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Sample records for activity index basdai

  1. Comparison of the BASDAI and the miniBASDAI in assessing disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Hakkou, Jinane; Rostom, Samira; Aissaoui, Nawal; Berrada Ghezioul, Kenza; Bahiri, Rachid; Abouqal, Redouane; Hajjaj-Hassouni, Najia

    2012-03-01

    The BASDAI (Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index) is the most widely used instrument for the assessment of disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Objective. The aims to investigate whether the alternative BASDAI, here termed as the miniBASDAI [(Question (Q) 1 fatigue + Q2 spinal pain) + mean of (Q5 strength morning stiffness + Q6 duration morning stiffness)] / 3], measures disease activity more accurately in the subgroup of AS patients without peripheral manifestations. One hundred and ten patients were included in this cross-sectional study according to the modified New York criteria for AS. Clinical and biological parameters were evaluated. The disease activity was evaluated by the BASDAI. We calculated the miniBASDAI by omitting both the peripheral joints and the enthesitis questions: questions 3 and 4. Patients were dichotomized into a "P+" group if peripheral manifestations were present (at least arthritis or enthesitis) and a "P-" group, the subgroup without peripheral involvement (with either arthritis or enthesitis). Correlation of the BASDAI and miniBASDAI with other disease parameters were examined with the Spearman's rank correlation analysis. One hundred and ten patients were recruited. The percentage of patients with pure axial disease manifestation without peripheral involvement "P - group" was 42.7%. We found a similarly good correlation of the miniBASDAI with patient global, physician on disease activity, BASFI, ESR and CRP if compared to the correlation of the original BASDAI with these disease parameters, also in the group without peripheral involvement. Our study suggests that the BASDAI remains valid in assessing disease activity in AS patients with and without peripheral manifestations. PMID:21989992

  2. Responsiveness of a simple RAPID-3-like index compared to disease-specific BASDAI and ASDAS indices in patients with axial spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón, Isabel; Pincus, Theodore; Wendling, Daniel; Dougados, Maxime

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the responsiveness of a simple routine assessment of patient index data (RAPID3)-like index that includes only 3 patient self-report measures (physical function, pain and patient global estimate) compared to that of traditional composite indices to assess change in patients with axial spondyloarthritis (Ax-SpA). Methods Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR) is a prospective cohort of patients with inflammatory back pain suggestive of Ax-SpA. The study included 461 patients, who met the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) classification criteria for Ax-SpA. A simple RAPID3-like index was compared with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the AS Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) scores for responsiveness over 6 months. Construct validity was also evaluated through Pearson correlations and discrimination of disease activity through standardised mean differences for the 3 indices. Results The RAPID3-like index was correlated significantly with BASDAI (r=0.84, p<0.005) and ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP) (r=0.74, p<0.005), similar to correlations of BASDAI with ASDAS-CRP (r=0.76, p<0.005). The percentage of patients with inactive disease ranged from 9% to 25% and with high activity from 10% to 45%, according to various measures. The capacity to discriminate between high and low disease activity was similar for the 3 indices. The strength of agreement of RAPID3 with ASDAS-CRP was moderate (0.44) and lower with BASDAI (0.37). Responsiveness over 6 months was slightly higher for ASDAS-CRP and the RAPID3-like index than that for BASDAI. Conclusions The RAPID3-like index provides similar information to BASDAI and ASDAS-CRP concerning responsiveness over 6 months. RAPID3 appears feasible to assess patients with Ax-SpA quantitatively over time in busy clinical settings. PMID:27486525

  3. The relationship between disease activity measured by the BASDAI and psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality in ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yutong; Yang, Mingcan; Wu, Husheng; Song, Hui; Zhan, Feng; Liu, Shengyun; Gao, Guanmin; Liu, Zhangsuo; Hu, Zhaoxian; He, Peigen; Zhang, Shengtao; Hu, Zaiying; Lin, Zhiming; Zhang, Yanli; Li, Yinong; Shen, Lingxun; Huang, Anbing; Liao, Zetao; Cao, Shuangyan; Wei, Yanlin; Li, Li; Li, Qiuxia; Lv, Qing; Qi, Jun; Huang, Jianlin; Li, Tianwang; Jin, O; Pan, Yunfeng; Gu, J

    2015-03-01

    Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) is a standard instrument regularly used to assess disease activity of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). However, the well-being of a patient is also affected by impairment of function as well as psychological status and other factors. The objective of this study was to evaluate if psychological status, stressful life events, and sleep quality contribute significantly to BASDAI. Six hundred eighty-three AS patients satisfying the Modified New York Criteria for AS were recruited from the rheumatology clinics of seven hospitals in China. Patients with other concomitant disorders were excluded. Participants were requested to complete a set of clinical examinations and the following questionnaires: Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index Questionnaire (PSQI), Health Assessment Questionnaire for Spondyloarthropathies (HAQ-S), and Social Readjustment Rating Scale (SRRS). Spearman correlation analysis showed that BASDAI was highly associated with degree and duration of morning stiffness, overall pain, nocturnal back pain, overall back pain, anxiety, and BASFI (all P < 0.001), but were not associated with education, HAQ-S, and sleep medication in PSQI (P > 0.05). Multiple stepwise regression analysis indicated that overall pain was the maximal statistical contribution in predicting disease activity (standardized coefficient, 0.335). In hierarchic multiple regression analysis, psychological variables added an only additional 2.7% to the overall R(2) beyond that accounted for by demographic and medical variables, resulting in a final R(2) of 53.5%. Although BASDAI is a very good measurement of pain and stiffness and to a certain extent effect of functional impairment in AS, it barely takes into account psychological

  4. Can Whole-Body Cryotherapy with Subsequent Kinesiotherapy Procedures in Closed Type Cryogenic Chamber Improve BASDAI, BASFI, and Some Spine Mobility Parameters and Decrease Pain Intensity in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis?

    PubMed Central

    Stanek, Agata; Cholewka, Armand; Gadula, Jolanta; Drzazga, Zofia; Sieron, Aleksander; Sieron-Stoltny, Karolina

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated whether whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) procedures could potentially have more beneficial effects on index of BASDAI and BASFI, pain intensity, and spine mobility parameters: Ott test, modified Schober test, chest expansion in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients, than kinesiotherapy procedures used separately. AS patients were exposed to a cycle of WBC procedures lasting 3 minutes a day, with a subsequent 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy or 60 minutes of kinesiotherapy only, for 10 consecutive days excluding weekend. After the completion of the cycle of WBC procedures with subsequent kinesiotherapy in the AS patients, BASDAI index decreased about 40% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the group of patients who received only kinesiotherapy it decreased only about 15% in comparison with the input value. After the completion of the treatment in the WBC group, BASFI index decreased about 30% in comparison with the input value, whereas in the kinesiotherapy group it only decreased about 16% in comparison with the input value. The important conclusion was that, in WBC group with subsequent kinesiotherapy, we observed on average about twice better results than in the group treated only by kinesiotherapy. PMID:26273618

  5. Modified Coronal Index of the Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukáč, B.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-05-01

    The original coronal index of the solar activity (CI) has been constructed on the basis of ground-based measurements of the intensities of the coronal line of 530.3 nm (Rybanský in Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov., 28, 367, 1975; Rybanský et al. in J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08106, 2005). In this paper, CI is compared with the EUV measurements on the CELIAS/SEM equipment based on the same idea as the original idea of the coronal index. The correlation is very good for the period 1996 - 2005 ( r=0.94 for daily values). The principal result of this paper is the introduction of the modified coronal index (MCI) which in all uses and contexts can replace the existing CI index. Daily MCI values extend over a time period of six solar activity cycles. Future MCI measurements will be derived from more reliable measurements made by space-based observatories that are not influenced by the weather. MCI measurements are and will continue to be archived at the web site of the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo ( http://www.suh.sk/obs/vysl/MCI.htm ).

