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Sample records for activity including effects

  1. Should Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Include the Cost of Consumption Activities? AN Empirical Investigation.

    PubMed

    Adarkwah, Charles Christian; Sadoghi, Amirhossein; Gandjour, Afschin

    2016-02-01

    There has been a debate on whether cost-effectiveness analysis should consider the cost of consumption and leisure time activities when using the quality-adjusted life year as a measure of health outcome under a societal perspective. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the effects of ill health on consumptive activities are spontaneously considered in a health state valuation exercise and how much this matters. The survey enrolled patients with inflammatory bowel disease in Germany (n = 104). Patients were randomized to explicit and no explicit instruction for the consideration of consumption and leisure effects in a time trade-off (TTO) exercise. Explicit instruction to consider non-health-related utility in TTO exercises did not influence TTO scores. However, spontaneous consideration of non-health-related utility in patients without explicit instruction (60% of respondents) led to significantly lower TTO scores. Results suggest an inclusion of consumption costs in the numerator of the cost-effectiveness ratio, at least for those respondents who spontaneously consider non-health-related utility from treatment. Results also suggest that exercises eliciting health valuations from the general public may include a description of the impact of disease on consumptive activities. PMID:25684073

  2. Are language-based activities in science effective for all students, including low achievers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivard, Léonard P.

    2004-05-01

    The study investigated achievement status as a factor determining the use of language-based activities for learning science. A total of 154 eighth-grade students were randomly assigned to four groups, all stratified for gender and achievement level. The treatments involved various combinations of talk and writing, and descriptive and explanatory tasks. The dependent measures included scores on multiple choice tests obtained at three times during the study. Records of student talk and writing were also analyzed to identify patterns of differences between groups of achievers. The findings suggested that low achievers complete more problems, and develop better understanding and comprehension of ecology concepts when they have engaged in peer discussions of explanatory tasks. In comparison, high achievers benefit more from writing than talking, and writing explanations enhances comprehension more than restricted writing activities.

  3. Effects of Leisure Education Programme Including Sportive Activities on Perceived Freedom in Leisure of Adolescents with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertuzun, Ezgi

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this experimental study is to determine the effect of leisure education programme including sportive activities on the perceived freedom in leisure of adolescents with mild intellectual disabilities. The research was designed with an experimental group (n = 37) and a control group (n = 34), and was conducted among a total of 71…

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans include possible antitumor activity.

    PubMed

    Fasseas, Michael K; Fasseas, Costas; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Syntichaki, Popi

    2013-03-01

    This study examined the effects of three lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains on the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Pediococcus acidilactici were found to inhibit the development and growth of the worm. Compared to Escherichia coli used as the control, L. reuteri and P. acidilactici reduced the lifespan of wild-type and short-lived daf-16 worms. On the contrary, L. salivarius extended the lifespan of daf-16 worms when used live, but reduced it as UV-killed bacteria. The three LAB induced the expression of genes involved in pathogen response and inhibited the growth of tumor-like germ cells, without affecting DAF16 localization or increasing corpse cells. Our results suggest the possible use of C. elegans as a model for studying the antitumor attributes of LAB. The negative effects of these LAB strains on the nematode also indicate their potential use against parasitic nematodes. PMID:22923095

  5. Foil bearing lubrication theory including compressibility effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy; Catalano, Daniel A.

    1987-01-01

    An analysis is presented to determine the film thickness in a foil bearing. Using the Reynolds equation and including the compressibility effects of the gas, an equation was developed applicable to the film thickness in a foil bearing. The bearing was divided into three regions, namely, the entrance region, middle region and exit region. Solutions are obtained for the film thickness in each region.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of digoxin cross-reacting substances in patients with acute yellow oleander (Thevetia peruviana) poisoning, including the effect of activated charcoal.

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Darren M; Southcott, Emma; Potter, Julia M; Roberts, Michael S; Eddleston, Michael; Buckley, Nick A

    2008-01-01

    Intentional self-poisonings with seeds from the yellow oleander tree (Thevetia peruviana) are widely reported. Activated charcoal has been suggested to benefit patients with yellow oleander poisoning by reducing absorption and/or facilitating elimination. Two recent randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of activated charcoal reported conflicting outcomes in terms of mortality. The effect of activated charcoal on the pharmacokinetics of Thevetia cardenolides has not been assessed. This information may be useful for determining whether further studies are necessary. Serial blood samples were obtained from patients enrolled in a RCT assessing the relative efficacy of single dose (SDAC) and multiple doses (MDAC) of activated charcoal compared to no activated charcoal (NoAC). The concentration of Thevetia cardenolides was estimated using a digoxin immunoassay. The effect of activated charcoal on cardenolide pharmacokinetics was compared between treatment groups using the AUC24, the 24h Mean Residence Time (MRT24), and regression lines obtained from serial concentration points adjusted for exposure. Erratic and prolonged absorption patterns were noted in each patient group. The apparent terminal half-life was highly variable, with a median time of 42.9h. There was a reduction in MRT24 and the apparent terminal half-life estimated from linear regression in patients administered activated charcoal compared to the control group (NoAC). This effect was approximately equal in patients administered MDAC or SDAC. Activated charcoal appears to favourably influence the pharmacokinetic profile of Thevetia cardenolides in patients with acute self-poisoning, which may have clinical benefits. Given the conflicting clinical outcomes noted in previous RCTs, this mechanistic data supports the need for further studies to determine whether a subgroup of patients (eg. those presenting soon after poisoning) will benefit from activated charcoal. PMID:17164695

  7. Effects of Lifestyle Interventions That Include a Physical Activity Component in Class II and III Obese Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Baillot, Aurélie; Romain, Ahmed J.; Boisvert-Vigneault, Katherine; Audet, Mélisa; Baillargeon, Jean Patrice; Dionne, Isabelle J.; Valiquette, Louis; Chakra, Claire Nour Abou; Avignon, Antoine; Langlois, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    Background In class II and III obese individuals, lifestyle intervention is the first step to achieve weight loss and treat obesity-related comorbidities before considering bariatric surgery. A systematic review, meta-analysis, and meta-regression were performed to assess the impact of lifestyle interventions incorporating a physical activity (PA) component on health outcomes of class II and III obese individuals. Methods An electronic search was conducted in 4 databases (Medline, Scopus, CINAHL and Sportdiscus). Two independent investigators selected original studies assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions with PA components on anthropometric parameters, cardiometabolic risk factors (fat mass, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism), behaviour modification (PA and nutritional changes), and quality of life in adults with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 35 kg/m2. Estimates were pooled using a random-effect model (DerSimonian and Laird method). Heterogeneity between studies was assessed by the Cochran’s chi-square test and quantified through an estimation of the I². Results Of the 3,170 identified articles, 56 met our eligibility criteria, with a large majority of uncontrolled studies (80%). The meta-analysis based on uncontrolled studies showed significant heterogeneity among all included studies. The pooled mean difference in weight loss was 8.9 kg (95% CI, 10.2–7.7; p < 0.01) and 2.8 kg/m² in BMI loss (95% CI, 3.4–2.2; p < 0.01). Long-term interventions produced superior weight loss (11.3 kg) compared to short-term (7.2 kg) and intermediate-term (8.0 kg) interventions. A significant global effect of lifestyle intervention on fat mass, waist circumference, blood pressure, total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and fasting insulin was found (p<0.01), without significant effect on HDL-C and fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Lifestyle interventions incorporating a PA component can improve weight and various cardiometabolic risk factors in class II

  8. Estrogenic Activity Including Bone Enhancement and Effect on Lipid Profile of Luteolin-7-O-glucoside Isolated from Trifolium alexandrinum L. in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Ammar, N M; El-Hawary, S S; Mohamed, D A; El-Halawany, A M; El-Anssary, A A; El-Kassem, L T Abou; Hussein, R A; Jaleel, G A Abdel; El-Dosoky, A H

    2016-05-01

    Luteolin-7-O-glycoside (LG), an abundant component in many edible plants, was found to be one of the major constituents of the aqueous methanol extract of Trifolium alexandrinum L. family Fabaceae, a fodder plant widely cultivated in Egypt. The estrogenic activity of LG concerning the effect on uterotrophy, lipid profile, weight gain and bone enhancement activity was determined in ovariectomized rat model at a dose of 5 mg/kg. Luteolin-7-O-glycoside showed significant estrogenic effect through the preservation of normal uterine weight and plasma estradiol level. It also significantly inhibited the bone turnover markers plasma bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, plasma osteocalsin, type I procollagen N-terminal, and C-telopeptide of type II collagen levels. It induced a significant improvement in plasma lipid profile. The effect of LG was comparable with estradiol with lower effect on uterine weight. Liver and kidney functions revealed a wide safety of LG at this dose level. The present study revealed that LG may be a promising hormone replacement therapy after being examined thoroughly on human. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27145225

  9. Including Tidal Effects in Tsunami Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arcas, D.; Moore, C. W.; Spillane, M. C.; Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    Recently a new tsunami forecast system SIFT (Short-term Inundation and Forecasting of Tsunamis) has been declared operational by the National Weather Service (NWS) Tsunami Warning Centers. The SIFT system assimilates real-time information from a network of observing systems deployed in the open ocean, to produce on-the-fly estimates of tsunami impact at specific coastal communities. These estimates are computed via the tsunami simulation code MOST (Method of Splitting Tsunami) and include forecast products such as tsunami arrival time, duration of the event, predicted tsunami currents, maximum sea surface elevation and expected inundation areas. These computations are performed under the assumption that the mean sea level remains constant at Mean High Water (MHW) during the entire tsunami event. This assumption produces conservative tsunami forecasts that tend to err on the side of caution with the possibility of substantial overestimates of the inundation areas. To avoid this problem and produce more accurate, operational tsunami forecasts, we investigate the interaction of tsunamis with a longer period water level variation due to tidal forcing, by comparing simulations of the 2011 Japan event at different at different locations with and without tidal effects. Our results demonstrate that while non-linear effects resulting from this interaction are minimal in water surface elevation, they can have a significant effect on inundation areas. Based on these findings we propose a simple, first-order correction to the standard MHW forecast, that can be performed on-the-fly by the SIFT system without the need for complex tidal models.

  10. Jet-calculus approach including coherence effects

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, L.M.; Migneron, R.; Narayanan, K.S.S.

    1987-01-01

    We show how integrodifferential equations typical of jet calculus can be combined with an averaging procedure to obtain jet-calculus-based results including the Mueller interference graphs. Results in longitudinal-momentum fraction x for physical quantities are higher at intermediate x and lower at large x than with the conventional ''incoherent'' jet calculus. These results resemble those of Marchesini and Webber, who used a Monte Carlo approach based on the same dynamics.

  11. Full potential unsteady computations including aeroelastic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shankar, Vijaya; Ide, Hiroshi

    1989-01-01

    A unified formulation is presented based on the full potential framework coupled with an appropriate structural model to compute steady and unsteady flows over rigid and flexible configurations across the Mach number range. The unsteady form of the full potential equation in conservation form is solved using an implicit scheme maintaining time accuracy through internal Newton iterations. A flux biasing procedure based on the unsteady sonic reference conditions is implemented to compute hyperbolic regions with moving sonic and shock surfaces. The wake behind a trailing edge is modeled using a mathematical cut across which the pressure is satisfied to be continuous by solving an appropriate vorticity convection equation. An aeroelastic model based on the generalized modal deflection approach interacts with the nonlinear aerodynamics and includes both static as well as dynamic structural analyses capability. Results are presented for rigid and flexible configurations at different Mach numbers ranging from subsonic to supersonic conditions. The dynamic response of a flexible wing below and above its flutter point is demonstrated.

  12. Everglades National Park Including Biscayne National Park. Activity Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruehrwein, Dick

    Intended to help elementary school children learn about the resources of the Everglades and Biscayne National Parks, this activity book includes information, puzzles, games, and quizzes. The booklet deals with concepts related to: (1) the seasons; (2) fire ecology; (3) water; (4) fish; (5) mammals; (6) mosquitos; (7) birds; (8) venomous snakes;…

  13. Optimal design of active and semi-active suspensions including time delays and preview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hac', A.; Youn, I.

    1993-10-01

    Several control laws for active and semi-active suspension based on a linear half car model are derived and investigated. The strategies proposed take full advantage of the fact that the road input to the rear wheels is a delayed version of that to the front wheels, which in turn can be obtained either from the measurements of the front wheels and body motions or by direct preview of road irregularities if preview sensors are available. The suspension systems are optimized with respect to ride comfort, road holding and suspension rattle space as expressed by the mean-square-values of body acceleration (including effects of heave and pitch), tire deflections and front and rear suspension travels. The optimal control laws that minimize the given performance index and include passivity constraints in the semi-active case are derived using calculus of variation. The optimal semi-active suspension becomes piecewise linear, varying between passive and fully active systems and combinations of them. The performances of active and semi-active systems with and without preview were evaluated by numerical simulation in the time and frequency domains. The results show that incorporation of time delay between the front and rear axles in controller design improves the dynamic behavior of the rear axle and control of body pitch motion, while additional preview improves front wheel dynamics and body heave.

  14. A sonic boom propagation model including mean flow atmospheric effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salamone, Joe; Sparrow, Victor W.

    2012-09-01

    This paper presents a time domain formulation of nonlinear lossy propagation in onedimension that also includes the effects of non-collinear mean flow in the acoustic medium. The model equation utilized is an augmented Burgers equation that includes the effects of nonlinearity, geometric spreading, atmospheric stratification, and also absorption and dispersion due to thermoviscous and molecular relaxation effects. All elements of the propagation are implemented in the time domain and the effects of non-collinear mean flow are accounted for in each term of the model equation. Previous authors have presented methods limited to showing the effects of wind on ray tracing and/or using an effective speed of sound in their model equation. The present work includes the effects of mean flow for all terms included in the augmented Burgers equation with all of the calculations performed in the time-domain. The capability to include the effects of mean flow in the acoustic medium allows one to make predictions more representative of real-world atmospheric conditions. Examples are presented for nonlinear propagation of N-waves and shaped sonic booms. [Work supported by Gulfstream Aerospace Corporation.

  15. Microfluidic System Simulation Including the Electro-Viscous Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rojas, Eileen; Chen, C. P.; Majumdar, Alok

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a practical approach using a general purpose lumped-parameter computer program, GFSSP (Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program) for calculating flow distribution in a network of micro-channels including electro-viscous effects due to the existence of electrical double layer (EDL). In this study, an empirical formulation for calculating an effective viscosity of ionic solutions based on dimensional analysis is described to account for surface charge and bulk fluid conductivity, which give rise to electro-viscous effect in microfluidics network. Two dimensional slit micro flow data was used to determine the model coefficients. Geometry effect is then included through a Poiseuille number correlation in GFSSP. The bi-power model was used to calculate flow distribution of isotropically etched straight channel and T-junction microflows involving ionic solutions. Performance of the proposed model is assessed against experimental test data.

  16. Addressing questions about including environmental effects in the DMSO HLA

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The Defense Modeling and Simulation Office (DMSO) is developing a High Level Architecture (HLA) to support the DOD Modeling and Simulation (M and S) community. Many, if not all, of the simulations involve the environment in some fashion. In some applications, the simulation takes place in an acknowledged environment without any environmental functionality being taken into account. The Joint Training Federation Prototype (JTFp) is one of several prototype efforts that have been created to provide a test of the DMSO HLA. In addition to addressing the applicability of the HLA to a training community, the JTFp is also one of two prototype efforts that is explicitly including environmental effects in their simulation effort. These two prototyping efforts are examining the issues associated with the inclusion of the environment in an HLA federation. In deciding whether or not to include an environmental federation in the JTFp effort, a number of questions have been raised about the environment and the HLA. These questions have raised the issue of incompatibility between the environment and the HLA and also shown that there is something unique about including the environment in simulations. The purpose of this White Paper, which was developed with inputs from the National Air and Space [Warfare] Model Program among others, is to address the various questions that have been posed about including environmental effects in an HLA simulation.

  17. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that—in comparison with real data—the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed.

  18. Modeling heart rate variability including the effect of sleep stages.

    PubMed

    Soliński, Mateusz; Gierałtowski, Jan; Żebrowski, Jan

    2016-02-01

    We propose a model for heart rate variability (HRV) of a healthy individual during sleep with the assumption that the heart rate variability is predominantly a random process. Autonomic nervous system activity has different properties during different sleep stages, and this affects many physiological systems including the cardiovascular system. Different properties of HRV can be observed during each particular sleep stage. We believe that taking into account the sleep architecture is crucial for modeling the human nighttime HRV. The stochastic model of HRV introduced by Kantelhardt et al. was used as the initial starting point. We studied the statistical properties of sleep in healthy adults, analyzing 30 polysomnographic recordings, which provided realistic information about sleep architecture. Next, we generated synthetic hypnograms and included them in the modeling of nighttime RR interval series. The results of standard HRV linear analysis and of nonlinear analysis (Shannon entropy, Poincaré plots, and multiscale multifractal analysis) show that-in comparison with real data-the HRV signals obtained from our model have very similar properties, in particular including the multifractal characteristics at different time scales. The model described in this paper is discussed in the context of normal sleep. However, its construction is such that it should allow to model heart rate variability in sleep disorders. This possibility is briefly discussed. PMID:26931582

  19. Supersonic flow past oscillating airfoils including nonlinear thickness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dyke, Milton D

    1954-01-01

    A solution to second order in thickness is derived for harmonically oscillating two-dimensional airfoils in supersonic flow. For slow oscillations of an arbitrary profile, the result is found as a series including the third power of frequency. For arbitrary frequencies, the method of solution for any specific profile is indicated, and the explicit solution derived for a single wedge. Nonlinear thickness effects are found generally to reduce the torsional damping, and so enlarge the range of Mach numbers within which torsional instability is possible.

  20. Numerical Simulation of Liquid Jet Atomization Including Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P.; Chen, C. P.; Balasubramanyam, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes numerical implementation of a newly developed hybrid model, T-blob/T-TAB, into an existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program for primary and secondary breakup simulation of liquid jet atomization. This model extend two widely used models, the Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability of Reitz (blob model) and the Taylor-Analogy-Breakup (TAB) secondary droplet breakup by O'Rourke and Amsden to include turbulence effects. In the primary breakup model, the level of the turbulence effect on the liquid breakup depends on the characteristic scales and the initial flow conditions. For the secondary breakup, an additional turbulence force acted on parent drops is modeled and integrated into the TAB governing equation. Several assessment studies are presented and the results indicate that the existing KH and TAB models tend to under-predict the product drop size and spray angle, while the current model provides superior results when compared with the measured data.

  1. Models of Spectral Galaxy Evolution including the effects of Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, C. S.; Fritze-v. Alvensleben, U.; Fricke, K. J.

    To analyse the effects of dust to the UV emission in various galaxy types we present our evolutionary synthesis models which includes dust absorption in a chemically consistent way. The time and redshift evolution of the extinction is based on the evolution of the gas content and metallicity. Comparing our model SED's with templates from Kennicutt's and Kinney et al.'s atlas we show the detailed agreement with integrated spectra of galaxies and point out the importance of aperture effects. We are able to predict the UV fluxes for different galaxy types. Combined with a cosmological model we show the differences in the evolutionary and k-corrections comparing models with and without dust.

  2. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  3. Solar Effects on Chemistry and Climate Including Ocean Interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cubasch, U.; Langematz, U.; Kubin, A.; Brühl, C.; Spangehl, T.; Baumgärtner, A.

    2012-04-01

    In the Project on Solar Effects on Chemistry and Climate Including Ocean Interactions (ProSECCO) fundamental questions of the impact of solar variability on Earth's Climate have been investigated with improved climate system models and observations. On the decadal time scale, the atmospheric signatures of the 11-year Schwabe cycle and the underlying mechanisms have been studied using a comprehensive troposphere-stratosphere-chemistry model. This study included the impact of variations in UV radiation (with 27d rotational cycle) and particle precipitation on stratospheric chemistry and ozone, as well as on the solar signal in the troposphere and on climate. A clear solar signal can be detected not only in the stratosphere, but also in the troposphere. On the centennial to millenium time scale, effects of solar variability on climate of different pre-industrial periods, focusing on the Maunder Minimum and the mid-Holocene, have been addressed using a coupled troposphere-stratosphere-ocean model. A link between the stratospheric polar vortex strength and the solar variability can be detected on the decadal and centennial timescales. A tropospheric signal as response to the solar forcing, for example in the North Atlantic Oscillation, becomes visible once the stratosphere is treated in a realistic way.

  4. New chemical evolution analytical solutions including environment effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spitoni, E.

    2015-07-01

    In the last years, more and more interest has been devoted to analytical solutions, including inflow and outflow, to study the metallicity enrichment in galaxies. In this framework, we assume a star formation rate which follows a linear Schmidt law, and we present new analytical solutions for the evolution of the metallicity (Z) in galaxies. In particular, we take into account environmental effects including primordial and enriched gas infall, outflow, different star formation efficiencies and galactic fountains. The enriched infall is included to take into account galaxy-galaxy interactions. Our main results can be summarized as: (i) when a linear Schmidt law of star formation is assumed, the resulting time evolution of the metallicity Z is the same either for a closed-box model or for an outflow model. (ii) The mass-metallicity relation for galaxies which suffer a chemically enriched infall, originating from another evolved galaxy with no pre-enriched gas, is shifted down in parallel at lower Z values, if compared to the closed box model. (iii) When a galaxy suffers at the same time a primordial infall and a chemically enriched one, the primordial infall always dominates the chemical evolution. (iv) We present new solutions for the metallicity evolution in a galaxy which suffers galactic fountains and an enriched infall from another galaxy at the same time. The analytical solutions presented here can be very important to study the metallicity (oxygen), which is measured in high-redshift objects. These solutions can be very useful: (a) in the context of cosmological semi-analytical models for galaxy formation and evolution, and (b) for the study of compact groups of galaxies.

  5. Infliximab, adalimumab and golimumab for treating moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis after the failure of conventional therapy (including a review of TA140 and TA262): clinical effectiveness systematic review and economic model.

    PubMed Central

    Archer, Rachel; Tappenden, Paul; Ren, Shijie; Martyn-St James, Marrissa; Harvey, Rebecca; Basarir, Hasan; Stevens, John; Carroll, Christopher; Cantrell, Anna; Lobo, Alan; Hoque, Sami

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Ulcerative colitis (UC) is the most common form of inflammatory bowel disease in the UK. UC can have a considerable impact on patients' quality of life. The burden for the NHS is substantial. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of interventions, to evaluate the incremental cost-effectiveness of all interventions and comparators (including medical and surgical options), to estimate the expected net budget impact of each intervention, and to identify key research priorities. DATA SOURCES Peer-reviewed publications, European Public Assessment Reports and manufacturers' submissions. The following databases were searched from inception to December 2013 for clinical effectiveness searches and from inception to January 2014 for cost-effectiveness searches for published and unpublished research evidence: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, The Cochrane Library including the Cochrane Systematic Reviews Database, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, the Health Technology Assessment database and NHS Economic Evaluation Database; ISI Web of Science, including Science Citation Index, and the Conference Proceedings Citation Index-Science and Bioscience Information Service Previews. The US Food and Drug Administration website and the European Medicines Agency website were also searched, as were research registers, conference proceedings and key journals. REVIEW METHODS A systematic review [including network meta-analysis (NMA)] was conducted to evaluate the clinical effectiveness and safety of named interventions. The health economic analysis included a review of published economic evaluations and the development of a de novo model. RESULTS Ten randomised controlled trials were included in the systematic review. The trials suggest that adult patients receiving infliximab (IFX) [Remicade(®), Merck Sharp & Dohme Ltd (MSD)], adalimumab (ADA) (Humira(®), Abb

  6. Shunted Piezoelectric Vibration Damping Analysis Including Centrifugal Loading Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, James B.; Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Excessive vibration of turbomachinery blades causes high cycle fatigue problems which require damping treatments to mitigate vibration levels. One method is the use of piezoelectric materials as passive or active dampers. Based on the technical challenges and requirements learned from previous turbomachinery rotor blades research, an effort has been made to investigate the effectiveness of a shunted piezoelectric for the turbomachinery rotor blades vibration control, specifically for a condition with centrifugal rotation. While ample research has been performed on the use of a piezoelectric material with electric circuits to attempt to control the structural vibration damping, very little study has been done regarding rotational effects. The present study attempts to fill this void. Specifically, the objectives of this study are: (a) to create and analyze finite element models for harmonic forced response vibration analysis coupled with shunted piezoelectric circuits for engine blade operational conditions, (b) to validate the experimental test approaches with numerical results and vice versa, and (c) to establish a numerical modeling capability for vibration control using shunted piezoelectric circuits under rotation. Study has focused on a resonant damping control using shunted piezoelectric patches on plate specimens. Tests and analyses were performed for both non-spinning and spinning conditions. The finite element (FE) shunted piezoelectric circuit damping simulations were performed using the ANSYS Multiphysics code for the resistive and inductive circuit piezoelectric simulations of both conditions. The FE results showed a good correlation with experimental test results. Tests and analyses of shunted piezoelectric damping control, demonstrating with plate specimens, show a great potential to reduce blade vibrations under centrifugal loading.

  7. Magnetothermal instability in laser plasmas including hydrodynamic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bissell, J. J.; Kingham, R. J.; Ridgers, C. P.

    2012-05-15

    The impact of both density gradients and hydrodynamics on the evolution of the field compressing magnetothermal instability is considered [J. J. Bissell et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 175001 (2010)]. Hydrodynamic motion is found to have a limited effect on overall growth-rates; however, density gradients are shown to introduce an additional source term corresponding to a generalised description of the field generating thermal instability [D. Tidman and R. Shanny, Phys. Fluids 17, 1207 (1974)]. The field compressing and field generating source terms are contrasted, and the former is found to represent either the primary or sole instability mechanism for a range of conditions, especially those with Hall parameter {chi}>10{sup -1}. The generalised theory is compared to numerical simulation in the context of a recent nano-second gas-jet experiment [D. H. Froula et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 135001 (2007)] and shown to be in good agreement: exhibiting peak growth-rates and wavelengths of order 10 ns{sup 1} and 50 {mu}m, respectively. The instability's relevance to other experimental conditions, including those in inertial confinement fusion (I.C.F.) hohlraums, is also discussed.

  8. ASTRO-F/FIS observing simulation including detector effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, W.; Pak, S.; Lee, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kim, M.; Oh, S.; Kaneda, H.; Matsuura, S.; Patrashin, M.; Shibai, H.

    Based on the present hardware specifications and configurations of the ASTRO-F/FIS (Far-Infrared Surveyor), we are developing a software that simulates the observations with this instrument. Various kinds of detector effects affect the quality of the signal obtained from the detector. In order to correct the signal exactly, we need to analyze the characteristics of the detector and simulate various detector effects. In this presentation, we will show the simulated data sets based on the experimental data measured in the laboratory. Using the simulator, we will discuss the effects of cosmic-ray hitting, transient, crosstalk and non-uniformity of detectors, and propose an appropriate methods for the data reduction.

  9. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  10. Plasmon modes of metallic nanowires including quantum nonlocal effects

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Afshin

    2015-03-15

    The properties of electrostatic surface and bulk plasmon modes of cylindrical metallic nanowires are investigated, using the quantum hydrodynamic theory of plasmon excitation which allows an analytical study of quantum tunneling effects through the Bohm potential term. New dispersion relations are obtained for each type of mode and their differences with previous treatments based on the standard hydrodynamic model are analyzed in detail. Numerical results show by considering the quantum effects, as the value of wave number increases, the surface modes are slightly red-shifted first and then blue-shifted while the bulk modes are blue-shifted.

  11. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  12. A scattering function of star polymers including excluded volume effects

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Sánchez-Diáz, Luis; Smith, Gregory; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-11-04

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  13. Finite difference modeling of rotor flows including wake effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caradonna, F. X.; Desopper, A.; Tung, C.

    1982-01-01

    Rotary wing finite difference methods are investigated. The main concern is the specification of boundary conditions to properly account for the effect of the wake on the blade. Examples are given of an approach where wake effects are introduced by specifying an equivalent angle of attack. An alternate approach is also given where discrete vortices are introduced into the finite difference grid. The resulting computations of hovering and high advance ratio cases compare well with experiment. Some consideration is also given to the modeling of low to moderate advance ratio flows.

  14. Estimates of genetic correlations among growth traits including competition effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to estimate genetic parameters of direct and competition effects for traits measured at the end of a growth test utilizing multi-trait analyses. A total of 9,720 boars were tested with 15 boars per pen from about 71 to 161 d of age and weight from 31 to 120 kg. Traits analyzed wi...

  15. Ground state of a confined Yukawa plasma including correlation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henning, C.; Ludwig, P.; Filinov, A.; Piel, A.; Bonitz, M.

    2007-09-01

    The ground state of an externally confined one-component Yukawa plasma is derived analytically using the local density approximation (LDA). In particular, the radial density profile is computed. The results are compared with the recently obtained mean-field (MF) density profile [Henning , Phys. Rev. E 74, 056403 (2006)]. While the MF results are more accurate for weak screening, the LDA with correlations included yields the proper description for large screening. By comparison with first-principles simulations for three-dimensional spherical Yukawa crystals, we demonstrate that the two approximations complement each other. Together they accurately describe the density profile in the full range of screening parameters.

  16. Evaporating Spray in Supersonic Streams Including Turbulence Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.

    2006-01-01

    Evaporating spray plays an important role in spray combustion processes. This paper describes the development of a new finite-conductivity evaporation model, based on the two-temperature film theory, for two-phase numerical simulation using Eulerian-Lagrangian method. The model is a natural extension of the T-blob/T-TAB atomization/spray model which supplies the turbulence characteristics for estimating effective thermal diffusivity within the droplet phase. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance of this model. Validation results indicate the superiority of the finite-conductivity model in low speed parallel flow evaporating sprays. High speed cross flow spray results indicate the effectiveness of the T-blob/T-TAB model and point to the needed improvements in high speed evaporating spray modeling.

  17. Plasma stability theory including the resistive wall effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2015-12-01

    > Plasma stabilization due to a nearby conducting wall can provide access to better performance in some scenarios in tokamaks. This was proved by experiments with an essential gain in and demonstrated as a long-lasting effect at sufficiently fast plasma rotation in the DIII-D tokamak (see, for example, Strait et al., Nucl. Fusion, vol. 43, 2003, pp. 430-440). The rotational stabilization is the central topic of this review, though eventually the mode rotation gains significance. The analysis is based on the first-principle equations describing the energy balance with dissipation in the resistive wall. The method emphasizes derivation of the dispersion relations for the modes which are faster than the conventional resistive wall modes, but slower than the ideal magnetohydrodynamics modes. Both the standard thin wall and ideal-wall approximations are not valid in this range. Here, these are replaced by an approach incorporating the skin effect in the wall. This new element in the stability theory makes the energy sink a nonlinear function of the complex growth rate. An important consequence is that a mode rotating above a critical level can provide a damping effect sufficient for instability suppression. Estimates are given and applications are discussed.

  18. Climate implications of including albedo effects in terrestrial carbon policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. D.; Collins, W.; Torn, M. S.; Calvin, K. V.

    2012-12-01

    Proposed strategies for managing terrestrial carbon in order to mitigate anthropogenic climate change, such as financial incentives for afforestation, soil carbon sequestration, or biofuel production, largely ignore the direct effects of land use change on climate via biophysical processes that alter surface energy and water budgets. Subsequent influences on temperature, hydrology, and atmospheric circulation at regional and global scales could potentially help or hinder climate stabilization efforts. Because these policies often rely on payments or credits expressed in units of CO2-equivalents, accounting for biophysical effects would require a metric for comparing the strength of biophysical climate perturbation from land use change to that of emitting CO2. One such candidate metric that has been suggested in the literature on land use impacts is radiative forcing, which underlies the global warming potential metric used to compare the climate effects of various greenhouse gases with one another. Expressing land use change in units of radiative forcing is possible because albedo change results in a net top-of-atmosphere radiative flux change. However, this approach has also been critiqued on theoretical grounds because not all climatic changes associated with land use change are principally radiative in nature, e.g. changes in hydrology or the vertical distribution of heat within the atmosphere, and because the spatial scale of land use change forcing differs from that of well-mixed greenhouse gases. To explore the potential magnitude of this discrepancy in the context of plausible scenarios of future land use change, we conduct three simulations with the Community Climate System Model 4 (CCSM4) utilizing a slab ocean model. Each simulation examines the effect of a stepwise change in forcing relative to a pre-industrial control simulation: 1) widespread conversion of forest land to crops resulting in approximately 1 W/m2 global-mean radiative forcing from albedo

  19. Atomic electron energies including relativistic effects and quantum electrodynamic corrections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aoyagi, M.; Chen, M. H.; Crasemann, B.; Huang, K. N.; Mark, H.

    1977-01-01

    Atomic electron energies have been calculated relativistically. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions served as zeroth-order eigenfunctions to compute the expectation of the total Hamiltonian. A first order correction to the local approximation was thus included. Quantum-electrodynamic corrections were made. For all orbitals in all atoms with 2 less than or equal to Z less than or equal to 106, the following quantities are listed: total energies, electron kinetic energies, electron-nucleus potential energies, electron-electron potential energies consisting of electrostatic and Breit interaction (magnetic and retardation) terms, and vacuum polarization energies. These results will serve for detailed comparison of calculations based on other approaches. The magnitude of quantum electrodynamic corrections is exhibited quantitatively for each state.

  20. Cosmic-Ray Effects of Propagating Shocks Including the Heliosheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokipii, J. R.; Kota, J.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for a long time (Jokipii, et al, 1993) that the e~@ects of tt he heliosphere on cosmic rays extends beyond the termination shock and into the heliosheath. The inclusion of the region beyond the termination shock into models of modulation is still relatively recent. The previously-published model resultshave all been for a stationary system. We have modi~Aed our two-dimensional heliosperic cosmic-ray simulation code to be time dependent and to include a propagating shock wave which propagates out from the Sun and into the Heliosheath. The code follows the time variation of the intensity of both galacticand anomalous cosmic rays as the shock propagates past the point of observation and beyond. The results from the model simulations will be compared with recent observational results suggesting e~@ects of the heliosheath on galacticc and anomalous cosmic rays.

  1. Dynamic hysteresis modeling including skin effect using diffusion equation model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Souad; Louai, Fatima Zohra; Nait-Said, Nasreddine; Benabou, Abdelkader

    2016-07-01

    An improved dynamic hysteresis model is proposed for the prediction of hysteresis loop of electrical steel up to mean frequencies, taking into account the skin effect. In previous works, the analytical solution of the diffusion equation for low frequency (DELF) was coupled with the inverse static Jiles-Atherton (JA) model in order to represent the hysteresis behavior for a lamination. In the present paper, this approach is improved to ensure the reproducibility of measured hysteresis loops at mean frequency. The results of simulation are compared with the experimental ones. The selected results for frequencies 50 Hz, 100 Hz, 200 Hz and 400 Hz are presented and discussed.

  2. Expanding Health Technology Assessments to Include Effects on the Environment.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Kevin; Ganz, Michael L; Hsu, John; Strandberg-Larsen, Martin; Gonzalez, Raquel Palomino; Lund, Niels

    2016-01-01

    There is growing awareness of the impact of human activity on the climate and the need to stem this impact. Public health care decision makers from Sweden and the United Kingdom have started examining environmental impacts when assessing new technologies. This article considers the case for incorporating environmental impacts into the health technology assessment (HTA) process and discusses the associated challenges. Two arguments favor incorporating environmental impacts into HTA: 1) environmental changes could directly affect people's health and 2) policy decision makers have broad mandates and objectives extending beyond health care. Two types of challenges hinder this process. First, the nascent evidence base is insufficient to support the accurate comparison of technologies' environmental impacts. Second, cost-utility analysis, which is favored by many HTA agencies, could capture some of the value of environmental impacts, especially those generating health impacts, but might not be suitable for addressing broader concerns. Both cost-benefit and multicriteria decision analyses are potential methods for evaluating health and environmental outcomes, but are less familiar to health care decision makers. Health care is an important and sizable sector of the economy that could warrant closer policy attention to its impact on the environment. Considerable work is needed to track decision makers' demands, augment the environmental evidence base, and develop robust methods for capturing and incorporating environmental data as part of HTA. PMID:27021760

  3. Measuring and Reducing Off-Target Activities of Programmable Nucleases Including CRISPR-Cas9.

    PubMed

    Koo, Taeyoung; Lee, Jungjoon; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2015-06-01

    Programmable nucleases, which include zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases (RGENs) repurposed from the type II clustered, regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system are now widely used for genome editing in higher eukaryotic cells and whole organisms, revolutionising almost every discipline in biological research, medicine, and biotechnology. All of these nucleases, however, induce off-target mutations at sites homologous in sequence with on-target sites, limiting their utility in many applications including gene or cell therapy. In this review, we compare methods for detecting nuclease off-target mutations. We also review methods for profiling genome-wide off-target effects and discuss how to reduce or avoid off-target mutations. PMID:25985872

  4. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  5. Analysis of wing truss stresses including the effect of redundancies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, E P; Miller, R G

    1921-01-01

    Airplane wing trusses are generally designed to contain redundant members (stagger wires and external drag wires) which, according to common practice, are not taken into account in calculations, so as to simplify the stress analysis by rendering the structure statically determinate. A more accurate method, in which the redundancies are included, involves a solution by means of Castigliano's method of least work. For the purpose of demonstrating the practical application of the method of least work this report presents examples for stresses of several cases of loading worked out for a structure similar to that of the Curtiss JN-4h. Case 1 was taken as the condition of velocity of 100 miles per hour combined with the angle of attack of maximum lift. Case 1a assumed the same loading but neglected the distortion of wooden members in the least-work analysis. So little error was involved in case 1a that this simplified method was employed for each succeeding case. Case 2 assumed a diving speed of 120 miles per hour and an angle of attack of no lift. Case 3 was worked out for the conditions imposed by the sand load recommended in NACA technical note no. 6.

  6. Magnetic behavior of manganese bromide hydrates including deuteration effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFotis, G. C.; Van Dongen, M. J.; Hampton, A. S.; Komatsu, C. H.; Pothen, J. M.; Trowell, K. T.; Havas, K. C.; Chan, D. G.; Reed, Z. D.; Hays, K.; Wagner, M. J.

    2016-07-01

    The magnetic properties of previously unexamined MnBr2·2H2O, MnBr2·H2O, MnBr2·2D2O and MnBr2·D2O are studied. Curie-Weiss fits to high temperature data yield θ of -13.1, -3.9, -8.2 and -5.0 K, respectively, in χM=C/(T-θ). The net antiferromagnetic exchange yields susceptibility maxima at 6.34, 3.20, 2.10, and 3.40 K, with χmax of 0.197, 0.357, 0.465 and 0.348 emu/mol, respectively. Noteworthy is the contrast between dideuterate and dihydrate, the largest deuteration effect observed for hydrated transition metal halides. Antiferromagnetic ordering is estimated to occur at 5.91, 2.65, 2.00 and 2.50 K, respectively. The ratio Tc/Tmax is 0.93, 0.83, 0.95 and 0.74 in the same order, implying low dimensional magnetism for monohydrate and monodeuterate. Heisenberg model fits to susceptibilities yield primary and secondary exchange interactions. Magnetization data at moderate fields and different temperatures are presented for each substance, and high field data to 70 kG at 2.00 K. Spin-flop transitions are estimated to occur at 45, 33 and 30 kG, respectively, for dihydrate, monohydrate and monodeuterate, but are not observable for MnBr2·2D2O. The results are analyzed from various perspectives. A different monoclinic unit cell is determined for MnBr2·2D2O than for MnBr2·2H2O, with 1.3% larger volume, providing some rationale for the difference in magnetic properties.

  7. Monitoring active volcanoes and mitigating volcanic hazards: the case for including simple approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoiber, Richard E.; Williams, Stanley N.

    1990-07-01

    Simple approaches to problems brought about eruptions and their ensuing hazardous effects should be advocated and used by volcanologists while awaiting more sophisticated remedies. The expedients we advocate have all or many of the following attributes: only locally available materials are required; no extensive training of operators or installation is necessary; they are affordable and do not require foreign aid or exports; they are often labor intensive and are sustainable without outside assistance. Where appropriate, the involvement of local residents is advocated. Examples of simple expedients which can be used in forecasting or mitigating the effects of crises emphasize the relative ease and the less elaborate requirements with which simple approaches can be activated. Emphasis is on visual observations often by untrained observers, simple meteorogical measurements, observations of water level in lakes, temperature and chemistry of springs and fumaroles, new springs and collapse areas and observations of volcanic plumes. Simple methods are suggested which can be applied to mitigating damage from mudflows, nuées ardentes, tephra falls and gas discharge. A review in hindsight at Ruiz includes the use of both chemical indicators and simple mudflow alarms. Simple expedients are sufficiently effective that any expert volcanologist called to aid in a crisis must include them in the package of advice offered. Simple approaches are a critical and logical complement to highly technical solutions to hazardous situations.

  8. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  9. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  10. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  11. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... promotion activities, including paid advertising. (a) In order for a handler to receive credit for his/her own promotional activities from his/her pro rata portion of advertising assessment payments, pursuant... professional practices and rates for the type of activity conducted. In the case of claims for...

  12. Exploring the Effects of Including Students' Ideas and Concerns on Their Participation in Online Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuyini, Ahmed Bawa

    2011-01-01

    As higher education institutions progressively deliver many more courses through online mode, student retention in courses and ensuring participation in tasks and activities are becoming more a concern to teachers and educational institutions. This pilot study--an action learning project--explored the effect of including students' identified…

  13. Antiviral activity of 1-docosanol, an inhibitor of lipid-enveloped viruses including herpes simplex.

    PubMed Central

    Katz, D H; Marcelletti, J F; Khalil, M H; Pope, L E; Katz, L R

    1991-01-01

    This article reports that 1-docosanol, a 22-carbon-long saturated alcohol, exerts a substantial inhibitory effect on replication of certain viruses (e.g., herpes simplex virus and respiratory syncytial virus) within primary target cells in vitro. To study the basis for its viral inhibitory activity, a suspension of 1-docosanol was formulated in an inert and nontoxic surfactant, Pluronic F-68; this suspension exerted potent inhibitory activity on the ability of susceptible viruses to infect cultured target cells. Susceptible viruses included wild-type herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2 as well as acyclovir-resistant herpes simplex virus 2 and also respiratory syncytial virus--all of which are lipid-enveloped. In contrast, nonenveloped poliovirus was not susceptible to the inhibitory action of 1-docosanol. Although the precise mechanism has yet to be defined, current evidence suggests that 1-docosanol inhibits viral replication by interfering with the early intracellular events surrounding viral entry into target cells. It is possible that interaction between the highly lipophilic compound and components of target cell membranes renders such target cells less susceptible to viral fusion and/or entry. If this mechanism proves to be correct, 1-docosanol may provide a broad spectrum activity against many different viruses, especially those with lipid-containing envelopes. Images PMID:1660151

  14. Improvements to the FATOLA computer program including added actively controlled landing gear subroutines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mall, G. H.

    1983-01-01

    Modifications to a multi-degree-of-freedom flexible aircraft take-off and landing analysis (FATOLA) computer program, including a provision for actively controlled landing gears to expand the programs simulation capabilities, are presented. Supplemental instructions for preparation of data and for use of the modified program are included.

  15. Using Assistive Technology Adaptations To Include Students with Learning Disabilities in Cooperative Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses a process for integrating technology adaptations for students with learning disabilities into cooperative-learning activities in terms of three components: (1) selecting adaptations; (2) monitoring use of adaptations during cooperative-learning activities; and (3) evaluating the adaptations' effectiveness. Barriers to and support systems…

  16. Solar sail attitude control including active nutation damping in a fixed-momentum wheel satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth

    1992-01-01

    In geostationary cruise of a momentum biased satellite, it is necessary to stabilize the roll/yaw attitude due to disturbances, caused mainly by solar radiation pressure. This work presents a roll/yaw control which is obtained by the use of solar arrays and fixed flaps as actuators, with a horizon sensor for roll measurement. The design also includes an active nutation damping.

  17. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities, and Bibliography. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.; Long, Alison T.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population matters. The document describes 15 class sessions which integrate information for sociology, anthropology, psychology, biology, animal behavior, and education. Topics include the history of human…

  18. Sixty Minutes of Physical Activity per Day Included within Preschool Academic Lessons Improves Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…

  19. ΔPK oncolytic activity includes modulation of the tumour cell milieu.

    PubMed

    Bollino, Dominique; Colunga, Aric; Li, Baiquan; Aurelian, Laure

    2016-02-01

    Oncolytic virotherapy is a unique cancer therapeutic that encompasses tumour cell lysis through both virus replication and programmed cell death (PCD) pathways. Nonetheless, clinical efficacy is relatively modest, likely related to the immunosuppressive tumour milieu. Our studies use the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-based oncolytic virus ΔPK that has documented anti-tumour activity associated with virus replication, PCD and cancer stem cell lysis. They are designed to examine whether ΔPK-mediated oncolysis includes the ability to reverse the immunosuppressive tumour microenvironment by altering the balance of cytokines directly secreted by the melanoma cells and to define its mechanism. Here, we show that melanoma cells secreted the immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10, and that secretion was inhibited by ΔPK through virus replication and c-Jun N-terminal kinase/c-Jun activation. ΔPK-induced IL-10 inhibition upregulated surface expression of MHC class I chain-related protein A, the ligand for the activating NKG2D receptor expressed on NK- and cytotoxic T-cells. Concomitantly, ΔPK also upregulated the secretion of inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1β through autophagy-mediated activation of Toll-like receptor 2 pathways and pyroptosis, and it inhibited the expression of the negative immune checkpoint regulator cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4. Pharmacologic inhibition of these processes significantly reduces the oncolytic activity of ΔPK. PMID:26602205

  20. An Updated Review of Interventions that Include Promotion of Physical Activity for Adult Men.

    PubMed

    Bottorff, Joan L; Seaton, Cherisse L; Johnson, Steve T; Caperchione, Cristina M; Oliffe, John L; More, Kimberly; Jaffer-Hirji, Haleema; Tillotson, Sherri M

    2015-06-01

    The marked disparity in life expectancy between men and women suggests men are a vulnerable group requiring targeted health promotion programs. As such, there is an increasing need for health promotion strategies that effectively engage men with their health and/or illness management. Programs that promote physical activity could significantly improve the health of men. Although George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) reviewed physical activity programs involving adult males published between 1990 and 2010, developments in men's health have prompted the emergence of new sex- and gender-specific approaches targeting men. The purpose of this review was to: (1) extend and update the review undertaken by George et al. (Sports Med 42(3):281, 30) concerning the effectiveness of physical activity programs in males, and (2) evaluate the integration of gender-specific influences in the content, design, and delivery of men's health promotion programs. A search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library, and the SPORTDiscus databases for articles published between January 2010 and August 2014 was conducted. In total, 35 studies, involving evaluations of 31 programs, were identified. Findings revealed that a variety of techniques and modes of delivery could effectively promote physical activity among men. Though the majority of programs were offered exclusively to men, 12 programs explicitly integrated gender-related influences in male-specific programs in ways that recognized men's interests and preferences. Innovations in male-only programs that focus on masculine ideals and gender influences to engage men in increasing their physical activity hold potential for informing strategies to promote other areas of men's health. PMID:25430599

  1. Observing a fictitious stressful event: haematological changes, including circulating leukocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Mian, Rubina; Shelton-Rayner, Graham; Harkin, Brendan; Williams, Paul

    2003-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of watching a psychological stressful event on the activation of leukocytes in healthy human volunteers. Blood samples were obtained from 32 healthy male and female subjects aged between 20 and 26 years before, during and after either watching an 83-minute horror film that none of the subjects had previously seen (The Texas Chainsaw Massacre, 1974) or by sitting quietly in a room (control group). Total differential cell counts, leukocyte activation as measured by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) test, heart rate and blood pressure (BP) measurements were taken at defined time points. There were significant increases in peripheral circulating leukocytes, the number of activated circulating leukocytes, haemoglobin (Hb) concentration and haematocrit (Hct) in response to the stressor. These were accompanied by significant increases in heart rate, systolic and diastolic BP (P<0.05 from baseline). This is the first reported study on the effects of observing a psychologically stressful, albeit fictitious event on circulating leukocyte numbers and the state of leukocyte activation as determined by the nitrotetrazolium test. PMID:12637206

  2. Active seat suspension for a small vehicle: considerations for control system including observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsumata, Hiroyuki; Shiino, Hiroshi; Oshinoya, Yasuo; Ishibashi, Kazuhisa; Ozaki, Koichi; Ogino, Hirohiko

    2007-12-01

    We have examined the improvement of ride quality and the reduction of riding fatigue brought about by the active control of the seat suspension of small vehicles such as one-seater electric automobiles. A small active seat suspension, which is easy to install, was designed and manufactured for one-seater electric automobiles. For the actuator, a maintenance-free voice coil motor used as a direct drive was adopted. For fundamental considerations, we designed a one-degree-of-freedom model for the active seat suspension system. Then, we designed a disturbance cancellation control system that includes the observer for a two-degree-of-freedom model. In an actual driving test, a test road, in which the concavity and convexity of an actual road surface were simulated using hard rubber, was prepared and the control performance of vertical vibrations of the seat surface during driving was examined. As a result, in comparison with the one-degree-of-freedom control system, it was confirmed that the control performance was improved by the two-degree-of-freedom control system that includes the observer.

  3. Intracellular activity of clinical concentrations of phenothiazines including thioridiazine against phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Ordway, Diane; Viveiros, Miguel; Leandro, Clara; Arroz, Maria Jorge; Amaral, Leonard

    2002-07-01

    The effect of thioridazine (TZ) was studied on the killing activity of human peripheral blood monocyte derived macrophages (HPBMDM) and of human macrophage cell line THP-1 at extracellular concentrations below those achievable clinically. These macrophages have nominal killing activity against bacteria and therefore, would not influence any activity that the compounds may have against intracellular localised Staphylococcus aureus. The results indicated that whereas TZ has an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the strains of S. aureus of 18, 0.1 mg/l of TZ in the medium completely inhibits the growth of S. aureus that has been phagocytosed by macrophages. The latter concentration was non-toxic to macrophages, did not cause cellular expression of activation marker CD69 nor induction of CD3+ T cell production of IFN-gamma, but blocked cellular proliferation and down-regulated the production of T cell-derived cytokines (IFN-gamma, IL-5). These results suggest that TZ induces intracellular bactericidal activities independent of the capacity to generate Type 1 responses against S. aureus. PMID:12127709

  4. Effects of neurosteroids on a model membrane including cholesterol: A micropipette aspiration study.

    PubMed

    Balleza, Daniel; Sacchi, Mattia; Vena, Giulia; Galloni, Debora; Puia, Giulia; Facci, Paolo; Alessandrini, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    Amphiphilic molecules supposed to affect membrane protein activity could strongly interact also with the lipid component of the membrane itself. Neurosteroids are amphiphilic molecules that bind to plasma membrane receptors of cells in the central nervous system but their effect on membrane is still under debate. For this reason it is interesting to investigate their effects on pure lipid bilayers as model systems. Using the micropipette aspiration technique (MAT), here we studied the effects of a neurosteroid, allopregnanolone (3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or Allo) and of one of its isoforms, isoallopregnanolone (3β,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone or isoAllo), on the physical properties of pure lipid bilayers composed by DOPC/bSM/chol. Allo is a well-known positive allosteric modulator of GABAA receptor activity while isoAllo acts as a non-competitive functional antagonist of Allo modulation. We found that Allo, when applied at nanomolar concentrations (50-200 nM) to a lipid bilayer model system including cholesterol, induces an increase of the lipid bilayer area and a decrease of the mechanical parameters. Conversely, isoAllo, decreases the lipid bilayer area and, when applied, at the same nanomolar concentrations, it does not affect significantly its mechanical parameters. We characterized the kinetics of Allo uptake by the lipid bilayer and we also discussed its aspects in relation to the slow kinetics of Allo gating effects on GABAA receptors. The overall results presented here show that a correlation exists between the modulation of Allo and isoAllo of GABAA receptor activity and their effects on a lipid bilayer model system containing cholesterol. PMID:25660752

  5. Thymoquinone causes multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Sameh E; Ramadan, Ahmed M; Azeiz, Ahmed Z Abdel; Mohammed, Rasha A; Hassan, Sabah M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Atef, Ahmed; Kamal, Khalid B H; Rabah, Samar; Sabir, Jamal S M; Abuzinadah, Osama A; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Martin, Gregory B; Bahieldin, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a major constituent of Nigella sativa oil with reported anti-oxidative activity and anti-inflammatory activity in animal cells. It also inhibits proliferation and induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in human skin cancer cells. The present study sought to detect the influence of TQ on dividing cells of three plant systems and on expression of Bcl2-associated athanogene-like (BAG-like) genes that might be involved during the process of cell death. BAG genes are known for the regulation of diverse physiological processes in animals, including apoptosis, tumorigenesis, stress responses, and cell division. Synthetic TQ at 0.1mg/mL greatly reduced wheat seed germination rate, whereas 0.2mg/mL completely inhibited germination. An Evans blue assay revealed moderate cell death in the meristematic zone of Glycine max roots after 1h of TQ treatment (0.2mg/mL), with severe cell death occurring in this zone after 2h of treatment. Light microscopy of TQ-treated (0.2mg/mL) onion hairy root tips for 1h revealed anti-mitotic activity and also cell death-associated changes, including nuclear membrane disruption and nuclear fragmentation. Transmission electron microscopy of TQ-treated cells (0.2mg/mL) for 1h revealed shrinkage of the plasma membrane, leakage of cell lysate, degradation of cell walls, enlargement of vacuoles and condensation of nuclei. Expression of one BAG-like gene, previously associated with cell death, was induced 20 min after TQ treatment in Glycine max root tip cells. Thus, TQ has multiple effects, including cell death, on dividing plant cells and plants may serve as a useful system to further investigate the mechanisms underlying the response of eukaryotic cells to TQ. PMID:24296078

  6. High Bypass Ratio Jet Noise Reduction and Installation Effects Including Shielding Effectiveness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Russell H.; Czech, Michael J.; Doty, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to study the propulsion airframe aeroacoustic installation effects of a separate flow jet nozzle with a Hybrid Wing Body aircraft configuration where the engine is installed above the wing. Prior understanding of the jet noise shielding effectiveness was extended to a bypass ratio ten application as a function of nozzle configuration, chevron type, axial spacing, and installation effects from additional airframe components. Chevron types included fan chevrons that are uniform circumferentially around the fan nozzle and T-fan type chevrons that are asymmetrical circumferentially. In isolated testing without a pylon, uniform chevrons compared to T-fan chevrons showed slightly more low frequency reduction offset by more high frequency increase. Phased array localization shows that at this bypass ratio chevrons still move peak jet noise source locations upstream but not to nearly the extent, as a function of frequency, as for lower bypass ratio jets. For baseline nozzles without chevrons, the basic pylon effect has been greatly reduced compared to that seen for lower bypass ratio jets. Compared to Tfan chevrons without a pylon, the combination with a standard pylon results in more high frequency noise increase and an overall higher noise level. Shielded by an airframe surface 2.17 fan diameters from nozzle to airframe trailing edge, the T-fan chevron nozzle can produce reductions in jet noise of as much as 8 dB at high frequencies and upstream angles. Noise reduction from shielding decreases with decreasing frequency and with increasing angle from the jet inlet. Beyond an angle of 130 degrees there is almost no noise reduction from shielding. Increasing chevron immersion more than what is already an aggressive design is not advantageous for noise reduction. The addition of airframe control surfaces, including vertical stabilizers and elevon deflection, showed only a small overall impact. Based on the test results, the best

  7. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  9. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  10. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... interpretative signs; (4) Provision for non-motorized trail activities including pedestrians and bicycles; (5) Provision for motorized trail activities including all terrain vehicles, motorcycles, snowmobiles, etc.; (6...; (8) Maintenance and restoration of existing recreational trails; (9) Development and...

  11. Evaluation of school-based dental health activities including fluoride mouth-rinsing in Hiraizumi, Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Shinada, K; Sasaki, Y

    2000-06-01

    School-based dental health activities conducted in Hiraizumi over the past 20 years have remarkably improved the dental health status of schoolchildren. For example, DMFT index of 12-year-old children decreased to 1.5 in 1998, one-half that of the national average. School dental health activities, which were focused on dental health education, resulted in an increase of filled teeth rates, a decrease in the number of missing teeth, and a decline in incisor caries (1979-1986). In addition, the introduction of a school-based fluoride mouth-rinsing program (1986 - ) showed a positive effect on the prevention of dental caries; a significant decrease was observed in the overall prevalence of dental caries, particularly in the molars. In Japan it seems advantageous to promote the dental health of schoolchildren by school-based programs that combine dental health examination, dental health education and fluoride mouth-rinsing program. Especially, to prevent dental caries in the mandibular first molars more effectively, it is recommended to start fluoride mouth-rinsing at age 5. PMID:12160185

  12. Study of Anti-Fatigue Effect in Rats of Ferrous Chelates Including Hairtail Protein Hydrolysates

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Saibo; Lin, Huimin; Deng, Shang-gui

    2015-01-01

    The ability of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates to prevent and reduce fatigue was studied in rats. After hydrolysis of hairtail surimi with papain, the hairtail protein hydrolysates (HPH) were separated into three groups by range of relative molecular weight using ultrafiltration membrane separation. Hairtail proteins were then chelated with ferrous ions, and the antioxidant activity, the amino acid composition and chelation rate of the three kinds of ferrous chelates including hairtail protein hydrolysates (Fe-HPH) were determined. Among the three groups, the Fe-HPH chelate showing the best conditions was selected for the anti-fatigue animal experiment. For it, experimental rats were randomly divided into seven groups. Group A was designated as the negative control group given distilled water. Group B, the positive control group, was given glutathione. Groups C, D and E were designated as the Fe-HPH chelate treatment groups and given low, medium, and high doses, respectively. Group F was designated as HPH hydrolysate treatment group, and Group G was designated as FeCl2 treatment group. The different diets were orally administered to rats for 20 days. After that time, rats were subjected to forced swimming training after 1 h of gavage. Rats given Fe-FPH chelate had higher haemoglobin regeneration efficiency (HRE), longer exhaustive swimming time and higher SOD activity. Additionally, Fe-FPH chelate was found to significantly decrease the malondialdehyde content, visibly enhance the GSH-Px activity in liver and reduce blood lactic acid of rats. Fe-HPH chelate revealed an anti-fatigue effect, similar to or better than the positive control substance and superior to HPH or Fe when provided alone. PMID:26633476

  13. Bacteriolytic effect of membrane vesicles from Pseudomonas aeruginosa on other bacteria including pathogens: conceptually new antibiotics.

    PubMed Central

    Kadurugamuwa, J L; Beveridge, T J

    1996-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa releases membrane vesicles (MVs) filled with periplasmic components during normal growth, and the quantity of these vesicles can be increased by brief exposure to gentamicin. Natural and gentamicin-induced membrane vesicles (n-MVs and g-MVs, respectively) are subtly different from one another, but both contain several important virulence factors, including hydrolytic enzyme factors (J. L. Kadurugamuwa and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 177:3998-4008, 1995). Peptidoglycan hydrolases (autolysins) were detected in both MV types, especially a periplasmic 26-kDa autolysin whose expression has been related to growth phase (Z. Li, A. J. Clarke, and T. J. Beveridge, J. Bacteriol. 178:2479-2488, 1996). g-MVs possessed slightly higher autolysin activity and, at the same time, small quantities of gentamicin. Both MV types hydrolyzed isolated gram-positive and gram-negative murein sacculi and were also capable of hydrolyzing several glycyl peptides. Because the MVs were bilayered, they readily fused with the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. They also adhered to the cell wall of gram-positive bacteria. g-MVs were more effective in lysing other bacteria because, in addition to the autolysins, they also contained small amounts of gentamicin. The bactericidal activity was 2.5 times the MIC of gentamicin, which demonstrates the synergistic effect of the antibiotic with the autolysins. n-MVs were capable of killing cultures of P. aeruginosa with permeability resistance against gentamicin, indicating that the fusion of n-MV to the outer membrane liberated autolysins into the periplasm, where they degraded the peptidoglycan and lysed the cells. g-MVs had even greater killing power since they liberated both gentamicin and autolysins into these resistant cells. These findings may help develop a conceptually new group of antibiotics designed to be effective against hard-to-kill bacteria. PMID:8631663

  14. Be BOLD: Encouraging Girls to Include Unstructured Bouts of Physical Activity into Daily Routines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kory; Williams, Gwynne M.

