8 and PexRD3645-1, suppressed the hypersensitive cell death triggered by the elicitin INF1, another secreted protein of P. infestans. One effector, PexRD2, promoted cell death in Nicotiana benthamiana and other solanaceous plants. Finally, two families of effectors induced hypersensitive cell death specifically in the presence of the Solanum bulbocastanum late blight resistance genes Rpi-blb1 and Rpi-blb2, thereby exhibiting the activities expected for Avrblb1 and Avrblb2. The AVRblb2 family was then studied in more detail and found to be highly variable and under diversifying selection in P. infestans. Structure-function experiments indicated that a 34–amino acid region in the C-terminal half of AVRblb2 is sufficient for triggering Rpi-blb2 hypersensitivity and that a single positively selected AVRblb2 residue is critical for recognition by Rpi-blb2. PMID:19794118

  20. A general time-dependent route to Resonance-Raman spectroscopy including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present a new formulation of the time-dependent theory of Resonance-Raman spectroscopy (TD-RR). Particular attention has been devoted to the generality of the framework and to the possibility of including different effects (Duschinsky mixing, Herzberg-Teller contributions). Furthermore, the effects of different harmonic models for the intermediate electronic state are also investigated. Thanks to the implementation of the TD-RR procedure within a general-purpose quantum-chemistry program, both solvation and leading anharmonicity effects have been included in an effective way. The reliability and stability of our TD-RR implementation are first validated against our previously proposed and well-tested time-independent procedure. Practical applications are illustrated with some closed- and open-shell medium-size molecules (anthracene, phenoxyl radical, benzyl radical) and the simulated spectra are compared to the experimental results. More complex and larger systems, not limited to organic compounds, are also feasible, as shown for the case of Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride. PMID:25240346

  1. A general time-dependent route to Resonance-Raman spectroscopy including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects

    SciTech Connect

    Baiardi, Alberto; Barone, Vincenzo; Bloino, Julien

    2014-09-21

    We present a new formulation of the time-dependent theory of Resonance-Raman spectroscopy (TD-RR). Particular attention has been devoted to the generality of the framework and to the possibility of including different effects (Duschinsky mixing, Herzberg-Teller contributions). Furthermore, the effects of different harmonic models for the intermediate electronic state are also investigated. Thanks to the implementation of the TD-RR procedure within a general-purpose quantum-chemistry program, both solvation and leading anharmonicity effects have been included in an effective way. The reliability and stability of our TD-RR implementation are validated against our previously proposed and well-tested time-independent procedure. Practical applications are illustrated with some closed- and open-shell medium-size molecules (anthracene, phenoxyl radical, benzyl radical) and the simulated spectra are compared to the experimental results. More complex and larger systems, not limited to organic compounds, can be also studied, as shown for the case of Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride.

  2. Examination of optimal separator shape of polymer electrolyte fuel cell with numerical analysis including the effect of gas flow through gas diffusion layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Gen; Matsukuma, Yosuke; Minemoto, Masaki

    This work concentrates on the effects of channel depth and separator shape on cell output performance, current density distribution and gas flow condition in various conditions with PEFC numerical analysis model including gas flow through GDL. When GDL effective porosity was small, the effect of gas flow through GDL which was changed by channel depth on cell output performance became large. However, current density distribution was ununiform. As GDL permeability became larger, cell output density increased, but current density and gas flow rate distribution were ununiform. From the results of changing the gas flow rate, it was found that the ratio of the minimum gas flow rate to the inlet flow rate depended on channel depth. Furthermore, the optimal separator, which increased output density and made the current density distribution and gas flow rate distribution uniform, was examined. It was also found that cell performance had possible to be developed by improving the turning point of the serpentine separator.

  3. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  4. Effect of noise on higher nervous activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, K.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of continuous, regular and irregular intermittent white noises consisting of three kinds of unpleasant noises (frying pan noise (FN), synthesizer noise (SN) and white noise (WN)), pure tones of 125, 250, 500, 1k, 2k, 4k and 8k Hz, and band-limited noises with the same center frequencies as pure tones were estimated by using electroencephalograms (EEG) and auditory evoked potential (AEP), to make clear the relationship between the unpleasantness of noise and brain activity. The results obtained were as follows. Alpha-wave appearance rate differed in continuous, regular and irregular intermittent white noise exposures. Psychologically unpleasant noises, estimated by the method of paired comparisons and a rating scale, brought about changes in brain waves that corresponded to the degree of unpleasantness. Changes in the number and the total power of the peak frequency in brain waves of the subjects exposed to pure tones showed a tendency to be similar to the equal loudness contour. Changes in the AEP components of N 1 and P 2 latencies and P 2 amplitude due to both pure tones and band noises with the same center frequency as each pure tone showed the same pattern, with the shortest latency and amplitude between the frequencies of 1 kHz and 2 kHz. The changes in AEP were also similar to the equal loudness contour.