  6. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  7. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  8. The relationship between enthesitis indices and disease activity parameters in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Sivas, Filiz; Mermerci Başkan, Bedriye; Erkol Inal, Esra; Akbulut Aktekin, Lale; Barça, Nurdan; Ozoran, Kürşat; Bodur, Hatice

    2009-03-01

    In this study, patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) were assessed both by patient and physician using two enthesitis indices and the relationship between these indices and disease activity parameters was investigated. The study involved 100 AS patients. The patients were evaluated with 10-cm visual analog scale (VAS) for spinal pain (VAS-S), peripheral joint pain (VAS-P), global assessment of patient, and global assessment of doctor. In the laboratory evaluations, the erythrocyte sedimentation rates (ESR) and serum C-reactive protein levels of the patients were determined. Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath AS functional index (BASFI), Bath AS metrology index, and Bath AS radiology index were calculated. The severity of enthesitis was evaluated according to Mander enthesitis index (MEI) and Maastricht ankylosing spondylitis enthesitis score applied by both the patient (MASES-P) him/herself and the physician (MASES-D). There was a correlation between BASDAI and BASFI as well as MEI, MASES-D, and MASES-P indices (r = 0.447, r = 0.342, r = 0.663, r = 0.530, r = 0.464, and r = 0.435, respectively). No correlation between the laboratory parameters and enthesitis indices were detected. In multiple linear regression analysis, BASFI, VAS-S, and female gender (41.3%) were the best predictors of MEI-D, whereas BASFI, VAS-S, female gender, and ESR (32.5%) were the best predictors for MASES-D and BASFI (18.9%) was the best predictor of MASES-P. The assessment of simple and easily applicable MASES score by a patient may be expected to help the physician in clinical practice. When the disease activity of the patients with AS are evaluated, both BASDAI, the clinical importance of which has been confirmed in numerous studies and which is recommended by ASAS, and BASFI, which is valued by patients, should be considered. PMID:18953622

  9. 77 FR 49839 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2012. AGENCY... an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. ] APPLICANTS: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). SUMMARY OF APPLICATION: Applicants request...

  10. Elevated serum interleukin-23 levels in ankylosing spondylitis patients and the relationship with disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Ugur, Mahir; Baygutalp, Nurcan Kilic; Melikoglu, Meltem Alkan; Baygutalp, Fatih; Altas, Elif Umay; Seferoglu, Buminhan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study was aimed to evaluate the relationship between serum interleukin-23 (IL-23) levels and ankylosing spondylitis (AS).Twenty male patients diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis according to the 1984 modified New York criteria for AS and twenty male healthy controls were included in this study.The demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory findings of the patients were recorded. Serum IL-23 levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were measured in both the AS and control groups. The Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity ındex (BASDAI), the Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), and the Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) were evaluated as disease activity parameters. The AS patients were divided into two subgroups as active and inactive in respect of CRP, ESR levels and BASDAI scores. The mean serum IL-23 levels of the AS and control groups were 334.45±176.54 pg/ml and 166.49±177.50 pg/ml respectively, and there was a significant difference between the groups. Correlation analysis of serum IL-23 levels with clinical and laboratory parameters showed that there were positive correlations between serum IL-23 levels and the BASDAI, BASFI scores in total, active and inactive patients and the BASMI scores in total and inactive patients and negative correlations between serum IL-23 levels and ESR in inactive patients. It was shown that altered serum IL-23 levels were related to AS disease activity. Further studies in large patient series are necessary to investigate the role of IL-23 protein in etiopathogenesis of AS. PMID:26663940

  11. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator.

    PubMed

    Zlobina, K E; Guria, G Th

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  12. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  13. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application July 9, 2012. AGENCY... grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. Applicants: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``Manager'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application was filed on September 9, 2011,...

  14. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  15. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  16. Solar activity index for long-term ionospheric forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the comparison of solar activity indices (annual average values of the relative number of sunspots Rz 12 and solar radio emission flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm F 12) with the ionospheric index of solar activity IG 12 for 1954-2013, we have found that the index F 12 is a more accurate (than Rz 12) indicator of solar activity for the long-term forecast of foF2 (the critical frequency of the F2-layer). This advantage of the F 12 index becomes especially significant after 2000 if the specific features of extreme ultraviolet radiation of the Sun are additionally taken into account in the minima of solar cycles, using an appropriate correction to F 12. Qualitative arguments are given in favor of the use of F 12 for the long-term forecast of both foF2 and other ionospheric parameters.

  17. Vitamin D concentrations and disease activity in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In addition to its important metabolic activities, vitamin D also contributes to the regulation of the immune system. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between hypovitaminosis D and disease activity in Moroccan children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods In this cross-sectional study, forty children with JIA were included, all having been diagnosed according to the classification criteria of International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR). The children underwent anthropometric assessment and clinical evaluation. Disease activity was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28) for polyarticular and oligoarticular JIA and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) for enthesitis-related arthritis. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin [25(OH)D] D2 and D3 were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Hypovitaminosis D was defined as serum 25(OH)D <30 ng/ml. Results The average age of participants was 11 years ± 4.23. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 75% of patients. In univariate analyses, 25(OH)D levels were negatively associated with DAS28 for polyarticular and oligoarticular JIA. No significant relationship was found between 25(OH)D levels and BASDAI for juvenile spondylarthropathy. In multivariate linear regression analysis, no association persisted between 25(OH)D levels and DAS28. Conclusions Our study suggested that serum levels of vitamin D were low in Moroccan children with JIA disease. Future studies with a larger population are needed to confirm our results. PMID:24690195

  18. The reliability and validity of a Korean translation of the ASAS Health Index and Environmental Factors in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jong; Shin, Kichul; Choi, Chan-Bum; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, So-Hyun; Kim, Nah-Ihm; Ahn, Min-Joo; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society-Health Index/Environmental Factor (ASAS HI/EF) and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). A total of 43 patients participated. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ASAS HI/EF was performed according to international standardized guidelines. We also evaluated validity by calculating correlation coefficients between the ASAS-HI/EF score and the clinical parameters. Test-retest reliability was excellent. The correlations among the mean ASAS-HI score and all tools of assessment for SpA were significant. When it came to construct validity, the ASAS HI score was correlated with nocturnal back pain, spinal pain, patients's global assessment score, the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) and EuroQoL visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) (r = 0.353, 0.585, 0.598, 0.637, 0.690, 0.430, and -0.534). The ASAS EF score was also correlated with the patient's global assessment's score, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, and EQ VAS score (r = 0.375, 0.490, 0.684, 0.485, and -0.554). The Korean version of the ASAS HI/EF can be used in the clinical field to assess and evaluate the state of health of Korean axial SpA patients. PMID:24616580

  19. Tunable plasmonic nanoparticles with catalytically active high-index facets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Large, Nicolas; Yu, Chunmei; Blom, Douglas A; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-11

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. PMID:24842375

  20. Tunable Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Catalytically Active High-Index Facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Large, Nicolas; Zhang, Qinfeng; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell shaped particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. Past affiliation: Rice University.