    2014-01-01

    Adolescent girls are less active than their male counterparts and physical activity levels tend to decline as one ages. One of the goals of concerned physical educators is to promote a physically active lifestyle and to teach skills and promote behaviors that will allow students to be active both in and out of school. This article presents a…

  15. Design of a high-lift experiment in water including active flow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beutel, T.; Sattler, S.; El Sayed, Y.; Schwerter, M.; Zander, M.; Büttgenbach, S.; Leester-Schädel, M.; Radespiel, R.; Sinapius, M.; Wierach, P.

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the structural design of an active flow-control experiment. The aim of the experiment is to investigate the increase in efficiency of an internally blown Coanda flap using unsteady blowing. The system uses tailor-made microelectromechanical (MEMS) pressure sensors to determine the state of the oncoming flow and an actuated lip to regulate the mass flow and velocity of a stream near a wall over the internally blown flap. Sensors and actuators are integrated into a highly loaded system that is extremely compact. The sensors are connected to a bus system that feeds the data into a real-time control system. The piezoelectric actuators using the d 33 effect at a comparable low voltage of 120 V are integrated into a lip that controls the blowout slot height. The system is designed for closed-loop control that efficiently avoids flow separation on the Coanda flap. The setup is designed for water-tunnel experiments in order to reduce the free-stream velocity and the system’s control frequency by a factor of 10 compared with that in air. This paper outlines the function and verification of the system’s main components and their development.

  16. PITBUL: a physics-based modeling package for imaging and tracking of airborne targets for HEL applications including active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; McCrae, Jack E.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2013-05-01

    Aimpoint acquisition and maintenance is critical to high energy laser (HEL) system performance. This study demonstrates the development by the AFIT/CDE of a physics-based modeling package, PITBUL, for tracking airborne targets for HEL applications, including atmospheric and sensor effects and active illumination, which is a focus of this work. High-resolution simulated imagery of the 3D airborne target in-flight as seen from the laser position is generated using the HELSEEM model, and includes solar illumination, laser illumination, and thermal emission. Both CW and pulsed laser illumination are modeled, including the effects of illuminator scintillation, atmospheric backscatter, and speckle, which are treated at a first-principles level. Realistic vertical profiles of molecular and aerosol absorption and scattering, as well as optical turbulence, are generated using AFIT/CDE's Laser Environmental Effects Definition and Reference (LEEDR) model. The spatially and temporally varying effects of turbulence are calculated and applied via a fast-running wave optical method known as light tunneling. Sensor effects, for example blur, sampling, read-out noise, and random photon arrival, are applied to the imagery. Track algorithms, including centroid and Fitts correlation, as a part of a closed loop tracker are applied to the degraded imagery and scored, to provide an estimate of overall system performance. To gauge performance of a laser system against a UAV target, tracking results are presented as a function of signal to noise ratio. Additionally, validation efforts to date involving comparisons between simulated and experimental tracking of UAVs are presented.

  17. Numerical prediction of wakes in cascades and compressor rotors including the effects of mixing. II - Rotor passage flow and wakes including the effects of spanwise mixing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshminarayana, B.; Suryavamshi, N.

    1991-01-01

    The results of a numerical investigation to predict the flow field including wakes and mixing in axial-flow compressor rotors are presented. The wake behavior in a moderately loaded compressor rotor is studied numerically using a 3D incompressible Navier-Stokes solver with a high Reynolds number form of a turbulence model. The equations are solved using a time dependent implicit technique. The agreement between the measured data and the predictions is good; including the blade boundary-layer profiles, wake mean-velocity profiles, and decay. The ability of the pseudocompressibility scheme to predict the entire flow field including the near and far wake profiles and its decay characteristics, effect of loading, and the viscous losses of a 3D rotor flow field are demonstrated. The mixing in the downstream regions away from the hub and annulus walls is dominated by wake diffusion. In regions away from the walls the radial mixing is predominantly caused by the transport of mass, momentum, and energy by the radial component of velocity in the wake.

  18. Differences in Lifestyles Including Physical Activity According to Sexual Orientation among Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    YOON, Jin-Ho; SO, Wi-Young

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in lifestyle factors such as physical activity among homosexual (gay or lesbian), bisexual, and heterosexual Korean adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 74,186 adolescents from grades 7—12 (ages 12—18) who participated in the 8th annual Korea Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey in 2012. Of this sample, only 11,829 provided enough information regarding their romantic and sexual experiences to define them as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or heterosexual. From this information, males were divided into gay (n = 323), bisexual (n = 243), and heterosexual (n = 6,501) groups, and females were divided into lesbian (n = 208), bisexual (n = 113), and heterosexual (n = 4,441) groups. Differences in lifestyle factors according to sexual orientation were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Results Males showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P = 0.029), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), muscular strength exercises (P = 0.020), and walking for at least 10 minutes per week (P < 0.001). Females showed significant differences by sexual orientation group in terms of frequency of smoking (P < 0.001), alcohol consumption (P < 0.001), vigorous physical exercise (P < 0.001), moderate physical exercise (P < 0.001), and muscular strength exercises (P < 0.001), as well as for self-reported mental stress (P < 0.001). Conclusion We concluded those gay and bisexual males and lesbian and bisexual females had significant lifestyle differences as compared with heterosexual adolescents. This effect was stronger for females than for males. PMID:26060636

  19. Interest Inventory. [Includes Academic Interest Measure, Pupil Activity Inventory, and Semantic Differential].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA. Harvard Project Physics.

    This Interest Inventory contains three inventories: Academic Interest Measure (AIM), Pupil Activity Inventory (PAI), and Semantic Differential test (SD). The AIM measures six subscales of academic interests; the PAI measures non-school activities in science; and the SD measures attitudes toward science and physics. The inventories are designed for…

  20. Studies of Arctic stratospheric ozone in a 2-D model including some effects of zonal asymmetries

    SciTech Connect

    Isaksen, I.S.A.; Rognerud, B.; Stordal, F. ); Coffey, M.T.; Mankin, W.G. )

    1990-03-01

    A two-dimensional (2-D) zonally averaged chemistry-transport model of the stratosphere has been extended to include some zonally asymmetric effects to study the chemically disturbed conditions in the Arctic winter during the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs). The model allows air parcels that have been in PSCs in the polar night to be exposed to sunlight during the passage south through a wave trough. Large enhancements of ClO are estimated as well as significant ozone reductions, most pronounced around the 20 km height level. The ozone depletions maximize in late March, about one month after the cease in PSC activity in the model, and amount to 5-8% in column ozone at 70{degree}N. In agreement with column measurements made from the DC-8, the model estimates an increase in the columns of HNO{sub 3} and ClONO{sub 2}, and a decrease in the HCl column within the polar vortex.

  1. Diffractive laser beam homogenizer including a photo-active material and method of fabricating the same

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andy J; Ebbers, Christopher A; Chen, Diana C

    2014-05-20

    A method of manufacturing a plurality of diffractive optical elements includes providing a partially transmissive slide, providing a first piece of PTR glass, and directing first UV radiation through the partially transmissive slide to impinge on the first piece of PTR glass. The method also includes exposing predetermined portions of the first piece of PTR glass to the first UV radiation and thermally treating the exposed first piece of PTR glass. The method further includes providing a second piece of PTR glass and directing second UV radiation through the thermally treated first piece of PTR glass to impinge on the second piece of PTR glass. The method additionally includes exposing predetermined portions of the second piece of PTR glass to the second UV radiation, thermally treating the exposed second piece of PTR glass, and repeating providing and processing of the second piece of PTR glass using additional pieces of PTR glass.

  2. Electrode including porous particles with embedded active material for use in a secondary electrochemical cell

    DOEpatents

    Vissers, Donald R.; Nelson, Paul A.; Kaun, Thomas D.; Tomczuk, Zygmunt

    1978-04-25

    Particles of carbonaceous matrices containing embedded electrode active material are prepared for vibratory loading within a porous electrically conductive substrate. In preparing the particles, active materials such as metal chalcogenides, solid alloys of alkali or alkaline earth metals along with other metals and their oxides in powdered or particulate form are blended with a thermosetting resin and particles of a volatile to form a paste mixture. The paste is heated to a temperature at which the volatile transforms into vapor to impart porosity at about the same time as the resin begins to cure into a rigid, solid structure. The solid structure is then comminuted into porous, carbonaceous particles with the embedded active material.

  3. 7 CFR 981.441 - Credit for market promotion activities, including paid advertising.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURE ALMONDS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative Rules and Regulations § 981.441 Credit for market... each activity shall be to promote the sale, consumption or use of California almonds, and nothing... in California almond growing counties with more than 1,000 bearing acres: Provided, That...

  4. Backyards and Butterflies: Ways to Include Children with Disabilities in Outdoor Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenstein, Doreen; And Others

    This sourcebook is designed for children, parents, and families, detailing ideas for outdoor play and learning activities, with emphasis on involving children with disabilities in outdoor play. A rural perspective permeates the guide, although each chapter contains ideas for making outdoor environments more accessible and safer for all children,…

  5. Beyond Right or Wrong: Challenges of Including Creative Design Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore challenges encountered by K-12 educators in establishing classroom cultures that support creative learning activities with the Scratch programming language. Providing opportunities for students to understand and to build capacities for creative work was described by many of the teachers that we interviewed as a central…

  6. Physical Activity Programs in Higher Education: Modifying Net/Wall Games to Include Individuals with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braga, Luciana; Tracy, Julia F.; Taliaferro, Andrea R.

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of students with disabilities in higher education settings has presented challenges for instructors with regards to appropriate inclusion. Concerning physical activity courses in higher education, instructors may not have the knowledge or resources to make modifications and accommodations that will ultimately result in…

  7. Population and Human Development: A Course Curriculum Including Lesson Plans, Activities and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elaine M.

    This course outline suggests materials and learning activities on the interrelated causes and consequences of population growth and other population concerns. Designed to educate general college audiences, it is also intended for use as a preservice course for teachers. In addition, the course can be modified for high school students. The course…

  8. A novel peptide inhibitor of classical and lectin complement activation including ABO incompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Mauriello, Clifford T.; Pallera, Haree K.; Sharp, Julia A.; Woltmann, Jon L.; Qian, Shizhi; Hair, Pamela S.; van der Pol, Pieter; van Kooten, Cees; Thielens, Nicole M.; Lattanzio, Frank A.; Cunnion, Kenji M.; Krishna, Neel K.

    2012-01-01

    Previous experiments from our laboratories have identified peptides derived from the human astrovirus coat protein (CP) that bind C1q and mannose binding lectin (MBL) inhibiting activation of the classical and lectin pathways of complement, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the function of these coat protein peptides (CPPs) in an in vitro model of complement-mediated disease (ABO incompatibility), preliminarily assess their in vivo complement suppression profile and develop more highly potent derivatives of these molecules. E23A, a 30 amino acid CPP derivative previously demonstrated to inhibit classical pathway activation was able to dose-dependently inhibit lysis of AB erythrocytes treated with mismatched human O serum. Additionally, when injected into rats, E23A inhibited the animals’ serum from lysing antibody-sensitized erythrocytes, providing preliminary in vivo functional evidence that this CPP can cross the species barrier to inhibit serum complement activity in rodents. A rational drug design approach was implemented to identify more potent CPP derivatives, resulting in the identification and characterization of a 15 residue peptide (Polar Assortant (PA)), which demonstrated both superior inhibition of classical complement pathway activation and robust binding to C1q collagen-like tails. PA also inhibited ABO incompatibility in vitro and demonstrated in vivo complement suppression up to 24 hours post-injection. CPP’s ability to inhibit ABO incompatibility in vitro, proof of concept in vivo inhibitory activity in rats and the development of the highly potent PA derivative set the stage for preclinical testing of this molecule in small animal models of complement-mediated disease. PMID:22906481

  9. Study of VTOL in ground-effect flow field including temperature effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, W. G.; Jenkins, R. C.; Kalemaris, S. G.; Siclari, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Detailed pressure, temperature, and velocity data were obtained for twin-fan configurations in-ground-effect and flow models to aid in predicting pressures and upwash forces on aircraft surfaces were developed. For the basic experiments, 49.5 mm-diameter jets were used, oriented normal to a simulated round plane, with pressurized, heated air providing a jet. The experimental data consisted of: (1) the effect of jet height and temperature on the ground, model, and upwash pressures, and temperatures, (2) the effect of simulated aircraft surfaces on the isolated flow field, (3) the jet-induced forces on a three-dimensional body with various strakes, (4) the effects of non-uniform coannular jets. For the uniform circular jets, temperature was varied from room temperature (24 C) to 232 C. Jet total pressure was varied between 9,300 Pascals and 31,500 Pascals. For the coannular jets, intended to represent turbofan engines, fan temperature was maintained at room temperature while core temperature was varied from room temperature to 437 C. Results are presented.

  10. Increasing resource allocation and research into tobacco control activities: a comprehensive approach including primary prevention, treatment and brief intervention.

    PubMed

    Richmond, R

    1993-01-01

    The range of tobacco control activities should be viewed as essential parts of a complex multi-component puzzle. Intervention strategies designed to address tobacco control should be comprehensive and include both primary and secondary prevention activities and be multi-faceted and capable of bringing about change at both the individual and broader social and cultural levels. In this paper I argue for a mutually inclusive framework in which the various components contribute in important and different ways. I examine the prevalence of smoking and identify the high risk groups, then I examine the range of available strategies and present the evidence for their success. I discuss the primary prevention approaches such as warning labels, taxes, price increases, workplace bans, education in schools, mass media and self-help materials, as well as brief interventions and treatment strategies which are conducted at the worksite, general practice and specialized cessation clinics. The areas for future research are delineated for increased resource allocation and include: the best ways to disseminate brief interventions to smokers, methods to motivate smokers; training of health professionals to deliver brief interventions; enhancing quitting and access to existing treatment resources among specific disadvantaged minority groups, e.g. migrants, unemployed youth, the effect on smoking prevalence of warning labels on cigarette packets and price rises on cigarettes. PMID:16818330

  11. Space Resources for Teachers: Biology, Including Suggestions for Classroom Activities and Laboratory Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Tom E.; And Others

    This compilation of resource units concerns the latest developments in space biology. Some of the topics included are oxygen consumption, temperature, radiation, rhythms, weightlessness, acceleration and vibration stress, toxicity, and sensory and perceptual problems. Many of the topics are interdisciplinary and relate biology, physiology,…

  12. Semi-Empirical Characterization of Ground Motions Including Source, Path and Nonlinear Site Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyhan, Emel

    The objective of this thesis is to improve the physical understanding of earthquake ground motion characteristics related to source, path and nonlinear site effects and our ability to model those effects with engineering models. Site database work was performed within the context of the NGA-West 2 project. Starting with the site database from original (2008) NGA project (last edited in 2006), we provided site classifications for 2538 new sites and re-classifications of previous sites. The principal site parameter is the time-averaged shear wave velocity in the upper 30 m (Vs30 ), which is characterized using measurements where available, and proxy-based relationships otherwise. We improved the documentation and consistency of site descriptors used as proxies for the estimation of Vs30, developed evidence-based protocols for Vs30 estimation from available proxies, and augmented estimates of various basin depth parameters. Site factors typically have a small-strain site amplification that captures impedance and resonance effects coupled with nonlinear components. Site factors in current NEHRP Provisions are empirically-derived at relatively small ground motion levels and feature simulation-based nonlinearity. We show that current NEHRP site factors have discrepancies with respect to the site terms in the original NGA GMPEs both in the linear site amplification (especially for Classes B, C, D, and E) and the degree of nonlinearity (Classes C and D). We analyzed the NGA-West 2 dataset and simulation-based models for site amplification to develop a new model. The model has linear and nonlinear additive components. The linear component is fully empirical, being derived from worldwide ground motion data (regional effects were examined but found to not be sufficiently important to be included in the model). The model features linear Vs30-scaling in a log-log sense below a corner velocity (Vc), and no Vs30-scaling for velocities faster than Vc. The nonlinear component is

  13. High-energy scattering in the saturation regime including running coupling and rare fluctuation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang Wenchang

    2009-01-01

    The analytic form of the asymptotic behavior of the S matrix in the saturation regime including the running coupling is obtained. To get this result, we solve the Balitsky and Kovchegov-Weigert evolution equations in the saturation regime, which include running coupling corrections. We study also the effect of rare fluctuations on top of the running coupling. We find that the rare fluctuations are less important in the running coupling case as compared to the fixed coupling case.

  14. Analysis of hypersonic nozzles including vibrational nonequilibrium and intermolecular force effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canupp, Patrick W.; Candler, Graham V.; Perkins, John N.; Erickson, Wayne D.

    1992-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics algorithm is developed for the study of high-pressure axisymmetric hypersonic nozzle flows. The effects of intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium are included in the analysis. The numerical simulation of gases with an arbitrary equation of state is discussed. Simulations for a high pressure nozzle (p(0) = 138 MPa) demonstrate that both intermolecular forces and vibrational nonequilibrium have a significant affect on the flow. These nonideal effects tend to increase the Mach number at the nozzle exit plane. Thus, they must be included in the design and analysis of high pressure hypersonic nozzles.

  15. The involuntary excluder effect: those included by an excluder are seen as exclusive themselves.

    PubMed

    Critcher, Clayton R; Zayas, Vivian

    2014-09-01

    People are highly vigilant for and alarmed by social exclusion. Previous research has focused largely on the emotional and motivational consequences of being unambiguously excluded by others. The present research instead examines how people make sense of a more ambiguous dynamic, 1-person exclusion--situations in which one person (the excluder) excludes someone (the rejected) while including someone else (the included). Using different methodological paradigms, converging outcome measures, and complementary comparison standards, 5 studies present evidence of an involuntary excluder effect: Social perceivers are quick to see included persons as though they are excluders themselves. Included individuals are seen as belonging to an exclusive alliance with the excluder, as liking the excluder more than the rejected, and as likely to perpetuate future exclusion against the rejected. Behavioral evidence reinforced these findings: The included was approached with caution and suspicion. Notably, such perceptions of the included as an excluder were drawn by the rejected themselves and outside observers alike, did not reflect the attitudes and intentions of included persons or those who simulated 1-person exclusion from the vantage point of the included, applied specifically to the included (but not someone who simply witnessed the rejected's rejection), and arose as a consequence of intentional acts of exclusion (and thus, not just because 2 individuals shared an exclusive experience). Consistencies with and contributions to literatures on balance theory, minimal groups, group entitativity, and the ostracism detection system literatures are discussed. PMID:25133726

  16. Activity of faropenem tested against Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates including fluoroquinolone-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Critchley, Ian A; Whittington, William L H; Janjic, Nebojsa; Pottumarthy, Sudha

    2005-12-01

    We evaluated the anti-gonococcal potency of faropenem along with 7 comparator reference antimicrobials against a preselected collection of clinical isolates. The 265 isolates were inclusive of 2 subsets: 1) 76 well-characterized resistant phenotypes of gonococcal strains (53 quinolone-resistant strains--31 with documented quinolone resistance-determining region changes from Japan, 15 strains resistant to penicillin and tetracycline, and 8 strains with intermediate susceptibility to penicillin) and 2) 189 recent isolates from clinical specimens in 2004 from 6 states across the United States where quinolone resistance is prevalent. Activity of faropenem was adversely affected by l-cysteine hydrochloride in IsoVitaleX (4-fold increase in [minimal inhibitory concentration] MIC50; 0.06 versus 0.25 microg/mL). The rank order of potency of the antimicrobials for the entire collection was ceftriaxone (MIC90, 0.06 microg/mL) > faropenem (0.25 microg/mL) > azithromycin (0.5 microg/mL) > cefuroxime (1 microg/mL) > tetracycline (2 microg/mL) > penicillin = ciprofloxacin = levofloxacin (4 microg/mL). Using MIC90 for comparison, faropenem was 4-fold more potent than cefuroxime (0.25 versus 1 microg/mL), but was 4-fold less active than ceftriaxone (0.25 versus 0.06 microg/mL). Although the activity of faropenem was not affected by either penicillinase production (MIC90, 0.12 microg/mL, penicillinase-positive) or increasing ciprofloxacin MIC (0.25 microg/mL, ciprofloxacin-resistant), increasing penicillin MIC was associated with an increase in MIC90 values (0.016 microg/mL for penicillin-susceptible to 0.25 microg/mL for penicillin-resistant strains). Among the recent (2004) clinical gonococcal isolates tested, reduced susceptibility to penicillins, tetracycline, and fluoroquinolones was high (28.0-94.2%). Geographic distribution of the endemic resistance rates of gonococci varied considerably, with 16.7-66.7% of the gonococcal isolates being ciprofloxacin-resistant in Oregon

  17. Phytophthora infestans Has a Plethora of Phospholipase D Enzymes Including a Subclass That Has Extracellular Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meijer, Harold J. G.; Hassen, Hussen Harrun; Govers, Francine

    2011-01-01

    In eukaryotes phospholipase D (PLD) is involved in many cellular processes. Currently little is known about PLDs in oomycetes. Here we report that the oomycete plant pathogen Phytophthora infestans has a large repertoire of PLDs divided over six subfamilies: PXPH-PLD, PXTM-PLD, TM-PLD, PLD-likes, and type A and B sPLD-likes. Since the latter have signal peptides we developed a method using metabolically labelled phospholipids to monitor if P. infestans secretes PLD. In extracellular medium of ten P. infestans strains PLD activity was detected as demonstrated by the production of phosphatidic acid and the PLD specific marker phosphatidylalcohol. PMID:21423760

  18. A Methodology for Post Operational Clean Out of a Highly Active Facility Including Solids Behaviour - 12386

    SciTech Connect

    Edmondson, Michael J.; Ward, Tracy R.; Maxwell, Lisa J.

    2012-07-01

    The Highly Active Liquor Evaporation and Storage (HALES) plant at Sellafield handles acidic fission product containing liquor with typical activities of the order of 18x10{sup 9} Bq/ml. A strategy experimental feedback approach has been used to establish a wash regime for the Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the oldest storage tanks for this liquor. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for removal of acid insoluble fission product precipitates. Ammonium carbamate and sodium carbonate yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. The proposed wash reagents provide dissolution of caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) and zirconium molybdate (ZM) solid phases but yields a fine, mobile precipitate of metal carbonates from the Highly Active Liquor (HAL) supernate. Addition of nitric acid to the wash effluent can cause CPM to precipitate where there is sufficient caesium and phosphorous available. Where they are not present (from ZM dissolution) the nitric acid addition initially produces a nitrate precipitate which then re-dissolves, along with the metal carbonates, to give a solid-free solution. The different behaviour of the two solids during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing the rheology of ZM sediments through doping with tellurium or particular organic acids. Two different wash reagents have been identified as being potentially suitable for the POCO of HALES Oldside HASTs. AC and SC both yield similar products during the proposed wash cycle. However, the different behaviour of the two principle HAL solids, CPM and ZM, during the wash cycle has led to the proposal for an amended flowsheet. Additional studies on the potential to change the morphology of crystallising ZM have presented opportunities for changing its rheology through doping with tellurium or certain

  19. Steady-state analysis of activated sludge processes with a settler model including sludge compression.

    PubMed

    Diehl, S; Zambrano, J; Carlsson, B

    2016-01-01

    A reduced model of a completely stirred-tank bioreactor coupled to a settling tank with recycle is analyzed in its steady states. In the reactor, the concentrations of one dominant particulate biomass and one soluble substrate component are modelled. While the biomass decay rate is assumed to be constant, growth kinetics can depend on both substrate and biomass concentrations, and optionally model substrate inhibition. Compressive and hindered settling phenomena are included using the Bürger-Diehl settler model, which consists of a partial differential equation. Steady-state solutions of this partial differential equation are obtained from an ordinary differential equation, making steady-state analysis of the entire plant difficult. A key result showing that the ordinary differential equation can be replaced with an approximate algebraic equation simplifies model analysis. This algebraic equation takes the location of the sludge-blanket during normal operation into account, allowing for the limiting flux capacity caused by compressive settling to easily be included in the steady-state mass balance equations for the entire plant system. This novel approach grants the possibility of more realistic solutions than other previously published reduced models, comprised of yet simpler settler assumptions. The steady-state concentrations, solids residence time, and the wastage flow ratio are functions of the recycle ratio. Solutions are shown for various growth kinetics; with different values of biomass decay rate, influent volumetric flow, and substrate concentration. PMID:26476681

  20. Nuclear Rocket Test Facility Decommissioning Including Controlled Explosive Demolition of a Neutron-Activated Shield Wall

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Kruzic

    2007-09-01

    Located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site, the Test Cell A Facility was used in the 1960s for the testing of nuclear rocket engines, as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Program. The facility was decontaminated and decommissioned (D&D) in 2005 using the Streamlined Approach For Environmental Restoration (SAFER) process, under the Federal Facilities Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Utilities and process piping were verified void of contents, hazardous materials were removed, concrete with removable contamination decontaminated, large sections mechanically demolished, and the remaining five-foot, five-inch thick radiologically-activated reinforced concrete shield wall demolished using open-air controlled explosive demolition (CED). CED of the shield wall was closely monitored and resulted in no radiological exposure or atmospheric release.

  1. Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments including activation energies and mathematical modeling of methyl halide dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirstein, O.; Prager, M.; Grimm, H.; Buchsteiner, A.; Wischnewski, A.

    2007-09-01

    Quasielastic neutron scattering experiments were carried out using the multichopper time-of-flight spectrometer V3 at the Hahn-Meitner Institut, Germany and the backscattering spectrometer at Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany. Activation energies for CH3X, X =F, Cl, Br, and I, were obtained. In combination with results from previous inelastic neutron scattering experiments the data were taken to describe the dynamics of the halides in terms of two different models, the single particle model and the coupling model. Coupled motions of methyl groups seem to explain the dynamics of the methyl fluoride and chloride; however, the coupling vanishes with the increase of the mass of the halide atom in CH3Br and CH3I.

  2. LIPID PEROXIDATION GENERATES BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE PHOSPHOLIPIDS INCLUDING OXIDATIVELY N-MODIFIED PHOSPHOLIPIDS

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Sean S.; Guo, Lilu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxidation of membranes and lipoproteins converts “inert” phospholipids into a plethora of oxidatively modified phospholipids (oxPL) that can act as signaling molecules. In this review, we will discuss four major classes of oxPL: mildly oxygenated phospholipids, phospholipids with oxidatively truncated acyl chains, phospholipids with cyclized acyl chains, and phospholipids that have been oxidatively N-modified on their headgroups by reactive lipid species. For each class of oxPL we will review the chemical mechanisms of their formation, the evidence for their formation in biological samples, the biological activities and signaling pathways associated with them, and the catabolic pathways for their elimination. We will end by briefly highlighting some of the critical questions that remain about the role of oxPL in physiology and disease. PMID:24704586

  3. Free vibration of thermally loaded panels including initial imperfections and post-buckling effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, K. D.; Virgin, L. N.; Rizzi, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is developed to consider the small amplitude free vibration characteristics of fully clamped panels under the influence of uniform heating. Included in this study are the effects of higher modes, in-plane boundary elasticity, initial imperfections, and post-buckling. Comparisons between theory and experiment reveal excellent agreement.

  4. Characterization of Samples from the 3H Evaporator System Including Effects of Recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.

    2001-05-15

    Analysis of several series of samples from the 3H Evaporator System have been completed. The goal of this work was to determine the effects of 3H operation including recycle of concentrated supernate from Tank 30H into the sludge layer of Tank 32H.

  5. Development of electromagnetic cascades in the atmosphere including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streitmatter, R. E.; Stephens, S. A.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical solutions have been obtained for the one-dimensional atmospheric electromagnetic cascade diffusion equations, including the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal and screening effects. Spectra produced by primary gamma rays of various energies are given at a number of deths in the atmosphere.

  6. Including Finite Surface Span Effects in Empirical Jet-Surface Interaction Noise Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Clifford A.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of finite span on the jet-surface interaction noise source and the jet mixing noise shielding and reflection effects is considered using recently acquired experimental data. First, the experimental setup and resulting data are presented with particular attention to the role of surface span on far-field noise. These effects are then included in existing empirical models that have previously assumed that all surfaces are semi-infinite. This extended abstract briefly describes the experimental setup and data leaving the empirical modeling aspects for the final paper.

  7. Nonlinear flap-lag-extensional vibrations of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the natural frequencies, steady state deflections and mode shapes of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The governing coupled equations of flap lag extensional motion are derived including the effects of large precone and retaining geometric nonlinearities up to second degree. The Galerkin method, with nonrotating normal modes, is used for the solution of both steady state nonlinear equations and linear perturbation equations. Parametric indicating the individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, Coriolis forces and second degree geometric nonlinearities on the steady state deflection, natural frequencies and mode shapes of rotating blades are presented. It is indicated that the second degree geometric nonlinear terms, which vanish for zero precone, can produce frequency changes of engineering significance. Further confirmation of the validity of including those generated by MSC NASTRAN. It is indicated that the linear and nonlinear Coriolis effects must be included in analyzing thick blades. The Coriolis effects are significant on the first flatwise and the first edgewise modes.

  8. Unsteady transonic small-disturbance theory including entropy and vorticity effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batina, John T.

    1988-01-01

    Modifications to unsteady transonic small disturbance theory to include entropy and vorticity effects are presented. The modifications were implemented in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft configurations in the flutter critical transonic speed range. Entropy and vorticity effects were incorporated within the solution procedure to more accurately analyze flows with strong shock waves. The modified code includes these effects while retaining the relative simplicity and cost efficiency of the TSD formulation. Detailed descriptions are presented of the entropy and vorticity modifications along with calculated results and comparisons which assess the modified theory. These results are in good agreement with parallel Euler calculations and with experimental data. Therefore, the present method now provides the aeroelastician with an affordable capability to analyze relatively difficult transonic flows without having to solve the computationally more expensive Euler equations.

  9. Fatty acid-releasing activities in Sinorhizobium meliloti include unusual diacylglycerol lipase.

    PubMed

    Sahonero-Canavesi, Diana X; Sohlenkamp, Christian; Sandoval-Calderón, Mario; Lamsa, Anne; Pogliano, Kit; López-Lara, Isabel M; Geiger, Otto

    2015-09-01

    Phospholipids are well known for their membrane-forming properties and thereby delimit any cell from the exterior world. In addition, membrane phospholipids can act as precursors for signals and other biomolecules during their turnover. Little is known about phospholipid signalling, turnover and remodelling in bacteria. Recently, we showed that a FadD-deficient mutant of Sinorhizobium meliloti, unable to convert free fatty acids to their coenzyme A derivatives, accumulates free fatty acids during the stationary phase of growth. Enzymatic activities responsible for the generation of these free fatty acids were unknown in rhizobia. Searching the genome of S. meliloti, we identified a potential lysophospholipase (SMc04041) and two predicted patatin-like phospholipases A (SMc00930, SMc01003). Although SMc00930 as well as SMc01003 contribute to the release of free fatty acids in S. meliloti, neither one can use phospholipids as substrates. Here we show that SMc01003 converts diacylglycerol to monoacylglycerol and a fatty acid, and that monoacylglycerol can be further degraded by SMc01003 to another fatty acid and glycerol. A SMc01003-deficient mutant of S. meliloti transiently accumulates diacylglycerol, suggesting that SMc01003 also acts as diacylglycerol lipase (DglA) in its native background. Expression of the DglA lipase in Escherichia coli causes lysis of cells in stationary phase of growth. PMID:25711932

  10. Ozone control of biological activity during Earth's history, including the KT catastrophe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheldon, W. R.

    1994-01-01

    There have been brief periods since the beginning of the Cambrian some 600 m.y. ago when mass extinctions destroyed a significant fraction of living species. The most widely studied of these events is the catastrophe at the KT boundary that ended the long dominance of the dinosaurs. In addition to mass extinctions, there is another profound discontinuity in the history of Earth's biota, the explosion of life at the end of the Precambrian era which is an episode that is not explained well at all. For some 3 b.y. before the Cambrian, life had been present on Earth, but maintained a low level of activity which is an aspect of the biota that is puzzling, especially during the last two-thirds of that period. During the last 2 b.y. before the Cambrian, conditions at the Earth's surface were suitable for a burgeoning of the biota, according to most criteria: the oceans neither boiled nor were fozen solid during this time, and the atmosphere contained sufficient O for the development of animals. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that mass extinctions and the lackluster behavior of the Precambrian biota share a common cause: an inadequate amount of ozone in the atmosphere.

  11. Special Effects Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boxer, Jennifer; Valenta, Carol

    This guide accompanies "Special Effects," a 40-minute IMAX film and "Special Effects II", a multimedia, interactive traveling exhibit designed by the California Museum of Science and Industry. The exhibit focuses on the underlying scientific and technical processes of special effects from the earliest motion picture to state-of-the-art digital…

  12. Psychophysiological effects of an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge including participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Notzon, S; Deppermann, S; Fallgatter, A; Diemer, J; Kroczek, A; Domschke, K; Zwanzger, P; Ehlis, A-C

    2015-12-01

    Preliminary evidence suggests beneficial effects of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) on anxiety. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) as a form of TMS on acute anxiety provoked by a virtual reality (VR) scenario. Participants with spider phobia (n=41) and healthy controls (n=42) were exposed to a spider scenario in VR after one session of iTBS over the prefrontal cortex or sham treatment. Participants with spider phobia reacted with more anxiety compared to healthy controls. Their heart rate and skin conductance increased compared to baseline. Contrary to expectations, iTBS did not influence these reactions, but modulated heart rate variability (HRV). Sympathetic influence on HRV showed an increase in the active iTBS group only. This study does not support the idea of beneficial effects of a single session of iTBS on anxiety, although other protocols or repeated sessions might be effective. PMID:26476332

  13. RADIO PROPERTIES OF LOW-REDSHIFT BROAD-LINE ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI INCLUDING EXTENDED RADIO SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Rafter, Stephen E.; Crenshaw, D. Michael; Wiita, Paul J.

    2011-03-15

    We present a study of the extended radio emission in a sample of 8434 low-redshift (z < 0.35) broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. To calculate the jet and lobe contributions to the total radio luminosity, we have taken the 846 radio core sources detected in our previous study of this sample and performed a systematic search in the FIRST database for extended radio emission that is likely associated with the optical counterparts. We found that 51 out of 846 radio core sources have extended emission (>4'' from the optical AGN) that is positively associated with the AGN, and we have identified an additional 12 AGNs with extended radio emission but no detectable radio core emission. Among these 63 AGNs, we found 6 giant radio galaxies, with projected emission exceeding 750 kpc in length, and several other AGNs with unusual radio morphologies also seen in higher redshift surveys. The optical spectra of many of the extended sources are similar to those of typical broad-line radio galaxy spectra, having broad H{alpha} emission lines with boxy profiles and large M{sub BH}. With extended emission taken into account, we find strong evidence for a bimodal distribution in the radio-loudness parameter R ({identical_to}{nu}{sub radio} L{sub radio}/{nu}{sub opt} L{sub opt}), where the lower radio luminosity core-only sources appear as a population separate from the extended sources, with a dividing line at log(R) {approx}1.75. This dividing line ensures that these are indeed the most radio-loud AGNs, which may have different or extreme physical conditions in their central engines when compared to the more numerous radio-quiet AGNs.

  14. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  15. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  16. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  17. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  18. 45 CFR 287.130 - Can NEW Program activities include job market assessments, job creation and economic development...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... assessments, job creation and economic development activities? 287.130 Section 287.130 Public Welfare... creation and economic development activities? (a) A Tribe may conduct job market assessments within its NEW Program. These might include the following: (1) Consultation with the Tribe's economic development...

  19. Activity of tigecycline tested against a global collection of Enterobacteriaceae, including tetracycline-resistant isolates.

    PubMed

    Fritsche, Thomas R; Strabala, Patty A; Sader, Helio S; Dowzicky, Michael J; Jones, Ronald N

    2005-07-01

    Steadily increasing resistance among the Enterobacteriaceae to beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole has compromised the utility of these commonly used antimicrobial classes for many community- or hospital-acquired infections. The development of tigecycline, the sentinel representative of a novel class of broad-spectrum agents (the glycylcyclines), represents an important milestone in addressing this critical need. Resistance to tigecycline might be expected to occur via the same mechanisms that produce tetracycline resistance; however, tigecycline remains stable and largely unaffected by the commonly occurring efflux and ribosomal protection resistance mechanisms. In this study, an international collection of Enterobacteriaceae (11327 isolates; 32.8% tetracycline-resistant) from global surveillance studies (2000-2004) were evaluated against tigecycline and other comparator antimicrobials. Although the most active agents were the carbapenems and aminoglycosides (97.5-99.7% susceptible), tigecycline displayed high potency (MIC50 and MIC90, 0.25 and 1 microg/mL) with 95.7% of all strains being inhibited at < or =2 microg/mL. Despite higher MIC values observed with Serratia spp. and Proteae, between 90.5% and 97.5% of isolates were inhibited by < or =4 microg/mL of tigecycline. Tetracycline-resistant populations demonstrated only modest decreases in potency to tigecycline, which appeared to be species-dependent (up to 2-fold only for Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., and Panteoa agglomerans; and up to 4-fold for Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp.). Among E. coli (263 isolates) and Klebsiella spp. (356) that meet recognized screening definitions for extended-spectrum beta-lactamase production, 100.0% and 94.4% were inhibited by tigecycline at 2 microg/mL, respectively. These findings confirm that tigecycline exhibits potency, breadth of spectrum, and stability to the

  20. Should Physical Activity Be Included in Nutrition Education? A Comparison of Nutrition Outcomes with and without In-Class Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer-Keenan, Debra M.; Corda, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Limited-resource adults' dietary intakes and nutrition behaviors improve as a result of Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP)/Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program Education (SNAP-Ed) participation; however, physical activity education is needed for improved health. The experimental study reported here assessed if spending…

  1. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  2. Vibration and damping of laminated, composite-material plates including thickness-shear effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bert, C. W.; Siu, C. C.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation of sinusoidally forced vibration of laminated, anisotropic plates including bending-stretching coupling, thickness-shear flexibility, all three types of inertia effects, and material damping is presented. In the analysis the effects of thickness-shear deformation are considered by the use of a shear correction factor K, analogous to that used by Mindlin for homogeneous plates. Two entirely different approaches for calculating the thickness-shear factor for a laminate are presented. Numerical examples indicate that the value of K depends on the layer properties and the stacking sequence of the laminate.

  3. Nonlinear vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1987-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by conparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  4. Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated mechanics theory was developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.

  5. Mechanics of damping for fiber composite laminates including hygro-thermal effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saravanos, D. A.; Chamis, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated mechanics theory has been developed for the modeling of composite damping from the micromechanics to the laminate level. Simplified, design oriented equations based on hysteretic damping are presented for on-axis plies, off-axis plies, and laminates including the effect of temperature, moisture, and interply hysteretic damping. The temperature rise within vibrating composite laminates resulting from strain energy dissipation is also modeled, and their coupled hygro-thermo-mechanical response is predicted. The method correlates well with reported damping measurements. Application examples illustrate the effect of various ply, laminate, and hygro-thermal parameters on the overall damping performance of composite laminates.

  6. Relationship of sea level muon charge ratio to primary composition including nuclear target effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goned, A.; Shalaby, M.; Salem, A. M.; Roushdy, M.

    1985-01-01

    The discrepancy between the muon charge ratio observed at low energies and that calculated using pp data is removed by including nuclear target effects. Calculations at high energies show that the primary iron spectrum is expected to change slope from 2 to 2.2 to 2.4 to 2.5 for energies approx. 4 x 10 to the 3 GeV/nucleon if scaling features continue to the highest energies.

  7. Probabilistic estimates of surface slip including the effects of creep and afterslip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aagaard, B.; Lienkaemper, J. J.; Schwartz, D. P.

    2009-12-01

    We develop a methodology for probabilistic estimates of coseismic and postseismic surface slip for scenario earthquakes that explicitly includes the effects of creep and afterslip. We apply Monte Carlo simulations to include uncertainty from the Hanks and Bakun (2008) magnitude-area relation, distribution of slip, and the effect of creep on coseismic slip. We extract coseismic surface slip from a suite of kinematic slip models that are constructed following the same approach we used in kinematic rupture models for ground motion modeling of scenario events on the Hayward Fault (Aagaard, et al., 2008), with additional calibration for coseismic surface slip using empirical regressions and observations provided by Wells and Coppersmith (1994). The kinematic slip models include variation in earthquake magnitude, rupture length, slip distribution, and reduce the coseismic slip in creeping patches delineated by Funning et al. (2007). Postseismic slip in our analysis is based upon empirical regressions developed from afterslip measurements from the 1987 magnitude 6.6 Superstition Hills earthquake in southern California. We apply this methodology to a location on the Hayward fault in the San Francisco Bay area to characterize the coseismic and postseismic slip expected for magnitude 6.5-7.1 earthquakes. We find that creep decreases the expected coseismic slip and substantial afterslip may occur in the first few days following an earthquake. This analysis provides a significantly different temporal estimate of surface slip compared with conventional probabilistic estimates that ignore the effects of creep and postseismic slip.

  8. Environmental risk assessment of antibiotics including synergistic and antagonistic combination effects.

    PubMed

    Marx, Conrad; Mühlbauer, Viktoria; Krebs, Peter; Kuehn, Volker

    2015-08-15

    The interaction-based hazard index (HIint) allows a prediction of mixture effects different from linear additivity by including information on binary mixtures between the chemicals. The aim of this study is to make a solid estimate on the possible synergistic potential of combined antibiotics and to quantify the subsequent effect for the case of the receiving river Elbe, Germany. Pieces of information on binary interactions between antibiotic groups were used from literature and from knowledge on human antibiotic combination therapy. Applying a moderate and a worst-case scenario, in terms of the interaction magnitude, resulted in 50 to 200% higher environmental risks, compared to the classical assessment approach applying simple concentration addition. A subsequent sensitivity analysis revealed that the data strength for some binary antibiotic combinations is too low to be considered for a solid estimate of synergistic effects. This led to the definition of certain preconditions in order to decide whether or not to include certain interaction information (e.g. the necessary number of interaction studies). The exclusion of information with low data strength resulted in an attenuated risk increase of 20 to 50%, based on the currently available scientific information on binary antibiotic mixtures. In order to include antibiotics with the highest share in the overall risk (macrolides, quinolones, and cephalosporins) as well as their corresponding metabolites, investigations should focus on binary interactions between them. PMID:25897732

  9. CSR induced microbunching gain estimation including transient effects in transport and recirculation arcs

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Cheng; Douglas, David R.; Li, Rui

    2015-09-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport or recirculation arcs, may result in the microbunching instability (μBI). To accurately quantify the direct consequence of this effect, we further extend our previously developed semi-analytical Vlasov solver to include more relevant coherent radiation models than the steady-state free-space CSR impedance, such as the entrance and exit transient effects derived from upstream beam entering to and exiting from individual dipoles. The resultant microbunching gain functions and spectra for our example lattices are presented and compared with particle tracking simulation. Some underlying physics with inclusion of these effects are also discussed.

  10. Including Aeroelastic Effects in the Calculation of X-33 Loads and Control Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeiler, Thomas A.

    1998-01-01

    Up until now, loads analyses of the X-33 RLV have been done at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) using aerodynamic loads derived from CFD and wind tunnel models of a rigid vehicle. Control forces and moments are determined using a rigid vehicle trajectory analysis and the detailed control load distributions for achieving the desired control forces and moments, again on the rigid vehicle, are determined by Lockheed Martin Skunk Works. However, static aeroelastic effects upon the load distributions are not known. The static aeroelastic effects will generally redistribute external loads thereby affecting both the internal structural loads as well as the forces and moments generated by aerodynamic control surfaces. Therefore, predicted structural sizes as well as maneuvering requirements can be altered by consideration of static aeroelastic effects. The objective of the present work is the development of models and solutions for including static aeroelasticity in the calculation of X-33 loads and in the determination of stability and control derivatives.

  11. Boundary Layer Transition over Blunt Hypersonic Vehicles Including Effects of Ablation-Induced Out-Gassing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Fei; Choudhari, Meelan; Chang, Chau-Lyan; White, Jeffery

    2011-01-01

    Computations are performed to study the boundary layer instability mechanisms pertaining to hypersonic flow over blunt capsules. For capsules with ablative heat shields, transition may be influenced both by out-gassing associated with surface pyrolysis and the resulting modification of surface geometry including the formation of micro-roughness. To isolate the effects of out-gassing, this paper examines the stability of canonical boundary layer flows over a smooth surface in the presence of gas injection into the boundary layer. For a slender cone, the effects of out-gassing on the predominantly second mode instability are found to be stabilizing. In contrast, for a blunt capsule flow dominated by first mode instability, out-gassing is shown to be destabilizing. Analogous destabilizing effects of outgassing are also noted for both stationary and traveling modes of crossflow instability over a blunt sphere-cone configuration at angle of attack.

  12. Microwave frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) produce widespread neuropsychiatric effects including depression.

    PubMed

    Pall, Martin L

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal microwave/lower frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) act via voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) activation. Calcium channel blockers block EMF effects and several types of additional evidence confirm this mechanism. Low intensity microwave EMFs have been proposed to produce neuropsychiatric effects, sometimes called microwave syndrome, and the focus of this review is whether these are indeed well documented and consistent with the known mechanism(s) of action of such EMFs. VGCCs occur in very high densities throughout the nervous system and have near universal roles in release of neurotransmitters and neuroendocrine hormones. Soviet and Western literature shows that much of the impact of non-thermal microwave exposures in experimental animals occurs in the brain and peripheral nervous system, such that nervous system histology and function show diverse and substantial changes. These may be generated through roles of VGCC activation, producing excessive neurotransmitter/neuroendocrine release as well as oxidative/nitrosative stress and other responses. Excessive VGCC activity has been shown from genetic polymorphism studies to have roles in producing neuropsychiatric changes in humans. Two U.S. government reports from the 1970s to 1980s provide evidence for many neuropsychiatric effects of non-thermal microwave EMFs, based on occupational exposure studies. 18 more recent epidemiological studies, provide substantial evidence that microwave EMFs from cell/mobile phone base stations, excessive cell/mobile phone usage and from wireless smart meters can each produce similar patterns of neuropsychiatric effects, with several of these studies showing clear dose-response relationships. Lesser evidence from 6 additional studies suggests that short wave, radio station, occupational and digital TV antenna exposures may produce similar neuropsychiatric effects. Among the more commonly reported changes are sleep disturbance/insomnia, headache, depression

  13. Estimation of variance components including competitive effects of Large White growing gilts.

    PubMed

    Arango, J; Misztal, I; Tsuruta, S; Culbertson, M; Herring, W

    2005-06-01

    Records of on-test ADG of Large White gilts were analyzed to estimate variance components of direct and associative genetic effects. Models included the effects of contemporary group (farm-barn-batch), birth litter, pen group, and direct and associative additive genetic effects. The area of each pen was 14 m2. The additive genetic variance was a function of the number of competitors in a group, the additive relationships between the animal performing the record and its pen mates, and the additive relationships between pen mates. To partially account for differences in the number of pen mates, a covariable (qi = 1, 1/n, or 1/n(1/2)) was added to the associative genetic effect. There were 4,946 records from 2,409 litters and 362 pen groups. Pen group size ranged from 12 to 16 gilts. Analyses by REML converged very slowly. A grid search showed that the likelihood function was almost flat when the additive genetic associative effect was fitted. Estimates of direct and associative heritability were 0.15 and 0.03, respectively. Within the BLUPF90 family of programs, the mixed-model equations can be set up directly. For variance component estimation, simple programs (REMLF90 and GIBBSF90) worked without modifications, but more optimized programs did not. Estimates obtained using the three values of qi were similar. With the data structure available for this study and under an environment with relative low competition among animals, accurate estimation of associative genetic effects was not possible. Estimation of competitive effects with large pen size is difficult. The magnitude of competition effects may be larger in commercial populations, where housing is denser and food is limited. PMID:15890801

  14. Including shielding effects in application of the TPCA method for detection of embedded radiation sources.

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, William C.; Shokair, Isaac R.

    2011-12-01

    Conventional full spectrum gamma spectroscopic analysis has the objective of quantitative identification of all the radionuclides present in a measurement. For low-energy resolution detectors such as NaI, when photopeaks alone are not sufficient for complete isotopic identification, such analysis requires template spectra for all the radionuclides present in the measurement. When many radionuclides are present it is difficult to make the correct identification and this process often requires many attempts to obtain a statistically valid solution by highly skilled spectroscopists. A previous report investigated using the targeted principal component analysis method (TPCA) for detection of embedded sources for RPM applications. This method uses spatial/temporal information from multiple spectral measurements to test the hypothesis of the presence of a target spectrum of interest in these measurements without the need to identify all the other radionuclides present. The previous analysis showed that the TPCA method has significant potential for automated detection of target radionuclides of interest, but did not include the effects of shielding. This report complements the previous analysis by including the effects of spectral distortion due to shielding effects for the same problem of detection of embedded sources. Two examples, one with one target radionuclide and the other with two, show that the TPCA method can successfully detect shielded targets in the presence of many other radionuclides. The shielding parameters are determined as part of the optimization process using interpolation of library spectra that are defined on a 2D grid of atomic numbers and areal densities.

  15. On lateral buckling of end-loaded cantilevers, including the effect of warping stiffness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reissner, E.; Reissner, J. E.; Wan, F. Y. M.

    1987-06-01

    We investigate the numerical consequences of the presence of certain non-linear terms in the expressions for the components of transverse shearing strain which occur in the derivation of one-dimensional equations for small finite deflections of straight beams from three-dimensional finite elasticity through use of the principle of minimum potential energy. While particular emphasis is placed on the effect of warping stiffness, the paper also includes results of interest in connection with the classical Michell-Prandtl-analysis of lateral buckling of endloaded cantilevers. Comprehensive numerical results are obtained for the entire range of the relevant dimensionless parameters, using power series, asymptotic expansion and modern numerical methods procedures.

  16. An analysis of air-turborocket engine performance including effects of component changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luidens, Roger W; Weber, Richard J

    1956-01-01

    An analytical study of the air-turborocket engine is presented, showing both full-power operation over a range of flight speeds and part-power operation at several supersonic speeds. Engine weight, drag, and area variations are calculated in addition to the internal thrust coefficient and specific impulse. Tehe effects of changes in the component designs and efficiencies are indicated. Maximum specific impulse (including nacelle drag and using gasoline - nitric acid propellants) at Mach 2.3 is 1500 lb/(lb/sec). The performance is compared with that of a typical turbojet engine.

  17. Mathematical Modeling and Simulation of the Pressing Section of a Paper Machine Including Dynamic Capillary Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Printsypar, G.; Iliev, O.; Rief, S.

    2011-12-01

    Paper production is a challenging problem which attracts attention of many scientists. The process which is of our interest takes place in the pressing section of a paper machine. The paper layer is dried by means of the pressing it against fabrics, i.e. press felts. The paper-felt sandwich is transported through the press nips at high speed (for more details see [3]). Since the natural drainage of water in the felts is much longer than the drying in the pressing section we include in the consideration the dynamic capillary effect. The dynamic capillary pressure-saturation relation proposed by Hassanizadeh and Gray (see [2]) is adopted for the pressing process. One of the other issues which is taken into account while modeling the pressing section is the appearance of fully saturated regions. We include in consideration two flow regimes: the one-phase water flow and the two-phase air-water flow. It leads to a free boundary problem. We also account for the complexity of the paper-felt sandwich porous structure. Apart from the two flow regimes the computational domain is divided by layers into nonoverlapping subdomains. Then, the system of equations describing transport processes in the pressing section is stated taking into account all these features. The presented model is discretized by the finite volume method. We carry out some numerical experiments for different configurations of the pressing section (roll press, shoe press) and for parameters which are typical for paper-felt sandwich during the paper production process. The experiments show that the dynamic capillary effect has a significant influence on the distribution of pressure even for small values of the material coefficient (see Fig. 1). The obtained results are in agreement with laboratory experiment performed in [1], which states that the distribution of the pressure is not symmetric with the maximum value occurring in front of the center of the pressing nip and the minimum value less than entry

  18. Comparison of coupled-cluster methods which include the effects of connected triple excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scuseria, Gustavo E.; Lee, Timothy J.

    1990-01-01

    The 'coupled cluster single, double, and triple' (CCSDT) excitation model has been used to ascertain electron correlation energies for 14 different molecules representing a variety of chemical bonds, in conjunction with several methods of this type 'CCSDT-x', which include only an approximate treatment of connected triple excitations; these methods encompass CCSDT-1a, -1b, -2, -3, and -4, as well as the novel CCSD(T). While all methods treat the effects of connected triple excitations iteratively, CCSD(T) approaches then perturbationally. For the 14 molecules considered, the CCSD(T) method's average error relative to CCSDT is substantially lower than any of the CCSDT-x methods.

  19. Nonlinear theory for laminated and thick plates and shells including the effects of transverse shearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, M.

    1985-01-01

    Nonlinear strain displacement relations for three-dimensional elasticity are determined in orthogonal curvilinear coordinates. To develop a two-dimensional theory, the displacements are expressed by trigonometric series representation through-the-thickness. The nonlinear strain-displacement relations are expanded into series which contain all first and second degree terms. In the series for the displacements only the first few terms are retained. Insertion of the expansions into the three-dimensional virtual work expression leads to nonlinear equations of equilibrium for laminated and thick plates and shells that include the effects of transverse shearing. Equations of equilibrium and buckling equations are derived for flat plates and cylindrical shells. The shell equations reduce to conventional transverse shearing shell equations when the effects of the trigonometric terms are omitted and to classical shell equations when the trigonometric terms are omitted and the shell is assumed to be thin.

  20. [The comparative effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children].

    PubMed

    Soldatskiĭ, Iu L; Denisova, O A; Ivanenko, A M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of framycetin included in combined therapy of adenoiditis in the children. The study involved 67 children at the mean age of 6.9±2.7 years. Group 1 was comprised of 35 children given framycetin as topical therapy, the patients of group 2 were treated by the endonasal administration of a 2% silver proteinate solution. It was shown that the use of framycetin as a component of combined therapy of adenoiditis enhances the effectiveness of the treatment and compliance to therapy in comparison with the same parameters in the case of the application of traditional topical antibacterial preparations. PMID:25588492

  1. Aerodynamic heating on 3-D bodies including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.; Hamilton, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    A relatively simple method was developed previously (authors, 1973) for calculating laminar, transitional, and turbulent heating rates on three-dimensional bodies in hypersonic flows. This method was shown to yield reasonably accurate results for laminar heating on blunted circular and elliptical cones and an earlier version of the space shuttle vehicle. As the boundary layer along the surface grows, more and more of the inviscid-flow mass is entrained into the boundary layer, and the streamlines which passed through the nearly normal portion of the bow shock wave are 'swallowed' by the boundary layer. This phenomenon is often referred to as entropy-layer or streamline swallowing, and it can have a significant effect on the calculated heating rates. An approximate, yet simple, method for including the effects of entropy-layer swallowing in the heating-rate calculations is given.

  2. Viscous-inviscid interaction method including wake effects for three-dimensional wing-body configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streett, C. L.

    1981-01-01

    A viscous-inviscid interaction method has been developed by using a three-dimensional integral boundary-layer method which produces results in good agreement with a finite-difference method in a fraction of the computer time. The integral method is stable and robust and incorporates a model for computation in a small region of streamwise separation. A locally two-dimensional wake model, accounting for thickness and curvature effects, is also included in the interaction procedure. Computation time spent in converging an interacted result is, many times, only slightly greater than that required to converge an inviscid calculation. Results are shown from the interaction method, run at experimental angle of attack, Reynolds number, and Mach number, on a wing-body test case for which viscous effects are large. Agreement with experiment is good; in particular, the present wake model improves prediction of the spanwise lift distribution and lower surface cove pressure.

  3. Oscillator strengths of some Ba lines - A treatment including core-valence correlation and relativistic effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Jaffe, R. L.; Langhoff, S. R.; Partridge, H.; Mascarello, F. G.

    1985-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of selected excitation energies and oscillator strengths for Ba are presented that overcome the difficulties of previous theoretical treatments. A relativistic effective-core potential treatment is used to account for the relativistic core contraction, but the outermost ten electrons are treated explicitly. Core-valence correlation can be included in this procedure in a rigorous and systematic way through a configuration-interaction calculation. Insight is gained into the importance of relativistic effects by repeating many of the calculations using an all-electron nonrelativistic treatment employing an extended Slater basis set. It is found that the intensity of the intercombination line 3P1-1S0 is accurately determined by accounting for the deviation from LS coupling through spin-orbit mixing with the 1P1 state, and that deviations from the Lande interval rule provide an accurate measure of the degree of mixing.

  4. Three-Dimensional Orbits of Earth Satellites, Including Effects of Earth Oblateness and Atmospheric Rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nielsen, Jack N.; Goodwin, Frederick K.; Mersman, William A.

    1958-01-01

    The principal purpose of the present paper is to present sets of equations which may be used for calculating complete trajectories of earth satellites from outer space to the ground under the influence of air drag and gravity, including oblateness effects, and to apply these to several examples of entry trajectories starting from a circular orbit. Equations of motion, based on an "instantaneous ellipse" technique, with polar angle as independent variable, were found suitable for automatic computation of orbits in which the trajectory consists of a number of revolutions. This method is suitable as long as the trajectory does not become nearly vertical. In the terminal phase of the trajectories, which are nearly vertical, equations of motion in spherical polar coordinates with time as the independent variable were found to be more suitable. In the first illustrative example the effects of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field and of atmospheric rotation were studied for equatorial orbits. The satellites were launched into circular orbits at a height of 120 miles, an altitude sufficiently high that a number of revolutions could be studied. The importance of the oblateness component of the earth's gravitational field is shown by the fact that a satellite launched at circular orbital speed, neglecting oblateness, has a perigee some 67,000 feet lower when oblateness forces are included in the equations of motion than when they are not included. Also, the loss in altitude per revolution is double that of a satellite following an orbit not subject to oblateness. The effect of atmospheric rotation on the loss of altitude per revolution was small. As might be surmised, the regression of the line of nodes as predicted by celestial mechanics is unchanged when drag is included. It is clear that the inclination of the orbital plane to the equator will be relatively unaffected by drag for no atmospheric rotation since the drag lies in the orbital plane in

  5. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at amore » fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.« less

  6. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    SciTech Connect

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at a fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.

  7. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  8. 25 CFR 170.137 - What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What types of activities can a recreation, tourism, and trails program include? 170.137 Section 170.137 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Indian Reservation Roads Program Policy and Eligibility Recreation, Tourism and Trails...

  9. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  10. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  11. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  12. 25 CFR 170.623 - How are IRR Program projects and activities included in a self-governance agreement?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... other information required under 25 CFR 1000 subpart K. ... self-governance agreement? 170.623 Section 170.623 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... self-governance agreement? To include an IRR Program project or activity in a self-governance...

  13. Specificity of psychomotor reactions in the conditions of support deprivation including effects of countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichiporuk, Igor; Ivanov, Oleg

    Activity of the cosmonaut demands high level of psychomotor reactions (PMR) which can vary during space flight under the influences of psychophysiological state’s variability and unusual inhabitancy that causes the necessity of PMR estimation’s inclusion into quality monitoring of capacity for work (CW). A main objective of research was a study of features of visual-motor reactions (VMR) and elements of CW of the person within simulation of microgravity effects via 7-day dry immersion (DI) in healthy male-volunteers 20-35 years old. The experimental data were received which testified to peculiarities of VMR and recognition of simple figures of main colors of a visible spectrum (red, green, blue, the RGB-standard) in the conditions of the DI characterized by support deprivation and decreased proprioceptive afferentation - in a control series and in a series with use of mioelectrostimulation as a countermeasure.