  5. Photodynamic effect on specific antitumor immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; Morlet, Laurent; de Brito, Leonor X.; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    In this study the effect of PDT on the antitumoral specific immunologic response was evaluated. We compared the specific cytolytic activity (CLA) by a chromium release assay of primed mouse spleen T lymphocytes sensitized against syngeneic mastocytoma P511 cells. P511 cells, or lymphocytes, or both cells were treated or not with photofrin and/or light (514 nm). Photofrin II alone (1 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 59% when P511 were treated. Photofrin II (1 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 35%. Photofrin II alone (0.5 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 8% when only lymphocytes were treated. And Photofrin II (0.5 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 45%. When both cells were treated with Photofrin II alone or followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) the CLA was also reduced respectively 19, 41%.

  6. Analysis of Spatial Smoothing Effect of Short-term Fluctuation of Global Solar Radiation based on the Data Including Quantization Error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ue, Yosuke; Hara, Ryoichi; Kita, Hiroyuki; Saito, Yutaka; Takitani, Katsuyuki; Saito, Masami

    A Photovoltaic (PV) system is expected as one of the promising countermeasures for the global warming and the environmental issues. However, generation output from PV system is generally unstable and unpredictable. Therefore, large penetration of PV systems may cause some serious impacts to the power system operation such as a load frequency control, a voltage regulation, etc. Estimation of the influences of PV system installation is becoming important, however, it requires simultaneous multipoint solar radiation measurements. The Japan Meteorological Business Support Center has provided the 1-min meteorological data observed in Japan, however, its solar radiation data includes quantization errors. This paper proposes a regeneration method for the solar radiation data including quantization errors. This paper also analyses the spatial smoothing effect of the global solar radiation fluctuations.

  7. Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on the modification of erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content including oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    An, W S; Lee, S M; Son, Y K; Kim, S E; Kim, K H; Han, J Y; Bae, H R; Park, Y

    2012-01-01

    Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids (FA), such as oleic acid, are related to acute coronary syndrome. There is no report about the effect of omega-3 FA on oleic acid in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. We hypothesized that omega-3 FA can modify erythrocyte membrane FA, including oleic acid, in PD patients. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 18 patients who were treated with PD for at least 6 months were randomized to treatment for 12 weeks with omega-3 FA or placebo. Erythrocyte membrane FA content was measured by gas chromatography at baseline and after 12 weeks. The erythrocyte membrane content of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid was significantly increased and saturated FA and oleic acid were significantly decreased in the omega-3 FA supplementation group after 12 weeks compared to baseline. In conclusion, erythrocyte membrane FA content, including oleic acid, was significantly modified by omega-3 FA supplementation for 12 weeks in PD patients.

  8. Estrogenic effects of natural and synthetic compounds including tibolone assessed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the human estrogen alpha and beta receptors.

    PubMed

    Hasenbrink, Guido; Sievernich, André; Wildt, Ludwig; Ludwig, Jost; Lichtenberg-Fraté, Hella

    2006-07-01

    The human estrogen receptors (hER)alpha and hERbeta, differentially expressed and localized in various tissues and cell types, mediate transcriptional activation of target genes. These encode a variety of physiological reproductive and nonreproductive functions involved in energy metabolism, salt balance, immune system, development, and differentiation. As a step toward developing a screening assay for the use in applications where significant numbers of compounds or complex matrices need to be tested for (anti) estrogenic bioactivity, hERalpha and hERbeta were expressed in a genetically modified Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, devoid of three endogenous xenobiotic transporters (PDR5, SNQ2, and YOR1). By using receptor-mediated transcriptional activation of the green fluorescent protein optimized for expression in yeast (yEGFP) as reporter 17 natural, comprising estrogens and phytoestrogens or synthetic compounds among which tibolone with its metabolites, gestagens, and antiestrogens were investigated. The reporter assay deployed a simple and robust protocol for the rapid detection of estrogenic effects within a 96-well microplate format. Results were expressed as effective concentrations (EC50) and correlated to other yeast based and cell line assays. Tibolone and its metabolites exerted clear estrogenic effects, though considerably less potent than all other natural and synthetic compounds. For the blood serum of two volunteers, considerable higher total estrogenic bioactivity than single estradiol concentrations as determined by immunoassay was found. Visualization of a hERalpha/GFP fusion protein in yeast revealed a sub cellular cytosolic localization. This study demonstrates the versatility of (anti) estrogenic bioactivity determination using sensitized S. cerevisiae cells to assess estrogenic exposure and effects.