  1. EULAR Sjogren's syndrome disease activity index: development of a consensus systemic disease activity index for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Raphaèle; Ravaud, Philippe; Bowman, Simon; Baron, Gabriel; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Theander, Elke; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Bootsma, Hendrika; Mariette, Xavier; Vitali, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a disease activity index for patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS): the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI). Methods Thirty-nine SS experts participated in an international collaboration, promoted by EULAR, to develop the ESSDAI. Experts identified 12 organ-specific “domains” contributing to disease activity. For each domain, features of disease activity were classified in 3 or 4 levels according to their severity. Data abstracted from 96 patients with systemic complications of primary SS were used to generate 702 realistic vignettes for which all possible systemic complications were represented. Using the 0–10 physician global assessment (PhGA) scale, each expert scored the disease activity of 5 patient profiles and 20 realistic vignettes. Multiple regression modelling, with PhGA used as the dependent variable, was used to estimate the weight of each domain. Results All 12 domains were significantly associated with disease activity in the multivariate model, domain weights ranged from 1 to 6. The ESSDAI scores varied from 2 to 47 and were significantly correlated with PhGA for both real patient profiles and realistic vignettes (r=0.61 and r=0.58, respectively, p<0.0001). Compared to 57 (59.4%) of the real patient profiles, 468 (66.7%) of the realistic vignettes were considered likely or very likely to be true. Conclusion The ESSDAI is a clinical index designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. Once validated, such a standardized evaluation of primary SS should facilitate clinical research and should be helpful as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:19561361

  2. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  3. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  4. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  5. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  6. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  7. American Society of Indexers: History, Activities and Relationship to ASIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American Society of Indexers (ASI) and assesses its position among other organizations, such as ASIS, involved with the organization of information. Topics discussed include the annual award for best monograph index; the ASI newsletter; and publicity to convey the importance of quality indexing. (LRW)

  8. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Birmann, Brenda M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive relation of baseline body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma, but data on other correlates of energy balance are limited. We undertook the present analyses to further examine the role of energy balance in multiple myeloma etiology in two large prospective cohorts with biennially updated exposure data. We followed members of the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts from baseline until multiple myeloma diagnosis, death, or 2002. Adult height and current weight were reported at enrollment, and weight every 2 years thereafter. Physical activity was queried at baseline and updated every 2-4 years. We computed age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of multiple myeloma for categories of BMI and physical activity using Cox proportional hazards regression. We conducted analyses on each cohort separately and on both cohorts combined. We confirmed 215 incident cases of multiple myeloma in the combined cohort of 136,623 individuals (>2.1 million person-years at risk). BMI was positively associated with multiple myeloma in all analyses. The association was strongest in men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR=2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-6.0) and modest in overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) women (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR (95% CI)=1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.2 (0.7-2.2), respectively). Physical activity was not significantly related to multiple myeloma risk, although an inverse association was suggested in women. In conclusion, obesity appears to have an etiologic role in multiple myeloma, but the role of other correlates of energy balance remains uncertain. PMID:17627013

  9. Better short-term clinical response to etanercept in Chinese than Caucasian patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chung-Tei; Tsai, Chang-Youh; Liang, Tung-Hua; Chang, Te-Ming; Lai, Chen-Hung; Wei, Cheng-Chung; Chen, Kun-Hung; Lin, Shih-Chang; Yu, Chia-Li; Liou, Lieh-Bang; Luo, Shue-Fen; Lee, Chyou-Shen; Hsue, Yin-Tzu; Huang, Chung-Ming; Chen, Jiunn-Hong; Lai, Ning-Sheng; Cheng, He-Hsiung; Cheng, Tien-Tsai; Lai, Han-Ming; Tsai, Wen-Chan; Yen, Jeng-Hsien; Lu, Ling-Ying; Chang, Chung-Pei

    2010-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors including etanercept have been demonstrated to be very effective in severe ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in Caucasian patients. However, clinical efficacy of etanercept to treat active AS in Chinese patients has not been reported. In this study, a prospective, open-label trial of etanercept (25 mg BIW), involving 46 AS patients from 16 medical centers of Taiwan, was conducted. Questionnaire was utilized to record demographic data and clinical parameters, including Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), Bath AS Global Index (BASGI), Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS) 20, 50, and 70, and others, before and at different time intervals after etanercept treatment. Laboratory tests including blood chemistry, hematology, urine analysis, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were done at baseline and at weeks 4, 8, and 12. In this 12-week study, etanercept demonstrated rapid and significant improvement in the ASAS20 response criteria (91.3%), at as early as 2 weeks of therapy (71.3%). Partial remission of AS was achieved in 49.3% of patients after 12 weeks of treatment. Disease activity (BASDAI) and function (BASFI) were also significantly improved after 12 weeks etanercept treatment (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). In addition, significant increase of chest expansion (2.77 ± 1.69 cm versus 3.56 ± 1.82 cm, p = 0.0004) and lumbar flexion (2.11 ± 2.76 cm versus 2.58 ± 3.42 cm, p = 0.0075) and significant reduction of occiput-to-wall distance (6.59 ± 7.14 cm versus 5.32 ± 6.65 cm, p = 0.0006) were also demonstrated. Both ESR and CRP declined significantly after patients were treated with etanercept. There were no severe adverse effects during the treatment period. Etanercept is generally safe, well tolerated, and effective in Chinese patients with severe AS. Clinical efficacy, including partial remission and BASDAI, is even better in Chinese

  10. Direct and indirect costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis and related disease activity scores in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akkoç, Nurullah; Direskeneli, Haner; Erdem, Hakan; Gül, Ahmet; Kabasakal, Yasemin; Kiraz, Sedat; Balkan Tezer, Dilara; Hacıbedel, Başak; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed quality of life, direct and indirect healthcare costs related to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study included 650 prevalent AS patients visiting seven centers at tertiary healthcare institutions in Turkey who were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to determine annual direct and indirect healthcare costs. Eligible patients were age ≥18 years with AS for at least 12 months. Direct costs were categorized as inpatient, outpatient and pharmacy, and AS-related consultation. Indirect costs were categorized as workday loss, additional AS-related costs, and caregiver costs. Clinical outcome measures were obtained, including Patients' Global Disease Activity (Pt-GDA); visual analog scale (Pain-VAS) for pain; Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) scores, and EuroQoL 5 dimension (EQ-5D) health status survey scores. Mean (€,335.20) and median (€5,671.00) annual costs per patient were calculated. Pharmacy costs (€4,032.73) were highest among overall expenditures, followed by additional AS-related consultation (€2,480.38), outpatient (€225.02), and inpatient costs (€29.98). Over half of AS patients (54.8 %) experienced work loss. Related average annual costs were €414.16, based on income level. 10.3 % of AS patients incurred an additional €2,008.07 in 1 year. 6.8 % of patients required caregivers and incurred €778.70 in average annual patient paid costs. Mean Pt-GDA, Pain-VAS, EQ-5D, BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores were 4.4, 40.5, 62.7, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively. Direct and indirect AS-related costs are high and represent a considerable economic burden on Turkish AS patients. PMID:25749712

  11. Performance characteristics of the simplified version of ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (SASDAS).