  14. Estuarine wetland evolution including sea-level rise and infrastructure effects.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jose Fernando; Trivisonno, Franco; Rojas, Steven Sandi; Riccardi, Gerardo; Stenta, Hernan; Saco, Patricia Mabel

    2015-04-01

    Estuarine wetlands are an extremely valuable resource in terms of biotic diversity, flood attenuation, storm surge protection, groundwater recharge, filtering of surface flows and carbon sequestration. On a large scale the survival of these systems depends on the slope of the land and a balance between the rates of accretion and sea-level rise, but local man-made flow disturbances can have comparable effects. Climate change predictions for most of Australia include an accelerated sea level rise, which may challenge the survival of estuarine wetlands. Furthermore, coastal infrastructure poses an additional constraint on the adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Numerical models are increasingly being used to assess wetland dynamics and to help manage some of these situations. We present results of a wetland evolution model that is based on computed values of hydroperiod and tidal range that drive vegetation preference. Our first application simulates the long term evolution of an Australian wetland heavily constricted by infrastructure that is undergoing the effects of predicted accelerated sea level rise. The wetland presents a vegetation zonation sequence mudflats - mangrove - saltmarsh from the seaward margin and up the topographic gradient but is also affected by compartmentalization due to internal road embankments and culverts that effectively attenuates tidal input to the upstream compartments. For this reason, the evolution model includes a 2D hydrodynamic module which is able to handle man-made flow controls and spatially varying roughness. It continually simulates tidal inputs into the wetland and computes annual values of hydroperiod and tidal range to update vegetation distribution based on preference to hydrodynamic conditions of the different vegetation types. It also computes soil accretion rates and updates roughness coefficient values according to evolving vegetation types. In order to explore in more detail the magnitude of flow attenuation due to

  15. Hamiltonian and Lagrangian dynamics of charged particles including the effects of radiation damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Hong; Burby, Joshua; Davidson, Ronald; Fisch, Nathaniel; Chung, Moses

    2015-11-01

    The effects of radiation damping (radiation reaction) on accelerating charged particles in modern high-intensity accelerators and high-intensity laser beams have becoming increasingly important. Especially for electron accelerators and storage rings, radiation damping is an effective mechanism and technique to achieve high beam luminosity. We develop Hamiltonian and Lagrangian descriptions of the classical dynamics of a charged particle including the effects of radiation damping in the general electromagnetic focusing channels encountered in accelerators. The direct connection between the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories and the more fundamental QED description of the synchrotron radiation process is also addressed. In addition to their theoretical importance, the classical Hamiltonian and Lagrangian theories of the radiation damping also enable us to numerically integrate the dynamics using advanced structure-preserving geometric algorithms. These theoretical developments can also be applied to runaway electrons and positrons generated during the disruption or startup of tokamak discharges. This research was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DE-AC02-09CH11466).

  16. Analytical model for radiative transfer including the effects of a rough material interface.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Thomas E; Kellems, Anthony R

    2016-08-20

    The reflected and transmitted radiance due to a source located above a water surface is computed based on models for radiative transfer in continuous optical media separated by a discontinuous air-water interface with random surface roughness. The air-water interface is described as the superposition of random, unresolved roughness on a deterministic realization of a stochastic wave surface at resolved scales. Under the geometric optics assumption, the bidirectional reflection and transmission functions for the air-water interface are approximated by applying regular perturbation methods to Snell's law and including the effects of a random surface roughness component. Formal analytical solutions to the radiative transfer problem under the small-angle scattering approximation account for the effects of scattering and absorption as light propagates through the atmosphere and water and also capture the diffusive effects due to the interaction of light with the rough material interface that separates the two optical media. Results of the analytical models are validated against Monte Carlo simulations, and the approximation to the bidirectional reflection function is also compared to another well-known analytical model. PMID:27556978

  17. Long-wave linear stability theory for two-fluid channel flow including compressibility effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segin, Tetyana M.; Kondic, Lou; Tilley, Burt S.

    2006-10-01

    We present the linear stability of the laminar flow of an immiscible system of a compressible gas and incompressible liquid separated by an interface with large surface tension in a thin inclined channel. The flow is driven by an applied pressure drop and gravity. Following the air-water case, which is found in a variety of engineering systems, the ratio of the characteristic values of the gas and liquid densities and viscosities are assumed to be disparate. Under the lubrication approximation, and assuming ideal gas behaviour and isothermal conditions, this approach leads to a coupled non-linear system of partial differential equations describing the evolution of the interface between the gas and the liquid and the streamwise density distribution of the gas. This system also includes the effects of viscosity stratification, inertia, shear and capillarity. A linear stability analysis that allows for physically relevant non-zero pressure-drop base state is then performed. In contrast to the zero-pressure drop case which is amenable to the classical normal-mode approach, this configuration requires numerically solving a boundary-value problem for the gas density and interfacial deviations from the base state in the streamwise coordinate. We find that the effect of the gas compressibility on the interfacial stability in the limit of vanishingly small wavenumber is destabilizing, even for Stokes flow in the liquid. However, for finite wavenumber disturbances, compressibility may have stabilizing effects. In this regime, sufficient shear is required to destabilize the flow.

  18. Ceftaroline versus isolates from animal bite wounds: comparative in vitro activities against 243 isolates, including 156 Pasteurella species isolates.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Ellie J C; Citron, Diane M; Merriam, C Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L

    2012-12-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC(90)s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC(90), 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC(90), 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  19. Ceftaroline versus Isolates from Animal Bite Wounds: Comparative In Vitro Activities against 243 Isolates, Including 156 Pasteurella Species Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Citron, Diane M.; Merriam, C. Vreni; Tyrrell, Kerin L.

    2012-01-01

    More than 5 million Americans are bitten by animals, usually dogs, annually. Bite patients comprise ∼1% of all patients who visit emergency departments (300,000/year), and approximately 10,000 require hospitalization and intravenous antibiotics. Ceftaroline is the bioactive component of the prodrug ceftaroline fosamil, which is FDA approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs), including those containing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). There are no in vitro data about the activity of ceftaroline against Pasteurella multocida subsp. multocida and Pasteurella multocida subsp. septica, other Pasteurella spp., or other bite wound isolates. We therefore studied the in vitro activity of ceftaroline against 243 animal bite isolates. MICs were determined using the broth microdilution method according to CLSI guidelines. Comparator drugs included cefazolin, ceftriaxone, ertapenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, azithromycin, doxycycline, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (SMX-TMP). Ceftaroline was the most active agent against all 5 Pasteurella species, including P. multocida subsp. multocida and P. multocida subsp. septica, with a maximum MIC of ≤0.008 μg/ml; more active than ceftriaxone and ertapenem (MIC90s, ≤0.015 μg/ml); and more active than cefazolin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml) doxycycline (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), azithromycin (MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml), ampicillin-sulbactam (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml), and SMX-TMP (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml). Ceftaroline was also very active against all S. aureus isolates (MIC90, 0.125 μg/ml) and other Staphylococcus and Streptococcus species, with a maximum MIC of 0.125 μg/ml against all bite isolates tested. Ceftaroline has potential clinical utility against infections involving P. multocida, other Pasteurella species, and aerobic Gram-positive isolates, including S. aureus. PMID:23027193

  20. [Evaluation of Cellular Effects Caused by Lunar Regolith Simulant Including Fine Particles].

    PubMed

    Horie, Masanori; Miki, Takeo; Honma, Yoshiyuki; Aoki, Shigeru; Morimoto, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration has announced a plan to establish a manned colony on the surface of the moon, and our country, Japan, has declared its participation. The surface of the moon is covered with soil called lunar regolith, which includes fine particles. It is possible that humans will inhale lunar regolith if it is brought into the spaceship. Therefore, an evaluation of the pulmonary effects caused by lunar regolith is important for exploration of the moon. In the present study, we examine the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant, whose components are similar to those of lunar regolith. We focused on the chemical component and particle size in particular. The regolith simulant was fractionated to < 10 μm, < 25 μm and 10-25 μm by gravitational sedimentation in suspensions. We also examined the cellular effects of fine regolith simulant whose primary particle size is 5.10 μm. These regolith simulants were applied to human lung carcinoma A549 cells at concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 mg/ml. Cytotoxicity, oxidative stress and immune response were examined after 24 h exposure. Cell membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction and induction of Interleukin-8 (IL-8) were observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. The cellular effects of the regolith simulant at the concentration of 0.1 mg/ml were small, as compared with crystalline silica as a positive control. Secretion of IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was observed at the concentration of 1.0 mg/ml, but induction of gene expression was not observed at 24 h after exposure. Induction of cellular oxidative stress was small. Although the cellular effects tended to be stronger in the < 10 μm particles, there was no remarkable difference. These results suggest that the chemical components and particle size have little relationship to the cellular effects of lunar regolith simulant such as cell membrane damage, induction of oxidative stress and proinflammatory effect. PMID

  1. Evaluation of theoretical critical angle including mass effects for channeling by computer simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Wataru

    2011-06-01

    The calculated critical angles using the theory included mass effects of Zheng et al. for the axial channeling of ion have been investigated by the computer simulations, making comparisons with the theory of Lindhard and the precise formula of Barrett's numerical simulations. The computer simulations employing the ACOCT program code, which treats the atomic collisions three-dimensionally and is based on the binary collision approximation (BCA), were carried out for the channeling of He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn ions incident along the <1 0 0> axis in Al, Cu, Ag and Pt crystals. A slight dependence of the channeling critical angle on the atomic number of incident ion in the ACOCT results is in agreement with that in the calculated ones using the theory of mass effects. The average critical angles in the ACOCT results for the channeling of six rare gas ions are approximately 5.0/ Z2 times the magnitude of the theoretical critical angles with mass effects, where Z2 is the atomic number of crystal atom. Besides, the results show that the calculated critical angles using the theory with mass effects are substantially larger than those using the theory of Lindhard, the Barrett's formula and the formula by the ACOCT simulations for He ions impinging on Al, Cu, Ag and Pt crystals, and that the channeling critical angles in the ACOCT results agree well with those in the calculated ones using Barrett's formula for 0.6-50 MeV He ions incident on Cu and Ag crystals and 5-50 MeV He ions impinging on Al and Pt crystals.

  2. Coulomb interaction energy including overlap effects for the ground states of LiNa and Na 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bussery, B.; Achkar, Y.; Aubert-Frécon, M.

    1989-01-01

    A recently proposed method to calculate first-order electrostatic as well as second-order induction and dispersion energies including charge-overlap effects for the interaction between two atoms each with one active electron is applied to the systems Li(2s) + Na(3s) and Na(3s) + Na(3s), giving the induction energy for both systems. The variation with R of the relative contribution of the overlapping and non-overlapping configuration space regions is discussed for the largest dispersion and induction terms.

  3. Measured backscatter and attenuation properties, including polarization effects, of various dispersions at 0.9 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, R. H.; Flaherty, M. I.; Partin, R. L.

    1977-01-01

    The optical properties of a wide variety of atmospheric dispersions were studied using a 0.9-micron lidar system which included a GaAs laser stack transmitter emitting a horizontally polarized beam of 4 milliradians vertical divergence and 1.5 milliradians horizontal divergence. A principal means for assessing optical properties was the polarization ratio, that is, the backscattered radiation power perpendicular to the transmitter beam divided by the backscattered radiation power parallel to the beam polarization. The ratio of the backscattered fraction to the attenuation coefficient was also determined. Data on the dispersion properties of black carbon smoke, road dust, fog, fair-weather cumulus clouds, snow and rain were obtained; the adverse effects of sunlight-induced background noise on the readings is also discussed.

  4. Highly accurate spectral retardance characterization of a liquid crystal retarder including Fabry-Perot interference effects

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Asticio; Mar Sánchez-López, María del; García-Martínez, Pascuala; Arias, Julia; Moreno, Ignacio

    2014-01-21

    Multiple-beam Fabry-Perot (FP) interferences occur in liquid crystal retarders (LCR) devoid of an antireflective coating. In this work, a highly accurate method to obtain the spectral retardance of such devices is presented. On the basis of a simple model of the LCR that includes FP effects and by using a voltage transfer function, we show how the FP features in the transmission spectrum can be used to accurately retrieve the ordinary and extraordinary spectral phase delays, and the voltage dependence of the latter. As a consequence, the modulation characteristics of the device are fully determined with high accuracy by means of a few off-state physical parameters which are wavelength-dependent, and a single voltage transfer function that is valid within the spectral range of characterization.

  5. Effects of Cannabis Use on Human Behavior, Including Cognition, Motivation, and Psychosis: A Review.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Swanson, James M; Evins, A Eden; DeLisi, Lynn E; Meier, Madeline H; Gonzalez, Raul; Bloomfield, Michael A P; Curran, H Valerie; Baler, Ruben

    2016-03-01

    With a political debate about the potential risks and benefits of cannabis use as a backdrop, the wave of legalization and liberalization initiatives continues to spread. Four states (Colorado, Washington, Oregon, and Alaska) and the District of Columbia have passed laws that legalized cannabis for recreational use by adults, and 23 others plus the District of Columbia now regulate cannabis use for medical purposes. These policy changes could trigger a broad range of unintended consequences, with profound and lasting implications for the health and social systems in our country. Cannabis use is emerging as one among many interacting factors that can affect brain development and mental function. To inform the political discourse with scientific evidence, the literature was reviewed to identify what is known and not known about the effects of cannabis use on human behavior, including cognition, motivation, and psychosis. PMID:26842658

  6. Time-marching transonic flutter solutions including angle-of-attack effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, J. W.; Bennett, R. M.; Whitlow, W., Jr.; Seidel, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    Transonic aeroelastic solutions based upon the transonic small perturbation potential equation were studied. Time-marching transient solutions of plunging and pitching airfoils were analyzed using a complex exponential modal identification technique, and seven alternative integration techniques for the structural equations were evaluated. The HYTRAN2 code was used to determine transonic flutter boundaries versus Mach number and angle-of-attack for NACA 64A010 and MBB A-3 airfoils. In the code, a monotone differencing method, which eliminates leading edge expansion shocks, is used to solve the potential equation. When the effect of static pitching moment upon the angle-of-attack is included, the MBB A-3 airfoil can have multiple flutter speeds at a given Mach number.

  7. Blast waves in inhomogeneous atmospheres including real gas and heat transfer effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gretler, W.

    1994-10-01

    The real gas and heat transfer effects, particularly at the early state of the propagation of a very strong blast wave resulting from a point explosion in an atmosphere whose density varies with altitude, are addressed by numerical computation. The new twist in this classical blast wave problem is that the simplistic perfect gas equation of state is abandoned, and replaced with a set of realistic, albeit approximate equilibrium gas properties, including internal energy for intermolecular forces, vibration, exitation of electrons, dissociation, ionization and conductive and radiative heat transfer. The whole complex problem is then solved by the method of characteristics. The computations are carried out for blast waves propagating upward and downward in an isothermal atmosphere. The results are compared with results obtained using a perfect gas model. From the comparison it appears that temperature profiles and, accordingly, density profiles are affected most by the real gas.

  8. Plane strain finite element analysis of sheet forming operations including bending effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Uk Youn

    1993-01-01

    An improved finite element method suitable for the plane-strain analysis of sheet metal forming operations is presented. The method incorporates a computationally efficient shell model and a consistent frictional contact algorithm through an implicit updated Lagrangian formulation. The workpiece material model is rigid-viscoplastic with a choice of power law hardening and plastic normal anisotropy and is capable of modeling a wide variety of sheet metals. A simplified nonlinear incremental shell theory is employed along with an optional reduced integration through the thickness for computational efficiency, while retaining the advantages of the kinematic model containing the bending effects. Complex tool geometry can be handled by discrete data points, by primitives (lines and arcs), or by analytical functions. The capabilities of the method are demonstrated through verification problems and comparisons with experimental data, benchmark results, and published data for several practical problems of the sheet metal forming industry. The problems include stretching and/or deep drawing operations, simulation of automobile panel section, and brake bending operation. As an independent investigation from the first portion of the dissertation, measured data from a set of simple bending experiments of two types of aluminum are presented and analyzed. Generated data from the experiments include strain histories (loading and unloading), spring back information (spring back angle and strains), and friction coefficients. As a by-product, a simple way of estimating the friction coefficient (Coulomb's law) during a bending operation is proposed and demonstrated.

  9. Effect of including torsional parameters for histidine-metal interactions in classical force fields for metalloproteins.

    PubMed

    Mera-Adasme, Raúl; Sadeghian, Keyarash; Sundholm, Dage; Ochsenfeld, Christian

    2014-11-20

    Classical force-field parameters of the metal site of metalloproteins usually comprise only the partial charges of the involved atoms, as well as the bond-stretching and bending parameters of the metal-ligand interactions. Although for certain metal ligands such as histidine residues, the torsional motions at the metal site play an important role for the dynamics of the protein, no such terms have been considered to be crucial in the parametrization of the force fields, and they have therefore been omitted in the parametrization. In this work, we have optimized AMBER-compatible force-field parameters for the reduced state of the metal site of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and assessed the effect of including torsional parameters for the histidine-metal interactions in molecular dynamics simulations. On the basis of the obtained results, we recommend that torsion parameters of the metal site are included when processes at the metal site are investigated or when free-energy calculations are performed. As the torsion parameters mainly affect the structure of the metal site, other kinds of structural studies can be performed without considering the torsional parameters of the metal site. PMID:25410708

  10. Double-gate junctionless transistor model including short-channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paz, B. C.; Ávila-Herrera, F.; Cerdeira, A.; Pavanello, M. A.

    2015-05-01

    This work presents a physically based model for double-gate junctionless transistors (JLTs), continuous in all operation regimes. To describe short-channel transistors, short-channel effects (SCEs), such as increase of the channel potential due to drain bias, carrier velocity saturation and mobility degradation due to vertical and longitudinal electric fields, are included in a previous model developed for long-channel double-gate JLTs. To validate the model, an analysis is made by using three-dimensional numerical simulations performed in a Sentaurus Device Simulator from Synopsys. Different doping concentrations, channel widths and channel lengths are considered in this work. Besides that, the series resistance influence is numerically included and validated for a wide range of source and drain extensions. In order to check if the SCEs are appropriately described, besides drain current, transconductance and output conductance characteristics, the following parameters are analyzed to demonstrate the good agreement between model and simulation and the SCEs occurrence in this technology: threshold voltage (VTH), subthreshold slope (S) and drain induced barrier lowering.

  11. Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects Originating NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2012-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock-associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green s function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) to describe the mean flow. The vector Green s function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. An adjoint vector Green s function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green s function based on a locally parallel mean flow at different streamwise locations. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green s function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with a previous formulation by the authors. A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully-expanded jet Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise experimental facilities. In addition, two models for the so-called fine-scale mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include propagation effects.

  12. [Effect of a complex treatment, including glutargin and erbisol on the blood plasma content of protein P53, apoptotic markers of type II, activity of caspases and the level of sCD 117 in patients with autonomic-vascular dystonia].

    PubMed

    Krychun, I I

    2008-01-01

    It has been established that the blood content of protein P53 diminishes by 27%, the blood level of sTRAIL increases by 22%, sCD 117 increases by 44% in patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypertonic type that is accompanied by an increase of the activity of caspases-1 however the activity of caspases-3 and - 8 as well as the blood content of TNF-alpha do not change. Multimodality therapy using glutargin does not influence on the level of the blood plasma TNF-alpha and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8, normalizes the blood content of sTRAIL and sCD 117, however does not change the plasma concentration of protein P53 which remains lower by 35% than the control indices. In patients with vegeto-vascular dystonia of the hypotonic type the concentration of blood plasma protein P53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and the activity of caspases-1,-3,-8 correspond to the control values against a background of an almost twofold increase of the plasma sCD 117 level. The use of erbisol in a complex of therapeutic agents does not change the activity of caspases-l,-3,-8 and does not influence on the blood content of protein p53, TNF-alpha and sTRAIL and diminishes the plasma level of sCD 117 up to control values. A considerable elevation of the blood content of type II apoptotic factors is characteristic of the mixed type of vegeto-vascular dystonia: the level of protein p53 increases 2,4 times, TNF-alpha - 1,9 times, sTRAIL - 2,3 times that is accompanied by an increased activity of caspase-1 - 4,1 times, caspase-3 - 3,3 times, caspase-8 - 3,8 times and an increase of the plasma concentration of sCD 117 - 3,5 times. The use of erbisol and glutargin in multimodality therapy normalizes the plasma concentration of TNF-alpha and diminishes the blood content of protein P53 by 33% and sTRAIL - by 42% which, nevertheless remains higher than the control value by 58% and 36% respectively. The combined effects of glutargin and erbisol in patients of this group are characterized by a

  13. The Effects of Including Non-Thermal Particles in Flare Loop Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, K. K.; Winter, H. D.; Larson, N. L.

    2012-05-01

    In this work, we use HyLoop (Winter et al. 2011), a loop model that can incorporate the effects of both MHD and non-thermal particle populations, to simulate soft X-ray emissions in various situations. First of all, we test the effect of acceleration location on the emission in several XRT filters by simulating a series of post flare loops with different injection points for the non-thermal particle beams. We use an injection distribution peaked at the loop apex to represent a direct acceleration model, and an injection distribution peaked at the footpoints to represent the Alfvén wave interaction model. We find that footpoint injection leads to several early peaks in the apex-to-footpoint emission ratio. Second, we model a loop with cusp-shaped geometry based on the eruption model developed byLin & Forbes (2000) and Reeves & Forbes (2005a), and find that early in the flare, emission in the loop footpoints is much brighter in the XRT filters if non-thermal particles are included in the calculation. Finally, we employ a multi-loop flare model to simulate thermal emission and compare with a previous model where a semi-circular geometry was used (Reeves et al. 2007). We compare the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) emission from the two models and find that the cusp-shaped geometry leads to a smaller GOES class flare.

  14. Early effects of climate change: do they include changes in vector-borne disease?

    PubMed

    Kovats, R S; Campbell-Lendrum, D H; McMichael, A J; Woodward, A; Cox, J S

    2001-07-29

    The world's climate appears now to be changing at an unprecedented rate. Shifts in the distribution and behaviour of insect and bird species indicate that biological systems are already responding to this change. It is well established that climate is an important determinant of the spatial and temporal distribution of vectors and pathogens. In theory, a change in climate would be expected to cause changes in the geographical range, seasonality (intra-annual variability), and in the incidence rate (with or without changes in geographical or seasonal patterns). The detection and then attribution of such changes to climate change is an emerging task for scientists. We discuss the evidence required to attribute changes in disease and vectors to the early effects of anthropogenic climate change. The literature to date indicates that there is a lack of strong evidence of the impact of climate change on vector-borne diseases (i.e. malaria, dengue, leishmaniasis, tick-borne diseases). New approaches to monitoring, such as frequent and long-term sampling along transects to monitor the full latitudinal and altitudinal range of specific vector species, are necessary in order to provide convincing direct evidence of climate change effects. There is a need to reassess the appropriate levels of evidence, including dealing with the uncertainties attached to detecting the health impacts of global change. PMID:11516383

  15. The cost effectiveness of including pencils and erasers with self-completion epidemiological questionnaires.

    PubMed

    Aveyard, P; Manaseki, S; Griffin, C

    2001-01-01

    It is cheap to process epidemiological data from optical mark read (OMR) questionnaires. Respondents should use a pencil to complete OMR questionnaires, but many will not unless these are supplied. Sending pencils and erasers is expensive. Does sending pencils and erasers increase the response rate as cost-effectively as sending reminders, or does this decrease the error rate and offset data checking costs? We mailed 300 smokers and half were randomised to receive pencils and erasers. The relative risk (95% confidence intervals) for the response rate for the pencil group relative to the non-pencil group was 0.77 (0.46-1.29) and for the error rate was 1.31 (0.78-2.21). Sending pencils and erasers was not cost-effective in sensitivity analysis with any response rate or using the confidence intervals. Including pencils with mailed epidemiological questionnaires probably has no benefit and any plausible benefit does not offset the costs of sending pencils and erasers. PMID:11402357

  16. Jet Noise Modeling for Coannular Nozzles Including the Effects of Chevrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, James R.; Krejsa, Eugene A.; Clark, Bruce J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of good predictive models for jet noise has always been plagued by the difficulty in obtaining good quality data over a wide range of conditions in different facilities.We consider such issues very carefully in selecting data to be used in developing our model. Flight effects are of critical importance, and none of the means of determining them are without significant problems. Free-jet flight simulation facilities are very useful, and can provide meaningful data so long as they can be analytically transformed to the flight frame of reference. In this report we show that different methodologies used by NASA and industry to perform this transformation produce very different results, especially in the rear quadrant; this compels us to rely largely on static data to develop our model, but we show reasonable agreement with simulated flight data when these transformation issues are considered. A persistent problem in obtaining good quality data is noise generated in the experimental facility upstream of the test nozzle: valves, elbows, obstructions, and especially the combustor can contribute significant noise, and much of this noise is of a broadband nature, easily confused with jet noise. Muffling of these sources is costly in terms of size as well as expense, and it is particularly difficult in flight simulation facilities, where compactness of hardware is very important, as discussed by Viswanathan (Ref. 13). We feel that the effects of jet density on jet mixing noise may have been somewhat obscured by these problems, leading to the variable density exponent used in most jet noise prediction procedures including our own. We investigate this issue, applying Occam s razor, (e.g., Ref. 14), in a search for the simplest physically meaningful model that adequately describes the observed phenomena. In a similar vein, we see no reason to reject the Lighthill approach; it provides a very solid basis upon which to build a predictive procedure, as we believe we

  17. EGFR activating mutations correlate with a Fanconi anemia-like cellular phenotype that includes PARP inhibitor sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Pfäffle, Heike N.; Wang, Meng; Gheorghiu, Liliana; Ferraiolo, Natalie; Greninger, Patricia; Borgmann, Kerstin; Settleman, Jeffrey; Benes, Cyril H.; Sequist, Lecia V.; Zou, Lee; Willers, Henning

    2013-01-01

    In lung cancer patients whose tumors harbor activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), increased responses to platinum-based chemotherapies are seen compared to wild-type cancers. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have remained elusive. Here, we describe a cellular phenotype of crosslinker sensitivity in a subset of EGFR-mutant lung cancer cell lines that is reminiscent of the defects seen in cells impaired in the Fanconi Anemia pathway, including a pronounced G2/M cell-cycle arrest and chromosomal radial formation. We identified a defect downstream of FANCD2 at the level of recruitment of FAN1 nuclease and DNA interstrand crosslink (ICL) unhooking. The effect of EGFR mutation was epistatic with FANCD2. Consistent with the known role of FANCD2 in promoting RAD51 foci formation and homologous recombination repair (HRR), EGFR-mutant cells also exhibited an impaired RAD51 foci response to ICLs, but not to DNA double-strand breaks. EGFR kinase inhibition affected RAD51 foci formation neither in EGFR mutant nor wild-type cells. In contrast, EGFR depletion or overexpression of mutant EGFR in wild-type cells suppressed RAD51 foci, suggesting an EGFR kinase-independent regulation of DNA repair. Interestingly, EGFR-mutant cells treated with the PARP inhibitor olaparib also displayed decreased FAN1 foci induction, coupled with a putative block in a late HRR step. As a result, EGFR-mutant lung cancer cells exhibited olaparib sensitivity in-vitro and in-vivo. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms of cisplatin and PARP inhibitor sensitivity of EGFR-mutant cells, yielding potential therapeutic opportunities for further treatment individualization in this genetically defined subset of lung cancer. PMID:23966292

  18. Cooling Strategies for Vane Leading Edges in a Syngas Environment Including Effects of Deposition and Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, Forrest; Bons, Jeffrey

    2014-09-30

    The Department of Energy has goals to move land based gas turbine systems to alternate fuels including coal derived synthetic gas and hydrogen. Coal is the most abundant energy resource in the US and in the world and it is economically advantageous to develop power systems which can use coal. Integrated gasification combined cycles are (IGCC) expected to allow the clean use of coal derived fuels while improving the ability to capture and sequester carbon dioxide. These cycles will need to maintain or increase turbine entry temperatures to develop competitive efficiencies. The use of coal derived syngas introduces a range of potential contaminants into the hot section of the gas turbine including sulfur, iron, calcium, and various alkali metals. Depending on the effectiveness of the gas clean up processes, there exists significant likelihood that the remaining materials will become molten in the combustion process and potentially deposit on downstream turbine surfaces. Past evidence suggests that deposition will be a strong function of increasing temperature. Currently, even with the best gas cleanup processes a small level of particulate matter in the syngas is expected. Consequently, particulate deposition is expected to be an important consideration in the design of turbine components. The leading edge region of first stage vanes most often have higher deposition rates than other areas due to strong fluid acceleration and streamline curvature in the vicinity of the surface. This region remains one of the most difficult areas in a turbine nozzle to cool due to high inlet temperatures and only a small pressure ratio for cooling. The leading edge of a vane often has relatively high heat transfer coefficients and is often cooled using showerhead film cooling arrays. The throat of the first stage nozzle is another area where deposition potentially has a strongly adverse effect on turbine performance as this region meters the turbine inlet flow. Based on roughness

  19. Environmental assessment of biofuel chains based on ecosystem modelling, including land-use change effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrielle, B.; Gagnaire, N.; Massad, R.; Prieur, V.; Python, Y.

    2012-04-01

    The potential greenhouse gas (GHG) savings resulting from the displacement of fossil energy sources by bioenergy mostly hinges on the uncertainty on the magnitude of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions from arable soils occuring during feedstock production. These emissions are broadly related to fertilizer nitrogen input rates, but largely controlled by soil and climate factors which makes their estimation highly uncertain. Here, we set out to improve estimates of N2O emissions from bioenergy feedstocks by using ecosystem models and measurements and modeling of atmospheric N2O in the greater Paris (France) area. Ground fluxes were measured in two locations to assess the effect of soil type and management, crop type (including lignocellulosics such as triticale, switchgrass and miscanthus), and climate on N2O emission rates and dynamics. High-resolution maps of N2O emissions were generated over the Ile-de-France region (around Paris) with two ecosystem models using geographical databases on soils, weather data, land-use and crop management. The models were tested against ground flux measurements and the emission maps were fed into the atmospheric chemistry-transport model CHIMERE. The maps were tested by comparing the CHIMERE simulations with time series of N2O concentrations measured at various heights above the ground in two locations in 2007. The emissions of N2O, as integrated over the region, were used in a life-cycle assessment of representative biofuel pathways: bioethanol from wheat and sugar-beet (1st generation), and miscanthus (2nd generation chain); bio-diesel from oilseed rape. Effects related to direct and indirect land-use changes (in particular on soil carbon stocks) were also included in the assessment based on various land-use scenarios and literature references. The potential deployment of miscanthus was simulated by assuming it would be grown on the current sugar-beet growing area in Ile-de-France, or by converting land currently under permanent fallow

  20. The Prediction of Broadband Shock-Associated Noise Including Propagation Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Steven; Morris, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    An acoustic analogy is developed based on the Euler equations for broadband shock- associated noise (BBSAN) that directly incorporates the vector Green's function of the linearized Euler equations and a steady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solution (SRANS) as the mean flow. The vector Green's function allows the BBSAN propagation through the jet shear layer to be determined. The large-scale coherent turbulence is modeled by two-point second order velocity cross-correlations. Turbulent length and time scales are related to the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. An adjoint vector Green's function solver is implemented to determine the vector Green's function based on a locally parallel mean flow at streamwise locations of the SRANS solution. However, the developed acoustic analogy could easily be based on any adjoint vector Green's function solver, such as one that makes no assumptions about the mean flow. The newly developed acoustic analogy can be simplified to one that uses the Green's function associated with the Helmholtz equation, which is consistent with the formulation of Morris and Miller (AIAAJ 2010). A large number of predictions are generated using three different nozzles over a wide range of fully expanded Mach numbers and jet stagnation temperatures. These predictions are compared with experimental data from multiple jet noise labs. In addition, two models for the so-called 'fine-scale' mixing noise are included in the comparisons. Improved BBSAN predictions are obtained relative to other models that do not include the propagation effects, especially in the upstream direction of the jet.

  1. Modeling ozone removal to indoor materials, including the effects of porosity, pore diameter, and thickness.

    PubMed

    Gall, Elliott T; Siegel, Jeffrey A; Corsi, Richard L

    2015-04-01

    We develop an ozone transport and reaction model to determine reaction probabilities and assess the importance of physical properties such as porosity, pore diameter, and material thickness on reactive uptake of ozone to five materials. The one-dimensional model accounts for molecular diffusion from bulk air to the air-material interface, reaction at the interface, and diffusive transport and reaction through material pore volumes. Material-ozone reaction probabilities that account for internal transport and internal pore area, γ(ipa), are determined by a minimization of residuals between predicted and experimentally derived ozone concentrations. Values of γ(ipa) are generally less than effective reaction probabilities (γ(eff)) determined previously, likely because of the inclusion of diffusion into substrates and reaction with internal surface area (rather than the use of the horizontally projected external material areas). Estimates of γ(ipa) average 1 × 10(-7), 2 × 10(-7), 4 × 10(-5), 2 × 10(-5), and 4 × 10(-7) for two types of cellulose paper, pervious pavement, Portland cement concrete, and an activated carbon cloth, respectively. The transport and reaction model developed here accounts for observed differences in ozone removal to varying thicknesses of the cellulose paper, and estimates a near constant γ(ipa) as material thickness increases from 0.02 to 0.16 cm. PMID:25748309

  2. Optimization of composite box-beam structures including effects of subcomponent interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ragon, Scott A.; Guerdal, Zafer; Starnes, James H., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Minimum mass designs are obtained for a simple box beam structure subject to bending, torque and combined bending/torque load cases. These designs are obtained subject to point strain and linear buckling constraints. The present work differs from previous efforts in that special attention is payed to including the effects of subcomponent panel interaction in the optimal design process. Two different approaches are used to impose the buckling constraints. When the global approach is used, buckling constraints are imposed on the global structure via a linear eigenvalue analysis. This approach allows the subcomponent panels to interact in a realistic manner. The results obtained using this approach are compared to results obtained using a traditional, less expensive approach, called the local approach. When the local approach is used, in-plane loads are extracted from the global model and used to impose buckling constraints on each subcomponent panel individually. In the global cases, it is found that there can be significant interaction between skin, spar, and rib design variables. This coupling is weak or nonexistent in the local designs. It is determined that weight savings of up to 7% may be obtained by using the global approach instead of the local approach to design these structures. Several of the designs obtained using the linear buckling analysis are subjected to a geometrically nonlinear analysis. For the designs which were subjected to bending loads, the innermost rib panel begins to collapse at less than half the intended design load and in a mode different from that predicted by linear analysis. The discrepancy between the predicted linear and nonlinear responses is attributed to the effects of the nonlinear rib crushing load, and the parameter which controls this rib collapse failure mode is shown to be the rib thickness. The rib collapse failure mode may be avoided by increasing the rib thickness above the value obtained from the (linear analysis based

  3. Boundary element modeling of earthquake site effects including the complete incident wavefield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung-Tae

    Numerical modeling of earthquake site effects in realistic, three-dimensional structures, including high frequencies, low surface velocities and surface topography, has not been possible simply because the amount of computer memory constrains the number of grid points available. In principle, this problem is reduced in the Boundary Element Method (BEM) since only the surface of the velocity discontinuity is discretized; wave propagation both inside and outside this boundary is computed analytically. Equivalent body forces are determined on the boundary by solving a matrix equation containing frequency-domain displacement and stress Green's functions from every point on the boundary to every other point. This matrix problem has imposed a practical limit on the size or maximum frequency of previous BEM models. Although the matrix can be quite large, it also seems to be fairly sparse. We have used iterative matrix algorithms of the PETSc package and direct solution algorithms of the ScaLAPACK on the massively parallel supercomputers at Cornell, San Diego and Michigan. Preconditioning has been applied using blockwise ILU decomposition for the iterative approach or LU decomposition for the direct approach. The matrix equation is solved using the GMRES method for the iterative approach and a tri-diagonal solver for the direct approach. Previous BEM applications typically have assumed a single, incident plane wave. However, it is clear that for more realistic ground motion simulations, we need to consider the complete incident wavefield. If we assume that the basin or three-dimensional structure of interest is embedded in a surrounding plane-layered medium, we may use the propagator matrix method to solve for the displacements and stresses at depth on the boundary. This is done in the frequency domain with integration over wavenumber so that all P, S, mode conversions, reverberations and surface waves are included. The Boundary Element Method succeeds in modeling

  4. A study of interface crack branching in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites including thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Renfu

    The interface crack branching phenomena, including thermal effects, has been investigated by using complex variable method and Stroh's dislocation theory, extended to thermo-elasticity in matrix notation. As one of the most catastrophic failure modes in structures like laminated and sandwich composites in aerospace and marine construction, thin film in electronic packaging, rotators in high speed engine of aircraft and reactor in nuclear power station, the study of interface crack branching has become a topic not only having theoretical importance, but also having practical significance. A unified approach is presented to address the thermoelastic interface crack problems in dissimilar anisotropic bimaterial composites, and a compact closed form solution is formulated by analytical continuation principle of complex analysis. Employing the contour integral method, an explicit solution to the interaction between the dislocations and the interface crack is obtained. By modeling the branched portion as a continuous distribution of the dislocations, the thermoelastic interface crack branching problem is then converted to a set of semi-coupled singular integral equations and solved by Gauss-Jacobi integration schemes. The influence of material property mismatches between the two constituents and the thermal loading effects on the interface crack branching are demonstrated by extensive numerical simulation. Some useful criteria for predicting the interface crack branching growth and guidance for optimal composites design are suggested. Further, a contact model to eliminate the overlapping between the two surfaces of an interface crack is also proposed and some new parameters which could influence the interpenetrating phenomena are also discovered. The technique to extend the current method to three dimensional problems is also outlined. Furthermore, the C++ source code has been implemented to manipulate the complicated complex operations for numerically solving the

  5. Innovative Liner Concepts: Experiments and Impedance Modeling of Liners Including the Effect of Bias Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Jeff; Betts, Juan Fernando; Fuller, Chris

    2000-01-01

    The study of normal impedance of perforated plate acoustic liners including the effect of bias flow was studied. Two impedance models were developed by modeling the internal flows of perforate orifices as infinite tubes with the inclusion of end corrections to handle finite length effects. These models assumed incompressible and compressible flows, respectively, between the far field and the perforate orifice. The incompressible model was used to predict impedance results for perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 5% to 15%. The predicted resistance results showed better agreement with experiments for the higher percent open area samples. The agreement also tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. For perforated plates with percent open areas ranging from 1% to 5%, the compressible model was used to predict impedance results. The model predictions were closer to the experimental resistance results for the 2% to 3% open area samples. The predictions tended to deteriorate as bias flow was increased. The reactance results were well predicted by the models for the higher percent open area, but deteriorated as the percent open area was lowered (5%) and bias flow was increased. A fit was done on the incompressible model to the experimental database. The fit was performed using an optimization routine that found the optimal set of multiplication coefficients to the non-dimensional groups that minimized the least squares slope error between predictions and experiments. The result of the fit indicated that terms not associated with bias flow required a greater degree of correction than the terms associated with the bias flow. This model improved agreement with experiments by nearly 15% for the low percent open area (5%) samples when compared to the unfitted model. The fitted model and the unfitted model performed equally well for the higher percent open area (10% and 15%).

  6. Investigation of multiple roots of the resistive wall mode dispersion relation, including kinetic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Betti, R.

    2011-07-15

    The resistive wall mode instability in tokamak plasmas has a complex frequency which can be determined by a dispersion relation that is cubic, in general, leading to three distinct roots. A simplified model of the dispersion relation, including kinetic effects, is presented and used to explore the behavior of these roots. By changing the plasma rotation frequency, it is shown that one root has a slow mode rotation frequency (less than the inverse wall time) while the other two rotate more quickly, one leading and one lagging the plasma rotation frequency. When realistic experimental parameters from the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are used, however, only one slow rotating, near-marginal stability root is found, consistent with present experiments and more detailed calculations with the MISK code [B. Hu et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301 (2005)]. Electron collisionality acts to stabilize one of the rotating roots, while ion collisionality can stabilize the other. In devices with low rotation and low collisionality, these two rotating roots may manifest themselves, but they are likely to remain stable.

  7. Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in a quintessence cosmological model: Including anisotropic stress of dark energy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y. T.; Xu, L. X.; Gui, Y. X.

    2010-10-15

    In this paper, we investigate the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect in the quintessence cold dark matter model with constant equation of state and constant speed of sound in dark energy rest frame, including dark energy perturbation and its anisotropic stress. Comparing with the {Lambda}CDM model, we find that the integrated Sachs-Wolfe (ISW)-power spectrums are affected by different background evolutions and dark energy perturbation. As we change the speed of sound from 1 to 0 in the quintessence cold dark matter model with given state parameters, it is found that the inclusion of dark energy anisotropic stress makes the variation of magnitude of the ISW source uncertain due to the anticorrelation between the speed of sound and the ratio of dark energy density perturbation contrast to dark matter density perturbation contrast in the ISW-source term. Thus, the magnitude of the ISW-source term is governed by the competition between the alterant multiple of (1+3/2xc-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}) and that of {delta}{sub de}/{delta}{sub m} with the variation of c-circumflex{sub s}{sup 2}.

  8. Representation-free description of light-pulse atom interferometry including non-inertial effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinert, Stephan; Kajari, Endre; Roura, Albert; Schleich, Wolfgang P.

    2015-12-01

    Light-pulse atom interferometers rely on the wave nature of matter and its manipulation with coherent laser pulses. They are used for precise gravimetry and inertial sensing as well as for accurate measurements of fundamental constants. Reaching higher precision requires longer interferometer times which are naturally encountered in microgravity environments such as drop-tower facilities, sounding rockets and dedicated satellite missions aiming at fundamental quantum physics in space. In all those cases, it is necessary to consider arbitrary trajectories and varying orientations of the interferometer set-up in non-inertial frames of reference. Here we provide a versatile representation-free description of atom interferometry entirely based on operator algebra to address this general situation. We show how to analytically determine the phase shift as well as the visibility of interferometers with an arbitrary number of pulses including the effects of local gravitational accelerations, gravity gradients, the rotation of the lasers and non-inertial frames of reference. Our method conveniently unifies previous results and facilitates the investigation of novel interferometer geometries.

  9. Psychosocial influences on immunity, including effects on immune maturation and senescence

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Christopher L.; Laudenslager, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    Studies investigating the influence of psychosocial factors on immunity played a critical and formative role in the field of psychoneuroimmunology (PNI), and have been a major component of articles published in Brain, Behavior and Immunity (BBI). An analysis of papers during the first two decades of BBI from 1987–2006 revealed three behavior-related topics were most prominent: 1) stress-induced changes in immune responses, 2) immune correlates of psychopathology and personality, and 3) behavioral conditioning of immunity. Important subthemes included the effect of early rearing conditions on immune maturation in the developing infant and, subsequently, psychosocial influences affecting the decline of immunity in the senescent host. The responsiveness of cell functioning in the young and elderly helped to validate the view that our immune competence is malleable. Many technical advances in immune methods were also evident. Initially, there was a greater reliance on in vitro proliferative and cytolytic assays, while later studies were more likely to use cell subset enumerations, cytokine quantification, and indices of latent virus reactivation. The reach of PNI extended from the traditional clinical entities of infection, autoimmunity, and cancer to attain a broader relevance to inflammatory physiology, and thus to asthma, cardiovascular and gastrointestinal disease. There continue to be many theoretical and applied ramifications of these seminal findings. Fortunately, the initial controversies about whether psychological processes could really impinge upon and modify immune responses have now receded into the pages of history under the weight of the empirical evidence. PMID:17706917

  10. An integrating matrix formulation for buckling of rotating beams including the effects of concentrated masses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakin, William D.; Kvaternik, Raymond G.

    1989-01-01

    The integrating matrix technique of computational mechanics is extended to include the effects of concentrated masses. The stability of a flexible rotating beam with discrete masses is analyzed to determine the critical rotational speeds for buckling in the inplane and out-of-plane directions. In this problem, the beam is subjected to compressive centrifugal forces arising from steady rotation about an axis which does not pass through the clamped end of the beam. To determine the eigenvalues from which stability is assessed, the differential equations of motion are solved numerically by combining the extended integrating matrix method with an eigenanalysis. Stability boundaries for a discrete mass representation of a uniform beam are shown to asymptotically approach the stability boundaries for the corresponding continuous mass beam as the number of concentrated masses is increased. An error in the literature is also noted for the discrete mass problem concerning the behavior of the critical rotational speed for inplane buckling as the radius of rotation of the clamped end of the beam is reduced.

  11. TRANSIENT RESPONSE OF ABLATING AXISYMMETRIC BODIES INCLUDING THE EFFECTS OF SHAPE CHANGE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howser, L. M.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program has been developed to analyze the transient response of an ablating axisymmetric body, including the effect of shape change. The governing differential equation, the boundary conditions for the analysis on which the computer program is based, and the method of solution of the resulting finite-difference equations are discussed in the documentation. Some of the features of the analysis and the associated program are (1) the ablation material is considered to be orthotropic with temperature-dependent thermal properties; (2) the thermal response of the entire body is considered simultaneously; (3) the heat transfer and pressure distribution over the body are adjusted to the new geometry as ablation occurs; (4) the governing equations and several boundary-condition options are formulated in terms of generalized orthogonal coordinates for fixed points in a moving coordinate system; (5) the finite-difference equations are solved implicitly; and (6) other instantaneous body shapes can be displayed with a user-supplied plotting routine. The physical problem to be modeled with the analysis is described by FORTRAN input variables. For example, the external body geometry is described in the W, Z coordinates; material density is given; and the stagnation cold-wall heating rate is given in a time-dependent array. Other input variables are required which control the solution, specify boundary conditions, and determine output from the program. The equations have been programmed so that either the International System of Units or the U. S. Customary Units may be used. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and has been implemented on a CDC 6000 Series computer. This program was developed in 1972.

  12. The Effect of Including an Opt-Out Option in Discrete Choice Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Veldwijk, Jorien; Lambooij, Mattijs S.; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W.; Smit, Henriëtte A.; de Wit, G. Ardine

    2014-01-01

    Objective to determine to what extent the inclusion of an opt-out option in a DCE may have an effect on choice behaviour and therefore might influence the attribute level estimates, the relative importance of the attributes and calculated trade-offs. Methods 781 Dutch Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus patients completed a questionnaire containing nine choice tasks with an opt-out option and nice forced choice tasks. Mixed-logit models were used to estimate the relative importance of the five lifestyle program related attributes that were included. Willingness to pay (WTP) values were calculated and it was tested whether results differed between respondents who answered the choice tasks with an opt-out option in the first or second part of the questionnaire. Results 21.4% of the respondents always opted out. Respondents who were given the opt-out option in the first part of the questionnaire as well as lower educated respondents significantly more often opted out. For both the forced and unforced choice model, different attributes showed significant estimates, the relative importance of the attributes was equal. However, due to differences in relative importance weights, the WTP values for the PA schedule differed significantly between both datasets. Conclusions Results show differences in opting out based on the location of the opt-out option and respondents' educational level; this resulted in small differences between the forced and unforced choice model. Since respondents seem to learn from answering forced choice tasks, a dual response design might result in higher data quality compared to offering a direct opt-out option. Future research should empirically explore how choice sets should be presented to make them as easy and less complex as possible in order to reduce the proportion of respondents that opts-out due to choice task complexity. Moreover, future research should debrief respondents to examine the reasons for choosing the opt-out alternative. PMID:25365169

  13. Activity of Eravacycline against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter baumannii, Including Multidrug-Resistant Isolates, from New York City

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Marie; Olafisoye, Olawole; Cortes, Christopher; Urban, Carl; Landman, David

    2014-01-01

    Eravacycline demonstrated in vitro activity against a contemporary collection of more than 4,000 Gram-negative pathogens from New York City hospitals, with MIC50/MIC90 values, respectively, for Escherichia coli of 0.12/0.5 μg/ml, Klebsiella pneumoniae of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter aerogenes of 0.25/1 μg/ml, Enterobacter cloacae 0.5/1 μg/ml, and Acinetobacter baumannii of 0.5/1 μg/ml. Activity was retained against multidrug-resistant isolates, including those expressing KPC and OXA carbapenemases. For A. baumannii, eravacycline MICs correlated with increased expression of the adeB gene. PMID:25534744

  14. A nonlinear generalized continuum approach for electro-elasticity including scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skatulla, S.; Arockiarajan, A.; Sansour, C.

    2009-01-01

    Materials characterized by an electro-mechanically coupled behaviour fall into the category of so-called smart materials. In particular, electro-active polymers (EAP) recently attracted much interest, because, upon electrical loading, EAP exhibit a large amount of deformation while sustaining large forces. This property can be utilized for actuators in electro-mechanical systems, artificial muscles and so forth. When it comes to smaller structures, it is a well-known fact that the mechanical response deviates from the prediction of classical mechanics theory. These scale effects are due to the fact that the size of the microscopic material constituents of such structures cannot be considered to be negligible small anymore compared to the structure's overall dimensions. In this context so-called generalized continuum formulations have been proven to account for the micro-structural influence to the macroscopic material response. Here, we want to adopt a strain gradient approach based on a generalized continuum framework [Sansour, C., 1998. A unified concept of elastic-viscoplastic Cosserat and micromorphic continua. J. Phys. IV Proc. 8, 341-348; Sansour, C., Skatulla, S., 2007. A higher gradient formulation and meshfree-based computation for elastic rock. Geomech. Geoeng. 2, 3-15] and extend it to also encompass the electro-mechanically coupled behaviour of EAP. The approach introduces new strain and stress measures which lead to the formulation of a corresponding generalized variational principle. The theory is completed by Dirichlet boundary conditions for the displacement field and its derivatives normal to the boundary as well as the electric potential. The basic idea behind this generalized continuum theory is the consideration of a micro- and a macro-space which together span the generalized space. As all quantities are defined in this generalized space, also the constitutive law, which is in this work conventional electro-mechanically coupled nonlinear

  15. Modified agar dilution susceptibility testing method for determining in vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, T; Jono, K; Okonogi, K

    1997-01-01

    In vitro activities of antifungal agents, including azole compounds, against yeasts were easily determined by using RPMI-1640 agar medium and by incubating the plates in the presence of 20% CO2. The end point of inhibition was clear by this method, even in the case of azole compounds, because of the almost complete inhibition of yeast growth at high concentrations which permitted weak growth of some Candida strains by traditional methods. MICs obtained by the agar dilution method were similar to those obtained by the broth dilution method proposed by the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. PMID:9174197

  16. The total assessment profile, volume 2. [including societal impact, cost effectiveness, and economic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leininger, G.; Jutila, S.; King, J.; Muraco, W.; Hansell, J.; Lindeen, J.; Franckowiak, E.; Flaschner, A.

    1975-01-01

    Appendices are presented which include discussions of interest formulas, factors in regionalization, parametric modeling of discounted benefit-sacrifice streams, engineering economic calculations, and product innovation. For Volume 1, see .

  17. Higgs boson production via gluon fusion: Soft-gluon resummation including mass effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Timo; Spira, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We analyze soft and collinear gluon resummation effects at the N3LL level for Standard Model Higgs boson production via gluon fusion g g →H and the neutral scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs bosons of the minimal supersymmetric extension at the next-to-next-to-next-to-leading-log (N3LL ) and next-to-next-to-leading-log (NNLL) level, respectively. We introduce refinements in the treatment of quark mass effects and subleading collinear gluon effects within the resummation. Soft and collinear gluon resummation effects amount to up to about 5% beyond the fixed-order results for scalar and pseudoscalar Higgs boson production.

  18. An Antimicrobial Metabolite from Bacillus sp.: Significant Activity Against Pathogenic Bacteria Including Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Strains

    PubMed Central

    Chalasani, Ajay G.; Dhanarajan, Gunaseelan; Nema, Sushma; Sen, Ramkrishna; Roy, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the cell free modified tryptone soya broth (pH 7.4 ± 0.2) of Bacillus subtilis URID 12.1 showed significant antimicrobial activity against multidrug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and Enterococcus faecalis. The partially purified antimicrobial molecule was found to be resistant to extremes of pH and temperatures and also to higher concentrations of trypsin and proteinase K. The antimicrobial molecule was purified by a three-step method that included reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for 14 species of bacteria using a microbroth dilution technique. The HPLC-purified fraction showed the MICs ranging from 0.5 to 16 μg/ml for methicillin and vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MVRSA) and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) strains. The molecular mass of the antimicrobial compound was determined to be 842.37 Da. The same antimicrobial fraction showed negligible haemolytic activity against human red blood cells even at a concentration as high as 100 μg/ml. Because of its significant antimicrobial activity at low MIC values coupled with its non-haemolytic property, it may prove to be a novel antimicrobial lead molecule. PMID:26696963

  19. Numerical predictions of railgun performance including the effects of ablation and arc drag

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-01-01

    Thermal radiation from plasma armatures in railguns may cause vaporization and partial ionization of the rail and insulator materials. This causes an increase in mass of the arc, which has an adverse effect on projectile velocity. Viscous drag on the arc also has a deleterious effect, particularly at high velocities. These loss mechanisms are modeled in the Los Alamos Railgun Estimator code. Simulations were performed and numerical results were compared with experimental data for a wide range of tests performed at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the Ling Temco Vought Aerospace and Defense Company, and the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin. The effects of ablation and arc drag on railgun performance are discussed. Parametric studies illustrate the effects of some design parameters on projectile velocity and launcher efficiency. Some strategies for reducing the effects of ablation are proposed.

  20. Numerical predictions of railgun performance including the effects of ablation and arc drag

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnurr, N. M.; Kerrisk, J. F.; Parker, J. V.

    Thermal radiation from plasma armatures in railguns may cause vaporization and partial ionization of the rail and insulator materials. This causes an increase in mass of the arc, which has an adverse effect on projectile velocity. Viscous drag on the arc also has a deleterious effect, particularly at high velocities. These loss mechanisms are modeled in the Los Alamos Railgun Estimator code. Simulations were performed and numerical results were compared with experimental data for a wide range of tests performed at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the Ling Temco Vought Aerospace and Defense Company, and the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin. The effects of ablation and arc drag on railgun performance are discussed. Parametric studies illustrate the effects of some design parameters on projectile velocity and launcher efficiency. Some strategies for reducing the effects of ablation are proposed.

  1. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1982-01-01

    Measurements were made of the heat transfer rate through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20% to 50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15% to 20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: the effect of initial boundary layer thickness, the effect of freestream velocity, the effect of freestream acceleration, the effect of unheated starting length, and the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. An existing curvature prediction model was tested against this broad heat transfer data base to determine where it could appropriately be used for heat transfer predictions.

  2. Turbulent boundary layer heat transfer experiments: Convex curvature effects, including introduction and recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, T. W.; Moffat, R. J.; Johnston, J. P.; Kays, W. M.

    1980-01-01

    Heat transfer rates were measured through turbulent and transitional boundary layers on an isothermal, convexly curved wall and downstream flat plate. The effect of convex curvature on the fully turbulent boundary layer was a reduction of the local Stanton numbers 20-50% below those predicted for a flat wall under the same circumstances. The recovery of the heat transfer rates on the downstream flat wall was extremely slow. After 60 cm of recovery length, the Stanton number was still typically 15-20% below the flat wall predicted value. Various effects important in the modeling of curved flows were studied separately. These are: (1) the effect of initial boundary layer thickness; (2) the effect of freestream velocity; (3) the effect of freestream acceleration; (4) the effect of unheated starting length; and (5) the effect of the maturity of the boundary layer. Regardless of the initial state, curvature eventually forced the boundary layer into an asymptotic curved condition. The slope, minus one, is believed to be significant.

  3. Numerical predictions of railgun performance including the effects of ablation and arc drag

    SciTech Connect

    Schnurr, N.M.; Kerrisk, J.F.; Parker, J.V.

    1986-11-01

    Thermal radiation from plasma armatures in railguns may cause vaporization and partial ionization of the rail and insulator materials. This causes an increase in mass of the arc, which has an adverse effect on projectile velocity. Viscous drag on the arc also has a deleterious effect, particularly at high velocities. Simulations were performed and numerical results were compared with experimental data for a wide range of test performed at the Los Alamos and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories, the Ling Temco Vought Aerospace and Defense Company, and the Center for Electromechanics at the University of Texas at Austin. The effects of ablation and arc drag on railgun performance are discussed. Some strategies for reducing the effects of ablation are proposed.

  4. Postbuckling behaviors of nanorods including the effects of nonlocal elasticity theory and surface stress

    SciTech Connect

    Thongyothee, Chawis Chucheepsakul, Somchai

    2013-12-28

    This paper is concerned with postbuckling behaviors of nanorods subjected to an end concentrated load. One end of the nanorod is clamped while the other end is fixed to a support that can slide in the slot. The governing equation is developed from static equilibrium and geometrical conditions by using the exact curvature corresponding to the elastica theory. The nonlocal elasticity, the effect of surface stress, and their combined effects are taken into account in Euler–Bernoulli beam theory. Differential equations in this problem can be solved numerically by using the shooting-optimization technique for the postbuckling loads and the buckled configurations. The results show that nanorods with the nonlocal elasticity effect undergo increasingly large deformation while the effect of surface stress in combination with nonlocal elasticity decreases the deflection of nanorods under the same postbuckling load.

  5. The extension of a uniform canopy reflectance model to include row effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suits, G. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The effect of row structure is assumed to be caused by the variation in density of vegetation across rows rather than to a profile in canopy height. The calculation of crop reflectance using vegetation density modulation across rows follows a parallel procedure to that for a uniform canopy. Predictions using the row model for wheat show that the effect of changes in sun to row azimuth are greatest in Landsat Band 5 (red band) and can result in underestimation of crop vigor.

  6. Age-related changes in trunk neuromuscular activation patterns during a controlled functional transfer task include amplitude and temporal synergies.

    PubMed

    Quirk, D Adam; Hubley-Kozey, Cheryl L

    2014-12-01

    While healthy aging is associated with physiological changes that can impair control of trunk motion, few studies examine how spinal muscle responses change with increasing age. This study examined whether older (over 65 years) compared to younger (20-45 years) adults had higher overall amplitude and altered temporal recruitment patterns of trunk musculature when performing a functional transfer task. Surface electromyograms from twelve bilateral trunk muscle (24) sites were analyzed using principal component analysis, extracting amplitude and temporal features (PCs) from electromyographic waveforms. Two PCs explained 96% of the waveform variance. Three factor ANOVA models tested main effects (group, muscle and reach) and interactions for PC scores. Significant (p<.0125) group interactions were found for all PC scores. Post hoc analysis revealed that relative to younger adults, older adults recruited higher agonist and antagonistic activity, demonstrated continuous activation levels in specific muscle sites despite changing external moments, and had altered temporal synergies within abdominal and back musculature. In summary both older and younger adults recruit highly organized activation patterns in response to changing external moments. Differences in temporal trunk musculature recruitment patterns suggest that older adults experience different dynamic spinal stiffness and loading compared to younger adults during a functional lifting task. PMID:25457424

  7. Revised Administrative Rules for Special Education. (Including Revisions Effective October 15, 1996, and April 9, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Dept. of Education, Lansing. Special Education Services.

    This document presents the State of Michigan's administrative rules for special education including 1996 and 1997 revisions. The specific regulations are organized into 9 sections: (1) general provisions (definitions and determination standards); (2) evaluation, eligibility, student assignment, and due process procedures (e.g., individualized…

  8. Effect of low-phytate barley on malt quality including mineral loss during fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The efficient fermentation of brewing wort is dependent on the adequate supply of a range of nutrients including minerals. Zinc and magnesium are two minerals that are often limiting and zinc supplementation is frequently required to achieve efficient fermentation. The recent development of low phyt...