  9. Benthic food web structure in the Comau fjord, Chile (∼42°S): Preliminary assessment including a site with chemosynthetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zapata-Hernández, Germán; Sellanes, Javier; Mayr, Christoph; Muñoz, Práxedes

    2014-12-01

    Using C and N stable isotopes we analyzed different trophic aspects of the benthic fauna at two sites in the Comau fjord: one with presence of venting of chemically reducing fluids and extensive patches of bacterial mats (XH: X-Huinay), and one control site (PG: Punta Gruesa) with a typical fjord benthic habitat. Due to the widespread presence of such microbial patches in the fjord and their recognized trophic role in reducing environments, we hypothesize that these microbial communities could be contributing to the assimilated food of consumers and transferring carbon into high trophic levels in the food web. Food sources in the area included macroalgae with a wide range of δ13C values (-34.7 to -11.9‰), particulate organic matter (POM, δ13C = -20.1‰), terrestrial organic matter (TOM, δ13C = -32.3‰ to -27.9‰) and chemosynthetic filamentous bacteria (δ13C = ∼-33‰). At both sites, fauna depicted typical values indicating photosynthetic production as a main food source (>-20‰). However, at XH selected taxa reported lower δ13C values (e.g. -26.5‰ in Nacella deaurata), suggesting a partial use of chemosynthetic production. Furthermore, enhanced variability at this site in δ13C values of the polyplacophoran Chiton magnificus, the limpet Fissurella picta and the tanaid Zeuxoides sp. may also be responding to the use of a wider scope of primary food sources. Trophic position estimates suggest three trophic levels of consumers at both sites. However, low δ15N values in some grazer and suspension-feeder species suggest that these taxa could be using other sources still to be identified (e.g. bacterial films, microalgae and organic particles of small size-fractions). Furthermore, between-site comparisons of isotopic niche width measurements in some trophic guilds indicate that grazers from XH have more heterogenic trophic niches than at PG (measured as mean distance to centroid and standard deviation of nearest neighbor distance). This last could be

  10. Magnetorheological effect in a suspension with an active carrier fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashevskii, B.E.; Kordonskii, V.I.; Prokhorov, I.V.

    1988-07-01

    The main quantitative laws governing the magnetorheological effect in a magnetorheological suspension with an active carrier liquid were established. The family of flow curves obtained for several samples of suspensions of one type of nonmagnetic particle was analyzed. Particles were suspended in a magnetic fluid of the magnetite-kerosite type. The main goal was to establish the law governing rheological similarity by generalizing experimental data with a universal relation while employing a small amount of initial data on the system. The data included the law of magnetization of the magnetic carrier fluid, the law of change in its viscosity in the field, and the law of change in the viscosity of the magnetorheological suspension/active carrier liquid system with an increase in the concentration of nonmagnetic particles in a zero field.

  11. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  12. Effect of excess iodine intake on thyroid diseases in different populations: A systematic review and meta-analyses including observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Ryoko; Yuan, Xiaoyi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2017-01-01

    Background Although several reports concerning the association of iodine excess and thyroid disease have appeared, no systematic review of the association between iodine excess intake and thyroid diseases, especially hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, has yet been reported. Method We conducted a systematic search of Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases, Ichushi-Web and CiNii database for intervention trials and observational studies. Search terms were constructed from related words for excess AND iodine intake or excretion AND thyroid hormones or diseases AND study designs. After considering the qualitative heterogeneity among studies, a meta-analysis was conducted and odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in random-effects models. A protocol was registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42015028081). Results 50 articles were included, including three intervention trials, six case-control studies, six follow-up studies and 35 cross-sectional studies. Three cross-sectional studies in adults included in meta-analysis. Odds ratio of overt and subclinical hypothyroidism between excess and adequate populations were 2.78 (CI:1.47 to 5.27) and 2.03 (CI:1.58 to 2.62) in adults, respectively. Source of excess iodine status was mainly iodized salt or water in included studies. Conclusion Although universal salt iodization has improved goiter rates, chronic exposure to excess iodine from water or poorly monitored salt are risk factors for hypothyroidism in free-living populations. Monitoring of both iodine concentration in salt as well as the iodine concentration in local drinking water are essential to preventing thyroid diseases. Hypothyroidism should be also carefully monitored in areas with excess iodine. Because of the low quality and limited number of included studies, further evidence and review are required. PMID:28282437

  13. [Antagonistic effects of selenium on the expression of c-fos in central nerval system of rat included by mercury contaminated rice].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jin-ping; Wang, Wen-hua; Jia, Jin-ping; Qu, Li-ya; Zheng, Min; Shen, Zhe-ming; Shi, Wei

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to study the antagonisms between selenium and mercury and the effect of different species mercury on the brain injury. The expression of c-fos mRNA and c-FOS protein in rat brain induced by Hg-contaminated rice was observed by using reverse transcriptions polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunocytochemical methods. The results show the Hg-contaminated rice induced significantly the expression of c-fos mRNA and c-FOS protein; selenium could antagonize mercury accumulative level in brain. Antagonistic effects of selenium on the expression of c-fos included by mercury and the molecule mechanism of the antagonisms between selenium and mercury was probed, too.