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Dilek; Yildirim, Tulay; Avci, Okan; Tomas, Nazmiye; Akar, Servet

    2016-07-01

    Various types of disease activity measures are available for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and there is no gold standard for all individual patients. The ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS) is highly discriminatory, sensitive to change, and associated with structural progression. A simplified version of the ASDAS (SASDAS) was proposed and found to be a simple and practical tool to assess disease activity. Our aim was to test the performance characteristics of the SASDAS and compare it with validated tools. In total, 97 consecutive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were included in the study. Disease activity was assessed by the ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP), bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), and SASDAS. The relationship among these activity indices and the level of agreement of various activity categories were tested. There was a strong correlation between the SASDAS and other activity indices, including the BASDAI (r = 0.916, p < 0.001), ASDAS-CRP (r = 0.847, p < 0.001), and ASDAS-ESR (r = 0.942, p < 0.001). Although the agreement between the ASDAS-ESR and SASDAS was good (weighted kappa of 0.744 and total agreement of 77 %), there was moderate agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS (weighted kappa of 0.579 and total agreement of 66 %). The disagreement was particularly striking in "moderate" and "high disease activity" states. Approximately 40 % of patients classified as moderate activity according to the ASDAS-ESR and 45 % according to the ASDAS-CRP were differentially categorized by the SASDAS. The results of the present analysis suggest that the simplified version of the ASDAS-ESR should be further validated in various settings and populations due to a questionable level of agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS. PMID:26670454

  12. Reexamination of the coronal index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybanský, M.; Rušin, V.; Minarovjech, M.; Klocok, L.; Cliver, E. W.

    2005-08-01

    The coronal index (CI) of solar activity is the irradiance of the Sun as a star in the coronal green line (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm or 5303 Å). It is derived from ground-based observations of the green corona made by the network of coronal stations (currently Kislovodsk, Lomnický Štít, Norikura, and Sacramento Peak). The CI was introduced by Rybanský (1975) to facilitate comparison of ground-based green line measurements with satellite-based extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray observations. The CI since 1965 is based on the Lomnický Štít photometric scale; the CI was extended to earlier years by Rybanský et al. (1994) based on cross-calibrations of Lomnický Štít data with measurements made at Pic du Midi and Arosa. The resultant 1939-1992 CI had the interesting property that its value at the peak of the 11-year cycle increased more or less monotonically from cycle 18 through cycle 22 even though the peak sunspot number of cycle 20 exhibited a significant local minimum between that of cycles 19 and 21. Rušin and Rybanský (2002) recently showed that the green line intensity and photospheric magnetic field strength were highly correlated from 1976 to 1999. Since the photospheric magnetic field strength is highly correlated with sunspot number, the lack of close correspondence between the sunspot number and the CI from 1939 to 2002 is puzzling. Here we show that the CI and sunspot number are highly correlated only after 1965, calling the previously-computed coronal index for earlier years (1939-1965) into question. We can use the correlation between the CI and sunspot number (also the 2800 MHz radio flux and the cosmic ray intensity) to recompute daily values of the CI for years before 1966. In fact, this method can be used to obtain CI values as far back as we have reliable sunspot observations (˜1850). The net result of this exercise is a CI that closely tracks the sunspot number at all times. We can use the sunspot-CI relationship (for 1966-2002) to identify

  13. Fecal calprotectin is associated with disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Duran, Arzu; Kobak, Senol; Sen, Nazime; Aktakka, Seniha; Atabay, Tennur; Orman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Calprotectin is one of the major antimicrobial S100 leucocyte proteins. Serum calprotectin levels are associated with certain inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate serum and fecal calprotectin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and show their potential relations to the clinical findings of the disease. Fifty-one patients fulfilling the New York criteria of AS and 43 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers were included in the study. Physical and locomotor system examinations were performed and history data were obtained for all patients. Disease activity parameters were assessed together with anthropometric parameters. Routine laboratory examinations and genetic testing (HLA-B27) were performed. Serum calprotectin levels and fecal calprotectin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the patients was 41.5 years, the mean duration of the disease was 8.6 years, and the delay in diagnosis was 4.2 years. Serum calprotectin levels were similar in both AS patients and in the control group (p=0.233). Serum calprotectin level was correlated with Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) and Bath AS functional index (BASFI) (p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). A higher level of fecal calprotectin was detected in AS patients when compared with the control group. A statistically significant correlation between fecal calprotectin level and BASDAI, BASFI, C-reactive protein and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate were detected (p=0.002, p=0.005, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). The results indicated that fecal calprotectin levels were associated with AS disease findings and activity parameters. Calprotectin is a vital disease activity biomarker for AS and may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Multi-centered prospective studies are needed in order to provide further insight. PMID:26773186

  14. Fecal calprotectin is associated with disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Duran, Arzu; Kobak, Senol; Sen, Nazime; Aktakka, Seniha; Atabay, Tennur; Orman, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Calprotectin is one of the major antimicrobial S100 leucocyte proteins. Serum calprotectin levels are associated with certain inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus and inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate serum and fecal calprotectin levels in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and show their potential relations to the clinical findings of the disease. Fifty-one patients fulfilling the New York criteria of AS and 43 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers were included in the study. Physical and locomotor system examinations were performed and history data were obtained for all patients. Disease activity parameters were assessed together with anthropometric parameters. Routine laboratory examinations and genetic testing (HLA-B27) were performed. Serum calprotectin levels and fecal calprotectin levels were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean age of the patients was 41.5 years, the mean duration of the disease was 8.6 years, and the delay in diagnosis was 4.2 years. Serum calprotectin levels were similar in both AS patients and in the control group (p=0.233). Serum calprotectin level was correlated with Bath AS disease activity index (BASDAI) and Bath AS functional index (BASFI) (p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). A higher level of fecal calprotectin was detected in AS patients when compared with the control group. A statistically significant correlation between fecal calprotectin level and BASDAI, BASFI, C-reactive protein and Erythrocyte sedimentation rate were detected (p=0.002, p=0.005, p=0.001, p=0.002, respectively). The results indicated that fecal calprotectin levels were associated with AS disease findings and activity parameters. Calprotectin is a vital disease activity biomarker for AS and may have an important role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Multi-centered prospective studies are needed in order to provide further insight. PMID:26773186

  15. Comparison of activity indexes for recognizing enzyme mutants of higher activity with uricase as model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    total proteins is a favorable index for recognizing an enzyme mutant with small improvement of activity. PMID:23594729

  16. Correlation between clinical and MRI disease activity scores in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    MacKay, James W; Aboelmagd, Sharief; Gaffney, J Karl

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based disease activity scores (DAS) in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are rarely employed in the normal clinical setting, whereas clinical DAS are used routinely to monitor disease activity and set thresholds for biologic treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between MR and clinical DAS in a general axSpA outpatient population and to assess the difference in MR DAS in individuals with high and low clinical DAS. This was a prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Forty participants with axSpA who presented for MR of the whole spine and sacroiliac joints as part of ongoing management were included. Completion of Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) was performed at the time of MR examination. MR images were scored by two independent observers using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) MR DAS. There were weak, non-significant correlations between total SPARCC score and BASDAI (r = 0.18, p = 0.26), ASDAS using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ASDAS-ESR) (r = 0.31, p = 0.07) and ASDAS using C-reactive protein level (ASDAS-CRP) (r = 0.31, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the SPARCC score of participants with high and low clinical DAS. MR DAS may provide information about disease activity not provided by the current standard of clinical DAS and may be considered as a useful adjunct in clinical practice. PMID:25894437

  17. [Development of index of social activities for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Aoki, R; Tamakoshi, A; Shibazaki, S; Nagai, M; Kawakami, N; Ikari, A; Ojima, T; Ohno, Y