  9. An animal model to investigate effectiveness and safety of conducted energy weapons (including TASER devices).

    PubMed

    Jauchem, James R

    2010-03-01

    Conducted energy weapons (CEWs) are used by law-enforcement personnel to incapacitate individuals quickly and effectively, without causing lethality. CEWs have been deployed for relatively long or repeated exposures during law-enforcement operations. The purpose of this technical note is to describe, in detail, some aspects of an anesthetized swine model used in our laboratory and to answer specific questions related to the model. In particular, tiletamine/zolazepam-induced, propofol-maintained anesthesia appears to be a useful technique for studying effects of CEW applications on muscle contraction and blood factors such as muscle enzymes. Because effects of CEWs on breathing have not been fully elucidated, a spontaneously breathing model is preferable to one in which mechanical ventilation is supplied. Placement of the swine in a supine position may facilitate measurement of muscle contractions, without compromising other physiological parameters. PMID:20141556

  10. A study of a plume induced separation shock wave, including effects of periodic plume unsteadiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doughty, J. O.

    1976-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to study the flow field in which separation is caused by an expanding plume, with emphasis on effects associated with periodic unsteadiness in the plume. The separation shock was photographed with high speed motion pictures, from which mean shock position and excursion data were reported. Pressure fluctuations were measured beneath the separation shock. A response of the separation shock to plume periodic unsteadiness was identified, and the magnitude of a corresponding transfer function was defined. Small harmonic effects in plume response to periodic unsteadiness were noted. The stabilizing effect of a lateral surface protuberance near the separation shock wave was investigated. The protuberance configuration was a lateral circular cylinder, and various diameters, all less than the boundary layer thickness, were employed.

  11. Shear-mediated contributions to the effective properties of soft acoustic metamaterials including negative index

    PubMed Central

    Forrester, Derek Michael; Pinfield, Valerie J.

    2015-01-01

    Here we show that, for sub-wavelength particles in a fluid, viscous losses due to shear waves and their influence on neighbouring particles significantly modify the effective acoustic properties, and thereby the conditions at which negative acoustic refraction occurs. Building upon earlier single particle scattering work, we adopt a multiple scattering approach to derive the effective properties (density, bulk modulus, wavenumber). We show,through theoretical prediction, the implications for the design of “soft” (ultrasonic) metamaterials based on locally-resonant sub-wavelength porous rubber particles, through selection of particle size and concentration, and demonstrate tunability of the negative speed zones by modifying the viscosity of the suspending medium. For these lossy materials with complex effective properties, we confirm the use of phase angles to define the backward propagation condition in preference to “single-” and “double-negative” designations. PMID:26686414

  12. Thermal modeling of phase change solidification in thermal control devices including natural convection effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ukanwa, A. O.; Stermole, F. J.; Golden, J. O.

    1972-01-01

    Natural convection effects in phase change thermal control devices were studied. A mathematical model was developed to evaluate natural convection effects in a phase change test cell undergoing solidification. Although natural convection effects are minimized in flight spacecraft, all phase change devices are ground tested. The mathematical approach to the problem was to first develop a transient two-dimensional conduction heat transfer model for the solidification of a normal paraffin of finite geometry. Next, a transient two-dimensional model was developed for the solidification of the same paraffin by a combined conduction-natural-convection heat transfer model. Throughout the study, n-hexadecane (n-C16H34) was used as the phase-change material in both the theoretical and the experimental work. The models were based on the transient two-dimensional finite difference solutions of the energy, continuity, and momentum equations.

  13. Gust response of commercial jet aircraft including effects of autopilot operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, J. H.

    1982-01-01

    A simplified theory of aircraft vertical acceleration gust response based on a model including pitch, vertical displacement and control motions due to autopilot operation is presented. High-order autopilot transfer functions are utilized for improved accuracy in the determination of the overall response characteristics. Four representative commercial jet aircraft were studied over a wide range of operating conditions and comparisons of individual responses are given. It is shown that autopilot operation relative to the controls fixed case causes response attenuation of from 10 percent to approximately 25 percent depending on flight condition and increases in crossing number up to 30 percent, with variations between aircraft of from 5 percent to 10 percent, in general, reflecting the differences in autopilot design. A detailed computer program description and listing of the calculation procedure suitable for the general application of the theory to any airplane autopilot combination is also included.

  14. Genomic prediction of growth in pigs based on a model including additive and dominance effects.

    PubMed

    Lopes, M S; Bastiaansen, J W M; Janss, L; Knol, E F; Bovenhuis, H

    2016-06-01

    Independent of whether prediction is based on pedigree or genomic information, the focus of animal breeders has been on additive genetic effects or 'breeding values'. However, when predicting phenotypes rather than breeding values of an animal, models that account for both additive and dominance effects might be more accurate. Our aim with this study was to compare the accuracy of predicting phenotypes using a model that accounts for only additive effects (MA) and a model that accounts for both additive and dominance effects simultaneously (MAD). Lifetime daily gain (DG) was evaluated in three pig populations (1424 Pietrain, 2023 Landrace, and 2157 Large White). Animals were genotyped using the Illumina SNP60K Beadchip and assigned to either a training data set to estimate the genetic parameters and SNP effects, or to a validation data set to assess the prediction accuracy. Models MA and MAD applied random regression on SNP genotypes and were implemented in the program Bayz. The additive heritability of DG across the three populations and the two models was very similar at approximately 0.26. The proportion of phenotypic variance explained by dominance effects ranged from 0.04 (Large White) to 0.11 (Pietrain), indicating that importance of dominance might be breed-specific. Prediction accuracies were higher when predicting phenotypes using total genetic values (sum of breeding values and dominance deviations) from the MAD model compared to using breeding values from both MA and MAD models. The highest increase in accuracy (from 0.195 to 0.222) was observed in the Pietrain, and the lowest in Large White (from 0.354 to 0.359). Predicting phenotypes using total genetic values instead of breeding values in purebred data improved prediction accuracy and reduced the bias of genomic predictions. Additional benefit of the method is expected when applied to predict crossbred phenotypes, where dominance levels are expected to be higher. PMID:26676611

  15. Antimicrobial characterisation of CEM-101 activity against respiratory tract pathogens, including multidrug-resistant pneumococcal serogroup 19A isolates.

    PubMed

    Farrell, David J; Sader, Helio S; Castanheira, Mariana; Biedenbach, Douglas J; Rhomberg, Paul R; Jones, Ronald N

    2010-06-01

    CEM-101 is a novel fluorinated macrolide-ketolide with potent activity against bacterial pathogens that are susceptible or resistant to other macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B (MLS(B))-ketolide agents. CEM-101 is being developed for oral and parenteral use in moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of CEM-101 and comparators against contemporary respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolates. A worldwide sample of organisms was used, including Streptococcus pneumoniae [n=168; 59.3% erythromycin-resistant and 18 multidrug-resistant (MDR) serogroup 19A strains], Moraxella catarrhalis (n=21; 11 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus influenzae (n=100; 48 beta-lactamase positive), Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus (n=12), and Legionella pneumophila (n=30). Testing and interpretation were performed using reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methods. CEM-101 was very potent against S. pneumoniae [minimum inhibitory concentration for 90% of the organisms (MIC90)=0.25 mg/L; highest MIC at 0.5 mg/L] and was 2- and > or =32-fold more active than telithromycin and clindamycin, respectively. CEM-101 also demonstrated potent activity against S. pneumoniae MDR-19A strains (MIC90=0.5 mg/L). CEM-101 was the most potent antimicrobial agent tested against L. pneumophila, with all MIC values at < or = 0.015 mg/L (telithromycin MIC90=0.03 mg/L). CEM-101 was as potent as azithromycin against Haemophilus spp. RTI pathogens (MIC90=2 mg/L), with no variations for beta-lactamase production. CEM-101 MIC values against M. catarrhalis were all at < or =0.5mg/L. Interestingly, CEM-101 potency was ca. 6 log(2) dilutions greater than telithromycin MIC results among 44 beta-haemolytic streptococci having telithromycin MICs > or = 2 mg/L. CEM-101 exhibited the greatest potency and widest spectrum of activity against RTI pathogens among the tested MLS(B)-ketolide agents

  16. World-wide link availability for geostationary and critically inclined orbits including rain attenuation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, L. M.

    1981-01-01

    Link availability for constellations of satellites in geostationary and critically inclined orbits is computed using a predictor model based on the Crane 8 region worldwide rain attenuation model. The results are contrasted to percent Earth visibility computations which do not include rain attenuation. For geostationary satellite constellations, the quantitative relationship for Earth coverage vs link margin vs availability vs number of satellites is described by a set of parametric curves.

  17. A New Finite-Conductivity Droplet Evaporation Model Including Liquid Turbulence Effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balasubramanyam, M. S.; Chen, C. P.; Trinh, H. P.

    2006-01-01

    A new approach to account for finite thermal conductivity and turbulence effects within atomizing droplets of an evaporating spray is presented in this paper. The model is an extension of the T-blob and T-TAB atomization/spray model of Trinh and Chen [9]. This finite conductivity model is based on the two-temperature film theory in which the turbulence characteristics of the droplet are used to estimate the effective thermal diffusivity for the liquid-side film thickness. Both one-way and two-way coupled calculations were performed to investigate the performance cf this model against the published experimental data.

  18. Three-dimensional time domain model of lightning including corona effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Podgorski, Andrew S.

    1991-01-01

    A new 3-D lightning model that incorporates the effect of corona is described for the first time. The new model is based on a Thin Wire Time Domain Lightning (TWTDL) Code developed previously. The TWTDL Code was verified during the 1985 and 1986 lightning seasons by the measurements conducted at the 553 m CN Tower in Toronto, Ontario. The inclusion of corona in the TWTDL code allowed study of the corona effects on the lightning current parameters and the associated electric field parameters.

  19. Vibration and buckling of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Coriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle and Coriolis forces on the vibration and buckling behavior of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The beam is considered to be clamped on the axis of rotation in one case, and off the axis of rotation in the other. Two methods are employed for the solution of the vibration problem: (1) one based upon a finite-difference approach using second order central differences for solution of the equations of motion, and (2) based upon the minimum of the total potential energy functional with a Ritz type of solution procedure making use of complex forms of shape functions for the dependent variables. The individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, thickness ratio and Coriolis forces on the natural frequencies and the buckling boundaries are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis effects is necessary for blades of moderate to large thickness ratios while these effects are not so important for small thickness ratio blades. The possibility of buckling due to centrifugal softening terms for large values of precone and rotation is shown.

  20. Subcortical Modulation of Spatial Attention Including Evidence that the Sprague Effect Extends to Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weddell, Rodger A.

    2004-01-01

    The Sprague effect is well-established--small tectal lesions restore visual orientation in the hemianopic field of animals with extensive unilateral geniculo-striate lesions. Studies of human midbrain visual functions are rare. This man with a midbrain tumour developed left-neglect through subsequent right frontal damage. Bilateral orientation…

  1. Dusty Plasma Modeling of the Fusion Reactor Sheath Including Collisional-Radiative Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Dezairi, Aouatif; Samir, Mhamed; Eddahby, Mohamed; Saifaoui, Dennoun; Katsonis, Konstantinos; Berenguer, Chloe

    2008-09-07

    The structure and the behavior of the sheath in Tokamak collisional plasmas has been studied. The sheath is modeled taking into account the presence of the dust{sup 2} and the effects of the charged particle collisions and radiative processes. The latter may allow for optical diagnostics of the plasma.

  2. Effect of low level laser (LLL) on cochlear and vestibular inner ear including tinnitus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Lim, Eun-Seok; Kim, Young-Saeng; Chung, Yong-Won; Jung, Jae-Yun; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2006-02-01

    Objectives: 1. To investigate preventive effect of LLL on gentamicin-induced vestibular ototoxicity. 2. To evaluate the effectiveness of lower level laser (LLL) in the treatment of tinnitus. Methods: 1. Twenty guinea pigs were divided into control and laser groups. Vestibular ototoxicity was induced by intratympanic injection of gentamicin into left ear. LLL was irradiated into left ear canal of animals in laser group. Vestibular function of the animals was evaluated with vertical and off-vertical axis rotation testing. 2. Forty patients with tinnitus were treated with ginkgo biloba orally and randomly divided into control and laser groups. The 20 patients of laser group received 80.4 J/cm2 of 830 nm laser, 3 times per week for 4 weeks, via transmeatal irradiation. Tinnitus was evaluated by visual analogue scale (VAS) and tinnitus handicap inventory (THI). Results: 1. Preventive effect of LLL to gentamicin induced vestibular ototoxicity was demonstrated by preventing reduction of gain in slow harmonic acceleration test and modulation in the off-vertical axis rotation test. 2. Eleven of 20 laser group patients have shown significant improvement in VAS and THI compared to those of the control group. Conclusions: 1. LLL therapy may have preventive effect to vestibular ototoxicity. 2. LLL therapy in combination with ginkgo biloba seems to be worth trying on patients with tinnitus.

  3. Vibration and buckling of rotating, pretwisted, preconed beams including Cooriolis effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle and Coriolis forces on the vibration and buckling behavior of rotating, torsionally rigid, cantilevered beams were studied. The beam is considered to be clamped on the axis of rotation in one case, and off the axis of rotation in the other. Two methods are employed for the solution of the vibration problem: (1) one based upon a finite-difference approach using second order central differences for solution of the equations of motion, and (2) based upon the minimum of the total potential energy functional with a Ritz type of solution procedure making use of complex forms of shape functions for the dependent variables. The individual and collective effects of pretwist, precone, setting angle, thickness ratio and Coriolis forces on the natural frequencies and the buckling boundaries are presented. It is shown that the inclusion of Coriolis effects is necessary for blades of moderate to large thickness ratios while these effects are not so important for small thickness ratio blades. The possibility of buckling due to centrifugal softening terms for large values of precone and rotation is shown.

  4. An Improved Heat Budget Estimation Including Bottom Effects for General Ocean Circulation Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carder, Kendall; Warrior, Hari; Otis, Daniel; Chen, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of the underwater light field on heat-budget calculations of general ocean circulation models for shallow waters. The presence of a bottom significantly alters the estimated heat budget in shallow waters, which affects the corresponding thermal stratification and hence modifies the circulation. Based on the data collected during the COBOP field experiment near the Bahamas, we have used a one-dimensional turbulence closure model to show the influence of the bottom reflection and absorption on the sea surface temperature field. The water depth has an almost one-to-one correlation with the temperature rise. Effects of varying the bottom albedo by replacing the sea grass bed with a coral sand bottom, also has an appreciable effect on the heat budget of the shallow regions. We believe that the differences in the heat budget for the shallow areas will have an influence on the local circulation processes and especially on the evaporative and long-wave heat losses for these areas. The ultimate effects on humidity and cloudiness of the region are expected to be significant as well.

  5. 76 FR 23812 - Reliability and Continuity of Communications Networks, Including Broadband Technologies; Effects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121 (1998). Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe Overload...: Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage or Failure of Network Equipment or Severe...

  6. A long-term stable equilibrium for synchronous binaries including tides and the byorp effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2011-04-01

    We present theoretical evidence for the existence of a long-term stable equilibrium solution for synchronous binary asteroids accounting for mutual body tides, the binary YORP (BYORP) effect and dynamics. Synchronous binary asteroid systems consist of a rapidly spinning primary and a tidally-locked secondary, analogous to the Earth-Moon system. Tidal evolution of these systems leads to growth in the semi-major axis. Evolution from the BYORP effect can lead to both contraction and growth of the semi-major axis. There are two scenarios for joint evolution of a synchronous binary when both effects are considered: expansive and opposing evolution. During joint expansive evolution, both effects grow the semi-major axis. The system will either grow to the Hill sphere and disrupt if tidally dominated, or the mutual orbit will be de-stabilized due to runaway eccentricity growth if BYORP dominated. During joint opposing evolution, tidal and BYORP evolution act to evolve the system to a stable equilibrium. The location of this equilibrium to first order depends on just the tidal parameters, specific tidal dissipation number Q and the tidal Love number k, as well as the BYORP shape coefficient. If the observed population of small (0.1 - 10 km diameter), synchronous binaries are assumed to be in this static configuration, then our analysis shows that a monolithic geophysical model is not satisfactory, whereas the ``rubble pile'' model proposed by Goldreich & Sari (2009) is sufficient to prevent runaway eccentricity growth. The existence of this equilibrium and a secondary shape model built from observations enables direct study of asteroid geophysics through tidal theory. The existence of this equilibrium would be confirmed by a lack of migration in observational tests for the BYORP effect. Goldreich, P. & R. Sari, ApJ, 691:54-60 (2009)

  7. Effects of aircraft noise on human activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnoult, M. D.; Gilfillan, L. G.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of aircrft noise on human activities was investigated by developing a battery of tasks (1) representative of a range of human activities and (2) sensitive to the disruptive effects of noise. The noise used were recordings of jet aircraft and helicopter sounds at three lvels of loudness--60, 70, and 80 dB(A). Experiment 1 investigated 12 different cognitive tasks, along with two intelligibility tasks included to validate that the noises were being effective. Interference with intelligibility was essentially the same as found in the research literature, but only inconsistent effects were found on either accuracy or latency of performance on the cognitive tasks. When the tasks were grouped into four categories (Intelligibility, Matching, Verbal, and Arithmetic), reliable differences in rated annoyingness of the noises were related to the task category and to the type of noise (jet or helicopter).

  8. Including children with autism in general education classrooms. A review of effective strategies.

    PubMed

    Harrower, J K; Dunlap, G

    2001-10-01

    Children with autism can benefit from participation in inclusive classroom environments, and many experts assert that inclusion is a civil right and is responsible for nurturing appropriate social development. However, most children with autism require specialized supports to experience success in these educational contexts. This article provides a review of the empirical research that has addressed procedures for promoting successful inclusion of students with autism. Strategies reviewed include antecedent manipulations, delayed contingencies, self-management, peer-mediated interventions, and other approaches that have been demonstrated in the literature to be useful. The article concludes with a discussion of future research needs. PMID:11573339

  9. Atomistic spin dynamic method with both damping and moment of inertia effects included from first principles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Nordström, Lars; Fransson, Jonas

    2012-02-01

    We consider spin dynamics for implementation in an atomistic framework and we address the feasibility of capturing processes in the femtosecond regime by inclusion of moment of inertia. In the spirit of an s-d-like interaction between the magnetization and electron spin, we derive a generalized equation of motion for the magnetization dynamics in the semiclassical limit, which is nonlocal in both space and time. Using this result we retain a generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, also including the moment of inertia, and demonstrate how the exchange interaction, damping, and moment of inertia, all can be calculated from first principles. PMID:22400957

  10. Liquid-Liquid Displacement Flows in a Hele-Shaw Cell including Viscoplastic Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza Mendes, Paulo R.; Varges, Priscilla R.

    2008-07-01

    Viscous fingering in non-Newtonian fluids in a rectangular Hele-Shaw cell is investigated. This cell is filled with aqueous solutions of carbopol in two different concentrations. A Newtonian mineral oil is then injected into the cell and the displacement is observed. A digital camera is used to capture images of the interface between the fluids during the flow. Applications include displacement of heavy crude oil in reservoirs. The main parameters that govern this flow are the viscosity ratio, the rheological capillary number, and the (dimensionless) flow rate. The interface shape is given for two different values of flow rate and viscosity ratio.

  11. Taylor Series Trajectory Calculations Including Oblateness Effects and Variable Atmospheric Density

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, James R.

    2011-01-01

    Taylor series integration is implemented in NASA Glenn's Spacecraft N-body Analysis Program, and compared head-to-head with the code's existing 8th- order Runge-Kutta Fehlberg time integration scheme. This paper focuses on trajectory problems that include oblateness and/or variable atmospheric density. Taylor series is shown to be significantly faster and more accurate for oblateness problems up through a 4x4 field, with speedups ranging from a factor of 2 to 13. For problems with variable atmospheric density, speedups average 24 for atmospheric density alone, and average 1.6 to 8.2 when density and oblateness are combined.

  12. Simultaneous BVI noise and vibration reduction in rotorcraft using actively-controlled flaps and including performance considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patt, Daniel A.

    This work presents the development and application of an active control approach for reduction of both vibration and noise induced by helicopter rotor blade vortex interaction (BVI). Control is implemented through single or dual actively controlled flaps (ACFs) on each blade. Low-speed helicopter flight is prone to severe BVI, resulting in elevated vibration and noise levels. Existing research has suggested that when some form of active control is used to reduce vibration, noise will increase and vice versa. The present research achieves simultaneous reduction of noise and vibration, and also investigates the physical sources of the observed reduction. The initial portion of this work focused on developing a tool for simulating helicopter noise and vibrations in the BVI flight regime. A method for predicting compressible unsteady blade surface pressure distribution on rotor blades was developed and combined with an enhanced free-wake model and an acoustic prediction tool with provisions for blade flexibility. These elements were incorporated within an aeroelastic analysis featuring fully coupled flap-lag-torsional blade dynamics. Subsequently, control algorithms were developed that were effective for reducing noise and vibration even in the nonlinear BVI flight regime; saturation limits were incorporated constraining flap deflections to specified limits. The resulting simulation was also validated with a wide range of experimental data, achieving excellent correlation. Finally, a number of active control studies were performed. Multi-component vibration reductions of 40--80% could be achieved, while incurring a small noise penalty. Noise was reduced using an onboard feedback microphone; reductions of 4--10 dB on the advancing side were observed on a plane beneath the rotor when using dual flaps. Finally, simultaneous noise and vibration reduction was studied. A reduction of about 5 dB in noise on the advancing side combined with a 60% reduction in vibration was

  13. Effective time-independent studies on resonance Raman spectroscopy of trans-stilbene including the Duschinsky effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Na; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara; Zhao, Xian; Ruud, Kenneth; Santoro, Fabrizio

    2013-07-01

    We simulate the resonance Raman spectra of trans-stilbene using a recently developed time-independent method that allows computations of the full two-dimensional spectrum as a function of the incident and scattered frequencies, including both the Franck-Condon and the Herzberg-Teller contributions. The potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the ground and resonant states are described in the harmonic approximation using density functional theory PBE0/6-31+G(d,p) calculations in gas phase and in cyclohexane. The simulated spectra are in good agreement with the experimental data [J. Chem. Phys. 83, 5000 (1985)] measured at four different excitation wavelengths, and allow us to unambiguously assign the main experimental bands. We perform an extensive comparison of the performance of four different vertical or adiabatic models for the PES of the resonant state, dissecting the effects of nuclear displacements and Duschinsky mixings on the spectra.

  14. A finite element stress analysis of spur gears including fillet radii and rim thickness effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1982-01-01

    Spur gear stress analysis results are presented for a variety of loading conditions, support conditions, fillet radii, and rim thickness. These results are obtained using the SAP IV finite-element code. The maximum stresses, occurring at the root surface, substantially increase with decreasing rim thickness for partially supported rims (that is, with loose-fitting hubs). For fully supported rims (that is, with tight-fitting hubs), the root surface stresses slightly decrease with decreasing rim thickness. The fillet radius is found to have a significant effect upon the maximum stresses at the root surface. These stresses increase with increasing fillet radius. The fillet radius has little effect upon the internal root section stresses.

  15. Stellar evolution at high mass including the effect of a stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stothers, R.; Chin, C.-W.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of a stellar wind on the evolution of stars in the mass range from 15 to 120 solar masses is investigated. All the stellar models are constructed with the use of Cox-Stewart opacities. Four possible cases of mass loss are considered: (1) no mass loss at all; (2) substantial mass loss from stars in all stages of evolution; (3) heavy mass loss from red supergiants only; and (4) sudden and very heavy mass loss from luminous yellow supergiants. The assumption of mass loss during the main-sequence phase of evolution is found to lead to a lowering of the luminosity and, unless the mass loss is extremely heavy, of the effective temperature as well. A comparison of the adopted mass-loss rates with observed rates suggests that stellar winds are probably not an important factor in the evolution of main-sequence stars and supergiants unless the initial masses are greater than about 30 solar masses.

  16. Spacecraft VHF Radio Propagation Analysis in Ocean Environments Including Atmospheric Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwu, Shian; Moreno, Gerardo; Desilva, Kanishka; Jih, CIndy

    2010-01-01

    The Communication Systems Simulation Laboratory (CSSL) at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/Johnson Space Center (JSC) is tasked to perform spacecraft and ground network communication system simulations. The CSSL has developed simulation tools that model spacecraft communication systems and the space/ground environment in which they operate. This paper is to analyze a spacecraft's very high frequency (VHF) radio signal propagation and the impact to performance when landing in an ocean. Very little research work has been done for VHF radio systems in a maritime environment. Rigorous Radio Frequency (RF) modeling/simulation techniques were employed for various environmental effects. The simulation results illustrate the significance of the environmental effects on the VHF radio system performance.

  17. The Survival Kit: software to analyze survival data including possibly correlated random effects.

    PubMed

    Mészáros, G; Sölkner, J; Ducrocq, V

    2013-06-01

    The Survival Kit is a Fortran 90 Software intended for survival analysis using proportional hazards models and their extension to frailty models with a single response time. The hazard function is described as the product of a baseline hazard function and a positive (exponential) function of possibly time-dependent fixed and random covariates. Stratified Cox, grouped data and Weibull models can be used. Random effects can be either log-gamma or normally distributed and can account for a pedigree structure. Variance parameters are estimated in a Bayesian context. It is possible to account for the correlated nature of two random effects either by specifying a known correlation coefficient or estimating it from the data. An R interface of the Survival Kit provides a user friendly way to run the software. PMID:23399103

  18. Theoretical analysis on polarization-induced resistance switching effects of polymer thin films including dead layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honmi, Hitoshi; Hashizume, Yoichiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Okamura, Soichiro

    2015-10-01

    Polarization-induced resistance switching effects are analytically investigated. The electrostatic potential profile in metal is expressed by the Thomas-Fermi screening theory at the metal/ferroelectric interface. We estimate the current density using an assumed effective potential in metal/ferroelectric/metal junctions. Furthermore, we focus on the existence of a lower permittivity region such as a “dead layer” located at the boundary between the metal electrode and the ferroelectric material. In order to explain the ON/OFF ratio obtained in the experiment, we suggest that the dead layer near the smaller-work-function electrode side should be thicker by 2-3 Å than another electrode. Consequently, we propose a new hypothesis, that is, the thickness of the dead layer controls the ratio of resistance switching.

  19. Predictive simulations and optimization of nanowire field-effect PSA sensors including screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Stefan; Heitzinger, Clemens; Vacic, Aleksandar; Reed, Mark A.

    2013-06-01

    We apply our self-consistent PDE model for the electrical response of field-effect sensors to the 3D simulation of nanowire PSA (prostate-specific antigen) sensors. The charge concentration in the biofunctionalized boundary layer at the semiconductor-electrolyte interface is calculated using the propka algorithm, and the screening of the biomolecules by the free ions in the liquid is modeled by a sensitivity factor. This comprehensive approach yields excellent agreement with experimental current-voltage characteristics without any fitting parameters. Having verified the numerical model in this manner, we study the sensitivity of nanowire PSA sensors by changing device parameters, making it possible to optimize the devices and revealing the attributes of the optimal field-effect sensor.

  20. A theoretical investigation of electric properties of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate including environment polarization effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fonseca, T. L.; Sabino, J. R.; Castro, M. A.; Georg, H. C.

    2010-10-01

    The dipole moment (μ), linear polarizability (α¯), and first hyperpolarizability (βtot) of the asymmetric unit of L-arginine phosphate (LAP) monohydrate crystal are investigated using the supermolecule approach in combination with an iterative electrostatic polarization scheme. Environment polarization effects are attained by assuring the convergence of the dipole moment of LAP embedded in the polarization field of the surrounding molecules whose atomic sites are treated as point charges. The results obtained show that in the presence of the embedding charges, the value of μ is increased by 9% but the static values of α¯ and βtot are decreased, respectively, by 3% and 13%, as compared with the isolated situation. The MP2/6-311+G(d) model predicts for the in-crystal dipole moment the converged value of 33 D, in good concordance with the available experimental result of 32 D. Our estimates for the converged results of α¯ and βtot are, respectively, 22.51×10-24 and 5.01×10-30 esu. Dispersion effects are found to have a small impact on the nonlinear optical responses of LAP in the visible region. In addition, MP2/6-311G results obtained for βtot by using isolated and embedded LAP dimers show that crystal packing effects have a significant contribution of the electrostatic interactions. Our results suggest that the role of the crystal environment is to minimize the effects of the intermolecular interactions in the electric properties. That is, μ and βtot gain a more additive character in the presence of the field of the embedding charges. This is specially marked for βtot.

  1. Investigation of Structural Dynamics in a 2-Meter Square Solar Sail Model Including Axial Load Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, D. B.; Virgin, L. N.; Belvin, W. K.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a parameter study of the effect of boom axial loading on the global dynamics of a 2-meter solar sail scale model. The experimental model used is meant for building expertise in finite element analysis and experimental execution, not as a predecessor to any planned flight mission or particular design concept. The results here are to demonstrate the ability to predict and measure structural dynamics and mode shapes in the presence of axial loading.

  2. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Talbot Effect in Three Waveguide Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi; Zhou, Hai-Feng; Yang, Jian-Yi; Jiang, Xiao-Qing

    2008-09-01

    By taking the coupling between the non-neighbourhood waveguides into account, the coupling characteristic of three waveguide arrays is analysed. The strong coupling equation of three waveguides is dealt with Laplace transform and LU decomposition. The general field evolution equation is obtained by inversion of the Laplace transform. The results show that the self-imaging conditions (Talbot effect) do not satisfy in general. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the BPM simulations.

  3. Effective properties analysis of a piezoelectric composite including conducting phase using a numerical homogenization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Rongguo; Hao, Lifeng

    2011-11-01

    Piezoelectric composites find increasing applications in the field of smart materials, mainly as sensors and transducer. However, accurately predicting its performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, we analyzed the electromechanical properties of a three-phase piezoelectric composite with titanate piezoelectric ceramics powders (PZT-5H) and carbon black embedded in an epoxy matrix by a finite element numerical method. A homogenizing micromechanical model is applied, which is capable to provide various property parameters of the piezoelectric composite, such as dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant. The calculation verifies that the electric network formed by the conducting-phase carbon black(CB) can effectively improve the electromechanical performance of the piezoelectric composites. The effect of different content of the carbon black is also taken in consideration in the simulation. A good fit between the calculation and the experimental results clearly shows that the homogenizing modeling is able to accurately predict the electromechanical properties of the three-phase piezoelectric composite. This work will contribute to optimize the material function design and analyze the effect of conduct phase on the piezoelectric composites.

  4. Effective properties analysis of a piezoelectric composite including conducting phase using a numerical homogenization approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hongming; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Rongguo; Hao, Lifeng

    2012-04-01

    Piezoelectric composites find increasing applications in the field of smart materials, mainly as sensors and transducer. However, accurately predicting its performance is still a challenging task. In this paper, we analyzed the electromechanical properties of a three-phase piezoelectric composite with titanate piezoelectric ceramics powders (PZT-5H) and carbon black embedded in an epoxy matrix by a finite element numerical method. A homogenizing micromechanical model is applied, which is capable to provide various property parameters of the piezoelectric composite, such as dielectric constant, piezoelectric constant. The calculation verifies that the electric network formed by the conducting-phase carbon black(CB) can effectively improve the electromechanical performance of the piezoelectric composites. The effect of different content of the carbon black is also taken in consideration in the simulation. A good fit between the calculation and the experimental results clearly shows that the homogenizing modeling is able to accurately predict the electromechanical properties of the three-phase piezoelectric composite. This work will contribute to optimize the material function design and analyze the effect of conduct phase on the piezoelectric composites.

  5. SPECTROSCOPIC ANALYSIS OF DA WHITE DWARFS: STARK BROADENING OF HYDROGEN LINES INCLUDING NONIDEAL EFFECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P. E-mail: bergeron@astro.umontreal.ca

    2009-05-10

    We present improved calculations for the Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in dense plasmas typical of white dwarf atmospheres. Our new model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper, and Smith. For the first time, we account for the nonideal effects in a consistent way directly inside the line profile calculations. The Hummer and Mihalas theory is used to describe the nonideal effects due to perturbations on the absorber from protons and electrons. We use a truncation of the electric microfield distribution in the quasi-static proton broadening to take into account the fact that high electric microfields dissociate the upper state of a transition. This approach represents a significant improvement over previous calculations that relied on the use of an ad hoc parameter to mimic these nonideal effects. We obtain the first model spectra with line profiles that are consistent with the equation of state. We revisit the properties of DA stars in the range 40,000 K >T {sub eff}> 13,000 K by analyzing the optical spectra with our improved models. The updated atmospheric parameters are shown to differ substantially from those published in previous studies, with a mean mass shifted by +0.034 M {sub sun}. We also show that these revised atmospheric parameters yield absolute visual magnitudes that remain in excellent agreement with trigonometric parallax measurements.

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of DA White Dwarfs: Stark Broadening of Hydrogen Lines Including Nonideal Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, P.-E.; Bergeron, P.

    2009-05-01

    We present improved calculations for the Stark broadening of hydrogen lines in dense plasmas typical of white dwarf atmospheres. Our new model is based on the unified theory of Stark broadening from Vidal, Cooper, and Smith. For the first time, we account for the nonideal effects in a consistent way directly inside the line profile calculations. The Hummer and Mihalas theory is used to describe the nonideal effects due to perturbations on the absorber from protons and electrons. We use a truncation of the electric microfield distribution in the quasi-static proton broadening to take into account the fact that high electric microfields dissociate the upper state of a transition. This approach represents a significant improvement over previous calculations that relied on the use of an ad hoc parameter to mimic these nonideal effects. We obtain the first model spectra with line profiles that are consistent with the equation of state. We revisit the properties of DA stars in the range 40,000 K >T eff> 13,000 K by analyzing the optical spectra with our improved models. The updated atmospheric parameters are shown to differ substantially from those published in previous studies, with a mean mass shifted by +0.034 M sun. We also show that these revised atmospheric parameters yield absolute visual magnitudes that remain in excellent agreement with trigonometric parallax measurements.

  7. Analysis of a two-fluid EHD power generator including effects of compressibility

    SciTech Connect

    Gawain, T.H.; Biblarz, O.

    1980-01-01

    A detailed analysis and method of calculation is presented for determining the complete thermodynamic cycle of either a one-fluid or a two-fluid electrohydrodynamic (EHD) power generator. The analysis takes fully into account the compressibility of the media. Parameters are included which express the thermodynamic losses in the various components of the overall system. The severe restriction on output created by the electrical breakdown limit of the medium is clearly shown. The method for computing the net-electrical work output per unit mass of primary fluid and the net overall thermal efficiency of the system is carefully developed. The calculation procedure is illustrated by a completely worked out numerical example. The techniques presented here may be used to determine the performance possibilities and limitations of various one-fluid and two-fluid EHD power generators.

  8. Simulation of thermal reset transitions in resistive switching memories including quantum effects

    SciTech Connect

    Villena, M. A.; Jiménez-Molinos, F.; Roldán, J. B.; Suñé, J.; Miranda, E.; Romera, E.

    2014-06-07

    An in-depth study of reset processes in RRAMs (Resistive Random Access Memories) based on Ni/HfO{sub 2}/Si-n{sup +} structures has been performed. To do so, we have developed a physically based simulator where both ohmic and tunneling based conduction regimes are considered along with the thermal description of the devices. The devices under study have been successfully fabricated and measured. The experimental data are correctly reproduced with the simulator for devices with a single conductive filament as well as for devices including several conductive filaments. The contribution of each conduction regime has been explained as well as the operation regimes where these ohmic and tunneling conduction processes dominate.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical simulation of equatorial spread F including bottomside shear flow effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aveiro, H. C.; Hysell, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    A three-dimensional numerical simulation of plasma density irregularities in the postsunset equatorial F region ionosphere leading to equatorial spread F (ESF) is described. The simulation advances the plasma number density and electrostatic potential forward in time by enforcing the constraints of quasineutrality and momentum conservation for atomic and molecular species. The magnetic field lines are not modeled as equipotentials. Simulations are performed incorporating realistic background circulation including bottomside shear flow and strong vertical current. Generalized Rayleigh Taylor instability is found to combine with collisional shear instability to produce growing waveforms with characteristics that match observations more closely than either instability acting alone. The growth rate of the emergent instability, its mixing depth, and its overall morphology are compared with radar data from Jicamarca and Kwajalein.

  10. A new capability for predicting helicopter rotor and propeller noise including the effect of forward motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farassat, F.; Brown, T. J.

    1977-01-01

    The governing equation and computing technique for the prediction of helicopter rotor and propeller noise are described. The method which gives both the acoustic pressure time history and spectrum of the noise includes the thickness and the loading noise. It was adapted to computers resulting in a new capability in noise prediction by removing many of the restrictions and limitations of previous theories. The capability results from the fact that the theory is developed entirely in the time domain. The formulation and the technique used are not limited to compact sources, steady level flight or to the far-field. In addition, the inputs to the computer program are normally available or are amenable to experimental measurements. This program can be used to study rotor and propeller noise with the aim of minimizing the radiated noise to reduce annoyance to the public. Several examples demonstrating the features and capability of the computer program are presented.

  11. The effects of a new therapeutic triclosan/copolymer/sodium-fluoride dentifrice on oral bacteria, including odorigenic species.

    PubMed

    Furgang, David; Sreenivasan, Prem K; Zhang, Yun Po; Fine, Daniel H; Cummins, Diane

    2003-09-01

    This investigation examined the in vitro and ex vivo antimicrobial effects of a new dentifrice, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh, formulated with triclosan/copolymer/sodium fluoride, on oral bacteria, including those odorigenic bacteria implicated in bad breath. The effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were compared to commercially available fluoride dentifrices that served as controls. Three experimental approaches were undertaken for these studies. In the first approach, the dentifrice formulations were tested in vitro against 13 species of oral bacteria implicated in bad breath. The second approach examined the antimicrobial activity derived from dentifrice that was adsorbed to and released from hydroxyapatite disks. In this approach, dentifrice-treated hydroxyapatite disks were immersed in a suspension of bacteria, and reduction in bacterial viability from the release of bioactive agents from hydroxyapatite was determined. The third approach examined the effect of treating bacteria immediately after their removal from the oral cavity of 11 adult human volunteers. This ex vivo study examined the viability of cultivable oral bacteria after dentifrice treatment for 2 minutes. Antimicrobial effects were determined by plating Colgate Total Advanced Fresh and control-dentifrice-treated samples on enriched media (for all cultivable oral bacteria) and indicator media (for hydrogen-sulfide-producing organisms), respectively. Results indicated that the antimicrobial effects of Colgate Total Advanced Fresh were significantly greater than either of the other dentifrices for all 13 oral odorigenic bacterial strains tested in vitro (P < or = 0.05). In the second approach, Colgate Total Advanced Fresh-treated hydroxyapatite disks were significantly more active in reducing bacterial growth than the other dentifrices tested (P < or = 0.05). Finally, ex vivo treatment of oral bacteria with Colgate Total Advanced Fresh demonstrated a 90.9% reduction of all oral cultivable bacteria

  12. Particle-in-cell simulations for virtual cathode oscillator including foil ablation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gursharn; Chaturvedi, S.

    2011-06-01

    We have performed two- and three-dimensional, relativistic, electromagnetic, particle-in-cell simulations of an axially extracted virtual cathode oscillator (vircator). The simulations include, for the first time, self-consistent dynamics of the anode foil under the influence of the intense electron beam. This yields the variation of microwave output power as a function of time, including the role of anode ablation and anode-cathode gap closure. These simulations have been done using locally developed particle-in-cell (PIC) codes. The codes have been validated using two vircator designs available from the literature. The simulations reported in the present paper take account of foil ablation due to the intense electron flux, the resulting plasma expansion and shorting of the anode-cathode gap. The variation in anode transparency due to plasma formation is automatically taken into account. We find that damage is generally higher near the axis. Also, at all radial positions, there is little damage in the early stages, followed by a period of rapid erosion, followed in turn by low damage rates. A physical explanation has been given for these trends. As a result of gap closure due to plasma formation from the foil, the output microwave power initially increases, reaches a near-flat-top and then decreases steadily, reaching a minimum around 230 ns. This is consistent with a typical plasma expansion velocity of ˜2 cm/μs reported in the literature. We also find a significant variation in the dominant output frequency, from 6.3 to 7.6 GHz. This variation is small as long as the plasma density is small, up to ˜40 ns. As the AK gap starts filling with plasma, there is a steady increase in this frequency.

  13. Path-integral calculation of the second virial coefficient including intramolecular flexibility effects

    SciTech Connect

    Garberoglio, Giovanni; Jankowski, Piotr; Szalewicz, Krzysztof; Harvey, Allan H.

    2014-07-28

    We present a path-integral Monte Carlo procedure for the fully quantum calculation of the second molecular virial coefficient accounting for intramolecular flexibility. This method is applied to molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) and deuterium (D{sub 2}) in the temperature range 15–2000 K, showing that the effect of molecular flexibility is not negligible. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data, as well as with virials given by recent empirical equations of state, although some discrepancies are observed for H{sub 2} between 100 and 200 K.

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics, including effect of body shape, of a Mach 6 aircraft concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riebe, G. D.

    1983-01-01

    Longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics for a hydrogen-fueled hypersonic transport concept at Mach 6 are presented. The model components consist of four bodies with identical longitudinal area distributions but different cross-sectional shapes and widths, a wing, horizontal and vertical tails, and a set of wing-mounted nacelles simulated by slid bodies on the wing upper surface. Lift-drag ratios were found to be only sightly affected by fuselage planform width or cross sectional shape. Relative distribution of fuselage volume above and below the wing was found to have an effect on the lift-drag ratio, with a higher lift drag ratio produced by the higher wing position.

  15. Parametric reduced-order models of battery pack vibration including structural variation and prestress effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sung-Kwon; Epureanu, Bogdan I.; Castanier, Matthew P.

    2014-09-01

    The goal of this work is to develop a numerical model for the vibration of hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) battery packs to enable probabilistic forced response simulations for the effects of variations. There are two important types of variations that affect their structural response significantly: the prestress that is applied when joining the cells within a pack; and the small, random structural property discrepancies among the cells of a battery pack. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows. In order to account for these two important variations, a new parametric reduced order model (PROM) formulation is derived by employing three key observations: (1) the stiffness matrix can be parameterized for different levels of prestress, (2) the mode shapes of a battery pack with cell-to-cell variation can be represented as a linear combination of the mode shapes of the nominal system, and (3) the frame holding each cell has vibratory motion. A numerical example of an academic battery pack with pouch cells is presented to demonstrate that the PROM captures the effects of both prestress and structural variation on battery packs. The PROM is validated numerically by comparing full-order finite element models (FEMs) of the same systems.

  16. Kinetic model of water disinfection using peracetic acid including synergistic effects.

    PubMed

    Flores, Marina J; Brandi, Rodolfo J; Cassano, Alberto E; Labas, Marisol D

    2016-01-01

    The disinfection efficiencies of a commercial mixture of peracetic acid against Escherichia coli were studied in laboratory scale experiments. The joint and separate action of two disinfectant agents, hydrogen peroxide and peracetic acid, were evaluated in order to observe synergistic effects. A kinetic model for each component of the mixture and for the commercial mixture was proposed. Through simple mathematical equations, the model describes different stages of attack by disinfectants during the inactivation process. Based on the experiments and the kinetic parameters obtained, it could be established that the efficiency of hydrogen peroxide was much lower than that of peracetic acid alone. However, the contribution of hydrogen peroxide was very important in the commercial mixture. It should be noted that this improvement occurred only after peracetic acid had initiated the attack on the cell. This synergistic effect was successfully explained by the proposed scheme and was verified by experimental results. Besides providing a clearer mechanistic understanding of water disinfection, such models may improve our ability to design reactors. PMID:26819382

  17. Environmental impact assessment including indirect effects--a case study using input-output analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lenzen, Manfred; Murray, Shauna A.; Korte, Britta; Dey, Christopher J

    2003-05-01

    Environmental impact assessment (EIA) is a process covered by several international standards, dictating that as many environmental aspects as possible should be identified in a project appraisal. While the ISO 14011 standard stipulates a broad-ranging study, off-site, indirect impacts are not specifically required for an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The reasons for this may relate to the perceived difficulty of measuring off-site impacts, or the assumption that these are a relatively insignificant component of the total impact. In this work, we describe a method that uses input-output analysis to calculate the indirect effects of a development proposal in terms of several indicator variables. The results of our case study of a Second Sydney Airport show that the total impacts are considerably higher than the on-site impacts for the indicators land disturbance, greenhouse gas emissions, water use, emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2}, and employment. We conclude that employing input-output analysis enhances conventional EIA, as it allows for national and international effects to be taken into account in the decision-making process.

  18. Numerical simulation of cavitating channel flows including non-condensable gases effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battistoni, Michele; Som, Sibendu; Longman, Douglas E.

    2013-11-01

    Fuel injectors often feature cavitation because of large pressure gradients which in some regions lead to extremely low pressure levels. Numerical results are assessed against quantitative high resolution experimental data collected at Argonne National Laboratory using synchrotron x-ray radiography on real-size fuel nozzles. Simulation are performed on structured embedded grids using finite volume method and second-order discretization schemes in space and time. A single fluid homogeneous mixture model is compared to a multi-fluid non-homogeneous model. Two mass transfer models for predicting cavitation are also studied. RANS and LES cases are presented. The presence of dissolved gases in the multi-phase flow is addressed and their effect has been accounted for by running compressible three-phase flow simulations. The study highlights the importance of accounting for dissolved gases in the liquid, since some void formations, which could be attributed to cavitation, are actually due to non-condensable gas expansion. A discussion about the effect of turbulent pressure fluctuations on cavitation inception is also presented. Visiting Scholar at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago IL; Assistant Professor at University of Perugia, Italy.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of several current helicopter tail boom cross sections including the effect of spoilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, J. C.; Kelley, H. L.

    1986-01-01

    Aerodynamic characteristics were determined of three cylindrical shapes representative of tail boom cross sections of the U.S. Army AH-64, UH-60, and UH-1H helicopters. Forces and pressures were measured in a wind-tunnel investigation at the Langley Research Center. Data were obtained for a flow incidence range from -45 to 90 deg and a dynamic pressure range from 1.5 to 50 psf. These ranges provided data representative of full-scale Reynolds numbers and the full range of flow incidence to which these helicopter tail boom shapes would be subjected at low flight speeds. The effects of protuberances such as tail rotor drive-shaft covers and spoilers were evaluated. The data indicate that significant side loads on tail booms of helicopters can be generated and that the addition of spoilers can beneficially alter the side loads. Although an increase in vertical drag occurs, the net effect through reduction of tail rotor thrust required can be an improvement in helicopter performance.

  20. Ethical objections against including life-extension costs in cost-effectiveness analysis: a consistent approach.

    PubMed

    Gandjour, Afschin; Müller, Dirk

    2014-10-01

    One of the major ethical concerns regarding cost-effectiveness analysis in health care has been the inclusion of life-extension costs ("it is cheaper to let people die"). For this reason, many analysts have opted to rule out life-extension costs from the analysis. However, surprisingly little has been written in the health economics literature regarding this ethical concern and the resulting practice. The purpose of this work was to present a framework and potential solution for ethical objections against life-extension costs. This work found three levels of ethical concern: (i) with respect to all life-extension costs (disease-related and -unrelated); (ii) with respect to disease-unrelated costs only; and (iii) regarding disease-unrelated costs plus disease-related costs not influenced by the intervention. Excluding all life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-for reasons of consistency-a simultaneous exclusion of savings from reducing morbidity. At the other extreme, excluding only disease-unrelated life-extension costs for ethical reasons would require-again for reasons of consistency-the exclusion of health gains due to treatment of unrelated diseases. Therefore, addressing ethical concerns regarding the inclusion of life-extension costs necessitates fundamental changes in the calculation of cost effectiveness. PMID:25027546

  1. Ducted fan acoustic radiation including the effects of nonuniform mean flow and acoustic treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eversman, Walter; Roy, Indranil Danda

    1993-01-01

    Forward and aft acoustic propagation and radiation from a ducted fan is modeled using a finite element discretization of the acoustic field equations. The fan noise source is introduced as equivalent body forces representing distributed blade loading. The flow in and around the nacelle is assumed to be nonuniform, reflecting the effects of forward flight and flow into the inlet. Refraction due to the fan exit jet shear layer is not represented. Acoustic treatment on the inlet and exhaust duct surfaces provides a mechanism for attenuation. In a region enclosing the fan a pressure formulation is used with the assumption of locally uniform flow. Away from the fan a velocity potential formulation is used and the flow is assumed nonuniform but irrotational. A procedure is developed for matching the two regions by making use of local duct modal amplitudes as transition state variables and determining the amplitudes by enforcing natural boundary conditions at the interface between adjacent regions in which pressure and velocity potential are used. Simple models of rotor alone and rotor/exit guide vane generated noise are used to demonstrate the calculation of the radiated acoustic field and to show the effect of acoustic treatment. The model has been used to assess the success of four techniques for acoustic lining optimization in reducing far field noise.

  2. Laser ablation of electronic materials including the effects of energy coupling and plasma interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng, Xianzhong

    2004-12-10

    Many laser ablation applications such as laser drilling and micromachining generate cavity structures. The study of laser ablation inside a cavity is of both fundamental and practical significance. In this dissertation, cavities with different aspect ratios (depth/diameter) were fabricated in fused silica by laser micromachining. Pulsed laser ablation in the cavities was studied and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. The formation of laser-induced plasmas in the cavities and the effects of the cavities on the ablation processes were investigated. The temperatures and electron number densities of the resulting laser-induced plasmas in the cavities were determined from spectroscopic measurements. Reflection and confinement effects by the cavity walls and plasma shielding were discussed to explain the increased temperature and electron number density with respect to increasing cavity aspect ratio. The temporal variations of the plasma temperature and electron number density inside the cavity decreased more rapidly than outside the cavity. The effect of laser energy on formation of a plasma inside a cavity was also investigated. Propagation of the shock wave generated during pulsed laser ablation in cavities was measured using laser shadowgraph imaging and compared with laser ablation on a flat surface. It is found that outside the cavity, after about 30 ns the radius of the expanding shock wave was proportional to t2/5, which corresponds to a spherical blast wave. The calculated pressures and temperatures of the shocked air outside of the cavities were higher than those obtained on the flat surface. Lasers with femtosecond pulse duration are receiving much attention for direct fabrication of microstructures due to their capabilities of high-precision ablation with minimal damage to the sample. We have also performed experimental studies of pulsed femtosecond laser ablation on the flat surface of silicon samples and compared results with pulsed nanosecond

  3. Progress in turbulence modeling for complex flow fields including effects of compressibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, D. C.; Rubesin, M. W.

    1980-01-01

    Two second-order-closure turbulence models were devised that are suitable for predicting properties of complex turbulent flow fields in both incompressible and compressible fluids. One model is of the "two-equation" variety in which closure is accomplished by introducing an eddy viscosity which depends on both a turbulent mixing energy and a dissipation rate per unit energy, that is, a specific dissipation rate. The other model is a "Reynolds stress equation" (RSE) formulation in which all components of the Reynolds stress tensor and turbulent heat-flux vector are computed directly and are scaled by the specific dissipation rate. Computations based on these models are compared with measurements for the following flow fields: (a) low speed, high Reynolds number channel flows with plane strain or uniform shear; (b) equilibrium turbulent boundary layers with and without pressure gradients or effects of compressibility; and (c) flow over a convex surface with and without a pressure gradient.

  4. A Model for Predicting Grain Boundary Cracking in Polycrystalline Viscoplastic Materials Including Scale Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, D.H.; Helms, K.L.E.; Hurtado, L.D.

    1999-04-06

    A model is developed herein for predicting the mechanical response of inelastic crystalline solids. Particular emphasis is given to the development of microstructural damage along grain boundaries, and the interaction of this damage with intragranular inelasticity caused by dislocation dissipation mechanisms. The model is developed within the concepts of continuum mechanics, with special emphasis on the development of internal boundaries in the continuum by utilizing a cohesive zone model based on fracture mechanics. In addition, the crystalline grains are assumed to be characterized by nonlinear viscoplastic mechanical material behavior in order to account for dislocation generation and migration. Due to the nonlinearities introduced by the crack growth and viscoplastic constitution, a numerical algorithm is utilized to solve representative problems. Implementation of the model to a finite element computational algorithm is therefore briefly described. Finally, sample calculations are presented for a polycrystalline titanium alloy with particular focus on effects of scale on the predicted response.

  5. Potential energy surface for C2H4I2+ dissociation including spin-orbit effects

    SciTech Connect

    Siebert, Matthew R.; Aquino, Adelia J.; De Jong, Wibe A.; Granucci, Giovanni; Hase, William L.

    2012-10-24

    Previous experiments [Baer, et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 2833 (2012)] have studied the dissociation of 1,2-diiodoethane radical cation (C2H4I2+•) and found a one-dimensional distribution of translational energy; an odd finding considering most product relative translational energy distributions are two-dimensional. The goal of this study is to obtain an accurate understanding of the potential energy surface (PES) topology for the unimolecular decomposition reaction C2H4I2+• - C2H4I+ + I•. This is done through comparison of many single-reference electronic structure methods, coupled-cluster single point (energy) calculations, and multi-reference calculations used to quantify spin-orbit (SO) coupling effects. We find that the structure of the C2H4I2+• reactant has a substantial effect on the role of SO coupling on the reaction energy. Both the BHandH and MP2 theories with an ECP/6-31++G** basis set, and without SO coupling corrections, provide accurate models for the reaction energetics. MP2 theory gives an unsymmetric structure with different C-I bond lengths, resulting in a SO energy for C2H4I2+• similar to that for the product I-atom and a negligible SO correction to the reaction energy. In contrast, DFT gives a symmetric structure for C2H4I2+•, similar to that of the neutral C2H4I2 parent, resulting in a substantial SO correction and increasing the reaction energy by 6.0-6.5 kcal/mol. Also, we find that for this system single point energy calculations are inaccurate, since a small change in geometry can lead to a large change in energy.

  6. Theory of membrane capacitive deionization including the effect of the electrode pore space.

    PubMed

    Biesheuvel, P M; Zhao, R; Porada, S; van der Wal, A

    2011-08-01

    Membrane capacitive deionization (MCDI) is a technology for water desalination based on applying an electrical field between two oppositely placed porous electrodes. Ions are removed from the water flowing through a channel in between the electrodes and are stored inside the electrodes. Ion-exchange membranes are placed in front of the electrodes allowing for counterion transfer from the channel into the electrode, while retaining the coions inside the electrode structure. We set up an extended theory for MCDI which includes in the description for the porous electrodes not only the electrostatic double layers (EDLs) formed inside the porous (carbon) particles, but also incorporates the role of the transport pathways in the electrode, i.e., the interparticle pore space. Because in MCDI the coions are inhibited from leaving the electrode region, the interparticle porosity becomes available as a reservoir to store salt, thereby increasing the total salt storage capacity of the porous electrode. A second advantage of MCDI is that during ion desorption (ion release) the voltage can be reversed. In that case the interparticle porosity can be depleted of counterions, thereby increasing the salt uptake capacity and rate in the next cycle. In this work, we compare both experimentally and theoretically adsorption/desorption cycles of MCDI for desorption at zero voltage as well as for reversed voltage, and compare with results for CDI. To describe the EDL-structure a novel modified Donnan model is proposed valid for small pores relative to the Debye length. PMID:21592485

  7. Acoustic Reflection and Transmission of 2-Dimensional Rotors and Stators, Including Mode and Frequency Scattering Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    1999-01-01

    A reduced order modeling scheme has been developed for the unsteady acoustic and vortical coupling between blade rows of a turbomachine. The essential behavior of the system is governed by modal scattering coefficients (i.e., reflection and transmission coefficients) of the rotor, stator, inlet and nozzle, which are calculated as if they were connected to non-reflecting ducts. The objective of this report is to identify fundamental behavior of these scattering coefficients for a better understanding of the role of blade row reflection and transmission in noise generation. A 2D flat plate unsteady cascade model is used for the analysis with the expectation that the general behavior presented herein will carry over to models that include more realistic flow and geometry. It is shown that stators scatter input waves into many modes at the same frequency whereas rotors scatter on frequency, or harmonic order. Important cases are shown here the rotor reflection coefficient is greater than unity; a mode at blade passing frequency (BPF) traveling from the stator with unit sound power is reflected by the rotor with more than unit power at 2xBPF and 3xBPE Analysis is presented to explain this unexpected phenomenon. Scattering curves are presented in a format chosen for design use and for physical interpretation. To aid in interpretation of the curves, formulas are derived for special condition where waveforms are parallel to perpendicular to the rotor.

  8. Turbulent inflow and wake of a marine hydrokinetic turbine, including effects of wave motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewhurst, Toby; Rowell, Matthew; Decew, Judson; Baldwin, Ken; Swift, Rob; Wosnik, Martin

    2012-11-01

    A research program to investigate the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows relevant to marine hydrokinetic (MHK) energy conversion, including turbulent inflow and turbine wakes, has been initiated at UNH. A scale model MHK turbine was deployed from a floating platform at two open water tidal energy test sites, one sheltered (Great Bay Estuary, NH) and one exposed (Muskeget Channel, MA). The inflow upstream of the turbine under test was characterized using an acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV) and an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP), which vary considerably in temporal and spatial resolution as well as practical applicability in this environment. The turbine was operated at previously determined peak efficiency for a given tidal current. The wake of the turbine was measured with a second, traversing ADV during ramp-up and at peak tidal current velocities, at two to six shroud diameters downstream. An inertial motion unit installed near the turbine hub is used to correct for platform motion. A platform-mounted wave-staff and an independently taut-moored pressure sensor were used to measure wave climate. Together, these data are used to validate theoretical and tank model results for utilizing surface-based platforms for MHK turbine deployments.

  9. Light reflection from a rough liquid surface including wind wave effects in a scattering atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, Santo V.; Liew, S. C.

    2007-07-01

    Visible and near-IR images of the ocean surface, taken from remote satellites, often contain important information of near-surface or sub-surface processes, which occur on, or over the ocean. Remote measurements of near surface winds, sea surface temperature and salinity, ocean color and underwater bathymetry, all, one way or another, depend on how well we understand sea surface roughness. However, in order to extract useful information from our remote measurements, we need to construct accurate models of the transfer of solar radiation inside the atmosphere as well as, its reflection from the sea surface. To approach this problem, we numerically solve the radiative transfer equation (RTE) by implementing a model for the atmosphere ocean system. A one-dimensional atmospheric radiation model is solved via the widely known doubling and adding method and the ocean body is treated as a boundary condition to the problem. The ocean surface is modeled as a rough liquid surface which includes wind interaction and wave states, such as wave age. The model can have possible applications to the retrieval of wind and wave states, such as wave age, near a Sun glint region.

  10. Groundwater recharge in a hard rock aquifer: A conceptual model including surface-loading effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodhe, Allan; Bockgård, Niclas

    2006-11-01

    SummaryThe groundwater level in a fractured rock aquifer in Sweden was found to respond quickly to rainfall, although the bedrock was covered by 10-m-thick till soil. A considerable portion of the response was caused by surface loading, i.e., by the weight increase of the soil due to the addition of water from precipitation, whereas the rest reflected recharge. The hypothesis that the bedrock aquifer was recharged by vertical flow from groundwater in the overlying soil was tested with a simple recharge model, in which the bedrock-groundwater levels were simulated from the soil-groundwater and estimated surface-loading variation. The model had three parameters: the ratio between the equivalent vertical hydraulic conductivity governing the recharge and the storage coefficient of the bedrock reservoir, the recession coefficient for the bedrock-groundwater level, and the bedrock-groundwater level at which the outflow ceases. The model could be reasonably well calibrated and validated to head observations in one of two boreholes. The fit to the seasonal variation was similar when calibrating the model with or without surface loading, but surface loading had to be included to properly simulate individual recharge events. The relative temporal variation in the fluxes could be determined by the calibration. The variation in the recharge was from -10% to +25% in relation to the mean flux. The variation in the discharge was only ±1%. By applying a storage coefficient of the reservoir of 5 × 10 -4, the simulated mean recharge was about 20 mm yr -1. The results support the hypothesis that the bedrock-groundwater at the site is fed by local recharge from the overlying soil aquifer.