  14. Comparing bottom-up and top-down approaches at the landscape scale, including agricultural activities and water systems, at the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lequy, Emeline; Ibrom, Andreas; Ambus, Per; Massad, Raia-Silvia; Markager, Stiig; Asmala, Eero; Garnier, Josette; Gabrielle, Benoit; Loubet, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    The greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) mainly originates in direct emissions from agricultural soils due to microbial reactions stimulated by the use of nitrogen fertilisers. Indirect N2O emissions from water systems due to nitrogen leaching and deposition from crop fields range between 26 and 37% of direct agricultural emissions, indicating their potential importance and uncertainty (Reay et al. 2012). The study presented here couples a top-down approach with eddy covariance (EC) and a bottom-up approach using different models and measurements. A QCL sensor at 96-m height on a tall tower measures the emissions of N2O from 1100 ha of crop fields and from the south part of the Roskilde fjord, in a 5-km radius area around the tall tower at Roskilde, Denmark. The bottom-up approach includes ecosystem modelling with CERES-EGC for the crops and PaSIM for the grasslands, and the N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord are derived from N2O sea water concentration measurements. EC measurements are now available from July to December 2014, and indicate a magnitude of the emissions from the crop fields around 0.2 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1 (range -9 to 5) which is consistent with the CERES-EGC simulations and calculations using IPCC emission factors. N2O fluxes from the Roskilde fjord in May and July indicated quite constant N2O concentrations around 0.1 µg N L-1 despite variations of nitrate and ammonium in the fjord. The calculated fluxes from these concentrations and the tall tower measurements consistently ranged between -7 and 6 mg N2O-N m-2 day-1. The study site also contains a waste water treatment plant, whose direct emissions will be measured in early 2015 using a dynamic plume tracer dispersion method (Mønster et al. 2014). A refined source attribution methodology together with more measurements and simulations of the N2O fluxes from the different land uses in this study site will provide a clearer view of the dynamics and budgets of N2O at the regional scale. The

  15. Trigonometry, Including Snell's Theorem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, David

    1980-01-01

    Aspects of the instruction of trigonometry in secondary school mathematics are reviewed. Portions of this document cover basic introductions, a student-developed theorem, the cosine rule, inverse functions, and a sample outdoor activity. (MP)

  16. 76 FR 71057 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects Declaration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-16

    ... SECURITY U.S. Customs and Border Protection Agency Information Collection Activities: Crew's Effects... approval in accordance with the Paperwork Reduction Act: Crew's Effects Declaration (CBP Form 1304). This... concerning the following information collection: Title: Crew's Effects Declaration. OMB Number:...

  17. A Class I (Senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVB-Induced Ocular Effects, Including Cataract, in the Rabbit In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Li-Ren; Leverenz, Victor R.; Dang, Loan

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. UVB radiation from sunlight is known to be a risk factor for human cataract. The purpose in this study was to investigate the ability of a class I UV-blocking soft contact lens to protect against UVB-induced effects on the ocular tissues of the rabbit in vivo. Methods. Eyes of rabbits were exposed to UVB light for 30 minutes (270–360 nm, peak at 310 nm, 1.7 mW/cm2 on the cornea). Eyes were irradiated in the presence of either a UV-blocking senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-blocking lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Effects on the cornea and lens were evaluated at various times after exposure. Results. Eyes irradiated with no contact lens protection showed corneal epithelial cell loss plus lens epithelial cell swelling, vacuole formation, and DNA single-strand breaks, as well as lens anterior subcapsular opacification. The senofilcon A lens protected nearly completely against the UVB-induced effects, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. Conclusions. The results indicate that use of a senofilcon A contact lens is beneficial in protecting ocular tissues of the rabbit against the harmful effects of UVB light, including photokeratitis and cataract. PMID:21421866

  18. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  19. Cultivating Faculty Support for Institutional Effectiveness Activities: Benchmarking Best Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, John F.; Metcalf, Jeff

    2003-01-01

    Measured the impact of four predictor variables on faculty perceptions about the importance of institutional effectiveness activities. Found that three variables are critical to faculty support for institutional effectiveness activities: (1) institutional motivation for pursuing these activities; (2) level of involvement or participation in…

  20. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…