    1997-10-01

    In order to develop indices of social activities for the elderly, two surveys with 2 year intervals were conducted on the same 5,201 elderly subjects in four areas in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire. Social activities were defined as "activities which required contact with society" and were measured by 4 major facets of social activities, which were based on 21 questions relating to job activity, socially-plated activities, learning activities, and personal activities. The results were as follows; 1. The Wilcoxon scores in indices for 4 facets were given in sex and age groups. 2. Means of scores of indices increased with the degree of social activities from a subjective judgment. 3. Rank correlation coefficients between indices in two surveys were 0.60-0.71 for the persons whose answers were "no" to the question "did degrees of your activities change over the two years?" 4. Differences between indices in two surveys were higher in the persons with answers of "increase" to the above question than those with answers of "no", and were lower in those with answers of "decrease". These findings suggest that indices are available for assessing social activities as indicated by the reproducibility, validity and responsiveness found in this study. PMID:9436384

  18. Ankylosing spondylitis functional and activity indices in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Popescu, C; Trandafir, M; Bădică, AM; Morar, F; Predeţeanu, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Clinicians have at hand several indices to evaluate disease activity and functionality in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), in order to evaluate the prognostic and the treatment of AS patients. Objectives: to examine the relationship between functional and activity scores in AS; to note whether disease activity is associated with any clinical or laboratory variables. Methods: the study included AS patients, classified according to the revised New York criteria; data recorded: demographics, disease duration, type of articular involvement, HLA B27 presence, history of uveitis, calculation of BASFI, BASDAI and ASDASCRP, quantification of inflammation markers. Results: 50 AS patients; ASDASCRP correlated significantly (p < 0.001) with BASFI (r = 811), BASDAI (r = 0.810) and with erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR; r = 0.505); HLA B27 positive patients had a median BASDAI 5 times higher than HLA B27 negative patients (p = 0.033); compared with patients with strictly axial disease form, patients with axial and peripheral disease had a median ESR 3 times higher (p = 0.042) and a median BASDAI 2 times higher (p = 0.050). Conclusions: functional and activity AS indices are strongly correlated in assessing disease severity; inflammation and HLA B27 can predict the high value of these indices; axial and peripheral disease pattern is associated with higher disease activity. PMID:24653763

  19. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Buchner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10–100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60–91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI’s largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  20. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Buchner, David M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10-100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60-91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI's largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  1. Composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deland, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of version 1.0 of the composite MG II solar activity index data set, it is shown that the change in the 27-day running average of the Mg II index from solar maximum to solar minimum is about 8 percent for solar cycle 21 and about 9 percent for solar cycle 22 through January 1992. Scaling factors based on the short-term variations in the Mg II index and solar irradiance data sets are developed for each instrument to estimate solar variability at mid-UV and near-UV wavelengths. A set of composite scale factors are derived for use with the present composite MG index. Near 205 cm, where solar irradiance variations are important for stratospheric chemistry, the estimated change in irradiance during solar cycle 22 is about 10 +/- 1 percent using the composite Mg II index (version 1.0) and scale factors.

  2. A New Polar Magnetic Index of Geomagnetic Activity and its Application to Monitoring Ionospheric Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new, PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating in high latitude ionosphere, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters is approximately 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  3. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  4. Development and assessment of a modified Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index.

    PubMed

    Leach, Steven T; Nahidi, Lily; Tilakaratne, Samantha; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2010-08-01

    The Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) is an established and validated measure of disease activity in children with Crohn disease. However, its use in the research setting can be limited because of ambiguity of the subjective and anthropometric components of the index. Here we propose and evaluate a modified PCDAI (Mod PCDAI) consisting of the laboratory measures of the PCDAI plus C-reactive protein. This Mod PCDAI can provide an indication of disease activity because it correlates with the PCDAI, physicians' global assessment, and fecal calprotectin, and therefore may provide a suitable alternative to the PCDAI when required. PMID:20479686

  5. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  6. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  7. Real-time prediction of magnetospheric activity using the Boyle Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ramkumar; Reiff, P. H.; Landivar, J. E.

    2009-04-01

    We present a new algorithm with an improvement in the accuracy and lead time in short-term space weather predictions by coupling the Boyle Index, Φ = 10-4ν2 + 11.7Bsin3(?/2) kV, to artificial neural networks. The algorithm takes inputs from ACE and a handful of ground-based magnetometers to predict the next upcoming Kp in real time. The model yields a correlation coefficient of over 86% when predicting Kp with a lead time of 1 hour and over 85% for a 2 hour ahead prediction, significantly larger than the Kp persistence of 0.80. The Boyle Index, available in near-real time from http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/wind.html, has been in use for over 5 years now to predict geomagnetic activity. The logarithm of both 3-hour and 1-hour averages of the Boyle Index correlates well with the following Kp: Kp = 8.93 log10 < Boyle Index> -12.55. Using the Boyle Index alone, the algorithm yields a correlation coefficient of 85% when predicting Kp with a lead time of 1 hour and over 84% for a 3 hour ahead prediction, nearly as good as when using Kp in the history but without any possibility of "persistence contamination." Although the Boyle Index generally overestimates the polar cap potential for severe events, it does predict that severe activity will occur. Also, 1-hour Index> value less than 100 kV is a good indicator that the magnetosphere will be quiet. However, some storm events with Kp > 6 occur when the Boyle Index is relatively low; the new algorithm is successful in predicting those events by capturing the influence of preconditioning.

  8. Dissociation of Subjectively Reported and Behaviorally Indexed Mind Wandering by EEG Rhythmic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jungang; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering. PMID:21915257

  9. An assessment study of the wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity (WISA) and its comparison to the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Lie; Sojka, Jan; Kokoszka, Piotr; Jach, Agnieszka

    2008-08-01

    A wavelet-based index of storm activity (WISA) has been recently developed [Jach, A., Kokoszka, P., Sojka, L., Zhu, L., 2006. Wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA011635] to complement the traditional Dst index. The new index can be computed automatically by using the wavelet-based statistical procedure without human intervention on the selection of quiet days and the removal of secular variations. In addition, the WISA is flexible on data stretch and has a higher temporal resolution (1 min), which can provide a better description of the dynamical variations of magnetic storms. In this work, we perform a systematic assessment study on the WISA index. First, we statistically compare the WISA to the Dst for various quiet and disturbed periods and analyze the differences of their spectral features. Then we quantitatively assess the flexibility of the WISA on data stretch and study the effects of varying number of stations on the index. In addition, the ability of the WISA for handling the missing data is also quantitatively assessed. The assessment results show that the hourly averaged WISA index can describe storm activities equally well as the Dst index, but its full automation, high flexibility on data stretch, easiness of using the data from varying number of stations, high temporal resolution, and high tolerance to missing data from individual station can be very valuable and essential for real-time monitoring of the dynamical variations of magnetic storm activities and space weather applications, thus significantly complementing the existing Dst index.

  10. An assessment study of the wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity (WISA) and its comparison to the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zhu, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Kokoszka, P.; Jach, A.

    2006-12-01

    A wavelet-based index of storm activities (WISA) has been recently developed (Jach et al., 2006) to complement the traditional Dst index. The new index can be computed automatically using the wavelet-based statistical procedure without human intervention on the selection of quiet days and the removal of secular variations. In addition, the WISA is flexible on data stretch and has a higher temporal resolution (one minute), which can provide a better description of the dynamical variations of magnetic storms. In this work, we perform a systematic assessment study on the WISA index. First, we statistically compare the WISA to the Dst for various quiet and disturbing periods and analyze the differences of their spectrum features. Then we quantitatively assess the flexibility of the WISA on data stretch and study the effects of varying number of stations on the index. In addition, how well the WISA can handle the missing data is also quantitatively assessed. The assessment results show that the hourly-averaged WISA index can describe storm activities equally well as the Dst index, but its full automation, high flexibility on data stretch, easiness of using the data from varying number of stations, high temporal resolution, and high tolerance on missing data from individual station can be very valuable and essential for real-time monitoring of the dynamical variations of magnetic storm activities and space weather applications, thus significantly complementing the existing Dst index. Jach, A., P. Kokoszka, J. Sojka, and L. Zhu, Wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2006.