  11. Effects of Adiponectin Including Reduction of Androstenedione Secretion and Ovarian Oxidative Stress Parameters In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Comim, Fabio V.; Gutierrez, Karina; Bridi, Alessandra; Bochi, Guilherme; Chemeris, Raisa; Rigo, Melânia L.; Dau, Andressa Minussi P.; Cezar, Alfredo S.; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Gonçalves, Paulo Bayard Dias

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is the most abundantly produced human adipokine with anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and insulin-sensitizing properties. Evidence from in vitro studies has indicated that adiponectin has a potential role in reproduction because it reduces the production of androstenedione in bovine theca cells in vitro. However, this effect on androgen production has not yet been observed in vivo. The current study evaluated the effect of adiponectin on androstenedione secretion and oxidative stress parameters in a rodent model. Seven-week-old female Balb/c mice (n = 33), previously treated with equine gonadotropin chorionic, were assigned to one of four different treatments: Group 1, control (phosphate-buffered saline); Group 2, adiponectin 0.1 μg/mL; Group 3, adiponectin 1.0 μg/mL; Group 4, adiponectin 5.0 μg/mL. After 24 h, all animals were euthanized and androstenedione levels were measured in the serum while oxidative stress markers were quantified in whole ovary tissue. Female mice treated with adiponectin exhibited a significant reduction (about 60%) in serum androstenedione levels in comparison to controls. Androstenedione levels decreased from 0.78 ± 0.4 ng/mL (mean ± SD) in controls to 0.28 ± 0.06 ng/mL after adiponectin (5 μg/mL) treatment (P = 0.01). This change in androgen secretion after 24 hours of treatment was associated with a significant reduction in the expression of CYP11A1 and STAR (but not CYP17A1). In addition, ovarian AOPP product levels, a direct product of protein oxidation, decreased significantly in adiponectin-treated mice (5 μg/mL); AOPP (mean ± SD) decreased to 4.3 ± 2.1 μmol/L in comparison with that of the controls (11.5 ± 1.7 μmol/L; P = 0.0003). Our results demonstrated for the first time that acute treatment with adiponectin reduced the levels of a direct oxidative stress marker in the ovary as well as decreased androstenedione serum levels in vivo after 24 h. PMID:27158926

  12. A model of plasma current through a hole of Rogowski probe including sheath effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furui, H.; Ejiri, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Takase, Y.; Sonehara, M.; Tsujii, N.; Yamaguchi, T.; Shinya, T.; Togashi, H.; Homma, H.; Nakamura, K.; Takeuchi, T.; Yajima, S.; Yoshida, Y.; Toida, K.; Takahashi, W.; Yamazaki, H.

    2016-04-01

    In TST-2 Ohmic discharges, local current is measured using a Rogowski probe by changing the angle between the local magnetic field and the direction of the hole of the Rogowski probe. The angular dependence shows a peak when the direction of the hole is almost parallel to the local magnetic field. The obtained width of the peak was broader than that of the theoretical curve expected from the probe geometry. In order to explain this disagreement, we consider the effect of sheath in the vicinity of the Rogowski probe. A sheath model was constructed and electron orbits were numerically calculated. From the calculation, it was found that the electron orbit is affected by E × B drift due to the sheath electric field. Such orbit causes the broadening of the peak in the angular dependence and the dependence agrees with the experimental results. The dependence of the broadening on various plasma parameters was studied numerically and explained qualitatively by a simplified analytical model.

  13. Including Quantum Effects in the Dynamics of Complex (i.e., Large)Molecular Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, William H.

    2006-04-27

    The development in the 1950's and 60's of crossed molecular beam methods for studying chemical reactions at the single-collision molecular level stimulated the need and desire for theoretical methods to describe these and other dynamical processes in molecular systems. Chemical dynamics theory has made great strides in the ensuing decades, so that methods are now available for treating the quantum dynamics of small molecular systems essentially completely. For the large molecular systems that are of so much interest nowadays (e.g. chemical reactions in solution, in clusters, in nano-structures, in biological systems, etc.), however, the only generally available theoretical approach is classical molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Much effort is currently being devoted to the development of approaches for describing the quantum dynamics of these complex systems. This paper reviews some of these approaches, especially the use of semiclassical approximations for adding quantum effects to classical MD simulations, also showing some new versions that should make these semiclassical approaches even more practical and accurate.

  14. Modeling of damage in ductile cast iron - The effect of including plasticity in the graphite nodules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriollo, T.; Thorborg, J.; Tiedje, N. S.; Hattel, J.

    2015-06-01

    In the present paper a micro-mechanical model for investigating the stress-strain relation of ductile cast iron subjected to simple loading conditions is presented. The model is based on a unit cell containing a single spherical graphite nodule embedded in a uniform ferritic matrix, under the assumption of infinitesimal strains and plane-stress conditions. Despite the latter being a limitation with respect to full 3D models, it allows a direct comparison with experimental investigations of damage evolution on the surface of ductile cast iron components, where the stress state is biaxial in nature. In contrast to previous works on the subject, the material behaviour in both matrix and nodule is assumed to be elasto-plastic, described by the classical J2-flow theory of plasticity, and damage evolution in the matrix is taken into account via Lemaitre's isotropic model. The effects of residual stresses due to the cooling process during manufacturing are also considered. Numerical solutions are obtained using an in-house developed finite element code; proper comparison with literature in the field is given.

  15. Modeling cross-field transport of solar energetic particles including solar wind effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampa, Florian; Kallenrode, May-Britt

    Under consideration of solar wind effects, we have extended the Ruffolo's equation of focused transport for solar energetic particles to accommodate perpendicular transport in the ecliptic plane, and made a different approach concerning the reference frame. Numerically, the additional transport term is solved with the implicit and stable Laasonen scheme. In parameter studies and fits to observations for typical ratios κ⊥ /κ ranging between 0.02 and 0.1 at 1 AU as suggested in numerous studies (e.g. non-linear guiding-center theory) and a scaling of κ⊥ with r2 as suggested from the random walk of field lines as well as from numerical simulations, we find that azimuthal spread as well as the variation of maximum intensities with longitude is comparable to the ones inferred from multi-spacecraft observations. Implications for the interpretation of the observed intensity and anisotropy time profiles and consequences for our understanding of particle propagation and acceleration in space will be discussed.

  16. Numerical Modeling of the Surface Fatigue Crack Propagation Including the Closure Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guchinsky, Ruslan; Petinov, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    Presently modeling of surface fatigue crack growth for residual life assessment of structural elements is almost entirely based on application of the Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM). Generally, it is assumed that the crack front does not essentially change its shape, although it is not always confirmed by experiment. Furthermore, LEFM approach cannot be applied when the stress singularity vanishes due to material plasticity, one of the leading factors associated with the material degradation and fracture. Also, evaluation of stress intensity factors meets difficulties associated with changes in the stress state along the crack front circumference. An approach proposed for simulation the evolution of surface cracks based on application of the Strain-life criterion for fatigue failure and of the finite element modeling of damage accumulation. It takes into account the crack closure effect, the nonlinear behavior of damage accumulation and material compliance increasing due to the damage advance. The damage accumulation technique was applied to model the semi-elliptical crack growth from the initial defect in the steel compact specimen. The results of simulation are in good agreement with the published experimental data.

  17. Long-wavelength asymptotics of unstable crossflow modes, including the effect of surface curvature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    Stationary vortex instabilities with wavelengths significantly larger than the thickness of the underlying three-dimensional boundary layer are studied with asymptotic methods. The long-wavelength Rayleigh modes are locally neutral and are aligned with the direction of the local inviscid streamline. For a spanwise wave number Beta much less than 1, the spatial growth rate of these vortices is O(Beta(exp 3/2)). When Beta becomes O(R(exp -1/7)), the viscous correction associated with a thin sublayer near the surface modifies the inviscid growth rate to the leading order. As Beta is further decreased through this regime, viscous effects assume greater significance and dominate the growth-rate behavior. The spatial growth rate becomes comparable to the real part of the wave number when Beta = O(R(exp -1/4)). At this stage, the disturbance structure becomes fully viscous-inviscid interactive and is described by the triple-deck theory. For even smaller values of Beta, the vortex modes become nearly neutral again and align themselves with the direction of the wall-shear stress. Thus, the study explains the progression of the crossflow-vortex structure from the inflectional upper branch mode to nearly neutral long-wavelength modes that are aligned with the wall-shear direction.

  18. Investigation of Helical Cross-Flow Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachant, Peter; Wosnik, Martin

    2011-11-01

    A new test bed for hydrokinetic turbines was used to evaluate different cross-flow axis turbines, and investigate effects of waves and turbulence. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power were measured in a tow tank with cross section 3.7 x 2.4m at speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical helical turbine (LST). GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in a cylinder wake. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law, or kinetic exergy efficiency, defined as the fraction of kinetic energy removed from the flow that is converted to usable shaft work, was measured. The distribution of energy into shaft work and turbulent kinetic energy in the wake can affect environmental transport processes and performance of turbines arrays. Progressive waves generally enhance performance of the GHT, but can lead to stall at higher tip speed ratios compared to the steady case. Grid turbulence delays dynamic stall and enables operation at lower tip speed ratios, while not decreasing maximum power coefficient. Performance in a cylinder wake is highly dependent on the cylinder's cross-stream location, ranging from benign to detrimental. The experimental observations provide insight into the physical principles of operation of cross-flow axis turbines.

  19. Postbuckling response of long thick plates loaded in compression including higher order transverse shearing effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Manuel; Sydow, P. Daniel; Librescu, Liviu

    1990-01-01

    Buckling and postbuckling results are presented for compression-loaded simply-supported aluminum plates and composite plates with a symmetric lay-up of thin + or - 45 deg plies composed of many layers. Buckling results for aluminum plates of finite length are given for various length-to-width ratios. Asymptotes to the curves based on buckling results give N(sub xcr) for plates of infinite length. Postbuckling results for plates with transverse shearing flexibility are compared to results from classical theory for various width-to-thickness ratios. Characteristic curves indicating the average longitudinal direct stress resultant as a function of the applied displacements are calculated based on four different theories: Classical von Karman theory using the Kirchoff assumptions, first-order shear deformation theory, higher-order shear deformation theory, and 3-D flexibility theory. Present results indicate that the 3-D flexibility theory gives the lowest buckling loads. The higher-order shear deformation theory has fewer unknowns than the 3-D flexibility theory but does not take into account through-the-thickness effects. The figures presented show that small differences occur in the average longitudinal direct stress resultants from the four theories that are functions of applied end-shortening displacement.

  20. 1D simulation of polymer flooding including the viscoelastic effect of polymer solution

    SciTech Connect

    Masuda, Y.; Tang, K.C.; Miyazawa, M.; Tanaka, S. )

    1992-05-01

    This paper reports that simple simulation models are constructed to predict the performance of 1D polymer flooding. In the models, two phases of oil and polymer solution were assumed to be immiscible with each other. Because the displacing fluid was non-Newtonian, the Buckley-Leverett equation could be modified and a new approach developed to calculate fractional-flow curves. The rheological behavior of polymer solution was modeled with an Ellis type model and a viscoelastic model. To verify the models, two 1D flooding experiments were carried out on 2.8-cm-diameter, 47-cm-long, unconsolidated cores packed with glass beads (70/100 mesh). Porosities of the cores are about 37% and permeabilities are around 26{mu}m{sup 2}. Two white mineral oils of viscosities 25 and 60 mPa {center dot} s and a 200-ppm polyacrylamide solution were used. In each experiment, polymer flooding was done after waterflooding. Initial water saturation was controlled to be almost the same at the start of each flood. The calculated polymer-flooding performances were compared with experimental data. On the other hand, the viscoelastic model predicted fractional-flow curves, oil recovery performances, and breakthrough times of the experiments very well. The viscoelastic effect of polymer solution is thought to play an important role in the improvement of oil recovery.

  1. Real-time monitoring of matrix acidizing including the effects of diverting agents

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A.D.; Zhu, D.

    1996-05-01

    Real-time monitoring of the injection rate and pressure during matrix acidizing provides operators with a way to determine the changing skin factor as stimulation proceeds. Current methods are based either on the assumption of steady-state flow in the region around the wellbore affected by acid injection or on computer solution of the transient flow equations describing the unsteady reservoir flow process occurring during acidizing. In this paper, a new method for real-time monitoring of matrix acidizing, the inverse injectivity vs. superposition time function plot, is presented. This new method can be applied with a spreadsheet computer program or a programmable calculator and accounts for the transient flow effects occurring during matrix acidizing at multiple rates and injection pressures. The evolving skin factor during a matrix treatment is readily obtained from the diagnostic plot. Hypothetical examples show how the inverse injectivity plot can be used to assess the efficiency of stimulation and diversion. Comparisons with previously presented field cases show the new method to be a simple and accurate means of monitoring the evolving skin factor during matrix acidizing.

  2. A global wind resource atlas including high-resolution terrain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahmann, Andrea; Badger, Jake; Olsen, Bjarke; Davis, Neil; Larsen, Xiaoli; Badger, Merete

    2015-04-01

    Currently no accurate global wind resource dataset is available to fill the needs of policy makers and strategic energy planners. Evaluating wind resources directly from coarse resolution reanalysis datasets underestimate the true wind energy resource, as the small-scale spatial variability of winds is missing. This missing variability can account for a large part of the local wind resource. Crucially, it is the windiest sites that suffer the largest wind resource errors: in simple terrain the windiest sites may be underestimated by 25%, in complex terrain the underestimate can be as large as 100%. The small-scale spatial variability of winds can be modelled using novel statistical methods and by application of established microscale models within WAsP developed at DTU Wind Energy. We present the framework for a single global methodology, which is relative fast and economical to complete. The method employs reanalysis datasets, which are downscaled to high-resolution wind resource datasets via a so-called generalization step, and microscale modelling using WAsP. This method will create the first global wind atlas (GWA) that covers all land areas (except Antarctica) and 30 km coastal zone over water. Verification of the GWA estimates will be done at carefully selected test regions, against verified estimates from mesoscale modelling and satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This verification exercise will also help in the estimation of the uncertainty of the new wind climate dataset. Uncertainty will be assessed as a function of spatial aggregation. It is expected that the uncertainty at verification sites will be larger than that of dedicated assessments, but the uncertainty will be reduced at levels of aggregation appropriate for energy planning, and importantly much improved relative to what is used today. In this presentation we discuss the methodology used, which includes the generalization of wind climatologies, and the differences in local and spatially

  3. A two-phase solid/fluid model for dense granular flows including dilatancy effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangeney, Anne; Bouchut, Francois; Fernandez-Nieto, Enrique; Koné, El-Hadj; Narbona-Reina, Gladys

    2016-04-01

    Describing grain/fluid interaction in debris flows models is still an open and challenging issue with key impact on hazard assessment [{Iverson et al.}, 2010]. We present here a two-phase two-thin-layer model for fluidized debris flows that takes into account dilatancy effects. It describes the velocity of both the solid and the fluid phases, the compression/dilatation of the granular media and its interaction with the pore fluid pressure [{Bouchut et al.}, 2016]. The model is derived from a 3D two-phase model proposed by {Jackson} [2000] based on the 4 equations of mass and momentum conservation within the two phases. This system has 5 unknowns: the solid and fluid velocities, the solid and fluid pressures and the solid volume fraction. As a result, an additional equation inside the mixture is necessary to close the system. Surprisingly, this issue is inadequately accounted for in the models that have been developed on the basis of Jackson's work [{Bouchut et al.}, 2015]. In particular, {Pitman and Le} [2005] replaced this closure simply by imposing an extra boundary condition at the surface of the flow. When making a shallow expansion, this condition can be considered as a closure condition. However, the corresponding model cannot account for a dissipative energy balance. We propose here an approach to correctly deal with the thermodynamics of Jackson's model by closing the mixture equations by a weak compressibility relation following {Roux and Radjai} [1998]. This relation implies that the occurrence of dilation or contraction of the granular material in the model depends on whether the solid volume fraction is respectively higher or lower than a critical value. When dilation occurs, the fluid is sucked into the granular material, the pore pressure decreases and the friction force on the granular phase increases. On the contrary, in the case of contraction, the fluid is expelled from the mixture, the pore pressure increases and the friction force diminishes. To

  4. Mutations of Vasopressin Receptor 2 Including Novel L312S Have Differential Effects on Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Tiulpakov, Anatoly; White, Carl W; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S; See, Heng B; Chan, Audrey S; Seeber, Ruth M; Heng, Julian I; Dedov, Ivan; Pavlos, Nathan J; Pfleger, Kevin D G

    2016-08-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a genetic disease first described in 2 unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. Here, we describe and functionally characterize a novel vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gain-of-function mutation. An L312S substitution in the seventh transmembrane domain was identified in a boy presenting with water-induced hyponatremic seizures at the age of 5.8 years. We show that, compared with wild-type V2R, the L312S mutation results in the constitutive production of cAMP, indicative of the gain-of-function NSIAD profile. Interestingly, like the previously described F229V and I130N NSIAD-causing mutants, this appears to both occur in the absence of notable constitutive β-arrestin2 recruitment and can be reduced by the inverse agonist Tolvaptan. In addition, to understand the effect of various V2R substitutions on the full receptor "life-cycle," we have used and further developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer intracellular localization assay using multiple localization markers validated with confocal microscopy. This allowed us to characterize differences in the constitutive and ligand-induced localization and trafficking profiles of the novel L312S mutation as well as for previously described V2R gain-of-function mutants (NSIAD; R137C and R137L), loss-of-function mutants (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; R137H, R181C, and M311V), and a putative silent V266A V2R polymorphism. In doing so, we describe differences in trafficking between unique V2R substitutions, even at the same amino acid position, therefore highlighting the value of full and thorough characterization of receptor function beyond simple signaling pathway analysis. PMID:27355191

  5. Mutations of Vasopressin Receptor 2 Including Novel L312S Have Differential Effects on Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Tiulpakov, Anatoly; White, Carl W.; Abhayawardana, Rekhati S.; See, Heng B.; Chan, Audrey S.; Seeber, Ruth M.; Heng, Julian I.; Dedov, Ivan; Pavlos, Nathan J.

    2016-01-01

    Nephrogenic syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis (NSIAD) is a genetic disease first described in 2 unrelated male infants with severe symptomatic hyponatremia. Despite undetectable arginine vasopressin levels, patients have inappropriately concentrated urine resulting in hyponatremia, hypoosmolality, and natriuresis. Here, we describe and functionally characterize a novel vasopressin type 2 receptor (V2R) gain-of-function mutation. An L312S substitution in the seventh transmembrane domain was identified in a boy presenting with water-induced hyponatremic seizures at the age of 5.8 years. We show that, compared with wild-type V2R, the L312S mutation results in the constitutive production of cAMP, indicative of the gain-of-function NSIAD profile. Interestingly, like the previously described F229V and I130N NSIAD-causing mutants, this appears to both occur in the absence of notable constitutive β-arrestin2 recruitment and can be reduced by the inverse agonist Tolvaptan. In addition, to understand the effect of various V2R substitutions on the full receptor “life-cycle,” we have used and further developed a bioluminescence resonance energy transfer intracellular localization assay using multiple localization markers validated with confocal microscopy. This allowed us to characterize differences in the constitutive and ligand-induced localization and trafficking profiles of the novel L312S mutation as well as for previously described V2R gain-of-function mutants (NSIAD; R137C and R137L), loss-of-function mutants (nephrogenic diabetes insipidus; R137H, R181C, and M311V), and a putative silent V266A V2R polymorphism. In doing so, we describe differences in trafficking between unique V2R substitutions, even at the same amino acid position, therefore highlighting the value of full and thorough characterization of receptor function beyond simple signaling pathway analysis. PMID:27355191

  6. Shear-induced hemolysis: effects of blood chemistry (including aging in storage) and shearing surfaces.

    PubMed

    Offeman, R D; Williams, M C

    1976-01-01

    Rotating disks were used to hemolyze blood under low-stress laminar flow conditions. In the first sequence of tests, kinetic hemolysis curves (KHC) were obtained with polyethylene disks for three well-characterized bloods and repeated over a period of four weeks. Each blood had a KHC with different shape, which maintained its characteristics while aging. Correlations were sought between D6000 (percent of complete hemolysis, after 6000 sec of shear) and D0 (measured before shear) by two means of data analysis, in terms of blood chemistry. It was found that uric acid and very-low-density lipoprotein levels were most useful in predicting the characteristic D6000 vs. D0 relation for each blood, and that glucose levels correlated the rate of aging as measured by hemolysis. Other chemical factors are also displayed in terms of their influence on D0. The second series of tests consisted of comparing the KHC for four disk materials using a fourth blood, then repeating with a fifth blood. Hemolytic rankings of the materials were the same with these two blood, although the KHC shapes differed. The rankings were: polyvinyl chloride greater than Silastic approximately equal to polyethylene greater than polyether urethane, with PVC most hemolytic. In another sequence for examining materials effects, five different bloods were used to compare the hemolytic properties of Teflon, nylon, and polyethylene disks. Although the KHC for the three disks bore different relationships to each other with each different blood, extrapolation of data beyond 6000 sec suggests a ranking of Teflon greater than nylon greater than polyethylene. PMID:1276331

  7. A diabatic representation including both valence nonadiabatic interactions and spin-orbit effects for reaction dynamics.

    PubMed

    Valero, Rosendo; Truhlar, Donald G

    2007-09-01

    A diabatic representation is convenient in the study of electronically nonadiabatic chemical reactions because the diabatic energies and couplings are smooth functions of the nuclear coordinates and the couplings are scalar quantities. A method called the fourfold way was devised in our group to generate diabatic representations for spin-free electronic states. One drawback of diabatic states computed from the spin-free Hamiltonian, called a valence diabatic representation, for systems in which spin-orbit coupling cannot be ignored is that the couplings between the states are not zero in asymptotic regions, leading to difficulties in the calculation of reaction probabilities and other properties by semiclassical dynamics methods. Here we report an extension of the fourfold way to construct diabatic representations suitable for spin-coupled systems. In this article we formulate the method for the case of even-electron systems that yield pairs of fragments with doublet spin multiplicity. For this type of system, we introduce the further simplification of calculating the triplet diabatic energies in terms of the singlet diabatic energies via Slater's rules and assuming constant ratios of Coulomb to exchange integrals. Furthermore, the valence diabatic couplings in the triplet manifold are taken equal to the singlet ones. An important feature of the method is the introduction of scaling functions, as they allow one to deal with multibond reactions without having to include high-energy diabatic states. The global transformation matrix to the new diabatic representation, called the spin-valence diabatic representation, is constructed as the product of channel-specific transformation matrices, each one taken as the product of an asymptotic transformation matrix and a scaling function that depends on ratios of the spin-orbit splitting and the valence splittings. Thus the underlying basis functions are recoupled into suitable diabatic basis functions in a manner that

  8. Modeling groundwater-surface water interactions including effects of morphogenetic depressions in the Chernobyl exclusion zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bixio, A.; Gambolati, G.; Paniconi, C.; Putti, M.; Shestopalov, V.; Bublias, V.; Bohuslavsky, A.; Kasteltseva, N.; Rudenko, Y.

    2002-06-01

    Morphogenetic depressions or "dishes" in the Chernobyl exclusion zone play an important role in the transport of water and solutes (in particular the radionuclides 137Cs and 90Sr), functioning as accumulation basins and facilitating their transfer between the surface and subsurface via return flow (under conditions of high soil water saturation) and infiltration. From a digital elevation model (DEM) of the 112-km2 study area, 583 dishes (covering about 10% of the area) are identified and classified into four geometric types, ranging in size from 2,500 to 22,500 m2, and a with a maximum depth of 2 m. The collective influence of these depressions on the hydrology of the study basin is investigated with a coupled model of three-dimensional saturated and unsaturated subsurface flow and one-dimensional (along the rill or channel direction s) hill-slope and stream overland flow. Special attention is given to the handling of dishes, applying a "lake boundary-following" procedure in the topographic analysis, a level pool routing algorithm to simulate the storage and retardation effects of these reservoirs, and a higher hydraulic conductivity in the topmost 3 m of soil relative to non-dish cells in accordance with field observations. Modeling the interactions between the surface and subsurface hydrologic regimes requires careful consideration of the distinction between potential and actual atmospheric fluxes and their conversion to ponding, overland flow, and infiltration, and this coupling is described in some detail. Further consideration is given to the treatment of snow accumulation, snowmelt, and soil freezing and thawing processes, handled via linear and step function variations over the winter months in atmospheric boundary conditions and in upper soil hydraulic conductivities. A 1-year simulation of the entire watershed is used to analyze the water table response and, at the surface, the ponding heads and the infiltration/exfiltration fluxes. Saturation patterns and

  9. Experimental Investigation of Cross-Flow Axis Marine Hydrokinetic Turbines, Including Effects of Waves and Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wosnik, M.; Bachant, P.

    2011-12-01

    A new test bed for Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines at the Center for Ocean Renewable Energy at the University of New Hampshire (UNH-CORE) was used to evaluate the performance of different cross-flow axis hydrokinetic turbines, and investigate the effects of waves and turbulence on these devices. The test bed was designed and built to operate in the UNH tow and wave tank, which has a cross section of 3.67m (width) x 2.44m (depth). In the present configuration, tow speeds of up to 3 m/s can be achieved for smaller turbine models, and up to 1.5 m/s for large turbine models with low gear ratio. It features a flap style wave maker at one end that is capable of producing waves with 1-5 s periods up to 0.4 m wave height. Turbine thrust (drag) and mechanical power output (torque, angular velocity) were measured at tow speeds of 0.6-1.5 m/s for two cross-flow axis MHK turbines: a Gorlov Helical Turbine (GHT) and a Lucid spherical turbine (LST). Both were provided by Lucid Energy Technologies, LLP, and have frontal areas of 1.3 (GHT) and 1.0 (LST) square meters, respectively. GHT performance was also measured in progressive waves of various periods, grid turbulence, and in the wake of a cylinder, installed upstream at various cross-stream locations. Overall, the GHT performs with higher power and thrust (drag) coefficients than the LST. A 2nd law efficiency, or kinetic exergy efficiency, was defined to calculate what fraction of the kinetic energy removed from the flow is converted to usable shaft work by each turbine. The exergy efficiency varies with tip speed ratio but approaches 90% for the optimum operating conditions for each turbine. The fraction of kinetic energy removed from the fluid that is not converted to shaft work is redistributed into turbulent kinetic energy in the wake. Quantifying the kinetic energy flowing out of the turbine is important for modeling of environmental transport processes and for predicting performance when turbines are used in arrays

  10. Development and flight evaluation of active controls in the L-1011. [including wing load alleviation and stability augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. F.; Urie, D. M.

    1978-01-01

    Active controls in the Lockheed L-1011 for increased energy efficiency are discussed. Active wing load alleviation for extended span, increased aspect ratio, and active stability augmentation with a smaller tail for reduced drag and weight are among the topics considered. Flight tests of active wing load alleviation on the baseline aircraft and moving-base piloted simulation developing criteria for stability augmentation are described.

  11. Atmospheric effects on active illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, Scot E. J.; Kansky, Jan E.

    2005-08-01

    For some beam-control applications, we can rely on the cooperation of the target when gathering information about the target location and the state of the atmosphere between the target and the beam-control system. The typical example is a cooperative point-source beacon on the target. Light from such a beacon allows the beam-control system to track the target accurately, and, if higher-order adaptive optics is to be employed, to make wave-front measurements and apply appropriate corrections with a deformable mirror. In many applications, including directed-energy weapons, the target is not cooperative. In the absence of a cooperative beacon, we must find other ways to collect the relevant information. This can be accomplished with an active-illumination system. Typically, this means shining one or more lasers at the target and observing the reflected light. In this paper, we qualitatively explore a number of difficulties inherent to active illumination, and suggest some possible mitigation techniques.

  12. Activity of Debio1452, a FabI Inhibitor with Potent Activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococcus spp., Including Multidrug-Resistant Strains

    PubMed Central

    Rhomberg, Paul R.; Kaplan, Nachum; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are responsible for a wide variety of human infections. The investigational antibacterial Debio1450 (previously AFN-1720), a prodrug of Debio1452 (previously AFN-1252), specifically targets staphylococci without significant activity against other Gram-positive or Gram-negative species. Debio1452 inhibits FabI, an enzyme critical to fatty acid biosynthesis in staphylococci. The activity of Debio1452 against CoNS, methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), including significant clones, was determined. A globally diverse collection of 574 patient isolates from 35 countries was tested that included CoNS (6 species, 103 strains), MSSA (154 strains), MRSA (163 strains), and molecularly characterized strains (including spa-typed MRSA clones; 154 strains). The isolates were tested for susceptibility by CLSI broth microdilution methods against Debio1452 and 10 comparators. The susceptibility rates for the comparators were determined using CLSI and EUCAST breakpoint criteria. All S. aureus and CoNS strains were inhibited by Debio1452 concentrations of ≤0.12 and ≤0.5 μg/ml, respectively. The MIC50s for MSSA, MRSA, and molecularly characterized MRSA strains were 0.004 μg/ml, and the MIC90s ranged from 0.008 to 0.03 μg/ml. The MICs were higher for the CoNS isolates (MIC50/90, 0.015/0.12 μg/ml). Among S. aureus strains, resistance was common for erythromycin (61.6%), levofloxacin (49.0%), clindamycin (27.6%), tetracycline (15.7%), and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.0%). Debio1452 demonstrated potent activity against MSSA, MRSA, and CoNS. Debio1452 showed significantly greater activity overall (MIC50, 0.004 μg/ml) than the other agents tested against these staphylococcal species, which included dominant MRSA clones and strains resistant to currently utilized antimicrobial agents. PMID:25691627

  13. The effect of slurry treatment including ozonation on odorant reduction measured by in-situ PTR-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dezhao; Feilberg, Anders; Adamsen, Anders P. S.; Jonassen, Kristoffer E. N.

    2011-07-01

    The emission of odorous compounds from intensive pig production facilities is a nuisance for neighbors. Slurry ozonation for odor abatement has previously been demonstrated in laboratory scale. In this study, the effect of slurry ozonation (combined with solid-liquid pre-separation and acidification) on emissions of odorous compounds was tested in an experimental full-scale growing pig facility using Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) for online analysis of odorants. The measurements were performed to gain a better understanding of the effects of ozone treatment on emissions odorous compounds and to identify potential options for optimization of ozone treatment. The compounds monitored included volatile sulfur compounds, amine, carboxylic acids, ketones, phenols and indoles. Measurements were performed during nearly a one-month period in summertime. The compounds with the highest concentrations observed in the ventilation exhaust duct were acetic acid, hydrogen sulfide, propanoic acid and butanoic acid. The compounds with the highest removal efficiencies were hydrogen sulfide, 3-methyl-indole, phenol and acetic acid. Based on odor threshold values, methanethiol, butanoic acid, 4-methylphenol, hydrogen sulfide and C 5 carboxylic acids are estimated to contribute significantly to the odor nuisance. Emissions of odorous compounds were observed to be strongly correlated with temperature with the exception of hydrogen sulfide. Emission peaks of sulfur compounds were seen during slurry handling activities. Discharging of the slurry pit led to reduced hydrogen sulfide emissions, but emissions of most other odorants were not affected. The results indicate that emissions of odorants other than hydrogen sulfide mainly originate from sources other than the treated slurry, which limits the potential for further optimization. The PTR-MS measurements are demonstrated to provide a quantitative, accurate and detailed evaluation of ozone treatment for emission

  14. HEPS Inventory Tool: An Inventory Tool Including Quality Assessment of School Interventions on Healthy Eating and Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Paulus, Peter; de Vries, Nanne; de Ruiter, Silvia; Buijs, Goof

    2010-01-01

    The HEPS Inventory Tool aims to support stakeholders working in school health promotion to promote high quality interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. As a tool it provides a step-by-step approach on how to develop a national or regional inventory of existing school based interventions on healthy eating and physical activity. It…

  15. Antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV includes both cytolytic and non-cytolytic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Agrati, Chiara; Castilletti, Concetta; Cimini, Eleonora; Romanelli, Antonella; Lapa, Daniele; Quartu, Serena; Martini, Federico; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria

    2016-04-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) causes a severe central nervous system infection in humans, primarily in the elderly and immunocompromised subjects. Human γδ T-cells play a critical role in the immune response against viruses, and studies of WNV meningoencephalitis in laboratory mice described a role of γδ T-cells in the protective immune response. Aim of this study was to analyze the cytolytic and non-cytolytic antiviral activity of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV replication. The anti-WNV activity of soluble factor released by zoledronic acid (ZA)-activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and the cytotoxic capability of Vδ2 T-cell lines against WNV-infected cells were tested in vitro. The activation of Vδ2 T-cell lines was able to inhibit WNV replication through the release of soluble factors. IFN-γ is massively released by activated Vδ2 T-cell lines and is involved in the anti-WNV activity. Moreover, the Vδ2 T-cell lines can efficiently kill WNV-infected cells possibly through perforin-mediated mechanism. Altogether, our results provide insight into the effector functions of human Vδ2 T-cells against WNV. The possibility to target these cells by ZA, a commercially available drug used in humans, could potentially offer a new immunotherapeutic strategy for WNV infection. PMID:27196553

  16. Numerical calculation of boundary-induced interference in slotted or perforated wind tunnels including viscous effects in slots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    A numerical method is presented for calculating the incompressible boundary-induced interference in wind tunnels of rectangular cross section with slotted or perforated walls. The method includes a wall representation which is capable of satisfying a generalized homogeneous boundary condition including the effects of viscosity within the slots. The effects of viscosity in the slots are found to be very significant. The method allows for a variation in the boundary conditions along the tunnel walls. The model can be any configuration and can be located anywhere in the test section. The interference can be computed at any point in the test section.

  17. Upstream stimulatory factor activates the vasopressin promoter via multiple motifs, including a non-canonical E-box.

    PubMed Central

    Coulson, Judy M; Edgson, Jodie L; Marshall-Jones, Zoe V; Mulgrew, Robert; Quinn, John P; Woll, Penella J

    2003-01-01

    We have described previously a complex E-box enhancer (-147) of the vasopressin promoter in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) extracts [Coulson, Fiskerstrand, Woll and Quinn, (1999) Biochem. J. 344, 961-970]. Upstream stimulatory factor (USF) heterodimers were one of the complexes binding to this site in vitro. We now report that USF overexpression in non-SCLC (NSCLC) cells can functionally activate vasopressin promoter-driven reporters that are otherwise inactive in this type of lung cancer cell. Site-directed mutagenesis and electrophoretic mobility-shift analysis demonstrate that although the -147 E-box contributes, none of the previously predicted E-boxes (-147, -135, -34) wholly account for this USF-mediated activation in NSCLC. 5' Deletion showed the key promoter region as -52 to +42; however, USF-2 binding was not reliant on the -34 E-box, but on a novel adjacent CACGGG non-canonical E-box at -42 (motif E). This mediated USF binding in both SCLC and USF-2-transfected NSCLC cells. Mutation of motif E or the non-canonical TATA box abolished activity, implying both are required for transcriptional initiation on overexpression of USF-2. Co-transfected dominant negative USF confirmed that binding was required through motif E for function, but that the classical activation domain of USF was not essential. USF-2 bound motif E with 10-fold lower affinity than the -147 E-box. In NSCLC, endogenous USF-2 expression is low, and this basal level appears to be insufficient to activate transcription of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In summary, we have demonstrated a novel mechanism for USF activation, which contributes to differential vasopressin expression in lung cancer. PMID:12403649

  18. Application of an integrated strategy for monitoring of contaminants, including endocrine active chemicals, in Great Lakes Areas of Concern

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemical monitoring strategies are most effective for those chemicals whose hazards are well understood and for which sensitive and cost effective analytical methods are available. Unfortunately, such chemicals represent a minor fraction of those that may currently occur in the e...

  19. ``Casimir effect'' with active swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, Dipanjan; Lopatina, Lena; Olson Reichhardt, Cynthia; Reichhardt, Charles

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, active matter has increasingly found applications in nanoengineering.[1] Here we show using molecular dynamics simulations that the natural motion of ``run-and-tumble'' bacteria will push together two parallel walls arranged in a Casimir geometry. This effect is robust as long as the wall separation is comparable to or smaller than the bacterial run-length, so that the bacterial motion is not Brownian on the length scale of the walls. The magnitude of the attractive force between the walls exhibits an unusual exponential dependence on the wall separation. The attraction arises from a depleted concentration of bacteria in the region between the plates; this is caused by the tendency of the bacteria to slide along the walls, which breaks time-reversal symmetry and allows a density difference to develop. The same mechanism was used recently to explain bacterial rectification.[2] The inclusion of steric interactions between the bacteria reduces the attraction between the plates but does not eliminate it.

  20. Chitosan-Based Film of Tyrothricin for Enhanced Antimicrobial Activity against Common Skin Pathogens Including Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang Duk; Sung, Hyun Jung; Lee, Ga Hyeon; Jun, Joon-Ho; Son, Miwon; Kang, Myung Joo

    2016-05-28

    Chitosan-based film-forming gel is regarded as a promising vehicle for topical delivery of antimicrobial agents to skin wounds, since it protects from microbial infection and the cationic polymer itself possesses antibacterial activity. In this study, possible synergistic interaction against common skin pathogens between the cationic polymer and tyrothricin (TRC), a cyclic polypeptide antibiotic, was investigated, by determining the concentration to inhibit 90% of bacterial isolates (MIC). The addition of the polysaccharide to TRC dramatically reduced the MIC values of TRC by 1/33 and 1/4 against both methicillin-resistant and methicillinsusceptible Staphylococcus aureus, respectively. The synergism of TRC and chitosan combination against both strains was demonstrated by the checkerboard method, with a fractional inhibitory concentration index below 0.5. Moreover, co-treatment of TRC and chitosan exhibited antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, due to the antibacterial activity of chitosan, whereas TRC itself did not inhibit the gram-negative bacterial growth. These findings suggested that the use of chitosan-based film for topical delivery of TRC could be an alternative to improve TRC antimicrobial activity against strains that are abundant in skin wounds. PMID:26907760

  1. The Azorhizobium caulinodans nifA gene: identification of upstream-activating sequences including a new element, the 'anaerobox'.

    PubMed Central

    Nees, D W; Stein, P A; Ludwig, R A

    1988-01-01

    From nucleotide sequencing analyses, the A. caulinodans nifA gene seems to be under dual control by the Ntr (in response to available N) and Fnr (in response to available O2) transcriptional activation/repression systems. Because it fixes N2 in two contexts, the Ntr system might regulate A. caulinodans nif gene expression ex planta, while the Fnr system might similarly regulate in planta. As nifA upstream-activating elements, we have identified: (i) a gpNifA binding site allowing autogenous nifA regulation, (ii) an Ntr-dependent transcription start, presumably the target of gpNifA activation, and (iii) an "anaerobox" tetradecameric nucleotide sequence that is precisely conserved among O2 regulated enteric bacterial genes controlled by the gpFnr transcriptional activator. Because it is precisely positioned upstream of enteric bacterial transcriptional starts, the "anaerobox" sequence may constitute the gpFnr DNA binding site. If so, then a second, Ntr-independent nifA transcription start may exist. We have also deduced the A. caulinodans nifA open reading frame and have compared the gene product (gpNifA) with those of other N2-fixing organisms. These proteins exhibit strongly conserved motifs: (i) sites conserved among ATP-binding proteins, (ii) an interdomain linker region, and (iii) a C-terminal alpha-helix-turn-alpha-helix DNA binding site. PMID:3186446

  2. High water-stressed population estimated by world water resources assessment including human activities under SRES scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiguchi, M.; Shen, Y.; Kanae, S.; Oki, T.

    2009-04-01

    In an argument of the reduction and the adaptation for the climate change, the evaluation of the influence by the climate change is important. When we argue in adaptation plan from a damage scale and balance with the cost, it is particularly important. Parry et al (2001) evaluated the risks in shortage of water, malaria, food, the risk of the coast flood by temperature function and clarified the level of critical climate change. According to their evaluation, the population to be affected by the shortage of water suddenly increases in the range where temperature increases from 1.5 to 2.0 degree in 2080s. They showed how much we need to reduce emissions in order to draw-down significantly the number at risk. This evaluation of critical climate change threats and targets of water shortage did not include the water withdrawal divided by water availability. Shen et al (2008a) estimated the water withdrawal of projection of future world water resources according to socio-economic driving factors predicted for scenarios A1b, A2, B1, and B2 of the Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). However, these results were in function of not temperature but time. The assessment of the highly water-stressed population considered the socioeconomic development is necessary for a function of the temperature. Because of it is easy to understand to need to reduce emission. We present a multi-GCM analysis of the global and regional populations lived in highly water-stressed basin for a function of the temperature using the socioeconomic data and the outputs of GCMs. In scenario A2, the population increases gradually with warming. On the other hand, the future projection population in scenario A1b and B1 increase gradually until the temperature anomaly exceeds around from +1 to +1.5 degree. After that the population is almost constant. From Shen et al (2008b), we evaluated the HWSP and its ratio in the world with temperature function for scenarios A1B, A2, and B1 by the index of W

  3. The Effect of Instruction on Teacher Perceptions of Competence When Including Students with Special Needs in Music Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammel, Alice M.; Gerrity, Kevin W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of professional development instruction on teacher perceptions of competence when including students with special needs in music classrooms. Subjects for the study were in-service music educators (N = 43) enrolled in an online graduate-level course specifically created to address the skills and…

  4. The MRX Complex Ensures NHEJ Fidelity through Multiple Pathways Including Xrs2-FHA-Dependent Tel1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Daichi; Hayashihara, Kayoko; Shima, Hiroki; Higashide, Mika; Terasawa, Masahiro; Gasser, Susan M; Shinohara, Miki

    2016-03-01

    Because DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most cytotoxic DNA lesions and often cause genomic instability, precise repair of DSBs is vital for the maintenance of genomic stability. Xrs2/Nbs1 is a multi-functional regulatory subunit of the Mre11-Rad50-Xrs2/Nbs1 (MRX/N) complex, and its function is critical for the primary step of DSB repair, whether by homologous recombination (HR) or non-homologous end joining. In human NBS1, mutations result truncation of the N-terminus region, which contains a forkhead-associated (FHA) domain, cause Nijmegen breakage syndrome. Here we show that the Xrs2 FHA domain of budding yeast is required both to suppress the imprecise repair of DSBs and to promote the robust activation of Tel1 in the DNA damage response pathway. The role of the Xrs2 FHA domain in Tel1 activation was independent of the Tel1-binding activity of the Xrs2 C terminus, which mediates Tel1 recruitment to DSB ends. Both the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 were required for the timely removal of the Ku complex from DSB ends, which correlates with a reduced frequency of imprecise end-joining. Thus, the Xrs2 FHA domain and Tel1 kinase work in a coordinated manner to maintain DSB repair fidelity. PMID:26990569

  5. The IKAROS Interaction with a Complex Including Chromatin Remodeling and Transcription Elongation Activities Is Required for Hematopoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Bottardi, Stefania; Mavoungou, Lionel; Pak, Helen; Daou, Salima; Bourgoin, Vincent; Lakehal, Yahia A.; Affar, El Bachir; Milot, Eric

    2014-01-01

    IKAROS is a critical regulator of hematopoietic cell fate and its dynamic expression pattern is required for proper hematopoiesis. In collaboration with the Nucleosome Remodeling and Deacetylase (NuRD) complex, it promotes gene repression and activation. It remains to be clarified how IKAROS can support transcription activation while being associated with the HDAC-containing complex NuRD. IKAROS also binds to the Positive-Transcription Elongation Factor b (P-TEFb) at gene promoters. Here, we demonstrate that NuRD and P-TEFb are assembled in a complex that can be recruited to specific genes by IKAROS. The expression level of IKAROS influences the recruitment of the NuRD-P-TEFb complex to gene regulatory regions and facilitates transcription elongation by transferring the Protein Phosphatase 1α (PP1α), an IKAROS-binding protein and P-TEFb activator, to CDK9. We show that an IKAROS mutant that is unable to bind PP1α cannot sustain gene expression and impedes normal differentiation of IkNULL hematopoietic progenitors. Finally, the knock-down of the NuRD subunit Mi2 reveals that the occupancy of the NuRD complex at transcribed regions of genes favors the relief of POL II promoter-proximal pausing and thereby, promotes transcription elongation. PMID:25474253

  6. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables. Solutions for M2, S2, N2, K2, K1, O1, P1 tidal constituents neglecting the effects of ocean loading and self-gravitation and a converged M2, solution including ocean loading and self-gravitation effects are presented in the form of cotidal and corange maps.

  7. Ex Vivo Activity of Endoperoxide Antimalarials, Including Artemisone and Arterolane, against Multidrug-Resistant Plasmodium falciparum Isolates from Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Chaorattanakawee, Suwanna; Lon, Chanthap; Saunders, David L.; Rutvisuttinunt, Wiriya; Yingyuen, Kritsanai; Bathurst, Ian; Ding, Xavier C.; Tyner, Stuart D.

    2014-01-01

    Novel synthetic endoperoxides are being evaluated as new components of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) to treat artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. We conducted blinded ex vivo activity testing of fully synthetic (OZ78 and OZ277) and semisynthetic (artemisone, artemiside, artesunate, and dihydroartemisinin) endoperoxides in the histidine-rich protein 2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay against 200 P. falciparum isolates from areas of artemisinin-resistant malaria in western and northern Cambodia in 2009 and 2010. The order of potency and geometric mean (GM) 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were as follows: artemisone (2.40 nM) > artesunate (8.49 nM) > dihydroartemisinin (11.26 nM) > artemiside (15.28 nM) > OZ277 (31.25 nM) > OZ78 (755.27 nM). Ex vivo activities of test endoperoxides positively correlated with dihydroartemisinin and artesunate. The isolates were over 2-fold less susceptible to dihydroartemisinin than the artemisinin-sensitive P. falciparum W2 clone and showed sensitivity comparable to those with test endoperoxides and artesunate, with isolate/W2 IC50 susceptibility ratios of <2.0. All isolates had P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter mutations, with negative correlations in sensitivity to endoperoxides and chloroquine. The activities of endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, and artemisone) significantly correlated with that of the ACT partner drug, mefloquine. Isolates had mutations associated with clinical resistance to mefloquine, with 35% prevalence of P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (pfmdr1) amplification and 84.5% occurrence of the pfmdr1 Y184F mutation. GM IC50s for mefloquine, lumefantrine, and endoperoxides (artesunate, dihydroartemisinin, OZ277, OZ78, and artemisone) correlated with pfmdr1 copy number. Given that current ACTs are failing potentially from reduced sensitivity to artemisinins and partner drugs, newly identified mutations associated with artemisinin resistance

  8. Real gas scale effects on hypersonic laminar boundary-layer parameters including effects of entropy-layer swallowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, J. C., Jr.; Martindale, W. R.; Mayne, A. W., Jr.; Marchand, E. O.

    1976-01-01

    Inviscid and viscous (laminar boundary-layer) flow-field calculations under perfect gas hypersonic wind tunnel and equilibrium real gas flight conditions are presented for the windward centerline of the Rockwell International 139 Space Shuttle Orbiter at a 30-deg angle of attack. Correlation parameters for laminar boundary-layer edge quantities and surface heat transfer are developed which properly account for entropy-layer-swallowing effects under both real and perfect gas conditions. Some implications of the proposed correlation parameters on boundary-layer transition are discussed.

  9. Teacher-Made Tactile Science Materials with Critical and Creative Thinking Activities for Learners Including Those with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teske, Jolene K.; Gray, Phyllis; Kuhn, Mason A.; Clausen, Courtney K.; Smith, Latisha L.; Alsubia, Sukainah A.; Ghayoorad, Maryam; Rule, Audrey C.; Schneider, Jean Suchsland

    2014-01-01

    Gifted students with visual impairments are twice exceptional learners and may not evidence their advanced science aptitudes without appropriate accommodations for learning science. However, effective tactile science teaching materials may be easily made. Recent research has shown that when tactile materials are used with "all" students…

  10. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed Central

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A.; Rosenbaum, Paula F.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Raab, Lindsay N.; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N.

    2015-01-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semi-annual records of anthropometry, maturity and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year pre-menarche [predictor] and ~5 years post-menarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent inter-scan PA and PA over 3 maturity sub-phases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry and strength indices at non-dominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) sub-head BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or post-menarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and inter-scan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p<0.07). Pre-menarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semi-partial r2 = 0.21-0.59, p≤0.001). Adult 1/3 radius and sub-head BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years post-menarche (p<0.03). PA 3-5 years post-menarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter and buckling ratio (p<0.05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  11. The Influence of Organized Physical Activity (Including Gymnastics) on Young Adult Skeletal Traits: Is Maturity Phase Important?

    PubMed

    Bernardoni, Brittney; Scerpella, Tamara A; Rosenbaum, Paula F; Kanaley, Jill A; Raab, Lindsay N; Li, Quefeng; Wang, Sijian; Dowthwaite, Jodi N

    2015-05-01

    We prospectively evaluated adolescent organized physical activity (PA) as a factor in adult female bone traits. Annual DXA scans accompanied semiannual records of anthropometry, maturity, and PA for 42 participants in this preliminary analysis (criteria: appropriately timed DXA scans at ~1 year premenarche [predictor] and ~5 years postmenarche [dependent variable]). Regression analysis evaluated total adolescent interscan PA and PA over 3 maturity subphases as predictors of young adult bone outcomes: 1) bone mineral content (BMC), geometry, and strength indices at nondominant distal radius and femoral neck; 2) subhead BMC; 3) lumbar spine BMC. Analyses accounted for baseline gynecological age (years pre- or postmenarche), baseline bone status, adult body size and interscan body size change. Gymnastics training was evaluated as a potentially independent predictor, but did not improve models for any outcomes (p > .07). Premenarcheal bone traits were strong predictors of most adult outcomes (semipartial r2 = .21-0.59, p ≤ .001). Adult 1/3 radius and subhead BMC were predicted by both total PA and PA 1-3 years postmenarche (p < .03). PA 3-5 years postmenarche predicted femoral narrow neck width, endosteal diameter, and buckling ratio (p < .05). Thus, participation in organized physical activity programs throughout middle and high school may reduce lifetime fracture risk in females. PMID:25386845

  12. New Pyrrole Derivatives with Potent Tubulin Polymerization Inhibiting Activity As Anticancer Agents Including Hedgehog-Dependent Cancer

    PubMed Central

    La Regina, Giuseppe; Bai, Ruoli; Coluccia, Antonio; Famiglini, Valeria; Pelliccia, Sveva; Passacantilli, Sara; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Ruggieri, Vitalba; Sisinni, Lorenza; Bolognesi, Alessio; Rensen, Whilelmina Maria; Miele, Andrea; Nalli, Marianna; Alfonsi, Romina; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Gulino, Alberto; Brancale, Andrea; Novellino, Ettore; Dondio, Giulio; Vultaggio, Stefania; Varasi, Mario; Mercurio, Ciro; Hamel, Ernest; Lavia, Patrizia; Silvestri, Romano

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized 3-aroyl-1-arylpyrrole (ARAP) derivatives as potential anticancer agents having different substituents at the pendant 1-phenyl ring. Both the 1-phenyl ring and 3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)carbonyl moieties were mandatory to achieve potent inhibition of tubulin polymerization, binding of colchicine to tubulin, and cancer cell growth. ARAP 22 showed strong inhibition of the P-glycoprotein-overexpressing NCI-ADR-RES and Messa/Dx5MDR cell lines. Compounds 22 and 27 suppressed in vitro the Hedgehog signaling pathway, strongly reducing luciferase activity in SAG treated NIH3T3 Shh-Light II cells, and inhibited the growth of medulloblastoma D283 cells at nanomolar concentrations. ARAPs 22 and 27 represent a new potent class of tubulin polymerization and cancer cell growth inhibitors with the potential to inhibit the Hedgehog signaling pathway. PMID:25025991

  13. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay.

    PubMed

    Mahoney, J Matthew; Titiz, Ali S; Hernan, Amanda E; Scott, Rod C

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  14. Short-Range Temporal Interactions in Sleep; Hippocampal Spike Avalanches Support a Large Milieu of Sequential Activity Including Replay

    PubMed Central

    Mahoney, J. Matthew; Titiz, Ali S.; Hernan, Amanda E.; Scott, Rod C.

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neural systems consolidate multiple complex behaviors into memory. However, the temporal structure of neural firing supporting complex memory consolidation is unknown. Replay of hippocampal place cells during sleep supports the view that a simple repetitive behavior modifies sleep firing dynamics, but does not explain how multiple episodes could be integrated into associative networks for recollection during future cognition. Here we decode sequential firing structure within spike avalanches of all pyramidal cells recorded in sleeping rats after running in a circular track. We find that short sequences that combine into multiple long sequences capture the majority of the sequential structure during sleep, including replay of hippocampal place cells. The ensemble, however, is not optimized for maximally producing the behavior-enriched episode. Thus behavioral programming of sequential correlations occurs at the level of short-range interactions, not whole behavioral sequences and these short sequences are assembled into a large and complex milieu that could support complex memory consolidation. PMID:26866597

  15. The mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed electrical contacts including Thomson effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharin, Stanislav; Sarsengeldin, Merey; Kassabek, Samat

    2016-08-01

    We represent mathematical models of electromagnetic field dynamics and heat transfer in closed symmetric and asymmetric electrical contacts including Thomson effect, which are essentially nonlinear due to the dependence of thermal and electrical conductivities on temperature. Suggested solutions are based on the assumption of identity of equipotentials and isothermal surfaces, which agrees with experimental data and valid for both linear and nonlinear cases. Well known Kohlrausch temperature-potential relation is analytically justified.

  16. A mixing length model for the aqueous boundary layer including the effect of wave breaking on enhancing gas transfer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donelan, M. A.; Soloviev, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    A mixing length model for air-water gas transfer is developed to include the effects of wave breaking. The model requires both the shear velocity induced by the wind and the integrated wave dissipation. Both of these can be calculated for tanks and oceans by a full spectrum wave model. The gas transfer model is calibrated, with laboratory tank measurements of carbon dioxide flux, and transported to oceanic conditions to yield air-sea transfer velocity versus wind speed.

  17. A computer software system for the generation of global ocean tides including self-gravitation and crustal loading effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, R. H.

    1977-01-01

    A computer software system is described which computes global numerical solutions of the integro-differential Laplace tidal equations, including dissipation terms and ocean loading and self-gravitation effects, for arbitrary diurnal and semidiurnal tidal constituents. The integration algorithm features a successive approximation scheme for the integro-differential system, with time stepping forward differences in the time variable and central differences in spatial variables.

  18. Product and rate determinations with chemically activated nucleotides in the presence of various prebiotic materials, including other mono- and polynucleotides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanavarioti, A.; Alberas, D. J.; Rosenbach, M. T.; Bernasconi, C. F.; Chang, S.

    1991-01-01

    We are investigating the reactions of ImpN's in the presence of a number of prebiotically plausible materials, such as metal ions, phosphate, amines and other nucleotides and hope to learn more about the stability/reactivity of ImpN's in a prebiotic aqueous environment. We find that, in the presence of phosphate, ImpN's form substantial amounts of diphosphate nucleotides. These diphosphate nucleotides are not very good substrates for template directed reactions, but are chemically activated and are known to revert to the phosphoimidazolides in the presence of imidazole under solid state conditions. With respect to our studies of the oligomerization reaction, the determination of the dimerization rate constant of a specific ImpN (guanosine 5'-phospho 2 methylimidazolide) both in the absence and the presence of the template leads to the conclusion that at 37 C the dimerization is not template directed, although the subsequent polymerization steps are. In other words, this specific polynucleotide synthesizing system favors the elongation of oligonucleotides as compared with the formation of dimers and trimers. This favoring of the synthesis of long as opposed to short oligonucleotides may be regarded as a rudimentary example of natural selection at the molecular level.

  19. Development of Curved-Plate Elements for the Exact Buckling Analysis of Composite Plate Assemblies Including Transverse-Shear Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGowan, David M.

    1999-01-01

    The analytical formulation of curved-plate non-linear equilibrium equations including transverse-shear-deformation effects is presented. A unified set of non-linear strains that contains terms from both physical and tensorial strain measures is used. Linearized, perturbed equilibrium equations (stability equations) that describe the response of the plate just after buckling occurs are derived. These equations are then modified to allow the plate reference surface to be located a distance z(sub c) from the centroidal surface. The implementation of the new theory into the VICONOPT exact buckling and vibration analysis and optimum design computer program is described. The terms of the plate stiffness matrix using both classical plate theory (CPT) and first-order shear-deformation plate theory (SDPT) are presented. The effects of in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loads are included in the in-plane stability equations. Numerical results for several example problems with different loading states are presented. Comparisons of analyses using both physical and tensorial strain measures as well as CPT and SDPT are made. The computational effort required by the new analysis is compared to that of the analysis currently in the VICONOPT program. The effects of including terms related to in-plane transverse and in-plane shear loadings in the in-plane stability equations are also examined. Finally, results of a design-optimization study of two different cylindrical shells subject to uniform axial compression are presented.

  20. Selective Non-nucleoside Inhibitors of Human DNA Methyltransferases Active in Cancer Including in Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) are important enzymes involved in epigenetic control of gene expression and represent valuable targets in cancer chemotherapy. A number of nucleoside DNMT inhibitors (DNMTi) have been studied in cancer, including in cancer stem cells, and two of them (azacytidine and decitabine) have been approved for treatment of myelodysplastic syndromes. However, only a few non-nucleoside DNMTi have been identified so far, and even fewer have been validated in cancer. Through a process of hit-to-lead optimization, we report here the discovery of compound 5 as a potent non-nucleoside DNMTi that is also selective toward other AdoMet-dependent protein methyltransferases. Compound 5 was potent at single-digit micromolar concentrations against a panel of cancer cells and was less toxic in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than two other compounds tested. In mouse medulloblastoma stem cells, 5 inhibited cell growth, whereas related compound 2 showed high cell differentiation. To the best of our knowledge, 2 and 5 are the first non-nucleoside DNMTi tested in a cancer stem cell line. PMID:24387159

  1. Pattern dynamics and filamentation of femtosecond terawatt laser pulses in air including the higher-order Kerr effects.

    PubMed

    Huang, T W; Zhou, C T; He, X T

    2013-05-01

    Plasma defocusing and higher-order Kerr effects on multiple filamentation and pattern formation of ultrashort laser pulse propagation in air are investigated. Linear analyses and numerical results show that these two saturable nonlinear effects can destroy the coherent evolution of the laser field, and small-scale spatial turbulent structures rapidly appear. For the two-dimensional case, numerical simulations show that blow-up-like solutions, spatial chaos, and pseudorecurrence can appear at higher laser intensities if only plasma defocusing is included. These complex patterns result from the stochastic evolution of the higher- or shorter-wavelength modes of the laser light spectrum. From the viewpoint of nonlinear dynamics, filamentation can be attributed to the modulational instability of these spatial incoherent localized structures. Furthermore, filament patterns associated with multiphoton ionization of the air molecules with and without higher-order Kerr effects are compared. PMID:23767639

  2. Effects of circadian rhythm phase alteration on physiological and psychological variables: Implications to pilot performance (including a partially annotated bibliography)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holley, D. C.; Winger, C. M.; Deroshia, C. W.; Heinold, M. P.; Edgar, D. M.; Kinney, N. E.; Langston, S. E.; Markley, C. L.; Anthony, J. A.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of environmental synchronizers upon circadian rhythmic stability in man and the deleterious alterations in performance and which result from changes in this stability are points of interest in a review of selected literature published between 1972 and 1980. A total of 2,084 references relevant to pilot performance and circadian phase alteration are cited and arranged in the following categories: (1) human performance, with focus on the effects of sleep loss or disturbance and fatigue; (2) phase shift in which ground based light/dark alteration and transmeridian flight studies are discussed; (3) shiftwork; (4)internal desynchronization which includes the effect of evironmental factors on rhythmic stability, and of rhythm disturbances on sleep and psychopathology; (5) chronotherapy, the application of methods to ameliorate desynchronization symptomatology; and (6) biorythm theory, in which the birthdate based biorythm method for predicting aircraft accident susceptability is critically analyzed. Annotations are provided for most citations.

  3. Evaluation of freshwater sediment quality values including apparent effects thresholds of Hyalella azteca and Microtox{reg_sign}

    SciTech Connect

    Cubbage, J.; Batts, D.

    1995-12-31

    Data from 36 studies in Washington State were merged into a single database to derive Apparent Effects Thresholds (AETS) for freshwater sediments and to evaluate other sediment quality values. Sediments from 235 sites were analyzed for several contaminants, Bioassays tested at 30 or more of these sites included Hyalella azteca, Daphnia magna and Chironomus tentans mortality, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction and growth, and Microtox{reg_sign} luminescence reduction. Adequate sample size (n > 50) and wide range of response were available for Hyalella (n = 235) and Microtox{reg_sign} (n = 61) to determine AETs for organic carbon normalized PAHs, pesticides, and PCBs, and dry weight normalized metals, phenols and chlorinated phenols. The ability of these AETs to predict response in any bioassay at the sites in the database was compared with Ontario Ministry Environment and Energy (OMEE) Sediment Quality Guidelines and the Environment Canada (EC) Interim Sediment Quality Values. Measures of sensitivity (number correctly predicted/number impacted) and efficiency (number correctly predicted/number predicted) were compared. The EC Threshold Effects Level (TEL) was the most sensitive (fewest Type 2 errors) at 92%, but the least efficient (most Type 1 errors) at 35%. The lowest AET (LAET) of Hyalella and Microtox{reg_sign}, derived from the current study, was the next most sensitive (77%) and more efficient (44%). The OMEE Severe Effects Level was the least sensitive (59%) and the most efficient (53%). The EC Probable Effects Level (PEL) was 50% efficient and 72% sensitive. Of the four sets of sediment quality values, the OMEE Severe Effects Level had the highest overall reliability (number of correct predictions of effects and non-effects/number of sites examined) in predicting bioassay effects in the Washington State freshwater sediment database.

  4. Effects of surfactant mixtures, including Corexit 9527, on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil

    SciTech Connect

    Bruheim, P.; Bredholt, H.; Eimhjellen, K.

    1999-04-01

    Mixtures of nonionic and anionic surfactants, including Corexit 9527, were tested to determine their effects on bacterial oxidation of acetate and alkanes in crude oil by cells pregrown on these substrates. Corexit 9527 inhibited oxidation of the alkanes in crude oil by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ATCC 31012, while Span 80, a Corexit 9527 constituent, markedly increased the oil oxidation rate. Another Corexit 9257 constituent, the negatively charged dioctyl sulfosuccinate (AOT), strongly reduced the oxidation rate. The combination of Span 80 and AOT increased the rate, but not as much as Span 80 alone increased it, which tentatively explained the negative effect of Corexit 9527. The results of acetate uptake and oxidation experiments indicated that the nonionic surfactants interacted with the acetate uptake system while the anionic surfactant interacted with the oxidation system of the bacteria. The overall effect of Corexit 9527 on alkane oxidation by A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012 thus seems to be the sum of the independent effects of the individual surfactants in the surfactant mixture. When Rhodococcus sp. strain 094 was used, the alkane oxidation rate decreased to almost zero in the presence of a mixture of Tergitol 15-S-7 and AOT even though the Tergitol 15-S-7 surfactant increased the alkane oxidation rate and AOT did not affect it. This indicated that there was synergism between the two surfactants rather than an additive effect like that observed for A. calcoaceticus ATCC 31012.

  5. Active Learning's Effect upon Preservice Teachers' Attitudes toward Inclusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Sharon; Clementson, John J.

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of active learning techniques and the use of supplemental literature dealing with disabilities in a required introduction to education and special education course on preservice teachers (N=67) attitudes toward inclusion. The active learning techniques included participation in simulation…

  6. Micromechanical analysis of a continuous fiber metal matrix composite including the effects of matrix viscoplasticity and evolving damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, D. H.; Jones, R. H.; Boyd, J. G.

    1994-03-01

    A THERMOMECHANICAL ANALYSIS of a metal matrix continuous fiber composite is performed herein. The analysis includes the effects of matrix inelasticity and interface cracking. Due to these nonlinearities, the analysis is performed computationally using the finite element method. Matrix inelasticity is modeled with a rate dependent viscoplasticity model. Interface fracture is modeled by the use of a nonlinear interface constitutive model. The problem formulation is summarized, and results are given for a typical SiC-Ti composite at elevated temperature. Preliminary results indicate that rate dependent viscoplasticity can be a significant mechanism for dissipating the energy available for interface fracture, thus contributing to improved macroscopic ductility of the composite.

  7. Calculations of the pressure distribution on axisymmetric boattails including effects of viscous interactions and exhaust jets in subsonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, J.; Bober, L. J.

    1974-01-01

    A method of calculating the pressure distributions on boattails is proposed. This method accounts for viscous effects including the presence of a separated region for base flows by combining an inviscid analysis with a boundary layer analysis in an iterative calculation. Details of the reversed flow region are not considered. Some preliminary results have been obtained for boattails at subsonic free stream Mach number with turbulent boundary layers separating at the boattail base. In some cases convergence could not be obtained using the present computer program. It is possible, in principle, to extend this method to the calculation of boattail flows with pressure gradient induced separation on the boattail.

  8. A dose computation model for sup 241 Am vaginal applicators including the source-to-source shielding effects

    SciTech Connect

    Nath, R.; Park, C.H.; King, C.R.; Muench, P. )

    1990-09-01

    A dose computation model has been developed for the determination of dose distributions around vaginal plaque applicators containing encapsulated {sup 241}Am sources. Encapsulated sources of {sup 241}Am emit primarily 60-keV photons which have a half-value layer thickness of 1/8 mm of lead. This makes possible highly effective {ital in} {ital vivo} shielding of normal tissues at risk, by placing thin lead shields at appropriate places on the applicator. However, self-absorption of photons in the source material itself is intense, requiring bulky sources of about 1 cm diameter. These sources also produce considerable source-to-source shielding which must be taken into account in dose calculations. Our dose computation model for a single source employs three-dimensional integration of dose contributions from volume elements of the source including the effects of absorption and scattering of photons in the source material, titanium encapsulation, and water. An empirical correction to Berger's data on buildup factors of point, isotropic sources is made to account for the effects of anisotropic photon emission by cylindrical {sup 241}Am sources. The second part of our dose computation model takes into account source-to-source shielding effects on both primary and scattered photons for the vaginal plaque geometry. The results of the model have been verified for accuracy by comparisons with extensive dosimetry measurements using lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeters.

  9. Fault Simulator with Dilatant Effects Used to Investigate Statistics of Foreshocks/Aftershocks, Including Magnitude Dependent Seismic Quiescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. E.; Sacks, S. I.; Rydelek, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    We add dilatant effects to a fault simulator to include physics consistent with observations of seismic quiescence. Using this simulator, we examine precursory and aftershock statistics of major events, changes in b-value, correlations between slip and static stress changes, changes in the in-plane focal mechanisms, and temporal decay of aftershocks. Seismic quiescence has been observed for a number major events including, 1982 Urakawa-Oki earthquake [Taylor et al., 1992], 1994 Hokkaido-Toho-Oki earthquake [Takanami et al., 1996], 1994 Northridge earthquake [Smith and Sacks, 2011], 1995 Kobe earthquake [Enescu et al., 2011], 1988 Spitak earthquake [Wysse and Martirosyan, 1998], and 2011 Tohoku earthquake [Katsumata, in press, 2011]. The physics of dilatancy theory [Nur, 1972; Whitcomb et al., 1973; Scholz et al., 1973], which we include in the simulator, is proposed as an explanation for seismic quiescence [Takanami et al., 1996; Scholz, 2000]. As the fault is loaded toward failure and the stress increases, if the stress is sufficiently high, the rock can begin to dilate. As dilation causes an increase in the rock volume, the pore pressure decreases, the effective normal stress increases, and the fault core strengthens [Rice, 1975]. Because the fault core supports more of the stress, the seismicity of the surrounding region will decrease as is observed. Over time (~2-20 years) the water will percolate back into the fault core from the surrounding region. The pore pressure in the fault core increases again, the normal stress decreases, and failure is encouraged. This dilatant effect on the fault core foreshocks, surrounding quiescence zone, and the aftershocks, can be studied by modifying the fault simulator of Sacks and Rydelek [1995]; Rydelek and Sacks [1996]. Based on simple physics: discrete patches, Coulomb failure, and redistribution of stresses on a specified fault geometry, this simulator (without dilatancy) has already been shown to reproduce Gutenberg

  10. Kinetics of Hydrogen Radical Reactions with Toluene Including Chemical Activation Theory Employing System-Specific Quantum RRK Theory Calibrated by Variational Transition State Theory.

    PubMed

    Bao, Junwei Lucas; Zheng, Jingjing; Truhlar, Donald G

    2016-03-01

    Pressure-dependent reactions are ubiquitous in combustion and atmospheric chemistry. We employ a new calibration procedure for quantum Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel (QRRK) unimolecular rate theory within a chemical activation mechanism to calculate the pressure-falloff effect of a radical association with an aromatic ring. The new theoretical framework is applied to the reaction of H with toluene, which is a prototypical reaction in the combustion chemistry of aromatic hydrocarbons present in most fuels. Both the hydrogen abstraction reactions and the hydrogen addition reactions are calculated. Our system-specific (SS) QRRK approach is adjusted with SS parameters to agree with multistructural canonical variational transition state theory with multidimensional tunneling (MS-CVT/SCT) at the high-pressure limit. The new method avoids the need for the usual empirical estimations of the QRRK parameters, and it eliminates the need for variational transition state theory calculations as a function of energy, although in this first application we do validate the falloff curves by comparing SS-QRRK results without tunneling to multistructural microcanonical variational transition state theory (MS-μVT) rate constants without tunneling. At low temperatures, the two approaches agree well with each other, but at high temperatures, SS-QRRK tends to overestimate falloff slightly. We also show that the variational effect is important in computing the energy-resolved rate constants. Multiple-structure anharmonicity, torsional-potential anharmonicity, and high-frequency-mode vibrational anharmonicity are all included in the rate computations, and torsional anharmonicity effects on the density of states are investigated. Branching fractions, which are both temperature- and pressure-dependent (and for which only limited data is available from experiment), are predicted as a function of pressure. PMID:26841076

  11. Analysis of magnetic probe signals including effect of cylindrical conducting wall for field-reversed configuration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nemoto, Yuuichi; Nogi, Yasuyuki

    2008-06-15

    A confinement field is disturbed by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) motions of a field-reversed configuration (FRC) plasma in a cylindrical conductor. The effect of the conductor should be included to obtain a spatial structure of the disturbed field with a good precision. For this purpose, a toroidal current in the plasma and an eddy current on a conducting wall are replaced by magnetic dipole and image magnetic dipole moments, respectively. Typical spatial structures of the disturbed field are calculated by using the dipole moments for such MHD motions as radial shift, internal tilt, external tilt, and n=2 mode deformation. Then, analytic formulas for estimating the shift distance, tilt angle, and deformation rate of the MHD motions from magnetic probe signals are derived. It is estimated from the calculations by using the dipole moments that the analytic formulas include an approximately 40% error. Two kinds of experiment are carried out to investigate the reliability of the calculations. First, a magnetic field produced by a circular current is measured in an aluminum pipe to confirm the replacement of the eddy current with the image magnetic dipole moments. The measured fields coincide well with the calculated values including the image magnetic dipole moments. Second, magnetic probe signals measured from the FRC plasma are substituted into the analytic formulas to obtain shift distance and deformation rate. The experimental results are compared to the MHD motions measured by using a radiation from the plasma. If the error included in the analytic formulas and the difference between the magnetic and optical structures in the plasma are considered, the results of the radiation measurement support well those of the magnetic analysis.

  12. Calculation of heat transfer on shuttle type configurations including the effects of variable entropy at boundary layer edge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejarnette, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    A relatively simple method is presented for including the effect of variable entropy at the boundary-layer edge in a heat transfer method developed previously. For each inviscid surface streamline an approximate shockwave shape is calculated using a modified form of Maslen's method for inviscid axisymmetric flows. The entropy for the streamline at the edge of the boundary layer is determined by equating the mass flux through the shock wave to that inside the boundary layer. Approximations used in this technique allow the heating rates along each inviscid surface streamline to be calculated independent of the other streamlines. The shock standoff distances computed by the present method are found to compare well with those computed by Maslen's asymmetric method. Heating rates are presented for blunted circular and elliptical cones and a typical space shuttle orbiter at angles of attack. Variable entropy effects are found to increase heating rates downstream of the nose significantly higher than those computed using normal-shock entropy, and turbulent heating rates increased more than laminar rates. Effects of Reynolds number and angles of attack are also shown.

  13. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates.

    PubMed

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-05-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources. PMID:27109095

  14. Modeling of astigmatic-elliptical beam shaping during fs-laser waveguide writing including beam truncation and diffraction effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz De la Cruz, A.; Ferrer, A.; del Hoyo, J.; Siegel, J.; Solis, J.

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we report a model for accurately calculating the focal volumes corresponding to astigmatic elliptical beams used in fs-laser waveguide writing. The model is based on the use of the ABCD matrix formalism for the propagation of a Gaussian beam. The code includes the effects of propagation on the astigmatic elliptical beam, and the effects of beam truncation and diffraction at the entrance pupil of the focusing objective due to beam clipping when overfilling the pupil. The results predict that for a given astigmatism value and propagation distance it is possible to efficiently suppress the astigmatic focus closer to the surface. This explains previous experimental results where single structure waveguides with controllable aspect-ratio were fabricated using astigmatic-elliptical beams. Furthermore, we investigate the respective roles of astigmatism and beam propagation, as well as the strong impact of truncation and diffraction effects caused by clipping the beam at the pupil of the focusing optics. Finally, based on the results from our model, we present some practical considerations in terms of beam propagation and phase wrapping constraints.

  15. The effect of coverings, including plastic bags and wraps, on mortality and morbidity in preterm and full-term neonates

    PubMed Central

    Oatley, H K; Blencowe, H; Lawn, J E

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal hypothermia is an important risk factor for mortality and morbidity, and is common even in temperate climates. We conducted a systematic review to determine whether plastic coverings, used immediately following delivery, were effective in reducing the incidence of mortality, hypothermia and morbidity. A total of 26 studies (2271 preterm and 1003 term neonates) were included. Meta-analyses were conducted as appropriate. Plastic wraps were associated with a reduction in hypothermia in preterm (⩽29 weeks; risk ratio (RR)=0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46 to 0.71) and term neonates (RR=0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.96). No significant reduction in neonatal mortality or morbidity was found; however, the studies were underpowered for these outcomes. For neonates, especially preterm, plastic wraps combined with other environmental heat sources are effective in reducing hypothermia during stabilization and transfer within hospital. Further research is needed to quantify the effects on mortality or morbidity, and investigate the use of plastic coverings outside hospital settings or without additional heat sources. PMID:27109095

  16. PREFACE: 9th International Fröhlich's Symposium: Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells (Including Microtubule Coherent Modes and Cancer Cell Physics)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifra, Michal; Pokorný, Jirí; Kucera, Ondrej

    2011-12-01

    This volume contains papers presented at the International Fröhlich's Symposium entitled 'Electrodynamic Activity of Living Cells' (1-3 July 2011, Prague, Czech Republic). The Symposium was the 9th meeting devoted to physical processes in living matter organized in Prague since 1987. The hypothesis of oscillation systems in living cells featured by non-linear interaction between elastic and electrical polarization fields, non-linear interactions between the system and the heat bath leading to energy downconversion along the frequency scale, energy condensation in the lowest frequency mode and creation of a coherent state was formulated by H Fröhlich, founder of the theory of dielectric materials. He assumed that biological activity is based not only on biochemical but also on biophysical mechanisms and that their disturbances form basic links along the cancer transformation pathway. Fröhlich outlined general ideas of non-linear physical processes in biological systems. The downconversion and the elastic-polarization interactions should be connected in a unified theory and the solution based on comprehensive non-linear characteristics. Biochemical and genetic research of biological systems are highly developed and have disclosed a variety of cellular and subcellular structures, chemical reactions, molecular information transfer, and genetic code sequences - including their pathological development. Nevertheless, the cancer problem is still a big challenge. Warburg's discovery of suppressed oxidative metabolism in mitochondria in cancer cells suggested the essential role of physical mechanisms (but his discovery has remained without impact on cancer research and on the study of physical properties of biological systems for a long time). Mitochondria, the power plants of the cell, have several areas of activity-oxidative energy production is connected with the formation of a strong static electric field around them, water ordering, and liberation of non

  17. On particle trajectories in restricted 3-body problem including the effect of radiation: Sun-Jupiter system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, M. K.; Narang, Pankaj; Yuasa, M.; Saha, L. M.

    2008-04-01

    In this work, we have simulated orbits of a particle moving in gravitational field of the Sun-Jupiter system. The effect of solar radiation pressure, including Poynting Robertson drag, on the evolution of particle orbits in phase space have been studied for different values of the parameter β 1 (the ratio of radiation to gravitational force) and initial conditions. Characteristics of various computed trajectories have been studied using wavelet transform (WT), Fourier transform (FT) and Poincare surface of section method. We use wavelet analysis to identify transitions of a trajectory in time-frequency plane and further apply it to classify it as regular or chaotic in phase space. Unlike the Fourier transform method (FT), we observe that the wavelet transform (WT) also provides a basis to identify ‘sticky’ trajectories in the present dynamical system.

  18. Elasto-plastic bending of cracked plates, including the effects of crack closure. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, D. P.

    1972-01-01

    A capability for solving elasto-plastic plate bending problems is developed using assumptions consistent with Kirchhoff plate theory. Both bending and extensional modes of deformation are admitted with the two modes becoming coupled as yielding proceeds. Equilibrium solutions are obtained numerically by determination of the stationary point of a functional which is analogous to the potential strain energy. The stationary value of the functional for each load increment is efficiently obtained through use of the conjugate gradient. This technique is applied to the problem of a large centrally through cracked plate subject to remote circular bending. Comparison is drawn between two cases of the bending problem. The first neglects the possibility of crack face interference with bending, and the second includes a kinematic prohibition against the crack face from passing through the symmetry plane. Results are reported which isolate the effects of elastoplastic flow and crack closure.

  19. A simplified flight-test method for determining aircraft takeoff performance that includes effects of pilot technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, T. J.; Schweikhard, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    A method for evaluating aircraft takeoff performance from brake release to air-phase height that requires fewer tests than conventionally required is evaluated with data for the XB-70 airplane. The method defines the effects of pilot technique on takeoff performance quantitatively, including the decrease in acceleration from drag due to lift. For a given takeoff weight and throttle setting, a single takeoff provides enough data to establish a standardizing relationship for the distance from brake release to any point where velocity is appropriate to rotation. The lower rotation rates penalized takeoff performance in terms of ground roll distance; the lowest observed rotation rate required a ground roll distance that was 19 percent longer than the highest. Rotations at the minimum rate also resulted in lift-off velocities that were approximately 5 knots lower than the highest rotation rate at any given lift-off distance.

  20. Including the effect of motion artifacts in noise and performance analysis of dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allec, N.; Abbaszadeh, S.; Scott, C. C.; Lewin, J. M.; Karim, K. S.

    2012-12-01

    In contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM), the dual-energy dual-exposure technique, which can leverage existing conventional mammography infrastructure, relies on acquiring the low- and high-energy images using two separate exposures. The finite time between image acquisition leads to motion artifacts in the combined image. Motion artifacts can lead to greater anatomical noise in the combined image due to increased mismatch of the background tissue in the images to be combined, however the impact has not yet been quantified. In this study we investigate a method to include motion artifacts in the dual-energy noise and performance analysis. The motion artifacts are included via an extended cascaded systems model. To validate the model, noise power spectra of a previous dual-energy clinical study are compared to that of the model. The ideal observer detectability is used to quantify the effect of motion artifacts on tumor detectability. It was found that the detectability can be significantly degraded when motion is present (e.g., detectability of 2.5 mm radius tumor decreased by approximately a factor of 2 for translation motion on the order of 1000 μm). The method presented may be used for a more comprehensive theoretical noise and performance analysis and fairer theoretical performance comparison between dual-exposure techniques, where motion artifacts are present, and single-exposure techniques, where low- and high-energy images are acquired simultaneously and motion artifacts are absent.

  1. Including the effect of motion artifacts in noise and performance analysis of dual-energy contrast-enhanced mammography.

    PubMed

    Allec, N; Abbaszadeh, S; Scott, C C; Lewin, J M; Karim, K S

    2012-12-21

    In contrast-enhanced mammography (CEM), the dual-energy dual-exposure technique, which can leverage existing conventional mammography infrastructure, relies on acquiring the low- and high-energy images using two separate exposures. The finite time between image acquisition leads to motion artifacts in the combined image. Motion artifacts can lead to greater anatomical noise in the combined image due to increased mismatch of the background tissue in the images to be combined, however the impact has not yet been quantified. In this study we investigate a method to include motion artifacts in the dual-energy noise and performance analysis. The motion artifacts are included via an extended cascaded systems model. To validate the model, noise power spectra of a previous dual-energy clinical study are compared to that of the model. The ideal observer detectability is used to quantify the effect of motion artifacts on tumor detectability. It was found that the detectability can be significantly degraded when motion is present (e.g., detectability of 2.5 mm radius tumor decreased by approximately a factor of 2 for translation motion on the order of 1000 μm). The method presented may be used for a more comprehensive theoretical noise and performance analysis and fairer theoretical performance comparison between dual-exposure techniques, where motion artifacts are present, and single-exposure techniques, where low- and high-energy images are acquired simultaneously and motion artifacts are absent. PMID:23202244

  2. Pions are neither perturbative nor nonperturbative: Wilsonian renormalization-group analysis of nuclear effective field theory including pions

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, Koji; Kubo, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Yuki

    2011-03-15

    Nuclear effective field theory (NEFT) including pions in the two-nucleon sector is examined from the Wilsonian renormalization group point of view. The pion exchange is cut off at the floating cutoff scale, {Lambda}, with the short-distance part being represented as contact interactions in accordance with the general principle of renormalization. We derive the nonperturbative renormalization group equations in the leading order of the nonrelativistic approximation in the operator space up to including O(p{sup 2}), and find the nontrivial fixed points in the {sup 1}S{sub 0} and {sup 3}S{sub 1}-{sup 3}D{sub 1} channels which are identified with those in the pionless NEFT. The scaling dimensions, which determine the power counting, of the contact interactions at the nontrivial fixed points are also identified with those in the pionless NEFT. We emphasize the importance of the separation of the pion exchange into the short-distance and the long-distance parts, since a part of the former is nonperturbative while the latter is perturbative.

  3. SU-E-J-215: Onboard Split PET Including the Effects of Attenuation, Scatter, and Random Events

    SciTech Connect

    Darwish, N; Kao, C; Thomadsen, B; Mackie, T

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) using split PET geometry was investigated as an on-board system for functional imaging and PET marker tracking, specifically with tomotherapy. The open dual ring PET would allow measurement of both inter and intra-fractional variation, improving the delineation of tumor volume at any stage in the radiation treatment delivery process. We present results from data obtained using Monte Carlo simulations including the effects of attenuation, random events, and scatter. Methods: PET design was accomplished via Monte Carlo simulations with GATE, the Geant4 Application for Emission Tomography. Images were reconstructed using Software for Image Reconstruction (STIR) with a fully 3D ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) image reconstruction technique. Results: Monte Carlo simulations of the split PET geometry indicate that including physical factors that degrade image quality such as attenuation, random events, and scatter still prove the feasibility of near real-time PET for both inter and intra-fractional radiation delivery. The image quality of scan times under 1 minute reveals that it is possible to utilize PET scanning and reconstruction during the treatment session intrafractionally. GATE also simulates the depth information but does not correct obliqueness of the path of line of response so the data is much more realistic than the data obtained with ray tracing. Conclusion: Onboard split PET with TomoTherapy can generate quality images under 1 minute scan times without the need to correct for attenuation, scatter, random events, or depth information of the interaction.

  4. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G.

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013), 10.1039/c3py00263b]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain.

  5. Generalizing the correlated chromophore domain model of reversible photodegradation to include the effects of an applied electric field.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Benjamin; Kuzyk, Mark G

    2014-03-01

    All observations of photodegradation and self-healing follow the predictions of the correlated chromophore domain model [Ramini et al., Polym. Chem. 4, 4948 (2013)]. In the present work, we generalize the domain model to describe the effects of an electric field by including induced dipole interactions between molecules in a domain by means of a self-consistent field approach. This electric field correction is added to the statistical mechanical model to calculate the distribution of domains that are central to healing. Also included in the model are the dynamics due to the formation of an irreversibly damaged species, which we propose involves damage to the polymer mediated through energy transfer from a dopant molecule after absorbing a photon. As in previous studies, the model with one-dimensional domains best explains all experimental data of the population as a function of time, temperature, intensity, concentration, and now applied electric field. Though the precise nature of a domain is yet to be determined, the fact that only one-dimensional domain models are consistent with observations suggests that they might be made of correlated dye molecules along polymer chains. Furthermore, the voltage-dependent measurements suggest that the largest polarizability axis of the molecules are oriented perpendicular to the chain. PMID:24730866

  6. Hollow Fiber Membrane Bioreactor Systems for Wastewater Processing: Effects of Environmental Stresses Including Dormancy Cycling and Antibiotic Dosing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Lunn, Griffin M.; Larson, Brian D.; Spencer, LaShelle E.; Kosiba, Michael L.; Khodadad, Christina L.; Catechis, John A.; Birmele, Michele N.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2016-01-01

    Membrane-aerated biofilm reactors (MABRs) have been studied for a number of years as an alternate approach for treating wastewater streams during space exploration. While the technology provides a promising pre-treatment for lowering organic carbon and nitrogen content without the need for harsh stabilization chemicals, several challenges must be addressed before adoption of the technology in future missions. One challenge is the transportation of bioreactors containing intact, active biofilms as a means for rapid start-up on the International Space Station or beyond. Similarly, there could be a need for placing these biological systems into a dormant state for extended periods when the system is not in use, along with the ability for rapid restart. Previous studies indicated that there was little influence of storage condition (4 or 25 C, with or without bulk fluid) on recovery of bioreactors with immature biofilms (48 days old), but that an extensive recovery time was required (20+ days). Bioreactors with fully established biofilms (13 months) were able to recover from a 7-month dormancy within 4 days (approximately 1 residence). Further dormancy and recovery testing is presented here that examines the role of biofilm age on recovery requirements, repeated dormancy cycle capabilities, and effects of long-duration dormancy cycles (8-9 months) on HFMB systems. Another challenge that must be addressed is the possibility of antibiotics entering the wastewater stream. Currently, for most laboratory tests of biological water processors, donors providing urine may not contribute to the study when taking antibiotics because the effects on the system are yet uncharacterized. A simulated urinary tract infection event, where an opportunistic, pathogenic organism, E. coli, was introduced to the HFMBs followed by dosing with an antibiotic, ciprofloxacin, was completed to study the effect of the antibiotic on reactor performance and to also examine the development of

  7. Sound propagation in narrow tubes including effects of viscothermal and turbulent damping with application to charge air coolers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knutsson, Magnus; Åbom, Mats

    2009-02-01

    Charge air coolers (CACs) are used on turbocharged internal combustion engines to enhance the overall gas-exchange performance. The cooling of the charged air results in higher density and thus volumetric efficiency. It is also important for petrol engines that the knock margin increases with reduced charge air temperature. A property that is still not very well investigated is the sound transmission through a CAC. The losses, due to viscous and thermal boundary layers as well as turbulence, in the narrow cooling tubes result in frequency dependent attenuation of the transmitted sound that is significant and dependent on the flow conditions. Normally, the cross-sections of the cooling tubes are neither circular nor rectangular, which is why no analytical solution accounting for a superimposed mean flow exists. The cross-dimensions of the connecting tanks, located on each side of the cooling tubes, are large compared to the diameters of the inlet and outlet ducts. Three-dimensional effects will therefore be important at frequencies significantly lower than the cut-on frequencies of the inlet/outlet ducts. In this study the two-dimensional finite element solution scheme for sound propagation in narrow tubes, including the effect of viscous and thermal boundary layers, originally derived by Astley and Cummings [Wave propagation in catalytic converters: Formulation of the problem and finite element scheme, Journal of Sound and Vibration 188 (5) (1995) 635-657] is used to extract two-ports to represent the cooling tubes. The approximate solutions for sound propagation, accounting for viscothermal and turbulent boundary layers derived by Dokumaci [Sound transmission in narrow pipes with superimposed uniform mean flow and acoustic modelling of automobile catalytic converters, Journal of Sound and Vibration 182 (5) (1995) 799-808] and Howe [The damping of sound by wall turbulent shear layers, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 98 (3) (1995) 1723-1730], are

  8. From planetesimals to terrestrial planets: N-body simulations including the effects of nebular gas and giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morishima, Ryuji; Stadel, Joachim; Moore, Ben

    2010-06-01

    We present results from a suite of N-body simulations that follow the formation and accretion history of the terrestrial planets using a new parallel treecode that we have developed. We initially place 2000 equal size planetesimals between 0.5 and 4.0 AU and the collisional growth is followed until the completion of planetary accretion (>100 Myr). A total of 64 simulations were carried out to explore sensitivity to the key parameters and initial conditions. All the important effect of gas in laminar disks are taken into account: the aerodynamic gas drag, the disk-planet interaction including Type I migration, and the global disk potential which causes inward migration of secular resonances as the gas dissipates. We vary the initial total mass and spatial distribution of the planetesimals, the time scale of dissipation of nebular gas (which dissipates uniformly in space and exponentially in time), and orbits of Jupiter and Saturn. We end up with 1-5 planets in the terrestrial region. In order to maintain sufficient mass in this region in the presence of Type I migration, the time scale of gas dissipation needs to be 1-2 Myr. The final configurations and collisional histories strongly depend on the orbital eccentricity of Jupiter. If today's eccentricity of Jupiter is used, then most of bodies in the asteroidal region are swept up within the terrestrial region owing to the inward migration of the secular resonance, and giant impacts between protoplanets occur most commonly around 10 Myr. If the orbital eccentricity of Jupiter is close to zero, as suggested in the Nice model, the effect of the secular resonance is negligible and a large amount of mass stays for a long period of time in the asteroidal region. With a circular orbit for Jupiter, giant impacts usually occur around 100 Myr, consistent with the accretion time scale indicated from isotope records. However, we inevitably have an Earth size planet at around 2 AU in this case. It is very difficult to obtain

  9. A poultry-intestinal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni produces a bacteriocin (CUV-3) active against a range of Gram positive bacterial pathogens including Clostridium perfringens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated bacteriocin, CUV-3, produced by a poultry cecal isolate of Campylobacter jejuni strain CUV-3 had inhibitory activity against several Gram positive bacteria including Clostridium perfringens (38 strains), Staphylococcus aureus, Staph.epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes. The pept...

  10. Including Youth with Intellectual Disabilities in Health Promotion Research: Development and Reliability of a Structured Interview to Assess the Correlates of Physical Activity among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtin, Carol; Bandini, Linda G.; Must, Aviva; Phillips, Sarah; Maslin, Melissa C. T.; Lo, Charmaine; Gleason, James M.; Fleming, Richard K.; Stanish, Heidi I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The input of youth with intellectual disabilities in health promotion and health disparities research is essential for understanding their needs and preferences. Regular physical activity (PA) is vital for health and well-being, but levels are low in youth generally, including those with intellectual disabilities. Understanding the…

  11. Early neuroendocrine disruption in hypothalamus and hippocampus: developmental effects including female sexual maturation and implications for endocrine disrupting chemical screening.

    PubMed

    Bourguignon, J-P; Franssen, D; Gérard, A; Janssen, S; Pinson, A; Naveau, E; Parent, A-S

    2013-11-01

    The timing of puberty has been mainly studied in females for several reasons, including the possible evaluation of a precise timer (i.e. menarcheal age) and concerns with respect to the high prevalence of precocity in females as opposed to males. Human evidence of altered female pubertal timing after exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is equivocal. Among the limiting factors, most studies evaluate exposure to single EDCs at the time of puberty and hardly assess the impact of lifelong exposure to mixtures of EDCs. Some rodent and ovine studies indicate a possible role of foetal and neonatal exposure to EDCs, in accordance with the concept of an early origin of health and disease. Such effects possibly involve neuroendocrine mechanisms because the hypothalamus is a site where homeostasis of reproduction, as well as control of energy balance, is programmed and regulated. In our previous studies, pulsatile gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion control via oestrogen, glutamate and aryl hydrocarbon receptors was shown to be involved in the mechanism of sexual precocity after early postnatal exposure to the insecticide dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane. Very recently, we have shown that neonatal exposure to the potent synthetic oestrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) is followed by early or delayed puberty depending on the dose, with consistent changes in developmental increase of GnRH pulse frequency. Moreover, DES results in reduced leptin stimulation of GnRH secretion in vitro, an effect that is additive with prenatal food restriction. Thus, using puberty as an endpoint of the effects of EDC, it appears necessary to consider pre- and perinatal exposure to low doses and to pay attention to the other conditions of prenatal life, such as energy availability, keeping in mind the possibility that puberty could not only be advanced, but also delayed through neuroendocrine mechanisms. PMID:24028442

  12. Including the effects of elastic compressibility and volume changes in geodynamical modeling of crust-lithosphere-mantle deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Monserrat, Albert; Morgan, Jason P.

    2016-04-01

    Materials in Earth's interior are exposed to thermomechanical (e.g. variations in stress/pressure and temperature) and chemical (e.g. phase changes, serpentinization, melting) processes that are associated with volume changes. Most geodynamical codes assume the incompressible Boussinesq approximation, where changes in density due to temperature or phase change effect buoyancy, yet volumetric changes are not allowed, and mass is not locally conserved. Elastic stresses induced by volume changes due to thermal expansion, serpentinization, and melt intrusion should cause 'cold' rocks to brittlely fail at ~1% strain. When failure/yielding is an important rheological feature, we think it plausible that volume-change-linked stresses may have a significant influence on the localization of deformation. Here we discuss a new Lagrangian formulation for "elasto-compressible -visco-plastic" flow. In this formulation, the continuity equation has been generalised from a Boussinesq incompressible formulation to include recoverable, elastic, volumetric deformations linked to the local state of mean compressive stress. This formulation differs from the 'anelastic approximation' used in compressible viscous flow in that pressure- and temperature- dependent volume changes are treated as elastic deformation for a given pressure, temperature, and composition/phase. This leads to a visco-elasto-plastic formulation that can model the effects of thermal stresses, pressure-dependent volume changes, and local phase changes. We use a modified version of the (Miliman-based) FEM code M2TRI to run a set of numerical experiments for benchmarking purposes. Three benchmarks are being used to assess the accuracy of this formulation: (1) model the effects on density of a compressible mantle under the influence of gravity; (2) model the deflection of a visco-elastic beam under the influence of gravity, and its recovery when gravitational loading is artificially removed; (3) Modelling the stresses

  13. A radioreceptor assay to study the affinity of benzodiazepines and their receptor binding activity in human plasma including their active metabolites.

    PubMed Central

    Dorow, R G; Seidler, J; Schneider, H H

    1982-01-01

    1 A radioreceptor assay has been established to measure the receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines in clinical use. 2 The time course of receptor binding activity was studied by this method in the plasma of eight healthy subjects randomly treated with 1 mg lormetazepam (Noctamid, 2 mg flunitrazepam (Rohypnol, and 10 mg diazepam (Valium, and placebo on a cross-over basis. Blood samples were collected up to 154 h after treatment. 3 Receptor affinities of numerous benzodiazepines on vitro show good correlation with therapeutic human doses (r = 0.96) and may be predictive of drug potency in man. 4 Mean peak plasma levels of lormetazepam binding equivalents were 4.8 +/- 1 ng/ml at 2 h after lormetazepam, 7.2 +/- 1.8 ng/ml at 8 h after flunitrazepam, and 17.9 +/- 2.7 ng/ml at 15 h after diazepam. Plasma elimination half-lives of benzodiazepine binding equivalents were 9.3, 23 and 63 h, respectively. 5 Slow elimination of benzodiazepine binding equivalents following flunitrazepam and diazepam may be due to persistent active metabolites. PMID:6121579

  14. Density Predictions of Mercury's Exosphere Utilizing HEMO, the Hermean Exosphere Model of Oxygen, Including the Effects of Photodissociation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotheer, E.; Mangano, V.; Livi, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    The work presented here builds on the results of Grotheer & Livi [2014], which found that the majority of the vapor produced due to meteoroid impacts on Mercury is caused by meteoroids with masses 4.2 x 10-7 g ≤ m ≤ 8.3 x 10-2 g. Meteoroids with a mass of 2.1 x 10-4 g are the largest contributors to the vapor released by meteoroid impacts, thus here we focus on meteoroids with such masses as an input to a particle tracing simulation called the Hermean Exosphere Model of Oxygen (HEMO). The HEMO simulations include 36 different particle species which can be released via meteoritic impact vaporization, based on the abundances determined by Berezhnoy & Klumov [2008]. After the initial simulation of the meteoroid impact, the released particles are affected by the gravitational pull of the planet Mercury, as well as the Sun's radiation. Particles may be photoionized or in the case of molecules also photodissociated. Due to the effects of photodissociation, a total of 38 species are actually present in the simulation, since 2 species are not directly released by impact vaporization but may be created due to photodissociation. These simulations record various pieces of information about each simulated particle, including position and velocity, for each time-step of the model. This information is then utilized to construct density profiles for each simulation run, as well as for aggregates of simulation runs with similar input parameters. The results are intended to aid the interpretation of results from the MESSENGER and BepiColombo missions to Mercury, with a particular focus on atomic and molecular oxygen. ReferencesAlexey A. Berezhnoy and Boris A. Klumov. Impacts as sources of the exosphere on Mercury. Icarus, 195(2): 511-522, 2008. Emmanuel B. Grotheer and Stefano A. Livi. Small meteoroids' major contribution to Mercury's exosphere. Icarus, 227(1): 1-7, 2014.

  15. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  16. Gravimetric response of water table fluctuations in the Sahelian Diffa site (East Niger): local effects including poro-elasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hector, B.; Genthon, P.; Le Coz, M.; Hinderer, J.; Chalikakis, K.; Descloitres, M.

    2010-12-01

    The GHYRAF project (Gravimetry and HYdrology in AFrica) is devoted to a regional study of the relationship between hydrological and gravimetric signals in the Western African Monsoon area. Three sites are monitored in a decreasing pluviometric gradient: Djougou (North Benin), Wankama (Niamey area) and Bagara (Eastern Niger) with annual rainfalls amounting to 1200 mm, 600 mm and 350 mm, respectively. The Diffa/Bagara site is located 640m away from the Yobé temporary river, a tributary of Lake Chad fed by rainfall on the Jos Plateau (Nigeria) and that is generally flowing between mid July and January. Apart from this period, the river bed includes a series of ponds that form the top of the aquifer and that are pumped for intensive irrigated cropping. The 50m thick uppermost unconfined aquifer is locally recharged by the Yobé River and is flowing northwards. It has been explored by geophysical methods involving RMS and TDEM soundings, which provided information on its porosity and electrical conductivity, respectively. A series of nearly 50 holes drilled down to a 10 m depth in the Bagara area allowed to define the detailed sedimentary structure of the aquifer. It consists mainly of fluvial deposits with alternating layers of fine sands, coarse grained sands and clays. The sedimentary pile includes clayed layer of centimetric to metric thickness with a mean lateral extension of 300 m. The groundwater level is monitored by a series of 4 piezometers located at 25 m, 270 m, 500 m and 640 m from the river axis. The shape of the piezometric curve at the Bagara station is 0.4 m amplitude sinusoid and presents a maximum level at mid January and a minimum one near mid July. Clearly, water level fluctuations are governed by infiltration from the Yobe river with an offset controlled by the distance to it. With the 20% porosity measured by MRS, this would imply a nearly 30 nms-2 gravimetric signal, which is in fair agreement with the observed amplitude. However both the

  17. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, D.E.; Miller, M.S.; Robinson, M.C.; Luttges, M.W.; Simms, D.A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  18. Evidence that aerodynamic effects, including dynamic stall, dictate HAWT structural loads and power generation in highly transient time frames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipley, D. E.; Miller, M. S.; Robinson, M. C.; Luttges, M. W.; Simms, D. A.

    1994-08-01

    Aerodynamic data collected from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Combined Experiment have shown three distinct performance regimes when the turbine is operated under relatively steady flow conditions. Operating at blade angles of attack below static stall, excellent agreement is achieved with two-dimensional wind tunnel data. Around the static stall angle, the cycle average normal force produced is greater than the static test data. Span locations near the hub produce extremely large values of normal force coefficient, well in excess of the two-dimensional data results. These performance regimes have been shown to be a function of the three-dimensional flow structure and cycle averaged dynamic stall effects. Power generation and root bending moments have also been shown to be directly dependent on the inflow wind velocity. Aerodynamic data, including episodes of dynamic stall, have been correlated on a cycle by cycle basis with the structural and power generation characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine. Instantaneous unsteady forces and resultant power generation indicate that peak transient levels can significantly exceed cycle averaged values. Strong coupling between transient aerodynamic and resonant response of the turbine was also observed. These results provide some initial insight into the contribution of unsteady aerodynamics on undesirable turbine structural response and fatigue life.

  19. Improving the scoring of protein-ligand binding affinity by including the effects of structural water and electronic polarization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinfeng; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z H

    2013-06-24

    Docking programs that use scoring functions to estimate binding affinities of small molecules to biological targets are widely applied in drug design and drug screening with partial success. But accurate and efficient scoring functions for protein-ligand binding affinity still present a grand challenge to computational chemists. In this study, the polarized protein-specific charge model (PPC) is incorporated into the molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM/PBSA) method to rescore the binding poses of some protein-ligand complexes, for which docking programs, such as Autodock, could not predict their binding modes correctly. Different sampling techniques (single minimized conformation and multiple molecular dynamics (MD) snapshots) are used to test the performance of MM/PBSA combined with the PPC model. Our results show the availability and effectiveness of this approach in correctly ranking the binding poses. More importantly, the bridging water molecules are found to play an important role in correctly determining the protein-ligand binding modes. Explicitly including these bridging water molecules in MM/PBSA calculations improves the prediction accuracy significantly. Our study sheds light on the importance of both bridging water molecules and the electronic polarization in the development of more reliable scoring functions for predicting molecular docking and protein-ligand binding affinity. PMID:23651068

  20. The effect of including field-aligned potentials in the coupling between Jupiter's thermosphere, ionosphere, and magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, L. C.; Achilleos, N. A.; Yates, J. N.

    2015-08-01

    Jupiter's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system drives the brightest, steadiest aurora in our solar system. This emission is the result of an electrical current system, which couples the magnetosphere to the planetary atmosphere in an attempt to enforce the corotation of the middle magnetospheric plasma. Field-aligned currents transfer angular momentum from the atmosphere to the magnetosphere. In the equatorial plane, the field-aligned currents diverge into radially outward currents, which exert a torque on the plasma due to the J × B forces. Equatorward ionospheric currents exert an opposite torque on the ionosphere, which interacts with the thermosphere via ion-neutral collisions. The upward field-aligned currents result in auroral electron precipitation, depositing energy into the high-latitude atmosphere. This energy input is a possible candidate for explaining the large thermospheric temperature measured by the Galileo probe at equatorial latitudes; however, previous atmospheric circulation models have shown that the bulk of the energy is transported poleward, rather than equatorward. We present numerical results of Jupiter's coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system including, for the first time, field-aligned potentials. The model is compared with three previously published works. We find that the rotational decoupling of the magnetospheric and thermospheric angular velocities in the presence of field-aligned potentials tempers the thermospheric response to the outward transport of magnetospheric plasma, but this is a secondary effect to variations in the Pedersen conductance.

  1. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leornardo

    2014-12-01

    We theoretically find the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. PMID:25615133

  2. Theory for broadband Noise of Rotor and Stator Cascades with Inhomogeneous Inflow Turbulence Including Effects of Lean and Sweep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, Donald B.

    2001-01-01

    The problem of broadband noise generated by turbulence impinging on a downstream blade row is examined from a theoretical viewpoint. Equations are derived for sound power spectra in terms of 3 dimensional wavenumber spectra of the turbulence. Particular attention is given to issues of turbulence inhomogeneity associated with the near field of the rotor and variations through boundary layers. Lean and sweep of the rotor or stator cascade are also handled rigorously with a full derivation of the relevant geometry and definitions of lean and sweep angles. Use of the general theory is illustrated by 2 simple theoretical spectra for homogeneous turbulence. Limited comparisons are made with data from model fans designed by Pratt & Whitney, Allison, and Boeing. Parametric studies for stator noise are presented showing trends with Mach number, vane count, turbulence scale and intensity, lean, and sweep. Two conventions are presented to define lean and sweep. In the "cascade system" lean is a rotation out of its plane and sweep is a rotation of the airfoil in its plane. In the "duct system" lean is the leading edge angle viewing the fan from the front (along the fan axis) and sweep is the angle viewing the fan from the side (,perpendicular to the axis). It is shown that the governing parameter is sweep in the plane of the airfoil (which reduces the chordwise component of Mach number). Lean (out of the plane of the airfoil) has little effect. Rotor noise predictions are compared with duct turbulence/rotor interaction noise data from Boeing and variations, including blade tip sweep and turbulence axial and transverse scales are explored.

  3. GIS-based models for water quantity and quality assessment in the Júcar River Basin, Spain, including climate change effects.

    PubMed

    Ferrer, Javier; Pérez-Martín, Miguel A; Jiménez, Sara; Estrela, Teodoro; Andreu, Joaquín

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes two different GIS models - one stationary (GeoImpress) and the other non-stationary (Patrical) - that assess water quantity and quality in the Júcar River Basin District, a large river basin district (43,000km(2)) located in Spain. It aims to analyze the status of surface water (SW) and groundwater (GW) bodies in relation to the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and to support measures to achieve the WFD objectives. The non-stationary model is used for quantitative analysis of water resources, including long-term water resource assessment; estimation of available GW resources; and evaluation of climate change impact on water resources. The main results obtained are the following: recent water resources have been reduced by approximately 18% compared to the reference period 1961-1990; the GW environmental volume required to accomplish the WFD objectives is approximately 30% of the GW annual resources; and the climate change impact on water resources for the short-term (2010-2040), based on a dynamic downscaling A1B scenario, implies a reduction in water resources by approximately 19% compared to 1990-2000 and a reduction of approximately 40-50% for the long-term (2070-2100), based on dynamic downscaling A2 and B2 scenarios. The model also assesses the impact of various fertilizer application scenarios on the status of future GW quality (nitrate) and if these future statuses will meet the WFD requirements. The stationary model generates data on the actual and future chemical status of SW bodies in the river basin according to the modeled scenarios and reflects the implementation of different types of measures to accomplish the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive and the WFD. Finally, the selection and prioritization of additional measures to accomplish the WFD are based on cost-effectiveness analysis. PMID:22959072

  4. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  5. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  6. Health system barriers to implementation of collaborative TB and HIV activities including prevention of mother to child transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Uwimana, J; Jackson, D; Hausler, H; Zarowsky, C

    2012-05-01

    In South Africa, the control of TB and HIV co-infection remains a major challenge despite the availability of international and national guidelines for integration of TB and HIV services. This study was undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, one of the provinces most affected by both TB and HIV, to identify and understand managers' and community care workers' (CCWs) perceptions of health systems barriers related to the implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities, including prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (PMTCT). We conducted 29 in-depth interviews with health managers at provincial, district and facility level and with managers of NGOs involved in TB and HIV care, as well as six focus group discussions with CCWs. Thematic analysis of transcripts revealed a convergence of perspectives on the process and the level of the implementation of policy directives on collaborative TB and HIV activities across all categories of respondents (i.e. province-, district-, facility- and community-based organizations). The majority of participants felt that the implementation of the policy was insufficiently consultative and that leadership and political will were lacking. The predominant themes related to health systems barriers include challenges related to structure and organisational culture; management, planning and power issues; unequal financing; and human resource capacity and regulatory problems notably relating to scope of practice of nurses and CCWs. Accelerated implementation of collaborative TB/HIV activities including PMTCT will require political will and leadership to address these health systems barriers. PMID:22394016

  7. Bofu-tsu-shosan, an oriental herbal medicine, exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect on a mouse model of human metabolic disorders with visceral obesity.

    PubMed

    Azushima, Kengo; Tamura, Kouichi; Wakui, Hiromichi; Maeda, Akinobu; Ohsawa, Masato; Uneda, Kazushi; Kobayashi, Ryu; Kanaoka, Tomohiko; Dejima, Toru; Fujikawa, Tetsuya; Yamashita, Akio; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity is a major medical problem associated with the development of hypertension, type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and dyslipidemia, and ultimately severe cardiovascular and renal disease. Therefore, an effective anti-obesity treatment with a concomitant improvement in metabolic profile is important for the treatment of metabolic dysfunction with visceral obesity. Bofu-tsu-shosan (BOF) is one of oriental herbal medicine and is clinically available to treat obesity in Japan. Although BOF is a candidate as a novel therapeutic strategy to improve metabolic dysfunction with obesity, the mechanism of its beneficial effect is not fully elucidated. Here, we investigated mechanism of therapeutic effects of BOF on KKAy mice, a model of human metabolic disorders with obesity. Chronic treatment of KKAy mice with BOF persistently decreased food intake, body weight gain, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and systolic blood pressure. In addition, both tissue weight and cell size of white adipose tissue (WAT) were decreased, with concomitant increases in the expression of adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors genes in WAT as well as the circulating adiponectin level by BOF treatment. Furthermore, gene expression of uncoupling protein-1, a thermogenesis factor, in brown adipose tissue and rectal temperature were both elevated by BOF. Intriguingly, plasma acylated-ghrelin, an active form of orexigenic hormone, and short-term food intake were significantly decreased by single bolus administration of BOF. These results indicate that BOF exerts a combinatorial favorable metabolic modulation including antihypertensive effect, at least partially, via its beneficial effect on adipose tissue function and its appetite-inhibitory property through suppression on the ghrelin system. PMID:24130717

  8. Effect of yoga regimen on lung functions including diffusion capacity in coronary artery disease patients: A randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Asha; Singh, Savita; Singh, KP; Pai, Preeti

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lung functions are found to be impaired in coronary artery disease (CAD), congestive heart failure, left ventricular dysfunction, and after cardiac surgery. Diffusion capacity progressively worsens as the severity of CAD increases due to reduction in lung tissue participating in gas exchange. Aims and Objectives: Pranayama breathing exercises and yogic postures may play an impressive role in improving cardio-respiratory efficiency and facilitating gas diffusion at the alveolo-capillary membrane. This study was done to see the effect of yoga regimen on lung functions particularly diffusion capacity in CAD patients. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 stable CAD patients below 65 years of age of both sexes were selected and randomized into two groups of 40 each. Group I CAD patients were given yoga regimen for 3 months which consisted of yogic postures, pranayama breathing exercises, dietary modification, and holistic teaching along with their conventional medicine while Group II CAD patients were put only on conventional medicine. Lung functions including diffusion capacity were recorded thrice in both the groups: 0 day as baseline, 22nd day and on 90th day by using computerized MS medisoft Cardio-respiratory Instrument, HYP’AIR Compact model of cardio-respiratory testing machine was manufactured by P K Morgan, India. The recorded parameters were statistically analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's test in both the groups. Cardiovascular parameters were also compared before and after intervention in both the groups. Results: Statistically significant improvements were seen in slow vital capacity, forced vital capacity, peak expiratory flow rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, and diffusion factor/ transfer factor of lung for carbon monoxide after 3 months of yoga regimen in Group I. Forced expiratory volume in 1st sec (FEV1), and FEV1 % also showed a trend toward improvement although not statistically significant. HR, SBP and DBP also

  9. Effects of physical activity on endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs)

    PubMed Central

    De Biase, Chiara; De Rosa, Roberta; Luciano, Rossella; De Luca, Stefania; Capuano, Ernesto; Trimarco, Bruno; Galasso, Gennaro

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity has a therapeutic role in cardiovascular disease (CVD), through its beneficial effects on endothelial function and cardiovascular system. Circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are bone marrow (BM) derived cells that represent a novel therapeutic target in CVD patients, because of their ability to home to sites of ischemic injury and repair the damaged vessels. Several studies show that physical activity results in a significant increase in circulating EPCs, and, in particular, there are some evidence of the beneficial exercise-induced effects on EPCs activity in CVD settings, including coronary artery disease (CAD), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD). The aim of this paper is to review the current evidence about the beneficial effects of physical exercise on endothelial function and EPCs levels and activity in both healthy subjects and patients with CVD. PMID:24550833

  10. Experimental petrology of peridotites, including effects of water and carbon on melting in the Earth's upper mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, David H.

    2015-02-01

    shallower depths and lower temperatures within the asthenosphere and the upwelling lherzolite is enriched in water, carbonate and incompatible elements. Magmas including olivine melilitites, olivine nephelinites, basanites, alkali picrites and tholeiitic picrites are consequences of increasing melt fraction and decreasing pressure at melt segregation. Major element, trace element and isotopic characteristics of island chain or `hot-spot' magmas show that they sample geochemically distinct components in the upper mantle, differing from MORB sources. There is no evidence for higher-temperature `hot-spot' magmas, relative to primitive MORB, but there is evidence for higher water, CO2 and incompatible element contents. The distinctive geochemical signatures of `hot-spot' magmas and their `fixed' position and long-lived activity relative to plate movement are attributed to melt components derived from melting at interfaces between old, oxidised subducted slabs (suspended beneath or within the deeper asthenosphere) and ambient, reduced mantle. In convergent margin volcanism, the inverted temperature gradients inferred for the mantle wedge above the subducting lithosphere introduce further complexity which can be explored by overlaying the phase relations of appropriate mantle and crustal lithologies. Water and carbonate derived from the subducted slab play significant roles, magmas are relatively oxidised, and distinctive primary magmas such as boninites, adakites and island arc ankaramites provide evidence for fluxing of melting in refractory harzburgite to lherzolite by slab-derived hydrous adakitic melt and by wedge-derived carbonatite.

  11. Review of literature on herbicides, including phenoxy herbicides and associated dioxins. Volume 13: Analysis of recent literature on health effects and Volume 14: Annotated bibliography of recent literature on health effects

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-06-15

    The report consists of a bibliography and critical review of scientific literature that became available during 1988 on the health effects of the herbicides (including impurities) used as defoliants in the Vietnam conflict. An attempt has been made to identify all scientific literature (including unpublished reports) relevant to the potential human health effects of the herbicidal preparation commonly referred to as Agent Orange, the herbicidal active ingredients 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 2,4,5-trichloroacetic acid and their esters, as well as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, henceforth referred to as TCDD, known to be contaminating impurities of some phenoxy herbicide preparations, an the herbicides, picloram and cacodylic acid. The scope of the review does not include literature dealing exclusively with the chemistry, analysis, or environmental fate and effects of these compounds.

  12. Applying the Model of Goal-Directed Behavior, Including Descriptive Norms, to Physical Activity Intentions: A Contribution to Improving the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Gabriele; van Bavel, René; Baranowski, Tom; Duch-Brown, Néstor

    2016-08-01

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contribute to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) applied to physical activity (PA) intention. We also test the inclusion of a descriptive norms construct as an addition to the subjective norms construct, also applied to PA, resulting in two additional models: TPB including descriptive norms (TPB + DN) and MGDB including descriptive norms (MGDB + DN). The study is based on an online survey of 400 young adult Internet users, previously enrolled in a subject pool. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) showed that TPB and TPB + DN were not fit for purpose, while MGDB and MGDB + DN were. Structural equation modelling (SEM) conducted on MGDB and MGDB + DN showed that the inclusion of descriptive norms took over the significance of injunctive norms, and increased the model's account of total variance in intention to be physically active. PMID:27229344

  13. Long-Term Post-Stroke Changes Include Myelin Loss, Specific Deficits in Sensory and Motor Behaviors and Complex Cognitive Impairment Detected Using Active Place Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M.; Barone, Frank C.

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  14. Long-term post-stroke changes include myelin loss, specific deficits in sensory and motor behaviors and complex cognitive impairment detected using active place avoidance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Zhuang, Jian; Li, Jie; Ooi, Evelyn; Bloom, Jonathan; Poon, Carrie; Lax, Daniel; Rosenbaum, Daniel M; Barone, Frank C

    2013-01-01

    Persistent neurobehavioral deficits and brain changes need validation for brain restoration. Two hours middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) or sham surgery was performed in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Neurobehavioral and cognitive deficits were measured over 10 weeks included: (1) sensory, motor, beam balance, reflex/abnormal responses, hindlimb placement, forepaw foot fault and cylinder placement tests, and (2) complex active place avoidance learning (APA) and simple passive avoidance retention (PA). Electroretinogram (ERG), hemispheric loss (infarction), hippocampus CA1 neuronal loss and myelin (Luxol Fast Blue) staining in several fiber tracts were also measured. In comparison to Sham surgery, tMCAO surgery produced significant deficits in all behavioral tests except reflex/abnormal responses. Acute, short lived deficits following tMCAO were observed for forelimb foot fault and forelimb cylinder placement. Persistent, sustained deficits for the whole 10 weeks were exhibited for motor (p<0.001), sensory (p<0.001), beam balance performance (p<0.01) and hindlimb placement behavior (p<0.01). tMCAO produced much greater and prolonged cognitive deficits in APA learning (maximum on last trial of 604±83% change, p<0.05) but only a small, comparative effect on PA retention. Hemispheric loss/atrophy was measured 10 weeks after tMCAO and cross-validated by two methods (e.g., almost identical % ischemic hemispheric loss of 33.4±3.5% for H&E and of 34.2±3.5% for TTC staining). No visual dysfunction by ERG and no hippocampus neuronal loss were detected after tMCAO. Fiber tract damage measured by Luxol Fast Blue myelin staining intensity was significant (p<0.01) in the external capsule and striatum but not in corpus callosum and anterior commissure. In summary, persistent neurobehavioral deficits were validated as important endpoints for stroke restorative research in the future. Fiber myelin loss appears to contribute to these long term behavioral dysfunctions and can be

  15. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How may I travel internationally with my..., Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.15 How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects... you cannot move all of your household effects at one time, contains only specimens...

  16. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How may I travel internationally with my..., Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.15 How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects... you cannot move all of your household effects at one time, contains only specimens...

  17. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How may I travel internationally with my..., Exemptions, and Requirements § 23.15 How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects... you cannot move all of your household effects at one time, contains only specimens...

  18. Physical activity and its mechanistic effects on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Wekesa, A; Harrison, M; Watson, R W

    2015-09-01

    Beneficial effects of physical activity have been illustrated in numerous aspects of health. With the increasing incidence of prostate cancer and changes in physical activity of men, understanding the link between the two has important implications for changing this cancer burden. Both positive and negative associations between physical activity and prostate cancer have been previously demonstrated in observational epidemiological studies. Elucidating the biological mechanisms would lead to a better understanding of how physical activity influences the progression of prostate cancer. This review was undertaken to: (1) identify evidence in literature that demonstrates the effects of physical activity on skeletal muscle secretomes, (2) indicate the plausible signaling pathways these proteins might activate, and (3) identify evidence in literature that demonstrates the roles of the signaling pathways in prostate cancer progression and regression. We also discuss proposed biological mechanisms and signaling pathways by which physical activity may prevent the development and progression of prostate cancer. We discuss proteins involved in the normal and aberrant growth and development of the prostate gland that may be affected by physical activity. We further identify future directions for research, including a better understanding of the biological mechanisms, the need to standardize physical activity and identify mechanistic end points of physical activity that can then be correlated with outcomes. PMID:25800589

  19. Use of an Activated Beta-Catenin to Identify Wnt Pathway Target Genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, Including a Subset of Collagen Genes Expressed in Late Larval Development

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Belinda M.; Abete-Luzi, Patricia; Krause, Michael W.; Eisenmann, David M.