  11. Synthesis of concave gold nanocuboids with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Yue, Yonghai; Hu, Ye; Liang, Xiu; Yin, Penggang; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-25

    Novel concave gold nanocuboids bounded by 24 high-index {611} facets are synthesized using the seed-mediated growth method via an overgrowth mechanism. The as-synthesized products demonstrated greatly enhanced catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of glucose and the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) under a laser. PMID:26097908

  12. Index to NASA tech briefs, 1973. [technology transfer of research and development activities chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Short announcements of technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission are issued to encourage commercial application. Emphasis is placed on information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines. Abstracts and indexes are given.

  13. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  14. Effect of optical pumping on the refractive index and temperature in the core of active fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Gainov, V V; Ryabushkin, Oleg A

    2011-09-30

    This paper examines the refractive index change (RIC) induced in the core of Yb{sup 3+}-doped active silica fibres by pulsed pumping. RIC kinetic measurements with a Mach - Zehnder interferometer make it possible to separately assess the contributions of the electronic and thermal mechanisms to the RIC and evaluate temperature nonuniformities in the fibre.

  15. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  16. The fibrinotic index and evidence for a balanced regulation of coagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Grannis, G F; Kazal, L A

    1965-09-01

    The fibrinogen, plasma antithrombin, and thrombin activity curves of twenty-four normal individuals were determined under carefully controlled conditions of analysis. From these determinations plasma prothrombin and thromboplastic activities were calculated. These activities were defined in kinetic terminology and a theoretical rate of fibrination in plasma was calculated and used as a basis for comparing plasmas. Compensatory relationships were found among the various activities. Thus, low values of thromboplastic activity were associated with increased concentrations of prothrombin and fibrinogen; the effect of the latter activities in increasing the potential of plasma for fibrination was moderated by an increase in antithrombin activity. The fibrin-forming potential of each plasma was calculated relative to the mean value for all plasmas, to furnish a fibrinotic index. The latter was relatively constant in spite of wide variations in discrete activities, indicating that a physiological balance is maintained among those coagulation factors responsible for fibrination. PMID:16955965

  17. Significance of Plasma Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Activity as an Index of Sympathetic Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John L.; Kopin, Irwin J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) activity were measured in rats. Adrenergic neuron blockade with bretylium for 4 hr and ganglion blockade with chlorisondamine for 72 hr lowered plasma norepinephrine. Neither treatment altered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Phenoxybenzamine for up to 48 hr markedly raised plasma norepinephrine and transiently lowered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase at 24 hr. Prolonged pharmacological modification of sympathetic nervous activity and plasma norepinephrine were not attended by parallel changes in circulating dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity does not appear to be a sensitive index of prolonged alterations in sympathetic neural activity. Norepinephrine in plasma, however, appears to reflect sensitively and accurately the rate of release of the neurotransmitter. PMID:4530990

  18. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  19. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  20. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  1. Effects of tumor necrosis factor-alpha on sexual activity of male patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xin; Zheng, Yi; Shi, Tian-Yan; Liu, Hong-Yan

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the therapeutic effect of a tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) antagonist on the sexual quality of life of male patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). In this open-label study, 42 AS patients were grouped into the TNF-α antagonist treatment group and the non-TNF-α antagonist treatment group for 3 months. Clinical and laboratory indices and changes in the sexual quality of life were compared to assess the efficacy of TNF-α antagonists on sexual activity. The relationship between sexual quality and disease activity was analyzed. There were no significant differences in baseline data between the two groups. After treatment, disease activity and quality of life were improved in these two groups. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score (1.9 ± 1.6 vs. 3.0 ± 1.3, p = 0.020), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (9 ± 7 mm/1 h vs. 18 ± 17 mm/1 h, p = 0.031), and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (1.8 ± 2.1 mg/dl vs. 6.2 ± 8.5 mg/dl, p = 0.035) were significantly lower in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group than in the non-TNF-α antagonist treatment group. The extent of improvement in the quality of life was more evident in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group. The average degree of improvement in the quality of life was negatively related to the BASDAI score and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index score in the TNF-α antagonist treatment group (r = -0.497, p = 0.018; r = -0.558, p = 0.007, respectively). Sexual quality of life and disease activity are improved after treatment with TNF-α antagonists in male patients with AS. The extent of improvement in sexual quality and disease activity are positively related. PMID:25064131

  2. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state. PMID:17270774

  3. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  4. Toward Development of a Fibromyalgia Responder Index and Disease Activity Score: OMERACT Module Update

    PubMed Central

    Mease, PJ; Clauw, DJ; Christensen, R; Crofford, L; Gendreau, M; Martin, SA; Simon, L; Strand, V; Williams, DA; Arnold, LM

    2012-01-01

    Following development of the core domain set for fibromyalgia (FM) in OMERACT 7–9, the FM working group has progressed toward the development of an FM responder index and a disease activity score based on these domains, utilizing outcome indices of these domains from archived randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in FM. Possible clinical domains that could be included in a responder index and disease activity score include: pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, tenderness, stiffness, and functional impairment. Outcome measures for these domains demonstrate good to adequate psychometric properties, although measures of cognitive dysfunction need to be further developed. The approach used in the development of responder indices and disease activity scores for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis represent heuristic models for our work, but FM is challenging in that there is no clear algorithm of treatment that defines disease activity based on treatment decisions, nor are there objective markers that define thresholds of severity or response to treatment. The process of developing candidate dichotomous responder definitions and continuous quantitative disease activity measures is described, as is participant discussion that transpired at OMERACT 10. Final results of this work will be published in a separate manuscript pending completion of analyses. PMID:21724721

  5. Effects of Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher training on disease activity, spinal motility and pulmonary function in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Roşu, Mihaela Oana; Ţopa, Ionuţ; Chirieac, Rodica; Ancuta, Codrina

    2014-03-01

    The optimal management of ankylosis spondylitis (AS) involves a combination of nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic treatment aiming to maximize health-related quality of life. The primary objective of our study was to demonstrate the benefits of an original multimodal exercise program combining Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher techniques on pulmonary function in patients with AS, while secondary objectives were to demonstrate the benefits of the same program on function and disease activity. This is a randomized controlled study on ninety-six consecutive patients with AS (axial disease subset), assigned on a 1:1 rationale into two groups based on their participation in the Pilates, McKenzie and Heckscher (group I) or in the classical kinetic program (group II). The exercise program consisted of 50-min sessions performed 3 times weekly for 48 weeks. Standard assessments were done at week 0 and 48 and included pain, modified Schober test (mST) and finger-floor distance (FFD), chest expansion (CE) and vital capacity (VC), as well as disease activity Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), functional Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and metrology index Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI). Groups were comparable at baseline; we demonstrated significant improvement between baseline and after 48 weeks of regular kinetic training for all AS-related parameters in both groups. However, significant improvement was found in pain, lumbar spine motility (mST, FFD), BASFI, BASDAI and BASMI in AS performing the specific multimodal exercise program at the end of study (p = 0.001). Although there were significant improvements in CE in both groups as compared to baseline (group I, p = 0.001; group II, p = 0.002), this parameter increased significantly only in group I (p = 0.001). VC measurements were not significantly changed at the end of the study (group I, p = 0.127; group II, p = 0.997), but we found significant differences