    2014-01-01

    The Wnt signaling pathway plays a fundamental role during metazoan development, where it regulates diverse processes, including cell fate specification, cell migration, and stem cell renewal. Activation of the beta-catenin−dependent/canonical Wnt pathway up-regulates expression of Wnt target genes to mediate a cellular response. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a canonical Wnt signaling pathway regulates several processes during larval development; however, few target genes of this pathway have been identified. To address this deficit, we used a novel approach of conditionally activated Wnt signaling during a defined stage of larval life by overexpressing an activated beta-catenin protein, then used microarray analysis to identify genes showing altered expression compared with control animals. We identified 166 differentially expressed genes, of which 104 were up-regulated. A subset of the up-regulated genes was shown to have altered expression in mutants with decreased or increased Wnt signaling; we consider these genes to be bona fide C. elegans Wnt pathway targets. Among these was a group of six genes, including the cuticular collagen genes, bli-1col-38, col-49, and col-71. These genes show a peak of expression in the mid L4 stage during normal development, suggesting a role in adult cuticle formation. Consistent with this finding, reduction of function for several of the genes causes phenotypes suggestive of defects in cuticle function or integrity. Therefore, this work has identified a large number of putative Wnt pathway target genes during larval life, including a small subset of Wnt-regulated collagen genes that may function in synthesis of the adult cuticle. PMID:24569038

  20. ARSENIC EFFECTS ON TELOMERE AND TELOMERASE ACTIVITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic effects on telomere and telomerase activity. T-C. Zhang, M. T. Schmitt, J. Mo, J. L. Mumford, National Research Council and U.S Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711
    Arsenic is a known carcinogen and also an anticancer agent for acut...

  1. Effects of zidovudine on B lymphocyte activation.

    PubMed

    Widney, D; Yawetz, S; van der Meyden, M; Miles, S A; Kishimoto, T; Martínez-Maza, O

    1994-10-01

    B cell dysfunction associated with HIV infection includes polyclonal B cell activation and hypergammaglobulinemia. There is also an elevated frequency of B cell malignancies, especially non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, in HIV infection. It is believed that chronic polyclonal activation of B cells might increase the chances for the occurrence of a genetic accident, resulting in tumorigenesis. Long-term zidovudine use in people with HIV infection has been reported to be associated with a particularly high incidence of B cell lymphoma. This may be due to an increase in life span associated with antiretroviral treatment, placing treated individuals at risk for developing lymphoma for a greater period of time. However, zidovudine could be directly contributing to lymphoma-genesis in HIV-infected individuals, perhaps by enhancing B cell activation, since B cell hyperactivation and elevated levels of IL-6, a B cell stimulatory cytokine, are seen in HIV infection. Also, people treated with zidovudine may inherently be at higher risk for developing lymphoma because of the relatively greater degree of immune impairment seen in those that receive treatment with this drug. To examine if exposure to zidovudine resulted in enhanced B cell activation, we determined whether or not the presence of zidovudine enhanced B cell activation or IL-6 production in vitro or in vivo. Exposure to zidovudine in vitro did not enhance spontaneous immunoglobulin or IL-6 secretion by cells from HIV-infected (or uninfected) subjects and did not enhance B cell activation induced by EBV or affect the ability of T cells to regulate EBV-activated B cells. Neither serum immunoglobulin or IL-6 levels, nor the expression of cell surface activation markers on circulating B cells, were seen to increase following zidovudine treatment. These results indicate that zidovudine does not induce B cell activation in vivo or in vitro, suggesting that zidovudine treatment does not contribute to lymphomagenesis by enhancing B

  2. Effects of isolation on various lymphocyte activities

    SciTech Connect

    Jessop, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of Sprague Dawley male rats to isolation, water scheduling, or their combination resulted in an enhanced lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Time course studies of effects of isolation on mitogenic response of splenic and/or blood T and B lymphocytes and splenic NK cell activity demonstrated a suppression with short term exposure followed by an enhancement with prolonged exposure. Use of immunoperoxidase staining techniques to identify splenic T or T helper cells revealed that prolonged exposure to isolation had no significant effect on the proportion of these cell populations in the spleen. Examination of the data by Lineweaver-Burke plot and plot of the data as % maximum response showed that prolonged exposure to isolation did not alter the sensitivity of the lymphocytes to mitogen. Involvement of corticosteroids and opioid peptides in mediation of the effects of exposure to isolation on lymphocyte activity was assessed by measurement of plasma corticosterone by radioimmunoassay and by examination of the ability of the opioid antagonist naltrexone to alter the effects of isolation on lymphocyte proliferative response to mitogen. Attempts were made to mimic the effects of short-term isolation on lymphocyte activity by morphine sulfate administration.

  3. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Kyriakou, Georgios; Davidson, Erlend R.; Peng, Guowen; Roling, Luke T.; Singh, Suyash; Boucher, Matthew B.; Marcinkowski, Matthew D.; Mavrikakis, Manos; Michaelides, Angelos; Sykes, E. Charles H.

    2014-03-31

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to 190 K and for D2 up to 140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation.

  4. Significant Quantum Effects in Hydrogen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dissociation of molecular hydrogen is an important step in a wide variety of chemical, biological, and physical processes. Due to the light mass of hydrogen, it is recognized that quantum effects are often important to its reactivity. However, understanding how quantum effects impact the reactivity of hydrogen is still in its infancy. Here, we examine this issue using a well-defined Pd/Cu(111) alloy that allows the activation of hydrogen and deuterium molecules to be examined at individual Pd atom surface sites over a wide range of temperatures. Experiments comparing the uptake of hydrogen and deuterium as a function of temperature reveal completely different behavior of the two species. The rate of hydrogen activation increases at lower sample temperature, whereas deuterium activation slows as the temperature is lowered. Density functional theory simulations in which quantum nuclear effects are accounted for reveal that tunneling through the dissociation barrier is prevalent for H2 up to ∼190 K and for D2 up to ∼140 K. Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations indicate that the effective barrier to H2 dissociation is so low that hydrogen uptake on the surface is limited merely by thermodynamics, whereas the D2 dissociation process is controlled by kinetics. These data illustrate the complexity and inherent quantum nature of this ubiquitous and seemingly simple chemical process. Examining these effects in other systems with a similar range of approaches may uncover temperature regimes where quantum effects can be harnessed, yielding greater control of bond-breaking processes at surfaces and uncovering useful chemistries such as selective bond activation or isotope separation. PMID:24684530

  5. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  6. An improved model for the cantilever NEMS actuator including the surface energy, fringing field and Casimir effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhabadi, Amin; Mohebshahedin, Abed; Rach, Randolph; Duan, Jun-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the surface energy on the instability of nano-structures under the electrostatic force has been investigated in recent years by different researchers. It appears that in all prior research, the response of all structures becomes softer due to the surface effects. In the present study, the pull-in instability of a NEMS device incorporating the electrostatic force and Casimir intermolecular attraction for different values of the surface parameter is investigated by the Duan-Rach method of determined coefficients (MDC) in order to identify the remarkable effect of the surface energy. Although the obtained results verify the behavior of such structures in presence of the fringing field and the Casimir attraction same as the previous investigations, however the incremental effects of the surface energy cause the aforementioned structures to behave more stiffly in contrast.

  7. Experimental results for film cooling in 2-D supersonic flow including coolant delivery pressure, geometry, and incident shock effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, George C.; Nowak, Robert J.; Holden, Michael S.; Baker, N. R.

    1990-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to establish some design parameters important to a supersonic film cooling system in a scramjet engine. A simple non-combusting two-dimensional flow configuration was used to isolate the film cooling phenomena. Parameters investigated include coolant delivery pressure, slot height and lip thickness, and incident shock location and strength. Design guidelines for use in engineering and trade studies are presented.

  8. Equilibrium Structure of Rotationally and Tidally Distorted Prasad Model Including the Effect of Mass Variation Inside the Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, Seema; Lal, A. K.; Kumar, Sunil

    2014-03-01

    In this paper we propose suitable modifications in the concept of Roche equipotentials to account for the effect of mass distribution inside the star on its equipotential surfaces and use this in conjunction with the approach of Kippenhahn and Thomas, in a manner earlier used by Prasad and Mohan, to incorporate the effects of rotational and tidal forces in the equations of stellar structure parameters. The proposed method has been used to compute the structure parameters of the rotationally and tidally distorted Prasad model of the star.

  9. Implementing and Integrating Effective Teaching Strategies Including Features of Lesson Study in an Elementary Science Methods Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    Teacher preparation programs have been under attack by policy makers in the last decade, and teacher educators are constantly striving to improve their programs. Yet, there are several research-based practices that have been shown to be effective for developing teachers. In this article, the author summarizes a study in one science methods course…

  10. A multiblock/multigrid Euler analysis of a propfan transport with wing-mounted nacelles, including slipstream effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishida, Brian A.; Langhi, Ronald G.; Bencze, Daniel P.

    1991-01-01

    A multiblock/multigrid computation of the inviscid flow over a wing-mounted propfan transport with propwash is presented. An explicit multistage scheme drives the integral Euler equations to a steady state solution, while an actuator disk approximates the slipstream effects of the propfan blades. Practical applications of detailed surface gridding, multiple block field grids and multigrid convergence acceleration are demonstrated.

  11. Radiative decays of double heavy baryons in a relativistic constituent three-quark model including hyperfine mixing effects

    SciTech Connect

    Branz, Tanja; Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery E.; Oexl, Bettina; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-06-01

    We study flavor-conserving radiative decays of double-heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit. We discuss in some detail hyperfine mixing effects.

  12. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (vi) in the table below: Major group Species (Appendix II only) Type of specimen Quantity 1 Fishes...

  13. 50 CFR 23.15 - How may I travel internationally with my personal or household effects, including tourist souvenirs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) CONVENTION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN ENDANGERED SPECIES OF WILD FAUNA AND FLORA (CITES) Prohibitions... household effect for the following species exceeds the quantity indicated in paragraphs (c)(3)(i) through (vi) in the table below: Major group Species (Appendix II only) Type of specimen Quantity 1 Fishes...

  14. Aerodynamic characteristics of a wing with Fowler flaps including flap loads, downwash, and calculated effect on take-off

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platt, Robert C

    1936-01-01

    This report presents the results of wind tunnel tests of a wing in combination with each of three sizes of Fowler flap. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the aerodynamic characteristics as affected by flap chord and position, the air loads on the flaps, and the effect of flaps on the downwash.

  15. The "Mozart effect" on epileptiform activity.

    PubMed

    Hughes, J R; Daaboul, Y; Fino, J J; Shaw, G L

    1998-07-01

    The "Mozart Effect," using the Piano Sonata in D Major (K.448), was examined in patients with seizures. In 23 of 29 instances significant decreases in epileptiform activity were noted from patients even in coma, with status epilepticus or with periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). The effect may be immediate or require 40-300 sec to manifest itself. The change in the amount of ictal activity in one patient in coma was from 62% before the music to 21% during Mozart. Amplitudes of these discharges also have often decreased. Examples of PLEDs on both temporal areas are shown in which the effect was only on the left temporal area but in other patients only on the right temporal area. Brain maps during the music showed theta and alpha activity decreased on the central areas, while delta waves increased on the frontal midline area. The basis of this effect is likely that the superorganization of the cerebral cortex with its highly structured radial columns seen throughout both hemispheres may resonate with the superior architecture of Mozart's music. PMID:9660010

  16. Effects of flight instrumentation errors on the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives. [including Monte Carlo analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, W. H.; Hodge, W. F.

    1974-01-01

    An error analysis program based on an output error estimation method was used to evaluate the effects of sensor and instrumentation errors on the estimation of aircraft stability and control derivatives. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed using simulated flight data for a high performance military aircraft, a large commercial transport, and a small general aviation aircraft for typical cruise flight conditions. The effects of varying the input sequence and combinations of the sensor and instrumentation errors were investigated. The results indicate that both the parameter accuracy and the corresponding measurement trajectory fit error can be significantly affected. Of the error sources considered, instrumentation lags and control measurement errors were found to be most significant.

  17. Modeling and simulation of centroid and inversion charge density in cylindrical surrounding gate MOSFETs including quantum effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vimala, P.; Balamurugan, N. B.

    2013-11-01

    An analytical model for surrounding gate metal—oxide—semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) considering quantum effects is presented. To achieve this goal, we have used a variational approach for solving the Poissonand Schrodinger equations. This model is developed to provide an analytical expression for the inversion charge distribution function for all regions of the device operation. This expression is used to calculate the other important parameters like the inversion charge centroid, threshold voltage and inversion charge density. The calculated expressions for the above parameters are simple and accurate. The validity of this model was checked for the devices with different device dimensions and bias voltages. The calculated results are compared with the simulation results and they show good agreement.

  18. A constitutive model for the compressive response of metallic closed-cell foams including micro-inertia effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthélémy, Romain; Jacques, Nicolas; Vermeersch, François; Kerampran, Steven

    2015-09-01

    Metallic foams have known a keen interest in the last decades. Their ability to undergo very large deformations while transmitting low stress levels make them capable of performing functions of protective layers against intense loadings and of energy absorbers, for instance. The behaviour of metal foams varies considerably between quasi-static and dynamic regimes. Those differences can be linked to the strain-rate sensitivity of the skeleton material and to micro-inertial effects (induced by the crushing of the foam cells). In the present work, a micromechanical model has been developed to take into account micro-inertia effects on the macroscopic behaviour of closed-cell foams under dynamic loading conditions. The proposed modelling is based on the dynamic homogenisation procedure introduced by Molinari and Mercier (J. Mech. Phys. Solids 49 (2001) 1497-1516). Within this framework, the macrostress is the sum of two terms. The first one is a static stress, that can be described with any existing model of metal foam. The second contribution is a dynamic stress related to micro-inertia effects. Considering an initially spherical shell as a Representative Volume Element (RVE) of the foam material, a closed-form expression of the dynamic stress was obtained. The proposed modelling was applied to shock propagation in aluminium foams (it should however be noted that the present theory is not restricted to uniaxial deformation but can be applied to arbitrary loadings). From experimental data of the literature, it is observed that incorporating micro-inertia effects allows one to achieve a better description of the foam shock response. This indicates that micro-inertia may have a significant influence on the dynamic behaviour of metallic foams.

  19. A computer program for full-coverage film-cooled blading analysis including the effects of a thermal barrier coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The program input, coolant flow and heat transfer model, and the program output are discussed. As an example, sections of the suction and pressure sides of a high temperature, high pressure turbine vane are analyzed to show the effects of a thermal barrier coating. Compared to the uncoated design, the coating halves the required coolant flow, while simultaneously reducing metal outer temperatures by over 111 K.

  20. Genotype effects on body temperature in dairy cows under grazing conditions in a hot climate including evidence for heterosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikmen, S.; Martins, L.; Pontes, E.; Hansen, P. J.

    2009-07-01

    We compared diurnal patterns of vaginal temperature in lactating cows under grazing conditions to evaluate genotype effects on body temperature regulation. Genotypes evaluated were Holstein, Jersey, Jersey × Holstein and Swedish Red × Holstein. The comparison of Holstein and Jersey versus Jersey × Holstein provided a test of whether heterosis effects body temperature regulation. Cows were fitted with intravaginal temperature recording devices that measured vaginal temperature every 15 min for 7 days. Vaginal temperature was affected by time of day ( P < 0.0001) and genotype × time ( P < 0.0001) regardless of whether days in milk and milk yield were used as covariates. Additional analyses indicated that the Swedish Red × Holstein had a different pattern of vaginal temperatures than the other three genotypes (Swedish Red × Holstein vs others × time; P < 0.0001) and that Holstein and Jersey had a different pattern than Jersey × Holstein [(Holstein + Jersey vs Jersey × Holstein) × time, P < 0.0001]. However, Holstein had a similar pattern to Jersey [(Holstein vs Jersey) × time, P > 0.10]. These genotype × time interactions reflect two effects. First, Swedish Red × Holstein had higher vaginal temperatures than the other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon but not after the evening milking. Secondly, Jersey × Holstein had lower vaginal temperatures than other genotypes in the late morning and afternoon and again in the late night and early morning. Results point out that there are effects of specific genotypes and evidence for heterosis on regulation of body temperature of lactating cows maintained under grazing conditions and suggest that genetic improvement for thermotolerance through breed choice or genetic selection is possible.

  1. Stability of three-dimensional obliquely propagating dust acoustic waves in dusty plasma including the polarization force effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Labany, S. K.; El-Taibany, W. F.; Behery, E. E.; Zedan, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    Propagation of dust acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) in a magnetized dusty plasma consisting of extremely massive, negatively/positively charged dust fluid and Boltzmann distributed electrons and ions is studied. A nonlinear Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) equation adequate for describing the solitary waves is derived by applying a reductive perturbation technique. Moreover, an extended Zakharov Kuznetsov (EZK) equation is derived at the vicinity of the critical phase velocity. The effects of the polarization force are explicitly discussed and the growth rate of the produced waves is calculated. It is found that the physical parameters have strong effects on the instability criterion as well as on the growth rate. It is noted that the phase velocity decreases as the polarization force, the effective-to-ion temperature ratio, and the ion-to-electron temperature ratio increase. Moreover, the nonlinearity coefficient and the critical phase velocity increase by increasing the polarization force. The relevance of these findings to a recent plasma experiment and astrophysical plasma observations is briefly discussed.

  2. [Food consumption in children and youth: effect of sedentary activities].

    PubMed

    Thivel, D; Chaput, J P

    2013-08-01

    Sedentary behavior has progressed with modern society, generating very low levels of energy expenditure and subsequent body weight disorders (obesity). There is also evidence that the absence of physical activity associated with short sleep time and watching television or playing video games leads to poor eating habits and favors high-energy intake. These findings have generally been reported in adults, with a few studies including data on children and adolescents. This brief review summarizes the current literature regarding the impact of such activities on food consumption and eating behavior in children and adolescents. There appears to be an uncoupling effect dissociating these activities from the sensation of hunger and thus energy intake. Children and adolescents seem to increase their energy intake during and after such activities without any alteration of their subjective appetite. In addition to considering the impact of sedentary behavior and physical activity level, future public health recommendations should also focus on associated nutritional adaptations (energy balance). PMID:23849298

  3. Stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits in persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention: the Norwegian study in RENEWING HEALTH

    PubMed Central

    Holmen, Heidi; Wahl, Astrid; Torbjørnsen, Astrid; Jenum, Anne Karen; Småstuen, Milada Cvancarova; Ribu, Lis

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate stages of change for physical activity and dietary habits using baseline data from persons with type 2 diabetes included in a mobile health intervention. We examined the associations between stages of change for physical activity change and dietary change, and between stages of change for each behavior and individual characteristics, health-related quality of life, self-management, depressive symptoms, and lifestyle. Research design and methods We examined 151 persons with type 2 diabetes with an glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level ≥7.1%, aged ≥18 years at baseline of a randomized controlled trial, before testing a mobile app with or without health counseling. Stages of change were dichotomized into ‘pre-action’ and ‘action’. Self-management was measured using the Health Education Impact Questionnaire (heiQ) where a higher score reflects increased self-management, and health-related quality of life was measured with the Short-Form-36 (SF-36). Logistic regression modeling was performed. Results The median HbA1c level was 7.9% (7.1–12.4), 90% were overweight or obese, and 20% had ≥3 comorbidities. 58% were in the preaction stage for physical activity change and 79% in the preaction stage for dietary change. Higher scores of self-management were associated with an increased chance of being in the action stage for both dietary change and physical activity change. Higher body mass index was associated with an 8% reduced chance of being in the action stage for physical activity change (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.86 to 0.99). Conclusions Being in the action stage was associated with higher scores of self-management, crucial for type 2 diabetes. Over half of the participants were in the preaction stage for physical activity and dietary change, and many had a high disease burden with comorbidities and overweight. Trial registration number NCT01315756. PMID:27239317

  4. Irradiation of rainbow trout at early life stages results in trans-generational effects including the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated fish.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Seymour, Colin B; Moccia, Richard D; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2016-02-01

    The bystander effect, a non-targeted effect (NTE) of radiation, which describes the response by non-irradiated organisms to signals emitted by irradiated organisms, has been documented in a number of fish species. However transgenerational effects of radiation (including NTE) have yet to be studied in fish. Therefore rainbow trout, which were irradiated as eggs at 48h after fertilisation, eyed eggs, yolk sac larvae or first feeders, were bred to generate a F1 generation and these F1 fish were bred to generate a F2 generation. F1 and F2 fish were swam with non-irradiated bystander fish. Media from explants of F1 eyed eggs, F1 one year old fish gill and F1 two year old fish gill and spleen samples, and F2 two year old gill and spleen samples, as well as from bystander eggs/fish, was used to treat a reporter cell line, which was then assayed for changes in cellular survival/growth. The results were complex and dependent on irradiation history, age (in the case of the F1 generation), and were tissue specific. For example, irradiation of one parent often resulted in effects not seen with irradiation of both parents. This suggests that, unlike mammals, in certain circumstances maternal and paternal irradiation may be equally important. This study also showed that trout can induce a bystander effect 2 generations after irradiation, which further emphasises the importance of the bystander effect in aquatic radiobiology. Given the complex community structure in aquatic ecosystems, these results may have significant implications for environmental radiological protection. PMID:26618503

  5. Effect of physical activity on body composition

    SciTech Connect

    Zanzi, I; Ellis, K J; Aloia, J; Cohn, S H

    1980-01-01

    It has been noted that the deleterious effects on bone calcium of prolonged periods of inactivity, such as bed rest, are halted following resumption of activity. It would seem possible in light of the observations that have been made, that exercise may stimulate bone formation and perhaps counter, to some extent, bone loss as observed in the osteoporosis of aging. The present study was designed to determine the relation between total body calcium, total body potassium and bone mineral content of the radius to the degree of physical activity in a population of normal subjects. Measurement of the calcium was made by in-vivo total body neutron activation analysis. Bone mineral content of the radius and total body potassium, (an index of lean body mass) were measured by photon absorptiometry and the whole body counter, respectively.

  6. GCKP84-general chemical kinetics code for gas-phase flow and batch processes including heat transfer effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittker, D. A.; Scullin, V. J.

    1984-01-01

    A general chemical kinetics code is described for complex, homogeneous ideal gas reactions in any chemical system. The main features of the GCKP84 code are flexibility, convenience, and speed of computation for many different reaction conditions. The code, which replaces the GCKP code published previously, solves numerically the differential equations for complex reaction in a batch system or one dimensional inviscid flow. It also solves numerically the nonlinear algebraic equations describing the well stirred reactor. A new state of the art numerical integration method is used for greatly increased speed in handling systems of stiff differential equations. The theory and the computer program, including details of input preparation and a guide to using the code are given.

  7. On vortex-airfoil interaction noise including span-end effects, with application to open-rotor aeroacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roger, Michel; Schram, Christophe; Moreau, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    A linear analytical model is developed for the chopping of a cylindrical vortex by a flat-plate airfoil, with or without a span-end effect. The major interest is the contribution of the tip-vortex produced by an upstream rotating blade in the rotor-rotor interaction noise mechanism of counter-rotating open rotors. Therefore the interaction is primarily addressed in an annular strip of limited spanwise extent bounding the impinged blade segment, and the unwrapped strip is described in Cartesian coordinates. The study also addresses the interaction of a propeller wake with a downstream wing or empennage. Cylindrical vortices are considered, for which the velocity field is expanded in two-dimensional gusts in the reference frame of the airfoil. For each gust the response of the airfoil is derived, first ignoring the effect of the span end, assimilating the airfoil to a rigid flat plate, with or without sweep. The corresponding unsteady lift acts as a distribution of acoustic dipoles, and the radiated sound is obtained from a radiation integral over the actual extent of the airfoil. In the case of tip-vortex interaction noise in CRORs the acoustic signature is determined for vortex trajectories passing beyond, exactly at and below the tip radius of the impinged blade segment, in a reference frame attached to the segment. In a second step the same problem is readdressed accounting for the effect of span end on the aerodynamic response of a blade tip. This is achieved through a composite two-directional Schwarzschild's technique. The modifications of the distributed unsteady lift and of the radiated sound are discussed. The chained source and radiation models provide physical insight into the mechanism of vortex chopping by a blade tip in free field. They allow assessing the acoustic benefit of clipping the rear rotor in a counter-rotating open-rotor architecture.

  8. Effect of changes in human ecology and behavior on patterns of sexually transmitted diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed Central

    Wasserheit, J N

    1994-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed six striking changes in patterns of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs): emergence of new STD organisms and etiologies, reemergence of old STDs, shifts in the populations in which STDs are concentrated, shifts in the etiological spectra of STD syndromes, alterations in the incidence of STD complications, and increases in antimicrobial resistance. For example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) emerged to devastate the United States with a fatal pandemic involving at least 1 million people. The incidence of syphilis rose progressively after 1956 to reach a 40-year peak by 1990. In both cases, disease patterns shifted from homosexual men to include minority heterosexuals. Over the last decade, gonorrhea became increasingly concentrated among adolescents, and several new types of antimicrobial resistance appeared. Three interrelated types of environments affect STD patterns. The microbiologic, hormonal, and immunologic microenvironments most directly influence susceptibility, infectiousness, and development of sequelae. These microenvironments are shaped, in part, by the personal environments created by an individual's sexual, substance-use, and health-related behaviors. The personal environments are also important determinants of acquisition of infection and development of sequelae but, in addition, they mediate risk of exposure to infection. These are, therefore, the environments that most directly affect changing disease patterns. Finally, individuals' personal environments are, in turn, molded by powerful macroenvironmental forces, including socioeconomic, demographic, geographic, political, epidemiologic, and technological factors. Over the past 20 years, the profound changes that have occurred in many aspects of the personal environment and the macroenvironment have been reflected in new STD patterns. PMID:8146135

  9. Effective detection of toxigenic Clostridium difficile by a two-step algorithm including tests for antigen and cytotoxin.

    PubMed

    Ticehurst, John R; Aird, Deborah Z; Dam, Lisa M; Borek, Anita P; Hargrove, John T; Carroll, Karen C

    2006-03-01

    We evaluated a two-step algorithm for detecting toxigenic Clostridium difficile: an enzyme immunoassay for glutamate dehydrogenase antigen (Ag-EIA) and then, for antigen-positive specimens, a concurrent cell culture cytotoxicity neutralization assay (CCNA). Antigen-negative results were > or = 99% predictive of CCNA negativity. Because the Ag-EIA reduced cell culture workload by approximately 75 to 80% and two-step testing was complete in < or = 3 days, we decided that this algorithm would be effective. Over 6 months, our laboratories' expenses were US dollar 143,000 less than if CCNA alone had been performed on all 5,887 specimens. PMID:16517916

  10. [Effects of a low-fat diet including vegetables on total blood cholesterol levels in the aged].

    PubMed

    Pentimone, F; Bertoncini, P; Laghi, G; Del Corso, L; Giuliano, G

    1990-11-30

    High total serum cholesterol and low HDL levels are major risk factors for cardiovascular disease before the age of 65. Currently in older populations their role has not yet been defined. In the elderly a low-cholesterol diet is therefore preferable to pharmacological treatment, in view of the absence of collateral effects. In this study 40 elderly patients with hypercholesterolemia were divided at random into two groups. They were respectively fed their usual diet and a legume-supplemented normal caloric diet for 8 weeks. Total serum cholesterol levels significantly decreased in the latter group from the 2nd week onward. PMID:2150025

  11. Longitudinal splitting in epoxy and K-polymer composites - Shear lag analysis including the effect of fiber bridging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nairn, John A.; Liu, Siulie; Chen, Hsichieh; Wedgewood, Alan R.

    1991-01-01

    The shear-lag model used previously by Nairn (1988) to derive a fracture mechanics analysis of longitudinal splitting in double-edge notched unidirectional composites was used to investigate the effect of fibers bridging across the longitudinal split in these composites. Using the new analysis, the longitudinal splitting fracture toughness, G(Lc), was determined for Hercules AS4/3501-6 graphite/epoxy laminates and for K-polymer based laminates containing Magnamite IM-6 as the graphite reinforcing fiber. Results show that the inclusion of the fiber bridging in the fracture analysis significantly affects the reported fracture toughness.

  12. Effective diffusion of confined active Brownian swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandoval, Mario; Dagdug, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    We find theoretically the effect of confinement and thermal fluctuations, on the diffusivity of a spherical active swimmer moving inside a two-dimensional narrow cavity of general shape. The explicit formulas for the effective diffusion coefficient of a swimmer moving inside two particular cavities are presented. We also compare our analytical results with Brownian Dynamics simulations and we obtain excellent agreement. L.D. thanks Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) Mexico, for partial support by Grant No. 176452. M. S. thanks CONACyT and Programa de Mejoramiento de Profesorado (PROMEP) for partially funding this work under Grant No. 103.5/13/6732.

  13. Effect of p-aminophenols on tyrosinase activity.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yu; Imai, Masahiko; Yamauchi, Takayasu; Higashiyama, Kimio; Takahashi, Noriko

    2014-08-01

    Tyrosinase is involved in the synthesis of melanin in the skin and hair as well as neuromelanin in the brain. This rate limiting enzyme catalyzes two critical steps (reactions) in melanogenesis; the hydroxylation of tyrosine to form DOPA and the subsequent oxidation of DOPA into dopaquinone. Several new aminophenol derivatives have been synthesized based on structure-activity relationship studies of N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (1), a derivative of retinoic acid. In order to find new tyrosinase inhibitors, we investigated the effects of these p-aminophenols, including p-decylaminophenol (3), on the activity of mushroom tyrosinase. Compound 3 was the most potent agent, showing significant inhibition as compared with control. The inhibitory effects of 3 on tyrosinase activities were greater than seen with kojic acid, a well-known potent inhibitor of tyrosinase activity, which also causes adverse effects, including rash and dermatitis. A Lineweaver-Burk kinetic analysis of inhibition showed that 3 suppresses tyrosinase activity in a non-competitive fashion for both substrates, tyrosine and DOPA. These results suggest that 3 might be a useful alternative to kojic acid as a tyrosinase inhibitor. PMID:24972725

  14. Antiproliferative Effects of New Dimeric Ellagitannin from Cornus alba in Prostate Cancer Cells Including Apoptosis-Related S-Phase Arrest.

    PubMed

    Park, Kwan Hee; Yin, Jun; Yoon, Ki Hoon; Hwang, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Min Won

    2016-01-01

    Activity-guided isolation of 80% acetone extract of Cornus alba, which is traditionally used as an anti-inflammatory, hemostatic and diuretic in Korea, yielded one novel compound, tentatively designated cornusiin H (13), together with 12 known compounds. The known compounds included four flavonoids (catechin (1), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucuronide (2), quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4)) and eight hydrolysable tannins (gallic acid (5), 2,6-di-O-galloyl-hamamelofuranoside (6), 2-galloyl-4-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (7) 2,3-di-O-galloyl-4-caffeoyl-L-threonic acid (8), 1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (9), cornusiin B (10), cornusiin A (11) and camptothin B (12)). All compounds exhibited potent 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)-free radical scavenging activity. Especially, the radical scavenging activities of 6 and 9-13 were higher than that of vitamin C. Compounds 9, 11, 12 and 13 inhibited the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW264.7 cells to the same degree as N(G)-Monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA). When the antiproliferative effects of the isolated compounds were assessed in prostate cancer cells, the dimeric ellagitannins (11-13) selectively inhibited LNCaP hormone-dependent prostate cancer cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that the dimeric ellagitannins induced apoptosis and S-phase arrest. These results suggest that dimeric ellagitannins from Cornus alba can be developed as functional materials or herbal medicines for prostate tumors such as benign prostate hyperplasia and early-stage prostate cancer. PMID:26805810

  15. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Woven Ceramic Matrix Composites With Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites with a plain weave fiber architecture. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression response have also been considered. State variable based viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear stiffness is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into a commercially available transient dynamic finite element code, LS-DYNA, through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). The tensile, compressive, and shear deformation of a representative plain weave woven ceramic matrix composite are computed and compared to experimental results. The computed values correlate well to the experimental data, demonstrating the ability of the model to accurately compute the deformation response of woven ceramic matrix composites.

  16. Modeling the Nonlinear, Strain Rate Dependent Deformation of Shuttle Leading Edge Materials with Hydrostatic Stress Effects Included

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis method based on a deformation (as opposed to damage) approach has been developed to model the strain rate dependent, nonlinear deformation of woven ceramic matrix composites, such as the Reinforced Carbon Carbon (RCC) material used on the leading edges of the Space Shuttle. In the developed model, the differences in the tension and compression deformation behaviors have also been accounted for. State variable viscoplastic equations originally developed for metals have been modified to analyze the ceramic matrix composites. To account for the tension/compression asymmetry in the material, the effective stress and effective inelastic strain definitions have been modified. The equations have also been modified to account for the fact that in an orthotropic composite the in-plane shear response is independent of the stiffness in the normal directions. The developed equations have been implemented into LS-DYNA through the use of user defined subroutines (UMATs). Several sample qualitative calculations have been conducted, which demonstrate the ability of the model to qualitatively capture the features of the deformation response present in woven ceramic matrix composites.

  17. An empirical model for the interaction of ultraintense laser pulses with fully ionized plasmas including electrostatic effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jeong-Hoon

    The fast ignitor approach to inertial confinement fusion offers an efficient route to produce higher energy gain for less driver energy and compressed fuel density than the conventional hydrodynamic ignition scheme. Over the last decade, serious efforts have been expended towards the goal of achieving controlled fusion using this new approach. However, until now no simple physical plasma model for this idea has been available and the feasibility of the fast ignition project by petawatt laser pulses is not yet clear. We have investigated the capability of ultrafast lasers with irradiance I > 1018 W cm-2 to produce highly energetic electron beams both in a planar wave and in a Gaussian focus in a low-density plasma and within a physical model of electrostatic effects in relativistic plasmas. The trajectory of a free electron in a plane wave with arbitrary initial conditions has been derived. From the complete solutions for the particle trajectory, we have also determined the initial velocities required to produce figure-of-eight motions for arbitrary initial particle positions. A new expression for the relativistic ponderomotive force has been developed. It compares very well with earlier work by Quesnel and Mora. The new expression promises to speed up particle-in-cell simulations. It has been found that free electrons escape from the Gaussian focal region of a 10-ps petawatt laser pulse very quickly before the field reaches its maximum amplitude. In this case very small net energy transfer occurs during the complete interaction of the electrons with the laser beam, indicating that (in the absence of collective electrostatic effects) free electrons cannot extract enough energy from the ignition laser pulse for ignition. This thesis presents a novel simulation model for predicting the large-scale dynamic behavior of the high intensity laser-plasma interaction. We have developed a simple particle simulation code to explore collective electrostatic effects in plasmas

  18. Rhinacanthus nasutus Extracts Prevent Glutamate and Amyloid-β Neurotoxicity in HT-22 Mouse Hippocampal Cells: Possible Active Compounds Include Lupeol, Stigmasterol and β-Sitosterol

    PubMed Central

    Brimson, James M.; Brimson, Sirikalaya J.; Brimson, Christopher A.; Rakkhitawatthana, Varaporn; Tencomnao, Tewin

    2012-01-01

    The Herb Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, which is native to Thailand and Southeast Asia, has become known for its antioxidant properties. Neuronal loss in a number of diseases including Alzheimer’s disease is thought to result, in part, from oxidative stress. Glutamate causes cell death in the mouse hippocampal cell line, HT-22, by unbalancing redox homeostasis, brought about by a reduction in glutathione levels, and amyloid-β has been shown to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Here in, we show that ethanol extracts of R. nasutus leaf and root are capable of dose dependently attenuating the neuron cell death caused by both glutamate and amyloid-β treatment. We used free radical scavenging assays to measure the extracts antioxidant activities and as well as quantifying phenolic, flavonoid and sterol content. Molecules found in R. nasutus, lupeol, stigmasterol and β-sitosterol are protective against glutamate toxicity. PMID:22606031

  19. FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY(INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): Effects of Different Zernike Terms on Optical Quality and Vision of Human Eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Rao-Xin; Xu, Bing; Li, Jing; Dai, Yun; Yu, Xiang; Zhang, Yu-Dong; Jiang, Wen-Han

    2009-05-01

    The visual quality of human eyes is much restricted by high-order aberrations as well as low-order aberrations (defocus and astigmatism), but each term of high-order aberrations contributes differently. The visual acuity and contrast of the image on the retina can be gained by inducing aberrations to each term of high orders. Based on an adaptive optics system, the visual acuity of four subjects is tested by inducing aberrations to each Zernike term after correcting all the aberrations of the subjects. Zernike terms near the center of the Zernike tree affect visual quality more than those near the edge both theoretically and experimentally, and 0.1-μm aberration of these terms can clearly degrade the optical quality and vision. The results suggest that correcting the terms near the center of Zernike tree can improve the visual quality effectively in practice.

  20. Longitudinal Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Four-Propeller Deflected Slipstream VTOL Model Including the Effects of Ground Proximity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Richard E.; Grunwald, Kalman J.

    1960-01-01

    Results are presented of a wind-tunnel investigation of the longitudinal stability, control, and performance characteristics of a model of a four-propeller deflected-slipstream VTOL airplane in the transition speed range. These results indicate that steady level-flight transition and descending flight-path angles up to 7 or 8 deg. out of the region of ground effect can be accomplished without wing stall being encountered. In general, the pitching moments out of ground proximity can be adequately trimmed by programming the stabilizer incidence to increase with increasing flap deflection, except for a relatively large diving moment in the hovering condition. The deflection of the slipstream onto the horizontal tail in proximity of the ground substantially increases the diving moment in hovering, unless the tail is set at a large nosedown incidence.

  1. Effect of including variable gas properties and entrained particles in the flow analysis of the ASRM nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Curtis D.

    1992-07-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the effect of using constant gas properties for the analysis of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) nozzle and to gain more understanding concerning those types of analysis which might require this additional complexity. Kinetics data for viscosity, thermal conductivity, specific heat, and specific heat ratio are extracted from the Solid Propellant Rocket Motor Performance Prediction Computer Program (SPP) and tabulated as a function of temperature. These tables are added to the Aerovisc computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in place of the constant gas property values. The results of a CFD analysis of the ASRM 48 inch motor with constant gas properties will be compared with an analysis which uses variable gas properties. Mach number, surface pressure, and torque plots are presented. A full scale ASRM analysis using SPP with and without particle flow is presented.

  2. Outcome of 'Kissing Stents' for Aortoiliac Atherosclerotic Disease, Including the Effect on the Non-diseased Contralateral Iliac Limb

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, Faheez; Sarkar, B.; Timmons, G.; Mudawi, A.; Ashour, H.; Uberoi, R.

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: To assess outcomes following 'kissing stents' for aortoiliac atherosclerotic disease,particularly in the non-diseased/non-symptomatic limb. Methods: Twenty-four patients underwent kissing stenting over 36 months. There were 36 symptomatic and 12 non-symptomatic/non-diseased limbs. Patients were prospectively followed with 3-monthly clinical assessment as well as duplex ultrasound. Results: At 23.5 months follow-up (range 3-36 months), 75% of patients had improvement in symptoms, 20% no change and 5% had deterioration. Sixty-one percent of limbs maintained an increase in ankle-brachial pressure index of >0.1. There were 15 reinterventions in nine patients, including three in non-symptomatic/non-diseased limbs. Primary patency at 6, 12 and 24 months was 94%, 81% and 58%, respectively. Primary assisted and secondary patency rates were 96%, 84% and 84% respectively for diseased limbs, and 92% and 100% for non-symptomatic/non-diseased limbs. Although reinterventions were required, there were no long-term occlusions in the non-diseased/non-symptomatic limb. Conclusion: Kissing stents offer an invaluable alternative to surgery. There were no long-term occlusions following kissing stents in a previously non-symptomatic/non-diseased limb.

  3. Flow duration of Kentucky streams through 1990; historical and monthly flow characteristics, including the effects of reservoirs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruhl, K.J.; Burns, R.J.; Martin, G.R.; Allgeier, D.P.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents flow-duration tables and plots for selected streamflow sites in Kentucky with three or more years of continuous record through 1990. Flow duration describes the frequency with which given streamflows are equalled or exceeded. The flow-duration tables were computed using daily mean discharge values for the entire period specified and for each month of the period specified. Only complete years of record were used for the computation. For sites where the streamflow is affected by regulation, separate tables are presented for the period before regulation (unregulated), the period of record after regulation (regulated) and the entire period of record (historical). Flow-duration plots are also presented for each station using the data for the entire period specified. Where practicable, several flow-duration plots are shown together. This includes stations on the same stream, such as main-stem stations, and stations within the same watershed. For stations affected by regulation, which have up to three sets of data available for one station (unregulated, regulated, and historical), the three plots are shown together to clearly illustrate the influence of regulation in augmenting low flows and reducing high flows.

  4. An implicit finite-difference solution to the viscous shock layer, including the effects of radiation and strong blowing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garrett, L. B.; Smith, G. L.; Perkins, J. N.

    1972-01-01

    An implicit finite-difference scheme is developed for the fully coupled solution of the viscous, radiating stagnation-streamline equations, including strong blowing. Solutions are presented for both air injection and injection of carbon-phenolic ablation products into air at conditions near the peak radiative heating point in an earth entry trajectory from interplanetary return missions. A detailed radiative-transport code that accounts for the important radiative exchange processes for gaseous mixtures in local thermodynamic and chemical equilibrium is utilized in the study. With minimum number of assumptions for the initially unknown parameters and profile distributions, convergent solutions to the full stagnation-line equations are rapidly obtained by a method of successive approximations. Damping of selected profiles is required to aid convergence of the solutions for massive blowing. It is shown that certain finite-difference approximations to the governing differential equations stabilize and improve the solutions. Detailed comparisons are made with the numerical results of previous investigations. Results of the present study indicate lower radiative heat fluxes at the wall for carbonphenolic ablation than previously predicted.

  5. In situ calibration of atmospheric-infrasound sensors including the effects of wind-noise-reduction pipe systems.

    PubMed

    Gabrielson, Thomas B

    2011-09-01

    A worldwide network of more than 40 infrasound monitoring stations has been established as part of the effort to ensure compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty. Each station has four to eight individual infrasound elements in a kilometer-scale array for detection and bearing determination of acoustic events. The frequency range of interest covers a three-decade range-roughly from 0.01 to 10 Hz. A typical infrasound array element consists of a receiving transducer connected to a multiple-inlet pipe network to average spatially over the short-wavelength turbulence-associated "wind noise." Although the frequency response of the transducer itself may be known, the wind-noise reduction system modifies that response. In order to understand the system's impact on detection and identification of acoustical events, the overall frequency response must be determined. This paper describes a technique for measuring the absolute magnitude and phase of the frequency response of an infrasound element including the wind-noise-reduction piping by comparison calibration using ambient noise and a reference-microphone system. Measured coherence between the reference and the infrasound element and the consistency between the magnitude and the phase provide quality checks on the process. PMID:21895058

  6. In Vitro Antibacterial and Antibiofilm Activities of Chlorogenic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia including the Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole Resistant Strain

    PubMed Central

    Karunanidhi, Arunkumar; Thomas, Renjan; van Belkum, Alex; Neela, Vasanthakumari

    2013-01-01

    The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activity of chlorogenic acid against clinical isolates of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia was investigated through disk diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), time-kill and biofilm assays. A total of 9 clinical S. maltophilia isolates including one isolate resistant to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) were tested. The inhibition zone sizes for the isolates ranged from 17 to 29 mm, while the MIC and MBC values ranged from 8 to 16 μg mL−1 and 16 to 32 μg mL−1. Chlorogenic acid appeared to be strongly bactericidal at 4x MIC, with a 2-log reduction in viable bacteria at 10 h. In vitro antibiofilm testing showed a 4-fold reduction in biofilm viability at 4x MIC compared to 1x MIC values (0.085 < 0.397 A 490 nm) of chlorogenic acid. The data from this study support the notion that the chlorogenic acid has promising in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against S. maltophilia. PMID:23509719

  7. A depth-averaged debris-flow model that includes the effects of evolving dilatancy. I. physical basis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.; George, David L.

    2014-01-01

    To simulate debris-flow behaviour from initiation to deposition, we derive a depth-averaged, two-phase model that combines concepts of critical-state soil mechanics, grain-flow mechanics and fluid mechanics. The model's balance equations describe coupled evolution of the solid volume fraction, m, basal pore-fluid pressure, flow thickness and two components of flow velocity. Basal friction is evaluated using a generalized Coulomb rule, and fluid motion is evaluated in a frame of reference that translates with the velocity of the granular phase, vs. Source terms in each of the depth-averaged balance equations account for the influence of the granular dilation rate, defined as the depth integral of ∇⋅vs. Calculation of the dilation rate involves the effects of an elastic compressibility and an inelastic dilatancy angle proportional to m−meq, where meq is the value of m in equilibrium with the ambient stress state and flow rate. Normalization of the model equations shows that predicted debris-flow behaviour depends principally on the initial value of m−meq and on the ratio of two fundamental timescales. One of these timescales governs downslope debris-flow motion, and the other governs pore-pressure relaxation that modifies Coulomb friction and regulates evolution of m. A companion paper presents a suite of model predictions and tests.

  8. Interpretation of vector magnetograph data including magneto-optic effects. I - Azimuth angle of the transverse field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, E. A.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper, the presence of Faraday rotation in measurements of the orientation of a sunspot's transverse magnetic field is investigated. Using observations obtained with the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) vector magnetograph, the derived vector magnetic field of a simple, symmetric sunspot is used to calculate the degree of Faraday rotation in the azimuth of the transverse field as a function of wavelength from analytical expressions for the Stokes parameters. These results are then compared with the observed rotation of the field's azimuth which is derived from observations at different wavelengths within the Fe I 5250 A spectral line. From these comparisons, it is found: the observed rotation of the azimuth is simulated to a reasonable degree by the theoretical formulations if the line-formation parameter is varied over the sunspot; these variations are substantiated by the line-intensity data; for the MSFC system, Faraday rotation can be neglected for field strengths less than 1800 G and field inclinations greater than 45 deg; to minimize the effects of Faraday rotation in sunspot umbrae, MSFC magnetograph measurements must be made in the far wings of the Zeeman-sensitive spectral line.

  9. Comparison of the quadratic configuration interaction and coupled cluster approaches to electron correlation including the effect of triple excitations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Peter R.; Lee, Timothy J.; Rendell, Alistair P.

    1990-01-01

    The recently proposed quadratic configuration interaction (QCI) method is compared with the more rigorous coupled cluster (CC) approach for a variety of chemical systems. Some of these systems are well represented by a single-determinant reference function and others are not. The finite order singles and doubles correlation energy, the perturbational triples correlation energy, and a recently devised diagnostic for estimating the importance of multireference effects are considered. The spectroscopic constants of CuH, the equilibrium structure of cis-(NO)2 and the binding energies of Be3, Be4, Mg3, and Mg4 were calculated using both approaches. The diagnostic for estimating multireference character clearly demonstrates that the QCI method becomes less satisfactory than the CC approach as non-dynamical correlation becomes more important, in agreement with a perturbational analysis of the two methods and the numerical estimates of the triple excitation energies they yield. The results for CuH show that the differences between the two methods become more apparent as the chemical systems under investigation becomes more multireference in nature and the QCI results consequently become less reliable. Nonetheless, when the system of interest is dominated by a single reference determinant both QCI and CC give very similar results.

  10. Experimental investigation of the radiation of sound from an unflanged duct and a bellmouth, including the flow effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ville, J. M.; Silcox, R. J.

    1980-08-01

    The radiation of sound from an inlet as a function of flow velocity, frequency, duct mode structure, and inlet geometry was examined by using a spinning mode synthesizer to insure a given space-time structure inside the duct. Measurements of the radiation pattern (amplitude and phase) and of the pressure reflection coefficient were obtained over an azimuthal wave number range of 0 to 6 and a frequency range up to 5000 Hz for an unflanged duct and a bellmouth. The measured radiated field and pressure reflection coefficient without flow for the unflanged duct agree reasonably well with theory. The influence of the inlet contour appears to be very drastic near the cut-on frequency of a mode and reasonable agreement is found between the bellmouth pressure reflection coefficient and a infinite hyperboloidal inlet theory. It is also shown that the flow has a weak effect on the amplitude of the directivity factor but significantly shifts the directivity factor phase. The influence of the flow on the modulus of the pressure reflection coefficient is found to be well described by a theoretical prediction.

  11. Experimental investigation of the radiation of sound from an unflanged duct and a bellmouth, including the flow effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ville, J. M.; Silcox, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    The radiation of sound from an inlet as a function of flow velocity, frequency, duct mode structure, and inlet geometry was examined by using a spinning mode synthesizer to insure a given space-time structure inside the duct. Measurements of the radiation pattern (amplitude and phase) and of the pressure reflection coefficient were obtained over an azimuthal wave number range of 0 to 6 and a frequency range up to 5000 Hz for an unflanged duct and a bellmouth. The measured radiated field and pressure reflection coefficient without flow for the unflanged duct agree reasonably well with theory. The influence of the inlet contour appears to be very drastic near the cut-on frequency of a mode and reasonable agreement is found between the bellmouth pressure reflection coefficient and a infinite hyperboloidal inlet theory. It is also shown that the flow has a weak effect on the amplitude of the directivity factor but significantly shifts the directivity factor phase. The influence of the flow on the modulus of the pressure reflection coefficient is found to be well described by a theoretical prediction.

  12. Abinitio calculations of the spectral shapes of CO2 isolated lines including non-Voigt effects and comparisons with experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, J.-M.; Tran, H.; Ngo, N. H.; Landsheere, X.; Chelin, P.; Lu, Y.; Liu, A.-W.; Hu, S.-M.; Gianfrani, L.; Casa, G.; Castrillo, A.; Lepère, M.; Delière, Q.; Dhyne, M.; Fissiaux, L.

    2013-01-01

    We present a fully ab initio model and calculations of the spectral shapes of absorption lines in a pure molecular gas under conditions where the influences of collisions and of the Doppler effect are significant. Predictions of the time dependence of dipole autocorrelation functions (DACFs) are made for pure CO2 at room temperature using requantized classical molecular dynamics simulations. These are carried, free of any adjusted parameter, on the basis of an accurate anisotropic intermolecular potential. The Fourier-Laplace transforms of these DACFs then yield calculated spectra which are analyzed, as some measured ones, through fits using Voigt line profiles. Comparisons between theory and various experiments not only show that the main line-shape parameters (Lorentz pressure-broadening coefficients) are accurately predicted, but that subtle observed non-Voigt features are also quantitatively reproduced by the model. These successes open renewed perspectives for the understanding of the mechanisms involved (translational-velocity and rotational-state changes and their dependences on the molecular speed) and the quantification of their respective contributions. The proposed model should also be of great help for the test of widely used empirical line-shape models and, if needed, the construction of more physically based ones.

  13. DNA methylation profiling in the thalamus and hippocampus of postnatal malnourished mice, including effects related to long-term potentiation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background DNA methylation has been viewed as the most highly characterized epigenetic mark for genome regulation and development. Postnatal brains appear to exhibit stimulus-induced methylation changes because of factors such as environment, lifestyle, and diet (nutrition). The purpose of this study was to examine how extensively the brain DNA methylome is regulated by nutrition in early life. Results By quantifying the total amount of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) in the thalamus and the hippocampus of postnatal malnourished mice and normal mice, we found the two regions showed differences in global DNA methylation status. The methylation level in the thalamus was much higher than that in the hippocampus. Then, we used a next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based method (MSCC) to detect the whole genome methylation of the two regions in malnourished mice and normal mice. Notably, we found that in the thalamus, 500 discriminable variations existed and that approximately 60% were related to neuronal development or psychiatric diseases. Pathway analyses of the corresponding genes highlighted changes for 9 genes related to long-term potentiation (5.3-fold enrichment, P = 0.033). Conclusions Our findings may help to indicate the genome-wide DNA methylation status of different brain regions and the effects of malnutrition on brain DNA methylation. The results also indicate that postnatal malnutrition may increase the risk of psychiatric disorders. PMID:24555847

  14. Effect of different provisional cement remnant cleaning procedures including Er:YAG laser on shear bond strength of ceramics

    PubMed Central

    Zortuk, Mustafa; Gumus, Hasan Onder; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of provisional cement removal by different dentin cleaning protocols (dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, Er:YAG laser) on the shear bond strength between ceramic and dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 36 caries-free unrestored human third molars were selected as tooth specimens. Provisional restorations were fabricated and cemented with eugenol-free provisional cement. Then, disc-shaped ceramic specimens were fabricated and randomly assigned to four groups of dentin cleaning protocols (n = 9). Group 1 (control): Provisional cements were mechanically removed with a dental explorer. Group 2: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning brush with pumice Group 3: The dentin surfaces were treated with a cleaning bur. Group 4: The provisional cements were removed by an Er:YAG laser. Self-adhesive luting cement was used to bond ceramic discs to dentin surfaces. Shear bond strength (SBS) was measured using a universal testing machine at a 0.05 mm/min crosshead speed. The data were analyzed using a Kolmogorov Smirnov, One-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests to perform multiple comparisons (α=0.05). RESULTS The dentin cleaning methods did not significantly affect the SBS of ceramic discs to dentin as follows: dental explorer, pumice, cleaning bur, and Er:YAG laser. CONCLUSION The use of different cleaning protocols did not affect the SBS between dentin and ceramic surfaces. PMID:23236570

  15. The convergence of complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation energies to the complete basis set limit.

    PubMed

    Petersson, George A; Malick, David K; Frisch, Michael J; Braunstein, Matthew

    2006-07-28

    Examination of the convergence of full valence complete active space self-consistent-field configuration interaction including all single and double excitation (CASSCF-CISD) energies with expansion of the one-electron basis set reveals a pattern very similar to the convergence of single determinant energies. Calculations on the lowest four singlet states and the lowest four triplet states of N(2) with the sequence of n-tuple-zeta augmented polarized (nZaP) basis sets (n=2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) are used to establish the complete basis set limits. Full configuration-interaction (CI) and core electron contributions must be included for very accurate potential energy surfaces. However, a simple extrapolation scheme that has no adjustable parameters and requires nothing more demanding than CAS(10e(-),8orb)-CISD/3ZaP calculations gives the R(e), omega(e), omega(e)X(e), T(e), and D(e) for these eight states with rms errors of 0.0006 Angstrom, 4.43 cm(-1), 0.35 cm(-1), 0.063 eV, and 0.018 eV, respectively. PMID:16942134

  16. A Theory for Stability and Buzz Pulsation Amplitude in Ram Jets and an Experimental Investigation Including Scale Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimpi, Robert L

    1956-01-01

    From a theory developed on a quasi-one-dimensional-flow basis, it is found that the stability of the ram jet is dependent upon the instantaneous values of mass flow and total pressure recovery of the supersonic diffuser and immediate neighboring subsonic diffuser. Conditions for stable and unstable flow are presented. The theory developed in the report is in agreement with the experimental data of NACA-TN-3506 and NACA-RM-L50K30. A simple theory for predicting the approximate amplitude of small pressure pulsation in terms of mass-flow decrement from minimum-stable mass flow is developed and found to agree with experiments. Cold-flow tests at a Mach number of 1.94 of ram-jet models having scale factors of 3.15:1 and Reynolds number ratios of 4.75:1 with several supersonic diffuser configurations showed only small variations in performance between geometrically similar models. The predominant variation in steady-flow performance resulted from the larger boundary layer in the combustion chamber of the low Reynolds number models. The conditions at which buzz originated were nearly the same for the same supersonic diffuser (cowling-position angle) configurations in both large and small diameter models. There was no appreciable variation in stability limits of any of the models when the combustion-chamber length was increased by a factor of three. The unsteady-flow performance and wave patterns were also similar when considered on a reduced-frequency basis determined from the relative lengths of the model. The negligible effect of Reynolds number on stability of the off-design configurations was not anticipated in view of the importance of boundary layer to stability, and this result should not be construed to be generally applicable. (author)

  17. Three-energy radiography method for uniformity control of composite materials including components with different effective atomic numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, Volodymyr D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Grinyov, Boris V.; Galkin, Serhiy M.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Voronkin, Yevheniy F.; Kostioukevitch, Serhiy A.

    2013-09-01

    Presently, most X-ray security systems for luggage inspection use dual-energy detector. A drawback of this approach is that overlap in energy sensitivity of the low- and high-energy detectors creates the potential for ambiguity and inaccuracy. We have made an attempt to improve the identification quality of organic materials using a three-energy receiving-detecting circuit. New model calculations and several new algorithms for the detection of organic and nonorganic materials under multi-energy radiography were proposed, developed and experimentally verified. The purpose of the present work is study of the possibility of separation between substances with small effective atomic numbers for increasing the detection probability of explosives. Using a spectrum of the X-ray tube with a tungsten anode, evaluation has been carried out of the signal ratio from high-energy detector, medium-energy detector and low-energy detectors. Using differential energy sensitivity of detectors of different thickness, varying X-ray source anode voltages and filter for each array, special software it is possible to reconstruct images of the inspected object at the different energy scales. It was shown that using standard X-ray beams and specially-chosen scintillator types with different thicknesses, we can achieve accuracy in determination of Zeff up to 95%, that significantly better as compared with systems based on conventional X-ray inspection. Using two-coordinate identification palette, one can discern between imitators of explosives even when the difference in their Zeff values is small (from 7.08 to 8.07).

  18. Convex reformulation of biologically-based multi-criteria intensity-modulated radiation therapy optimization including fractionation effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, Aswin L.; den Hertog, Dick; Siem, Alex Y. D.; Kaanders, Johannes H. A. M.; Huizenga, Henk

    2008-11-01

    Finding fluence maps for intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can be formulated as a multi-criteria optimization problem for which Pareto optimal treatment plans exist. To account for the dose-per-fraction effect of fractionated IMRT, it is desirable to exploit radiobiological treatment plan evaluation criteria based on the linear-quadratic (LQ) cell survival model as a means to balance the radiation benefits and risks in terms of biologic response. Unfortunately, the LQ-model-based radiobiological criteria are nonconvex functions, which make the optimization problem hard to solve. We apply the framework proposed by Romeijn et al (2004 Phys. Med. Biol. 49 1991-2013) to find transformations of LQ-model-based radiobiological functions and establish conditions under which transformed functions result in equivalent convex criteria that do not change the set of Pareto optimal treatment plans. The functions analysed are: the LQ-Poisson-based model for tumour control probability (TCP) with and without inter-patient heterogeneity in radiation sensitivity, the LQ-Poisson-based relative seriality s-model for normal tissue complication probability (NTCP), the equivalent uniform dose (EUD) under the LQ-Poisson model and the fractionation-corrected Probit-based model for NTCP according to Lyman, Kutcher and Burman. These functions differ from those analysed before in that they cannot be decomposed into elementary EUD or generalized-EUD functions. In addition, we show that applying increasing and concave transformations to the convexified functions is beneficial for the piecewise approximation of the Pareto efficient frontier.

  19. Mercury's capture into the 3/2 spin-orbit resonance including the effect of core-mantle friction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, Alexandre C. M.; Laskar, Jacques

    2009-05-01

    The rotation of Mercury is presently captured in a 3/2 spin-orbit resonance with the orbital mean motion. The capture mechanism is well understood as the result of tidal interactions with the Sun combined with planetary perturbations [Goldreich, P., Peale, S., 1966. Astron. J. 71, 425-438; Correia, A.C.M., Laskar, J., 2004. Nature 429, 848-850]. However, it is now almost certain that Mercury has a liquid core [Margot, J.L., Peale, S.J., Jurgens, R.F., Slade, M.A., Holin, I.V., 2007. Science 316, 710-714] which should induce a contribution of viscous friction at the core-mantle boundary to the spin evolution. According to Peale and Boss [Peale, S.J., Boss, A.P., 1977. J. Geophys. Res. 82, 743-749] this last effect greatly increases the chances of capture in all spin-orbit resonances, being 100% for the 2/1 resonance, and thus preventing the planet from evolving to the presently observed configuration. Here we show that for a given resonance, as the chaotic evolution of Mercury's orbit can drive its eccentricity to very low values during the planet's history, any previous capture can be destabilized whenever the eccentricity becomes lower than a critical value. In our numerical integrations of 1000 orbits of Mercury over 4 Gyr, the spin ends 99.8% of the time captured in a spin-orbit resonance, in particular in one of the following three configurations: 5/2 (22%), 2/1 (32%) and 3/2 (26%). Although the present 3/2 spin-orbit resonance is not the most probable outcome, we also show that the capture probability in this resonance can be increased up to 55% or 73%, if the eccentricity of Mercury in the past has descended below the critical values 0.025 or 0.005, respectively.