  6. Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, David L; Kuo, Po-Ling; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N), (2) key travel (2.5mm vs. 3.5mm), and (3) shape of the force-displacement curve as realized through buckling-spring vs. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces, and intramuscular fine wire EMG electrodes measured muscle activity patterns of two intrinsic (first lumbricalis, first dorsal interossei) and three extrinsic (flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and extensor digitorum communis) index finger muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first dorsal interossei increased 25.9% with larger activation forces, but not for the extrinsic muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first lumbricalis and the duration of muscle activities for the first dorsal interossei and both extrinsic flexor muscles decreased up to 40.4% with longer key travel. The amplitude of muscle activity in the first dorsal interossei increased 36.6% and the duration of muscle activity for all muscles, except flexor digitorum profundus, decreased up to 49.1% with the buckling-spring design relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force-displacement characteristics of a keyswitch changes the dynamic loading of the muscles, especially in the intrinsic muscles, during keyboard work. PMID:18515146

  7. Development and Retrospective Validation of the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity (JSpADA) Index

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Pamela F.; Colbert, Robert A.; Xiao, Rui; Feudtner, Chris; Beukelman, Timothy; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Pagnini, Ilaria; Wright, Tracey B.; Wallace, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a Juvenile Spondyloarthritis (JSpA) Disease Activity (JSpADA) index for use in clinical practice and research. Methods Using modified Delphi consensus techniques, ten items were selected by participants in the international pediatric rheumatology list-serve, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, and the list-serve for the Pediatric Section of the American College of Rheumatology. Validation was performed in a retrospective multicenter cohort of 243 children. Results 106 physicians representing 14 countries completed the initial questionnaire. Completion rates for the subsequent questionnaires were 84%, 75%, and 77% of the original respondents. Ten items reached 80% consensus: arthritis, enthesitis, patient pain assessment, inflammatory markers, morning stiffness, clinical sacroiliitis, uveitis, back mobility, and patient and physician assessments of disease activity. Two items were eliminated after item analysis (patient and physician assessments of disease activity). Factor analysis identified 3 primary domains that explain 58% of variance: peripheral disease, axial disease, and uveitis. Cronbach α coefficient was 0.66. The JSpADA had high or moderate correlations with the Juvenile Arthritis disease activity score (r=0.80), patient and physician assessments of disease activity (r=0.70 and 0.66), and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (r=0.56). The JSpADA discriminated well between subjects with active versus inactive disease (p<0.001) and was responsive to improvement or worsening in disease activity over time (p<0.001). Conclusion Using international input and consensus formation techniques, we developed and validated the first disease activity assessment for JSpA. Future studies should validate the JSpADA index in a prospective multi-center cohort. PMID:25047959

  8. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  9. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI. PMID:25766808

  10. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  11. Suitability of Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and filamentous bacteria analysis for assessing activated sludge process performance: the case of piggery slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Menoni, Laura; Nembrini, Stefano; Manili, Livia; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Piggery slaughterhouse wastewater poses serious issues in terms of disposal feasibility and environmental impact, due to its huge organic load and variability. It is commonly treated by means of activated sludge processes, whose performance, in case of municipal wastewater, can be monitored by means of specific analyses, such as Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and floc and filamentous bacteria observation. Therefore, this paper was aimed at assessing the applicability of these techniques to piggery slaughterhouse sewage. A plant located in Northern Italy was monitored for 1 year. Physical, chemical and operation parameters were measured; the activated sludge community (ciliates, flagellates, amoebae and small metazoa) was analysed for calculating SBI and SI. Floc and filamentous bacteria were examined and described accordingly with internationally adopted criteria. The results showed the full applicability of the studied techniques for optimizing the operation of a piggery slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27072565

  12. Concurrent Intervention With Exercises and Stabilized Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy Reduced the Disease Activity in Patients With Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Hui; Li, Wen-Rong; Zhang, Hua; Tian, Xu; Wei, Wei; Wang, Chun-Mei

    2015-12-01

    Since the use of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor therapy is becoming wider, the effects of concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are different. The study aimed to objectively evaluate whether concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. A search from PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library was electronically performed to collect studies which compared concurrent intervention with exercise and TNF inhibitor to conventional approach in terms of disease activity in patients with AS published from their inception to June 2015. Studies that measured the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Metrology Index (BASMI), and chest expansion as outcomes were included. Two independent investigators screened the identified articles, extracted the data, and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies. Quantitative analysis was performed with Review Manager (RevMan) software (version 5.3.0). A total of 5 studies comprising 221 participants were included in the study. Meta-analyses showed that concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy significantly reduced the BASMI scores (MD, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.61 to -0.38) and BASDAI scores (MD, -0.58; 95% CI, -1.10 to -0.06), but the BASFI scores (MD, -0.31; 95% CI, -0.76 to 0.15) was not reduced, and chest expansion (MD, 0.80; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.78) was not increased. Concurrent intervention with exercises and stabilized TNF inhibitors therapy can reduce the disease activity in patients with AS. More randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with high-quality, large-scale, and appropriate follow-up are warranted to further establish the benefit of concurrent intervention with exercises and TNF inhibitors for

  13. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  14. [Xinfeng capsule improves hypercoagulative state by inhibiting miR-155/NF-κB signaling pathway in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis].

    PubMed

    Fang, Li; Liu, Jian; Wan, Lei; Zhu, Fubing; Tan, Bing; Zhang, Pingheng

    2016-08-01

    Objective To observe the effect of Xinfeng capsule (XFC) on miR-155, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signal pathway, and indexes related to hypercoagulative state in patients with active ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and investigate the possible mechanism. Methods Fifty-six cases in active AS were randomly divided into XFC group and sulfasalazine (SASP) group. All cases in the XFC group took three capsules three times daily for twelve consecutive weeks. The ones in the SASP group took four tablets two times daily for twelve consecutive weeks. The expression of miR-155 was detected by real-time PCR. The mRNA expressions of nuclear factor κB activator 1(Act1), NF-κB inhibitor-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor of kappa-B kinase beta (IKKβ), NF-κB p65, and NF-κB p50 were tested by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Meanwhile, the protein expressions of NF-κB P65 and NF-κB P50 were determined by Western blotting. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, thromboxane B2 (TXB2), 6-ketone-prostaglandin F1 (6-keto-PGF1), platelet granular membrane protein 140 (GMP140), platelet activation factor (PAF), and plasminogen activator inhibitor-2 (PAI-2) were determined by ELISA. Clinical efficacy was evaluated in the two groups. Results Compared with the SASP group, 50% Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI50) was significantly higher in the XFC group. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, platelet (PLT), fibrinogen (FBG) and D-D dimer (D-D), TXB2, GMP140, PAF, PAI-2, IL-17, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), visual analog scale (VAS), BASDAI, BASFI, and BAS-G were reduced more obviously in the XFC group after treatment; meanwhile, 6-keto-PGF1, IL-4, and IL-10 significantly increased. Compared with the SASP group after treatment, the expressions of IKKβ mRNA, IκBα mRNA, NF-κB p65 mRNA, NF-κB p50 mRNA, NF-κB P65 protein, NF-κB P50 protein, and miR-155 were lower in the XFC group after

  15. Sedentary versus active leisure activities and their relationship with sleeping habits and body mass index in children of 9 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Peña, Elsa; Errasti, José Manuel; Busto, Raquel

    2014-11-18

    A random sample of 291 9- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and leisure activities were the independent variables and the body mass index was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary and active leisure time and hours spent sleeping are predictors of the body mass index in children. Those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer tend to have a greater body mass index, while those children who go to bed earlier and have spent more time reading or playing in the park or at home have a lower body mass index. Encouraging active leisure activities can have an extremely positive effect on their body mass index. PMID:25411196