  20. Effects of Various Interventions, Including Mass Trapping with Passive Pitfall Traps, on Low-Level Bed Bug Populations in Apartments.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2016-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of various interventions on low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations in occupied apartments. The first experiment was conducted in occupied apartments under three intervention conditions: never treated (Group I), recently treated with no further treatment (Group II), and recently treated with continued treatment (Group III). Each apartment was monitored with pitfall-style traps (interceptors) installed at beds and upholstered furniture (sleeping and resting areas) along with ∼18 additional interceptors throughout the apartment. The traps were inspected every 2 wk. After 22 wk, bed bugs had been eliminated (zero trap catch for eight consecutive weeks and none detected in visual inspections) in 96, 87, and 100% of the apartments in Groups I, II, and III, respectively. The second experiment investigated the impact of interceptors as a control measure in apartments with low-level infestations. In the treatment group, interceptors were continuously installed at and away from sleeping and resting areas and were inspected every 2 wk for 16 wk. In the control group, interceptors were placed in a similar fashion as the treatment group but were only placed during 6–8 and 14–16 wk to obtain bed bug counts. Bed bug counts were significantly lower at 8 wk in the treatment group than in the control group. At 16 wk, bed bugs were eliminated in 50% of the apartments in the treatment group. The implications of our results in the development of bed bug management strategies and monitoring protocols are discussed. PMID:26637535

  1. Equivalent circuit model including magnetic and thermo sources for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo-mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo-magneto-electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  2. The effects of a prenatal course including PREP for effective family living on self-esteem and parenting attitudes of adolescents: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Emmons, R D; Nystul, M S

    1994-01-01

    Nine adolescent females were enrolled in a prenatal course that included the PREP for Effective Family Living Program (the treatment group). Two comparison groups were utilized in this study; one attended the prenatal group without the PREP program, and the second did not attend either the prenatal course or the PREP program. The Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and the Attitude Toward the Freedom of Children Scale (a parental attitude scale) was administered to all participants. No significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of self-concept. A significant difference was found among the three groups in terms of parental attitudes, with the treatment group scoring higher on democratic parenting attitudes than did the two comparison groups. PMID:7892802

  3. Routine OGTT: A Robust Model Including Incretin Effect for Precise Identification of Insulin Sensitivity and Secretion in a Single Individual

    PubMed Central

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10−5±9.36×10−5 min−1pM−1), IFG (5.30×10−5±5.18×10−5) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10−5±1.95×10−5, 2.38×10−5±2.28×10−5 and 2.38×10−5±2.09×10−5 respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  4. Routine OGTT: a robust model including incretin effect for precise identification of insulin sensitivity and secretion in a single individual.

    PubMed

    De Gaetano, Andrea; Panunzi, Simona; Matone, Alice; Samson, Adeline; Vrbikova, Jana; Bendlova, Bela; Pacini, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide a method for precise identification of insulin sensitivity from clinical Oral Glucose Tolerance Test (OGTT) observations, a relatively simple mathematical model (Simple Interdependent glucose/insulin MOdel SIMO) for the OGTT, which coherently incorporates commonly accepted physiological assumptions (incretin effect and saturating glucose-driven insulin secretion) has been developed. OGTT data from 78 patients in five different glucose tolerance groups were analyzed: normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), IFG+IGT, and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). A comparison with the 2011 Salinari (COntinuos GI tract MOdel, COMO) and the 2002 Dalla Man (Dalla Man MOdel, DMMO) models was made with particular attention to insulin sensitivity indices ISCOMO, ISDMMO and kxgi (the insulin sensitivity index for SIMO). ANOVA on kxgi values across groups resulted significant overall (P<0.001), and post-hoc comparisons highlighted the presence of three different groups: NGT (8.62×10(-5)±9.36×10(-5) min(-1)pM(-1)), IFG (5.30×10(-5)±5.18×10(-5)) and combined IGT, IFG+IGT and T2DM (2.09×10(-5)±1.95×10(-5), 2.38×10(-5)±2.28×10(-5) and 2.38×10(-5)±2.09×10(-5) respectively). No significance was obtained when comparing ISCOMO or ISDMMO across groups. Moreover, kxgi presented the lowest sample average coefficient of variation over the five groups (25.43%), with average CVs for ISCOMO and ISDMMO of 70.32% and 57.75% respectively; kxgi also presented the strongest correlations with all considered empirical measures of insulin sensitivity. While COMO and DMMO appear over-parameterized for fitting single-subject clinical OGTT data, SIMO provides a robust, precise, physiologically plausible estimate of insulin sensitivity, with which habitual empirical insulin sensitivity indices correlate well. The kxgi index, reflecting insulin secretion dependency on glycemia, also significantly differentiates clinically

  5. Chimeric Beta-Defensin Analogs, Including the Novel 3NI Analog, Display Salt-Resistant Antimicrobial Activity and Lack Toxicity in Human Epithelial Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Scudiero, Olga; Galdiero, Stefania; Nigro, Ersilia; Del Vecchio, Luigi; Di Noto, Rosa; Cantisani, Marco; Colavita, Irene; Galdiero, Massimiliano; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Daniele, Aurora; Pedone, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    Human beta-defensins (hBDs) are crucial peptides for the innate immune response and are thus prime candidates as therapeutic agents directed against infective diseases. Based on the properties of wild-type hBD1 and hBD3 and of previously synthesized analogs (1C, 3I, and 3N), we have designed a new analog, 3NI, and investigated its potential as an antimicrobial drug. Specifically, we evaluated the antimicrobial activities of 3NI versus those of hBD1, hBD3, 1C, 3I, and 3N. Our results show that 3NI exerted greater antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecalis than did hBD1 and hBD3, even with elevated salt concentrations. Moreover, its antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus 1 was greater than that of hBD1 and similar to that of hBD3. Subsequently, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of all peptides in three human epithelial carcinoma cell lines: A549 from lung, CaCo-2 from colon, and Capan-1 from pancreas. None of the analogs significantly reduced cell viability versus wild-type hBD1 and hBD3. They did not induce genotoxicity or cause an increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Using confocal microscopy, we also investigated the localization of the peptides during their incubation with epithelial cells and found that they were distributed on the cell surface, from which they were internalized. Finally, we show that hBD1 and hBD3 are characterized by high resistance to serum degradation. In conclusion, the new analog 3NI seems to be a promising anti-infective agent, particularly given its high salt resistance—a feature that is relevant in diseases such as cystic fibrosis. PMID:23357761

  6. U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Activities in the Exploration of Antarctica: Introduction to Antarctica (Including USGS Field Personnel: 1946-59)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tony K. Meunier Edited by Williams, Richard S., Jr.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    international) programs in biology, geology, geophysics, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers, scientists, and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958, and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica (Meunier, 1979 [2007], appendix A). Open-File Report 2006-1116 includes scanned facsimiles of postal cachets. It has become an international practice to create postal cachets to commemorate special events and projects in Antarctica. A cachet is defined as a seal or commemorative design printed or stamped on an envelope to mark a philatelic or special event. The inked impression illustrates to the scientist, historian, stamp collector, and general public the multidisciplinary science projects staffed by USGS and collaborating scientists during the field season. Since 1960, philatelic cachets have been created by team members for each USGS field season and, in most cases, these cachets depict the specific geographic areas and field season program objectives. The cachets become a convenient documentation of the people, projects, and geographic places of interest for that year. Because the cachets are representative of USGS activities, each year's cachet is included as a digital facsimile in that year's Open-File Report. In the 1980s, multiple USGS cachets were prepared each year, one for use by the winter team at Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station and the other for the project work areas of the austral summer field season programs.

  7. In vitro activity of ceftazidime/avibactam against Gram-negative pathogens isolated from pneumonia in hospitalised patients, including ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    Flamm, Robert K; Nichols, Wright W; Sader, Helio S; Farrell, David J; Jones, Ronald N

    2016-03-01

    The activities of the novel β-lactam/non-β-lactam β-lactamase inhibitor combination ceftazidime/avibactam and comparators were evaluated against isolates from pneumonia in hospitalised patients including ventilated patients (PHP, pneumonia not designated as VABP; VABP, pneumonia in ventilated patients). Isolates were from the European-Mediterranean region (EuM), China and the USA collected in the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program between 2009 and 2011 inclusive. A total of 2393 organisms from PHP were from the EuM, 888 from China and 3213 from the USA; from VABP patients there were 918, 97 and 692 organisms collected, respectively. Among Enterobacteriaceae from PHP, ceftazidime/avibactam MIC90 values against Escherichia coli ranged from 0.25-0.5mg/L and Klebsiella spp. MIC90 values were 0.5mg/L in each region. Among VABP isolates, MIC90 values for ceftazidime/avibactam against E. coli were 0.25mg/L; for Klebsiella spp. from VABP patients, MIC90 values were similar to those obtained against PHP isolates. The MIC of ceftazidime/avibactam was ≤8mg/L against 92-96% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from PHP patients. Isolates of P. aeruginosa from VABP patients were of lower susceptibility to all antibacterial agents (e.g. depending on region, meropenem susceptibilities were 51.2-69.4% in contrast to 68.3-76.7% among PHP patients). However, ceftazidime/avibactam inhibited 79.2-95.4% of VABP isolates at an MIC of ≤8mg/L. Acinetobacter spp. were resistant to many agents and only rates of susceptibility to colistin were >90% across all regions both for PHP and VABP isolates. Ceftazidime/avibactam was generally active against a high proportion of isolates resistant to ceftazidime from PHP and VAPB patients. PMID:26920105

  8. Pilot evaluation of physical and psychological effects of a physical trek programme including a dog sledding expedition in children and teenagers with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vallet, Clothilde; André, Nicolas; Gentet, Jean-Claude; Verschuur, Arnauld; Michel, Gérard; Sotteau, Frédéric; Martha, Cécile; Grélot, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study To evaluate the feasibility and to measure the effects of a six-week-long adapted physical activity programme (APAP), including 5 days of intense dog sledding, on the physical and psychological health of children and adolescents treated for cancer. Methods Eleven children and teenagers (4 girls, 7 boys; mean age 14.3 ± 2.9 years) participated in this monocentric pilot programme of adapted physical activities from February 2013 to March 2013. Seven were still on treatment. The programme lasted 6 weeks. A series of physical tests and psychological questionnaires were carried out before and after the programme. Results All children and teenagers completed the full programme. An improvement in all physical and psychological parameters was observed. Statistically significant differences were observed for global self-esteem (6.2 ± 2.1 to 7.7 ± 1.8; p = 0.02), perceived sport competence (5.3 ± 3.2 to 7.4 ± 2; p = 0.02) and perceived physical strength (5.6 ± 2.5 to 7.1 ± 1.8; p = 0.001). Regarding physical tests, the physical training led to statistically significant improvement for sit-ups (13.8 ± 2.6 to 21.75 ± 5.4; p = 0.01), muscle tone (76 ± 23.7 to 100 ± 22.9; p = 0.01), and resting heart rate (96.1 ± 3.2 to 91.6 ± 4.5; p = 0.03). Conclusion This programme is feasible in children and adolescents even during their oncologic treatment. During the 6-week programme, children and adolescents improved their physical and psychological health, and the putative benefits of the APAP are discussed. A larger randomised trial started in 2014. PMID:26284122

  9. SRS Public Involvement in Waste Management Has Resulted in Effective Decisions Supported by the Public Including Disposal Changes and Top-to-Bottom Review Initiative Consensus

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, W. T.; Villasor, H. P.

    2003-02-27

    In the Savannah River Site's (SRS') Solid Waste Management Program, a key to success is the Public Involvement Program. The Solid Waste Division at SRS manages the site's transuranic, low-level, mixed, and hazardous wastes. All decisions associated with management of this waste are of interest to the public and successful program implementation would be impossible without a vigorous public involvement program. The SRS Solid Waste Division (SWD) and its Department of Energy (DOE) customer developed, implemented, and maintain a comprehensive public participation and communications program. It is staffed by public participation and technical specialists to ensure information is presented in a manner that is technically accurate while being tailored for understanding by people without a technical background. The program provides the public with accurate, complete, timely information and early meaningful participation opportunities. It also fulfills the public participation activities required by laws, regulations, DOE Orders, and negotiated agreements. The primary goal of the SWD Public Participation Program is to fulfill the objectives of the SWD and SRS Strategic Plans to ''build trust and communicate openly, honestly, and responsibly with employees, customers, stakeholders, and regulators,'' and to ''work to extend the support of external stakeholders for the pursuit of SRS and DOE Complex business goals.'' This paper focuses on the public participation program goals, the implementation through formal plans and objectives, targeted waste management programs and specific audiences, and specific effects of the program on waste management activities. A discussion of the DOE and contractor teaming along with how plans are carried out is also included.

  10. Isoflavones: estrogenic activity, biological effect and bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Daniela Cristina; Piazza, Cateno; Melilli, Barbara; Drago, Filippo; Salomone, Salvatore

    2013-03-01

    Isoflavones are phytoestrogens with potent estrogenic activity; genistein, daidzein and glycitein are the most active isoflavones found in soy beans. Phytoestrogens have similarity in structure with the human female hormone 17-β-estradiol, which can bind to both alpha and beta estrogen receptors, and mimic the action of estrogens on target organs, thereby exerting many health benefits when used in some hormone-dependent diseases. Numerous clinical studies claim benefits of genistein and daidzein in chemoprevention of breast and prostate cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis as well as in relieving postmenopausal symptoms. The ability of isoflavones to prevent cancer and other chronic diseases largely depends on pharmacokinetic properties of these compounds, in particular absorption and distribution to the target tissue. The chemical form in which isoflavones occur is important because it influences their bioavailability and, therefore, their biological activity. Glucose-conjugated isoflavones are highly polar, water-soluble compounds. They are hardly absorbed by the intestinal epithelium and have weaker biological activities than the corresponding aglycone. Different microbial families of colon can transform glycosylated isoflavones into aglycones. Clinical studies show important differences between the aglycone and conjugated forms of genistein and daidzein. The evaluation of isoflavone metabolism and bioavailability is crucial to understanding their biological effects. Lipid-based formulations such as drug incorporation into oils, emulsions and self-microemulsifying formulations have been introduced to increase bioavailability. Complexation with cyclodextrin also represent a valid method to improve the physicochemical characteristics of these substances in order to be absorbed and distributed to target tissues. We review and discuss pharmacokinetic issues that critically influence the biological activity of isoflavones. PMID:23161396

  11. Physical Activity Effects on Depressive Symptoms in Black Adults

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Elisa R.; Sampselle, Carolyn M.; Gretebeck, Kimberlee A.; Ronis, David L.; Neighbors, Harold W.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Randomized trials found physical activity (PA) effective in decreasing depressive symptoms. Few studies included Black participants. The purpose of this systematic literature review was to determine the effects of PA on depressive symptoms in Black adults. Methods Articles were abstracted by conducting a computer and hand search of eligible studies. Results Eight of 13 studies found a significant inverse relationship between PA and depressive symptoms in Black adults. Sources for the heterogeneity were explored. Conclusion Future studies should include representative samples of Black adults, incorporate a theory which considers multiple levels of influence, account for genetic factors in the etiology of depressive symptoms, include individuals diagnosed with depression and with health conditions which may increase the risk of depressive symptoms, account for intra-group ethnic heterogeneity, measure and differentiate between social support and social network, consider aspects of the physical environment and use standardized measurements of PA. PMID:22984655

  12. Cutting edge: identification of a novel chemokine receptor that binds dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines including ELC, SLC, and TECK.

    PubMed

    Gosling, J; Dairaghi, D J; Wang, Y; Hanley, M; Talbot, D; Miao, Z; Schall, T J

    2000-03-15

    Searching for new receptors of dendritic cell- and T cell-active chemokines, we used a combination of techniques to interrogate orphan chemokine receptors. We report here on human CCX CKR, previously represented only by noncontiguous expressed sequence tags homologous to bovine PPR1, a putative gustatory receptor. We employed a two-tiered process of ligand assignment, where immobilized chemokines constructed on stalks (stalkokines) were used as bait for adhesion of cells expressing CCX CKR. These cells adhered to stalkokines representing ELC, a chemokine previously thought to bind only CCR7. Adhesion was abolished in the presence of soluble ELC, SLC (CCR7 ligands), and TECK (a CCR9 ligand). Complete ligand profiles were further determined by radiolabeled ligand binding and competition with >80 chemokines. ELC, SLC, and TECK comprised high affinity ligands (IC50 <15 nM); lower affinity ligands include BLC and vMIP-II (IC50 <150 nM). With its high affinity for CC chemokines and homology to CC receptors, we provisionally designate this new receptor CCR10. PMID:10706668

  13. Activation of Human Monocytes by Live Borrelia burgdorferi Generates TLR2-Dependent and -Independent Responses Which Include Induction of IFN-β

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Juan C.; Duhnam-Ems, Star; La Vake, Carson; Cruz, Adriana R.; Moore, Meagan W.; Caimano, Melissa J.; Velez-Climent, Leonor; Shupe, Jonathan; Krueger, Winfried; Radolf, Justin D.

    2009-01-01

    It is widely believed that innate immune responses to Borrelia burgdorferi (Bb) are primarily triggered by the spirochete's outer membrane lipoproteins signaling through cell surface TLR1/2. We recently challenged this notion by demonstrating that phagocytosis of live Bb by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited greater production of proinflammatory cytokines than did equivalent bacterial lysates. Using whole genome microarrays, we show herein that, compared to lysates, live spirochetes elicited a more intense and much broader transcriptional response involving genes associated with diverse cellular processes; among these were IFN-β and a number of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs), which are not known to result from TLR2 signaling. Using isolated monocytes, we demonstrated that cell activation signals elicited by live Bb result from cell surface interactions and uptake and degradation of organisms within phagosomes. As with PBCMs, live Bb induced markedly greater transcription and secretion of TNF-α, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-1β in monocytes than did lysates. Secreted IL-18, which, like IL-1β, also requires cleavage by activated caspase-1, was generated only in response to live Bb. Pro-inflammatory cytokine production by TLR2-deficient murine macrophages was only moderately diminished in response to live Bb but was drastically impaired against lysates; TLR2 deficiency had no significant effect on uptake and degradation of spirochetes. As with PBMCs, live Bb was a much more potent inducer of IFN-β and ISGs in isolated monocytes than were lysates or a synthetic TLR2 agonist. Collectively, our results indicate that the enhanced innate immune responses of monocytes following phagocytosis of live Bb have both TLR2-dependent and -independent components and that the latter induce transcription of type I IFNs and ISGs. PMID:19461888

  14. OVERVIEW OF EXPOSURE TO DIOXIN-LIKE COMPOUNDS AND PCBS ON DEVELOPMENTAL, IMMUNOSUPPRESSIVE, AND HORMONE-RELATED EFFECTS IN MAMMALS, INCLUDING HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to TCDD and related compounds leads to a plethora of effects in multiple species, tissues and stages of development. The response spectrum ranges from simple biochemical alterations to overtly toxic responses, including lethality. Many of the effects of TCDD and relate...

  15. Applicability of the Hypersonic Similarity Rule to Pressure Distributions which Include the Effects of Rotation for Bodies of Revolution at Zero Angle of Attack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossow, Vernon J

    1951-01-01

    The analysis of Technical Note 2250, 1950, is extended to include the effects of flow rotation. It is found that the theoretical pressure distributions over drive cylinders can be related by the hypersonic similarity rule with sufficient accuracy for most engineering purposes. The error introduced into pressure distributions and drag effective cylinders by ignoring the rotation term in the characteristic equations is investigated.

  16. Accurate calculations of spectroscopic properties for the 13 Λ-S states and the 23 Ω states of BO radical including the spin-orbit coupling effect.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zunlue; Yu, Wei; Wang, Shuai; Sun, Jinfeng; Shi, Deheng

    2014-10-15

    The spectroscopic properties of 23 Ω states generated from the 13 Λ-S states of BO radical are studied for the first time for internuclear separations from about 0.07 to 1.0nm. Of the 13 Λ-S states, each of the F(2)Π, 1(2)Φ and 1(2)Δ states is found to possess the double well. Each of the 1(4)Π, C(2)Π, 1(2)Σ(-) and 2(2)Σ(-) states possesses one well with one barrier. The A(2)Π, 1(4)Π and F(2)Π are the inverted states with the spin-orbit coupling effect taken into account. All the states possess the deep well except for the 1(2)Φ. The potential energy curves (PECs) are calculated by the complete active space self-consistent field method, which is followed by the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction approach with the Davidson correction. Core-valence correlation and scalar relativistic corrections are included into the calculations. The PECs are extrapolated to the complete basis set limit. The spin-orbit coupling effect is accounted for by the state interaction approach with the Breit-Pauli Hamiltonian. The spectroscopic parameters are evaluated, and compared with the available measurements and other theoretical results. The Franck-Condon factors and radiative lifetimes of the transitions from the B(2)Σ(+), C(2)Π, D(2)Σ(+), 1(2)Σ(-) and 1(4)Π Λ-S states to the ground state are calculated for several low vibrational levels, and some necessary discussion is made. Analyses show that the spectroscopic parameters reported in this paper can be expected to be reliably predicted ones. PMID:24820321

  17. Protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) approach to producing challenging proteins including hyperphosphorylated tau and active CDK5/p25 kinase complex.

    PubMed

    Sui, Dexin; Xu, Xinjing; Ye, Xuemei; Liu, Mengyu; Mianecki, Maxwell; Rattanasinchai, Chotirat; Buehl, Christopher; Deng, Xiexiong; Kuo, Min-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedically critical proteins are underrepresented in proteomics and biochemical studies because of the difficulty of their production in Escherichia coli. These proteins might possess posttranslational modifications vital to their functions, tend to misfold and be partitioned into bacterial inclusion bodies, or act only in a stoichiometric dimeric complex. Successful production of these proteins requires efficient interaction between these proteins and a specific "facilitator," such as a protein-modifying enzyme, a molecular chaperone, or a natural physical partner within the dimeric complex. Here we report the design and application of a protein interaction module-assisted function X (PIMAX) system that effectively overcomes these hurdles. By fusing two proteins of interest to a pair of well-studied protein-protein interaction modules, we were able to potentiate the association of these two proteins, resulting in successful production of an enzymatically active cyclin-dependent kinase complex and hyperphosphorylated tau protein, which is intimately linked to Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, using tau isoforms quantitatively phosphorylated by GSK-3β and CDK5 kinases via PIMAX, we demonstrated the hyperphosphorylation-stimulated tau oligomerization in vitro, paving the way for new Alzheimer disease drug discoveries. Vectors for PIMAX can be easily modified to meet the needs of different applications. This approach thus provides a convenient and modular suite with broad implications for proteomics and biomedical research. PMID:25385071

  18. Building Astronomy Curriculum to Include the Sight Impaired: Week long summer camp activities for Middle School Students adherent to Washington State Curriculum Standards (EALR's)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramien, Natalie; Loebman, S. R.; Player, V.; Larson, A.; Torcolini, N. B.; Traverse, A.

    2011-01-01

    Currently astronomy learning is heavily geared towards visual aids; however, roughly 10 million people in North America are sight impaired. Every student should have access to meaningful astronomy curriculum; an understanding of astronomy is an expectation of national and state science learning requirements. Over the last ten years, Noreen Grice has developed Braille and large print astronomy text books aimed at sight impaired learners. We build upon Grice's written work and present here a five day lesson plan that integrates 2D reading with 3D activities. Through this curriculum, students develop an intuitive understanding of astronomical distance, size, composition and lifetimes. We present five distinct lesson modules that can be taught individually or in a sequential form: the planets, our sun, stars, stellar evolution and galaxies. We have tested these modules on sight impaired students and report the results here. Overall, we find the work presented here lends itself equally well to a week long science camp geared toward middle school sight impaired taught by astronomers or as supplemental material integrated into a regular classroom science curriculum. This work was made possible by a 2007 Simple Effective Education and Dissemination (SEED) Grant For Astronomy Researchers, Astronomical Society of the Pacific through funds provided by the Planck Mission, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effects and antioxidant activity of dihydroasparagusic acid in lipopolysaccharide-activated microglial cells.

    PubMed

    Salemme, Adele; Togna, Anna Rita; Mastrofrancesco, Arianna; Cammisotto, Vittoria; Ottaviani, Monica; Bianco, Armandodoriano; Venditti, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The activation of microglia and subsequent release of toxic pro-inflammatory factors are crucially associated with neurodegenerative disease, characterized by increased oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, including Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases and multiple sclerosis. Dihydroasparagusic acid is the reduced form of asparagusic acid, a sulfur-containing flavor component produced by Asparagus plants. It has two thiolic functions able to coordinate the metal ions, and a carboxylic moiety, a polar function, which may enhance excretion of the complexes. Thiol functions are also present in several biomolecules with important physiological antioxidant role as glutathione. The aim of this study is to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential effect of dihydroasparagusic acid on microglial activation in an in vitro model of neuroinflammation. We have used lipopolysaccharide to induce an inflammatory response in primary rat microglial cultures. Our results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid significantly prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced production of pro-inflammatory and neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, prostaglandin E2, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein expression and lipoxygenase activity in microglia cells. Moreover it effectively suppressed the level of reactive oxygen species and affected lipopolysaccharide-stimulated activation of mitogen activated protein kinase, including p38, and nuclear factor-kB pathway. These results suggest that dihydroasparagusic acid's neuroprotective properties may be due to its ability to dampen induction of microglial activation. It is a compound that can effectively inhibit inflammatory and oxidative processes that are important factors of the etiopathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26592472

  20. 34 CFR 303.15 - Include; including.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Include; including. 303.15 Section 303.15 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS...

  1. Comparison of activation effects in {gamma}-ray detector materials

    SciTech Connect

    Truscott, P.R.; Evans, H.E.; Dyer, C.S.; Peerless, C.L.; Flatman, J.C.; Cosby, M.; Knight, P.; Moss, C.E.

    1996-06-01

    Activation induced by cosmic and trapped radiation in {gamma}-ray detector materials represents a significant source of background for space-based detector systems. Selection of detector materials should therefore include consideration of this background source. Results are presented from measurements of induced radioactivity in different scintillators activated either as a result of irradiation by mono-energetic protons at accelerator facilities, or flight on board the Space Shuttle. Radiation transport computer codes are used to help compare the effects observed from the scintillators, by identifying and quantifying the influence on the background spectra from more than one hundred of the radionuclides produced by spallation. For the space experiment data, the simulation results also permit determination of the contributions to detector activation from the different sources of radiation in the Shuttle cabin.

  2. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

    PubMed

    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  3. Effect of temperature change on anammox activity.

    PubMed

    Lotti, T; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    Autotrophic nitrogen removal appears as a prerequisite for the implementation of energy autarchic municipal wastewater treatment plants. Whilst the application of anammox-related technologies in the side-stream is at present state of the art, the feasibility of this energy-efficient process in main-stream conditions is still under investigation. Lower operating temperatures and ammonium concentrations, together with a demand for high and stable nitrogen removal efficiency, represent the main challenges to overcome for this appealing new frontier of the wastewater treatment field. In this study, we report the short-term effect of temperature on the maximum biomass specific activity of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) bacteria as evaluated by means of batch tests. The experiments were performed on anammox biomass sampled from two full-scale reactors and two lab-scale reactors, all characterized by different reactor configurations and operating conditions. The results indicate that for the anammox conversion, the temperature dependency cannot be accurately modeled by one single Arrhenius coefficient (i.e., θ) as typically applied for other biological processes. The temperature effect is increasing at lower temperatures. Adaptation of anammox bacteria after long-term cultivation at 20 and 10°C was observed. Implications for modeling and process design are finally discussed. PMID:25042674

  4. Effect of detonation nanodiamonds on phagocyte activity.

    PubMed

    Karpukhin, Alexey V; Avkhacheva, Nadezhda V; Yakovlev, Ruslan Yu; Kulakova, Inna I; Yashin, Valeriy A; Lisichkin, Georgiy V; Safronova, Valentina G

    2011-07-01

    Detonation ND (nanodiamond) holds much promise for biological studies and medical applications. Properties like size of particles, inclination for modification of their surface and unambiguous biocompatibility are crucial. Of prime importance is interaction between ND and immune cells, which supervise foreign intrusion into an organism and eliminate it. Neutrophils are more reactive in inflammatory response implementing cytotoxical arsenal including ROS (reactive oxygen species). The aim of the work was to estimate the ability of two ND samples (produced by Diamond Center and PlasmaChem) to keep the vitality of neutrophils from the inflammatory site. The ability of cells to generate ROS in the presence of ND particles is considered as indicating their biocompatibility. IR spectra and size of particles in the samples were characterized. Acid modification of ND was carried out to get the luminescent form. In the biological aspect, ND demonstrated up or down action, depending on the concentration, time and conditions of activation of cells. Weak action of ND in whole blood was obtained possibly owing to the ND adsorbed plasma proteins, which mask active functional groups to interact with the cell membrane. ND did not influence the viability of isolated inflammatory neutrophils in low and moderate concentrations and suppressed it in high concentrations (≥1 g/l). Addition of ND to the cell suspension initiated concentration-dependent reaction to produce ROS similar to respiratory burst. ND up-regulated response to bacterial formylpeptide, but up- and down-modified (low or high concentrations, accordingly) response to such bacterial agents as OZ (opsonized zymosan), which neutrophils swallow up by oxygen-dependent phagocytosis. Localization of the particles on the cell surface as into the cells was identified by monitoring the intrinsic fluorescence of oxidized ND. The various mechanisms that could account for penetration of ND particles into the cell are discussed

  5. Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Nam, Jung Soo; Chung, Hee Jin; Jang, Min Kyung; Jung, In Ah; Park, Seong Ha; Cho, Su In; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2013-02-01

    Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including PPARα, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and PPARα in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling. PMID:23423690

  6. Sasa borealis extract exerts an antidiabetic effect via activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Jung Soo; Chung, Hee Jin; Jang, Min Kyung; Jung, In Ah; Park, Seong Ha; Cho, Su In

    2013-01-01

    Leaf of Sasa borealis, a species of bamboo, has been reported to exhibit anti-hyperglycemic effect. However, its antidiabetic mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we examined whether an extract of S. borealis activates AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and exerts anti-hyperglycemic effects. Treatment with the S. borealis extract increased insulin signaling and phosphorylation of AMPK and stimulated the expression of its downstream targets, including PPARα, ACO, and CPT-1 in C2C12 cells and PPARα in HepG2 cells. However, inhibition of AMPK activation attenuated insulin signaling and prevented the stimulation of AMPK target genes. The S. borealis extract increased glucose uptake in C2C12 cells and suppressed expression of the gluconeogenic gene, PEPCK in HepG2 cells. The extract significantly reduced blood glucose and triglyceride levels in STZ-induced diabetic mice. The extract enhanced AMPK phosphorylation and increased Glut-4 expression in the skeletal muscle of the mice. These findings demonstrated that the S. borealis extract exerts its anti-hyperglycemic effect through activation of AMPK and enhancement of insulin signaling. PMID:23423690

  7. The Recombinant Bacteriophage Endolysin HY-133 Exhibits In Vitro Activity against Different African Clonal Lineages of the Staphylococcus aureus Complex, Including Staphylococcus schweitzeri.

    PubMed

    Idelevich, Evgeny A; Schaumburg, Frieder; Knaack, Dennis; Scherzinger, Anna S; Mutter, Wolfgang; Peters, Georg; Peschel, Andreas; Becker, Karsten

    2016-04-01

    HY-133 is a recombinant bacteriophage endolysin with bactericidal activity againstStaphylococcus aureus Here, HY-133 showedin vitroactivity against major African methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistantS. aureuslineages and ceftaroline/ceftobiprole- and borderline oxacillin-resistant isolates. HY-133 was also active againstStaphylococcus schweitzeri, a recently described species of theS. aureuscomplex. The activity of HY-133 on the tested isolates (MIC50, 0.25 μg/ml; MIC90, 0.5 μg/ml; range, 0.125 to 0.5 μg/ml) was independent of the species and strain background or antibiotic resistance. PMID:26833148

  8. Chromatin remodeling effects on enhancer activity.

    PubMed

    García-González, Estela; Escamilla-Del-Arenal, Martín; Arzate-Mejía, Rodrigo; Recillas-Targa, Félix

    2016-08-01

    During organism development, a diversity of cell types emerges with disparate, yet stable profiles of gene expression with distinctive cellular functions. In addition to gene promoters, the genome contains enhancer regulatory sequences, which are implicated in cellular specialization by facilitating cell-type and tissue-specific gene expression. Enhancers are DNA binding elements characterized by highly sophisticated and various mechanisms of action allowing for the specific interaction of general and tissue-specific transcription factors (TFs). However, eukaryotic organisms package their genetic material into chromatin, generating a physical barrier for TFs to interact with their cognate sequences. The ability of TFs to bind DNA regulatory elements is also modulated by changes in the chromatin structure, including histone modifications, histone variants, ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling, and the methylation status of DNA. Furthermore, it has recently been revealed that enhancer sequences are also transcribed into a set of enhancer RNAs with regulatory potential. These interdependent processes act in the context of a complex network of chromatin interactions, which together contributes to a renewed vision of how gene activation is coordinated in a cell-type-dependent manner. In this review, we describe the interplay between genetic and epigenetic aspects associated with enhancers and discuss their possible roles on enhancer function. PMID:27026300

  9. The Effects of a Family Support Program Including Respite Care on Parenting Stress and Family Quality of Life Perceived by Primary Caregivers of Children with Disabilities in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Minjung; Park, Jiyeon

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a family support program was carried out for primary caregivers of children with disabilities. The program included respite care, recreation programs, counseling, and social support coordination based on individual needs of each family. In order to verify the intervention effects, parenting stress and family quality of life were…

  10. The longitudinal equations of motion of a tilt prop/rotor aircraft including the effects of wing and prop/rotor blade flexibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtiss, H. C., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The equations of motion for the longitudinal dynamics of a tilting prop/rotor aircraft are developed. The analysis represents an extension of the equations of motion. The effects of the longitudinal degrees of freedom of the body (pitch, heave and horizontal velocity) are included. The results of body freedom can be added to the equations of motion for the flexible wing propeller combination.

  11. Metal ion effects on enolase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, M.E.; Nowak, T.

    1986-05-01

    Most metal binding studies with yeast enolase suggest that two metals per monomer are required for catalytic activity. The functions of metal I and metal II have not been unequivocally defined. In a series of kinetic experiments where the concentration of MgII is kept constant at subsaturating levels (1mM), the addition of MnII or of ZnII gives a hyperbolic decrease in activity. The final velocity of these mixed metal systems is the same velocity obtained with either only MnII or ZnII respectively. The concentration of MnII (40 ..mu..M) or of Zn (2..mu..M) which gives half maximal effect in the presence of (1mM) MgII is approximately the same as the Km' value for MnII (9..mu..M) or ZnII (3..mu..M) respectively. Direct binding of MnII to enolase in the absence and presence of MgII shows that MnII and MgII compete for the same metal site on enolase. In the presence of 2-phosphoglycerate (2-PGA) and MgII, only a single site is occupied by MnII. Results suggest MnII at site I and MgII at site II. PRR and high resolution /sup 1/H and /sup 31/P NMR studies of enzyme-ligand complexes containing MnII and MgII and MnII are consistent with this model. /sub 31/P measurements allow a measure of the equilibrium constant (0.36) for enolase. Saturation transfer measurements yield net rate constants (k/sub f/ = 0.49s/sup -1/; k/sub r/ = 1.3s/sup -1/) for the overall reaction. These values are smaller than k/sub cat/ (38s/sup -1/) measured under analogous conditions. The cation at site I appears to determine catalytic activity.

  12. 16 CFR 1031.4 - Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities. 1031.4 Section 1031.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... Policies § 1031.4 Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities. (a)(1) The...

  13. 16 CFR 1031.4 - Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities. 1031.4 Section 1031.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... Policies § 1031.4 Effect of voluntary standards activities on Commission activities. (a)(1) The...

  14. Modelling the effect of exposing algae to pulses of S-metolachlor: How to include a delay to the onset of the effect and in the recovery.

    PubMed

    Copin, Pierre-Jean; Perronet, Léa; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2016-01-15

    In agriculture, herbicides are applied to improve crop productivity. During and after rain event, herbicides can be transported by surface runoff in streams and rivers. As a result, the exposure pattern in creeks is time-varying, i.e., a repeated pollution of aquatic system. In previous studies, we developed a model to assess the effects of pulse exposure patterns on algae. This model was validated for triazines and phenylureas, which are substances that induce effects directly after exposure with no delay in recovery. However, other herbicides display a mode of action characterized by a time-dependency effect and a delay in recovery. In this study, we therefore investigate whether this previous model could be used to assess the effects of pulse exposure by herbicides with time delay in effect and recovery. The current study focuses on the herbicide S-metolachlor. We showed that the effect of the herbicide begins only after 20 h of exposure for the alga Scenedesmus vacuolatus based on both the optical density and algal cells size measurements. Furthermore, the duration of delay of the recovery for algae previously exposed to S-metolachlor was 20 h and did not depend on the pulse exposure duration or the height of the peak concentration. By accounting for these specific effects, the measured and predicted effects were similar when pulse exposure of S-metolachlor is tested on the alga S. vacuolatus. However, the sensitivity of the alga is greatly modified after being previously exposed to a pulse of S-metolachlor. In the case of scenarios composed of several pulses, this sensitivity should be considered in the modelling. Therefore, modelling the effects of any pulse scenario of S-metolachlor on an alga is feasible but requires the determination of the effect trigger, the delay in recovery and the possible change in the sensitivity of the alga to the substance. PMID:26410701

  15. Photodynamic effect on specific antitumor immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonarx-Coinsmann, Veronique; Foultier, Marie-Therese; Morlet, Laurent; de Brito, Leonor X.; Patrice, Thierry

    1995-03-01

    In this study the effect of PDT on the antitumoral specific immunologic response was evaluated. We compared the specific cytolytic activity (CLA) by a chromium release assay of primed mouse spleen T lymphocytes sensitized against syngeneic mastocytoma P511 cells. P511 cells, or lymphocytes, or both cells were treated or not with photofrin and/or light (514 nm). Photofrin II alone (1 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 59% when P511 were treated. Photofrin II (1 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 35%. Photofrin II alone (0.5 (mu) g/ml, 2 hours) reduced CLA 8% when only lymphocytes were treated. And Photofrin II (0.5 (mu) g/ml) followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) also reduced CLA 45%. When both cells were treated with Photofrin II alone or followed by light (25 Joules/sq cm) the CLA was also reduced respectively 19, 41%.

  16. Compton effect thermally activated depolarization dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Moran, Paul R.

    1978-01-01

    A dosimetry technique for high-energy gamma radiation or X-radiation employs the Compton effect in conjunction with radiation-induced thermally activated depolarization phenomena. A dielectric material is disposed between two electrodes which are electrically short circuited to produce a dosimeter which is then exposed to the gamma or X radiation. The gamma or X-radiation impinging on the dosimeter interacts with the dielectric material directly or with the metal composing the electrode to produce Compton electrons which are emitted preferentially in the direction in which the radiation was traveling. A portion of these electrons becomes trapped in the dielectric material, consequently inducing a stable electrical polarization in the dielectric material. Subsequent heating of the exposed dosimeter to the point of onset of ionic conductivity with the electrodes still shorted through an ammeter causes the dielectric material to depolarize, and the depolarization signal so emitted can be measured and is proportional to the dose of radiation received by the dosimeter.

  17. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the M(w)5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013.

    PubMed

    Sarlis, Nicholas V

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  18. On the recent seismic activity in North-Eastern Aegean Sea including the Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013

    PubMed Central

    SARLIS, Nicholas V.

    2013-01-01

    In the last week of November 2012, we announced that a strong electrotelluric disturbance, which we judged to be a Seismic Electric Signal (SES) activity, was recorded at station Assiros located in Northern Greece. This disturbance was actually followed by an Mw5.8 earthquake on 8 January 2013 in North-Eastern Aegean Sea. Here we show that, by analyzing this SES activity and employing the natural time analysis of subsequent seismicity, we estimated the epicentral location, magnitude and occurrence time which are reasonably compatible with those of the Mw5.8 event. PMID:24213207

  19. Speech Improvement for the Trainable Retarded: A Manual for the Classroom Teacher. Revised Edition. (Includes Speech Improvement Activity Book). NCEMMH Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Elizabeth; Ross, Jeanne

    Presented are 39 lessons and student worksheets designed to help the classroom teacher improve the speech skills of trainable retarded elementary school children. It is explained that the lessons and corresponding activity sheets focus on auditory discrimination, speech sounds and sentence patterns. Lessons are sequenced and usually contain a…

  20. Magnetorheological effect in a suspension with an active carrier fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Kashevskii, B.E.; Kordonskii, V.I.; Prokhorov, I.V.

    1988-07-01

    The main quantitative laws governing the magnetorheological effect in a magnetorheological suspension with an active carrier liquid were established. The family of flow curves obtained for several samples of suspensions of one type of nonmagnetic particle was analyzed. Particles were suspended in a magnetic fluid of the magnetite-kerosite type. The main goal was to establish the law governing rheological similarity by generalizing experimental data with a universal relation while employing a small amount of initial data on the system. The data included the law of magnetization of the magnetic carrier fluid, the law of change in its viscosity in the field, and the law of change in the viscosity of the magnetorheological suspension/active carrier liquid system with an increase in the concentration of nonmagnetic particles in a zero field.

  1. Effect of including land-use driven radiative forcing of the surface albedo of land on climate response in the 16th-21st centuries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, A. V.; Mokhov, I. I.

    2011-02-01

    A change in ecosystem types, such as through natural-vegetation-agriculture conversion, alters the surface albedo and triggers attendant shortwave radiative forcing (RF). This paper describes numerical experiments performed using the climate model (CM) of the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP), Russian Academy of Sciences, for the 16th-21st centuries; this model simulated the response to a change in the contents of greenhouse gases (tropospheric and stratospheric), sulfate aerosols, solar constant, as well as the response to change in surface albedo of land due to natural-vegetation-agriculture conversion. These forcing estimates relied on actual data until the late 20th century. In the 21st century, the agricultural area was specified according to scenarios of the Land Use Harmonization project and other anthropogenic impacts were specified using SRES scenarios. The change in the surface vegetation during conversion from natural vegetation to agriculture triggers a cooling RF in most regions except for those of natural semiarid vegetation. The global and annual average RF derived from the IAP RAS CM in late 20th century is -0.11 W m-2. Including the land-use driven RF in IAP RAS CM appreciably reconciled the model calculations to observations in this historical period. For instance, in addition to the net climate warming, IAP RAS CM predicted an annually average cooling and reduction in precipitation in the subtropics of Eurasia and North America and in Amazonia and central Africa, as well as a local maximum in annually average and summertime warming in East China. The land-use driven RF alters the sign in the dependence that the amplitude of the annual cycle of the near-surface atmospheric temperature has on the annually averaged temperature. One reason for the decrease in precipitation as a result of a change in albedo due to land use may be the suppression of the convective activity in the atmosphere in the warm period (throughout the year in the tropics

  2. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  3. Applying the model of Goal-Directed Behavior, including descriptive norms, to physical activity intentions: A contribution to improving the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The theory of planned behavior (TPB) has received its fair share of criticism lately, including calls for it to retire. We contributed to improving the theory by testing extensions such as the model of goal-directed behavior (MGDB, which adds desire and anticipated positive and negative emotions) ap...

  4. Sugar beet activities of the USDA-ARS East Lansing conducted in cooperation with Saginaw Valley Bean and Beet Farm during 2011 (including Project 905)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evaluation and rating plots were planted at the Saginaw Valley Research & Extension Center in Frankenmuth, MI in 2011 that focused on Cercospora leaf spot performance, conducted in conjunction with Beet Sugar Development Foundation and including USDA-ARS cooperators. 263 breeding lines were tested i...

  5. Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions in A{<=}9 nuclei including meson-exchange currents derived from chiral effective field theory

    SciTech Connect

    Saori Pastore, S.C. Pieper, Rocco Schiavilla, Robert Wiringa

    2013-03-01

    Quantum Monte Carlo calculations of electromagnetic moments and transitions are reported for A{<=}9 nuclei. The realistic Argonne v{sub 18} two-nucleon and Illinois-7 three-nucleon potentials are used to generate the nuclear wave functions. Contributions of two-body meson-exchange current (MEC) operators are included for magnetic moments and M1 transitions. The MEC operators have been derived in both a standard nuclear physics approach and a chiral effective field theory formulation with pions and nucleons including up to one-loop corrections. The two-body MEC contributions provide significant corrections and lead to very good agreement with experiment. Their effect is particularly pronounced in the A=9, T=3/2 systems, in which they provide up to ~20% (~40%) of the total predicted value for the {sup 9}Li ({sup 9}C) magnetic moment.

  6. EspC, an Autotransporter Protein Secreted by Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli, Causes Apoptosis and Necrosis through Caspase and Calpain Activation, Including Direct Procaspase-3 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Serapio-Palacios, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) has the ability to antagonize host apoptosis during infection through promotion and inhibition of effectors injected by the type III secretion system (T3SS), but the total number of these effectors and the overall functional relationships between these effectors during infection are poorly understood. EspC produced by EPEC cleaves fodrin, paxillin, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which are also cleaved by caspases and calpains during apoptosis. Here we show the role of EspC in cell death induced by EPEC. EspC is involved in EPEC-mediated cell death and induces both apoptosis and necrosis in epithelial cells. EspC induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway by provoking (i) a decrease in the expression levels of antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2, (ii) translocation of the proapoptotic protein Bax from cytosol to mitochondria, (iii) cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytoplasm, (iv) loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, (v) caspase-9 activation, (vi) cleavage of procaspase-3 and (vii) an increase in caspase-3 activity, (viii) PARP proteolysis, and (ix) nuclear fragmentation and an increase in the sub-G1 population. Interestingly, EspC-induced apoptosis was triggered through a dual mechanism involving both independent and dependent functions of its EspC serine protease motif, the direct cleavage of procaspase-3 being dependent on this motif. This is the first report showing a shortcut for induction of apoptosis by the catalytic activity of an EPEC protein. Furthermore, this atypical intrinsic apoptosis appeared to induce necrosis through the activation of calpain and through the increase of intracellular calcium induced by EspC. Our data indicate that EspC plays a relevant role in cell death induced by EPEC. PMID:27329750

  7. The contact-temperature ignition (CTI) criteria for propagating chemical reactions including the effect of moisture and application to Hanford waste

    SciTech Connect

    Cash, R.J.

    1995-09-27

    To assure the continued absence of uncontrolled condensed-phase chemical reactions in connection with the Hanford waste materials, efforts have been underway including both theoretical and experimental investigations to clarify the requirements for such reactions. This document defines the differences and requirements for homogeneous runaway and propagating chemical reactions incuding a discussion of general contact-temperature ignition (CTI) condition for propagating reactions that include the effect of moisture. The CTI condition implies that the contact temperature or interface temperature between reacted and unreacted materials must exceed the ignition temperature and is compared to experimental data including both synthetic ferrocyanide and surrogate organic materials. In all cases, the occurrences of ignition accompanied by self-propagating reactions are consistent with the theoretical anticipations of the CTI condition.

  8. Computer programs for calculating pressure distributions including vortex effects on supersonic monoplane or cruciform wing-body-tail combinations with round or elliptical bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillenius, M. F. E.; Nielsen, J. N.

    1979-01-01

    Computer programs are presented which are capable of calculating detailed aerodynamic loadings and pressure distributions acting on pitched and rolled supersonic missile configurations which utilize bodies of circular or elliptical cross sections. The applicable range of angle of attack is up to 20 deg, and the Mach number range is 1.3 to about 2.5. Effects of body and fin vortices are included in the methods, as well as arbitrary deflections of canard or fin panels.

  9. Flavopiridol: pleiotropic biological effects enhance its anti-cancer activity.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, Elizabeth W

    2004-06-01

    Flavopiridol has potent anti-proliferative properties due to its direct action of binding to the ATP-binding pocket of cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks), and due to its indirect action reducing levels of other cyclins and cdk inhibitors, contributing to its pleiotropic effects. Flavopiridol is a potent apoptotic agent due to its ability to cause cell death in cycling as well as non-cycling tumor cells; to down-regulate important cell survival proteins, such as survivin, through inhibition of the phosphorylation of Thr34; to increase sensitivity for S phase cells to drug treatment by modulating E2F-1 transcription factor activity in tumor cells; to induce both caspase-dependent and -independent mitochondrial cell death pathways; and to inhibit the activation of p-Akt which in turn inhibits activation of NF-kappaB. Flavopiridol possesses several important anti-angiogenic activities including induction of apoptosis of endothelial cells; inhibition of the hypoxic induction of vascular endothelial growth factor and/or its production under hypoxic conditions through inhibition of HIF-1alpha transcription; and decreased secretion of matrix metalloproteinases that is linked with significant inhibition of invasive potential in Matrigel assays. Taken together, the anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic properties of flavopiridol may contribute to its anti-tumor activities observed in several preclinical animal models of human cancers including prostate, lymphoid, head and neck, colon, and glioma. These promising preclinical observations opened the way for phase I and II clinical trials. Given the low toxicity profile of flavopiridol used as a single agent in patients, combination therapy now offers numerous opportunities in the near future to improve the efficacy of flavopiridol in the treatment of refractory cancers. PMID:15166614

  10. The value of including boys in an HPV vaccination programme: a cost-effectiveness analysis in a low-resource setting.

    PubMed

    Kim, J J; Andres-Beck, B; Goldie, S J

    2007-11-01

    We assessed the cost-effectiveness of including boys vs girls alone in a pre-adolescent vaccination programme against human papillomavirus (HPV) types 16 and 18 in Brazil. Using demographic, epidemiological, and cancer data from Brazil, we developed a dynamic transmission model of HPV infection between males and females. Model-projected reductions in HPV incidence under different vaccination scenarios were applied to a stochastic model of cervical carcinogenesis to project lifetime costs and benefits. We assumed vaccination prevented HPV-16 and -18 infections in individuals not previously infected, and protection was lifelong. Coverage was varied from 0-90% in both genders, and cost per-vaccinated individual was varied from IUSD 25 to 400. At 90% coverage, vaccinating girls alone reduced cancer risk by 63%; including boys at this coverage level provided only 4% further cancer reduction. At a cost per-vaccinated individual of USD 50, vaccinating girls alone was including boys ranged from USD 810-18,650 per YLS depending on coverage. For all coverage levels, increasing coverage in girls was more effective and less costly than including boys in the vaccination programme. In a resource-constrained setting such as Brazil, our results support that the first priority in reducing cervical cancer mortality should be to vaccinate pre-adolescent girls. PMID:17923869

  11. Sex-Typed Activities: Cause or Effect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, C. Jan; Huston-Stein, Aletha

    Sex differences in activity selection or choice appear by age 12 or 18 months. These choices are one of the earliest indicators of sex differences in the behavior of young children. Differences in activity participation or toy choices are evident long before the emergence of sex differences in personality characteristics like passivity or…

  12. Exergames: Increasing Physical Activity through Effective Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudella, Jennifer L.; Butz, Jennifer V.

    2015-01-01

    Due to the growing obesity epidemic in the United States, educators must consider new ways to increase physical activity in an effort to address obesity. There are a variety of ways educators can increase physical activity in the classroom, and exergames--video games that require physical movement in order to play--are a modern-day approach to…

  13. Compact drain-current model for undoped cylindrical surrounding-gate metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors including short channel effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smaani, Billel; Latreche, Saida; Iñiguez, Benjamín

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, we present a compact model for undoped short-channel cylindrical surrounding-gate MOSFETs. The drain-current model is expressed as a function of the mobile charge density, which is calculated using the analytical expressions of the surface potential and the difference between surface and center potentials model. The short-channel effects are well incorporated in the drain-current model, such as the drain-induced barrier lowering, the charge sharing effect (VT Roll-off), the subthreshold slope degradation, and the channel length modulation. A comparison of the model results with 3D numerical simulations using Silvaco Atlas-TCAD presents a good agreement from subthreshold to strong inversion regime and for different bias voltages.

  14. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  15. Effects of including surface depressions in the application of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Viger, Roland J.; Hay, Lauren E.; Jones, John W.; Buell, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    This report documents an extension of the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System that accounts for the effect of a large number of water-holding depressions in the land surface on the hydrologic response of a basin. Several techniques for developing the inputs needed by this extension also are presented. These techniques include the delineation of the surface depressions, the generation of volume estimates for the surface depressions, and the derivation of model parameters required to describe these surface depressions. This extension is valuable for applications in basins where surface depressions are too small or numerous to conveniently model as discrete spatial units, but where the aggregated storage capacity of these units is large enough to have a substantial effect on streamflow. In addition, this report documents several new model concepts that were evaluated in conjunction with the depression storage functionality, including: ?hydrologically effective? imperviousness, rates of hydraulic conductivity, and daily streamflow routing. All of these techniques are demonstrated as part of an application in the Upper Flint River Basin, Georgia. Simulated solar radiation, potential evapotranspiration, and water balances match observations well, with small errors for the first two simulated data in June and August because of differences in temperatures from the calibration and evaluation periods for those months. Daily runoff simulations show increasing accuracy with streamflow and a good fit overall. Including surface depression storage in the model has the effect of decreasing daily streamflow for all but the lowest flow values. The report discusses the choices and resultant effects involved in delineating and parameterizing these features. The remaining enhancements to the model and its application provide a more realistic description of basin geography and hydrology that serve to constrain the calibration process to more physically realistic parameter values.

  16. Isolation of estrogen-degrading bacteria from an activated sludge bioreactor treating swine waste, including a strain that converts estrone to β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Martine; Villemur, Richard; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François

    2011-07-01

    An estrogen-degrading bacterial consortium from a swine wastewater biotreatment was enriched in the presence of low concentrations (1 mg/L) of estrone (E1), 17β-estradiol (βE2), and equol (EQO) as sole carbon sources. The consortium removed 99% ± 1% of these three estrogens in 48 h. Estrogen removal occurred even in the presence of an ammonia monooxygenase inhibitor, suggesting that nitrifiers are not involved. Five strains showing estrogen-metabolizing activity were isolated from the consortium on mineral agar medium with estrogens as sole carbon source. They are related to four genera ( Methylobacterium (strain MI6.1R), Ochrobactrum (strains MI6.1B and MI9.3), Pseudomonas (strain MI14.1), and Mycobacterium (strain MI21.2)) distributed among three classes (Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Actinobacteria). Depending on the culture medium, strains MI6.1B, MI9.3, MI14.1, and MI21.2 partially transform βE2 into E1, whereas Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R reduces E1 into βE2 under aerobic conditions, in contrast with the usually observed conversion of βE2 into E1. Since βE2 is a more potent endocrine disruptor than E1, it means that the presence of Methylobacterium sp. strain MI6.1R (or other bacteria with the same E1-reducing activity) in a treatment could transiently increase the estrogenicity of the effluent. MI6.1R can also reduce the ketone group of 16-ketoestradiol, a hydroxylated analog of E1. All βE2 and E1 transformation activities were constitutive, and many of them are favoured in a rich medium than a medium containing no other carbon source. None of the isolated strains could degrade EQO. PMID:21770814

  17. Effects of Physical Activity and Inactivity on Muscle Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Bogdanis, Gregory C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural, and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity, and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short-duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fiber composition, neuromuscular characteristics, high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization, and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber-type transformation during exercise training is usually toward the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and IIx myosin heavy-chain isoforms. High-intensity training results in increases of both glycolytic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capillarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+, and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fiber cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity, and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high-intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect of exercise on health and well being. PMID

  18. Human Simulated Studies of Aztreonam and Aztreonam-Avibactam To Evaluate Activity against Challenging Gram-Negative Organisms, Including Metallo-β-Lactamase Producers

    PubMed Central

    Crandon, Jared L.

    2013-01-01

    Secondary to the stability of aztreonam against metallo-β-lactamases, coupled with avibatam's neutralizing activity against often coproduced extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) or AmpC enzymes, the combination of aztreonam and avibactam has been proposed as a principal candidate for the treatment of infections with metallo-β-lactamase-producing Gram-negative organisms. Using the neutropenic-mouse thigh infection model, we evaluated the efficacy of human simulated doses of aztreonam-avibactam and aztreonam against 14 Enterobacteriaceae and 13 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates, of which 25 produced metallo-β-lactamases. Additionally, six P. aeruginosa isolates were also evaluated in immunocompetent animals. A humanized aztreonam dose of 2 g every 6 h (1-h infusion) was evaluated alone and in combination with avibactam at 375 or 600 mg every 6 h (1-h infusion), targeting the percentage of the dosing interval in which free-drug concentrations remained above the MIC (fT>MIC). Efficacy was evaluated as the change in bacterial density after 24 h compared with the bacterial density at the initiation of dosing. Aztreonam monotherapy resulted in reductions of two of the Enterobacteriaceae bacterial isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≤32 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥38%) and minimal activity against the remaining isolates (aztreonam MIC, ≥128 μg/ml; fT>MIC, 0%). Alternatively, aztreonam-avibactam therapy resulted in the reduction of all 14 Enterobacteriaceae isolates (aztreonam-avibactam MICs, ≤16 μg/ml; fT>MIC, ≥65%) and no difference between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was noted. Similar pharmacodynamically predictable activity against P. aeruginosa was noted in studies with neutropenic and immunocompetent mice, with activity occurring when the MICs were ≤16 μg/ml and variable efficacy noted when the MICs were ≥32 μg/ml. Again, no difference in efficacy between the 375- and 600-mg doses of avibactam was observed. Aztreonam-avibactam represents an attractive

  19. A general time-dependent route to Resonance-Raman spectroscopy including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects

    PubMed Central

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    We present a new formulation of the time-dependent theory of Resonance-Raman spectroscopy (TD-RR). Particular attention has been devoted to the generality of the framework and to the possibility of including different effects (Duschinsky mixing, Herzberg-Teller contributions). Furthermore, the effects of different harmonic models for the intermediate electronic state are also investigated. Thanks to the implementation of the TD-RR procedure within a general-purpose quantum-chemistry program, both solvation and leading anharmonicity effects have been included in an effective way. The reliability and stability of our TD-RR implementation are first validated against our previously proposed and well-tested time-independent procedure. Practical applications are illustrated with some closed- and open-shell medium-size molecules (anthracene, phenoxyl radical, benzyl radical) and the simulated spectra are compared to the experimental results. More complex and larger systems, not limited to organic compounds, are also feasible, as shown for the case of Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride. PMID:25240346

  20. A general time-dependent route to resonance-Raman spectroscopy including Franck-Condon, Herzberg-Teller and Duschinsky effects.

    PubMed

    Baiardi, Alberto; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-09-21

    We present a new formulation of the time-dependent theory of Resonance-Raman spectroscopy (TD-RR). Particular attention has been devoted to the generality of the framework and to the possibility of including different effects (Duschinsky mixing, Herzberg-Teller contributions). Furthermore, the effects of different harmonic models for the intermediate electronic state are also investigated. Thanks to the implementation of the TD-RR procedure within a general-purpose quantum-chemistry program, both solvation and leading anharmonicity effects have been included in an effective way. The reliability and stability of our TD-RR implementation are validated against our previously proposed and well-tested time-independent procedure. Practical applications are illustrated with some closed- and open-shell medium-size molecules (anthracene, phenoxyl radical, benzyl radical) and the simulated spectra are compared to the experimental results. More complex and larger systems, not limited to organic compounds, can be also studied, as shown for the case of Tris(bipyridine)ruthenium(II) chloride. PMID:25240346