  16. Can fecal calprotectin better stratify Crohn’s disease activity index?

    PubMed Central

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Scagliarini, Michele; Zagari, Rocco Maurizio; Bazzoli, Franco; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) activity index (CDAI) is still widely used for monitoring clinical activity in CD patients, but is of little value as indicator of persistent inflammation in symptomless patients. Fecal calprotectin levels ≥150 µg/g are strongly indicative of endoscopically and/or histologically active disease. Our aim was to study, in a large cohort of CD patients, the relationship between CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels. Methods CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels were evaluated in consecutive patients from a CD outpatient clinic. Results We enrolled 193 CD patients, of whom 38% with CDAI <150 had a calprotectin value ≥150 µg/g, suggestive of active disease. A logistic regression model showed that for CDAI levels between 100 and 150, the estimated logistic probability of calprotectin ≥150 µg/g increased progressively to 76%, reaching 94% where disease activity was localized in the colon. With a CDAI cut-off >120, we found a high diagnostic accuracy of 72%, with 88% specificity and 50% sensitivity (positive predictive value: 76%, negative predictive value: 71%) to identify a calprotectin value ≥150 µg/g. Conclusion CDAI scores between 100 and 150 display an acceptable ability to quantify the risk of persistent inflammation as expressed by the high calprotectin level. PMID:25831217

  17. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  18. Feasibility and Validity of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Jennifer L.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Zhang, Peixin; Forrest, Christopher B; Bailey, L. Charles; Colletti, Richard B.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive disease activity index developed as a clinical trial endpoint. More recently, practice guidelines have recommended the use of PUCAI in routine clinical care. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of PUCAI in a large, diverse collection of pediatric gastroenterology practices. Methods We extracted data from the two most recent encounters for patients with ulcerative colitis in the ImproveCareNow registry. Feasibility was determined by the percent of patients for whom all PUCAI components were recorded, validity by correlation of PUCAI scores across Physician Global Assessment (PGA) categories, and responsiveness to change by the correlation between the change in PUCAI and PGA scores between visits. Results 2503 patients were included (49.5% male, age 15.2±4.1 years, disease duration 3.7±3.2 years). All items in the PUCAI were completed for 96% of visits. PUCAI demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability between remission, mild and moderate disease; discrimination between moderate and severe disease was less robust. There was good correlation with PGA [r=0.76 (p<0.001), weighted kappa k=0.73 (p<0.001)]. The PUCAI change scores correlated well with PGA change scores (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability of the PUCAI was good (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.72 [95% CI 0.70–0.75], p<0.001). Guyatt’s responsiveness statistic was 1.18 and the correlation of ΔPUCAI with ΔPGA was 0.69 (p<0.001). Conclusions The PUCAI is feasible to use in routine clinical settings. Evidence of its validity and responsiveness support its use as a clinical tool for monitoring disease activity for patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:25221935

  19. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  20. Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

  1. Flexible chiral metamaterials with dynamically optical activity and high negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Furkan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Unal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally chiral metamaterials (MTMs) based on gammadion-bilayer cross-wires that uniaxially create giant optical activity and tunable circular dichroism as a result of the dynamic design. In addition, the suggested structure gives high negative refractive index due to the large chirality in order to obtain an efficient polarization converter. We also present a numerical analysis in order to show the additional features of the proposed chiral MTM in detail. Therefore, a MTM sensor application of the proposed chiral MTM is introduced and discussed. The presented chiral designs offer a much simpler geometry and more efficient outlines. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation. It can be seen from the results that, the suggested chiral MTM can be used as a polarization converter, sensor, etc. for several frequency regimes.

  2. Calibration correction of an active scattering spectrometer probe to account for refractive index of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Overbeck, V. R.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Ferry, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the active scattering spectrometer probe (ASAS-X) to measure sulfuric acid aerosols on U-2 and ER-2 research aircraft has yielded results that are at times ambiguous due to the dependence of particles' optical signatures on refractive index as well as physical dimensions. The calibration correction of the ASAS-X optical spectrometer probe for stratospheric aerosol studies is validated through an independent and simultaneous sampling of the particles with impactors; sizing and counting of particles on SEM images yields total particle areas and volumes. Upon correction of calibration in light of these data, spectrometer results averaged over four size distributions are found to agree with similarly averaged impactor results to within a few percent: indicating that the optical properties or chemical composition of the sample aerosol must be known in order to achieve accurate optical aerosol spectrometer size analysis.

  3. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  4. The photochemical reflectance index provides an optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen conifers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    In evergreens, the seasonal down-regulation and reactivation of photosynthesis is largely invisible and difficult to assess with remote sensing. This invisible phenology may be changing as a result of climate change. To better understand the mechanism and timing of these hidden physiological transitions, we explored several assays and optical indicators of spring photosynthetic activation in conifers exposed to a boreal climate. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf pigments for evergreen conifer seedlings were monitored over 1 yr of a boreal climate with the addition of gas exchange during the spring. PRI, electron transport rate, pigment levels, light-use efficiency and photosynthesis all exhibited striking seasonal changes, with varying kinetics and strengths of correlation, which were used to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of spring activation. PRI and pigment pools were closely timed with photosynthetic reactivation measured by gas exchange. The PRI provided a clear optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation that was detectable at leaf and stand scales in conifers. We propose that PRI might provide a useful metric of effective growing season length amenable to remote sensing and could improve remote-sensing-driven models of carbon uptake in evergreen ecosystems. PMID:25641209

  5. A Randomized, Double‐Blind, Placebo‐Controlled, Sixteen‐Week Study of Subcutaneous Golimumab in Patients With Active Nonradiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis

    PubMed Central

    van der Heijde, D.; Dougados, M.; Maksymowych, W. P.; Scott, B. B.; Boice, J. A.; Berd, Y.; Bergman, G.; Curtis, S.; Tzontcheva, A.; Huyck, S.; Weng, H. H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by back pain and stiffness. The objective of this study was to determine whether golimumab is superior to placebo in patients with nonradiographic axial SpA. Methods This phase III, double‐blind, randomized, placebo‐controlled trial was performed to evaluate subcutaneous golimumab (50 mg) versus placebo in patients ages ≥18 years to ≤45 years who had active nonradiographic axial SpA according to the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for ≤5 years since diagnosis, high disease activity, and an inadequate response to or intolerance of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive golimumab or placebo subcutaneously every 4 weeks. The primary end point was 20% improvement according to the ASAS criteria (ASAS20) at week 16. Key secondary end points were an ASAS40 response, ASAS partial remission, 50% improvement in the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), and change in the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) index for sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation (SPARCC score). Results Of the 198 patients randomized, 197 were treated (97 received golimumab, and 100 received placebo). The mean age of the patients was 31 years, and 57.1% were male. At baseline, the mean ± SD BASDAI was 6.5 ± 1.5, the mean ± SD ASDAS was 3.5 ± 0.9, and the mean ± SD SPARCC score was 11.3 ± 14.0. The primary end point, an ASAS20 response, was achieved by significantly more patients in the golimumab group compared with the placebo group (71.1% versus 40.0%; P < 0.0001). An ASAS40 response was also achieved by significantly more patients in the golimumab group compared with the placebo group (56.7% versus 23.0%; P < 0.0001). The incidence of adverse events did not differ meaningfully between groups. Conclusion Patients with active

  6. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of reduced productivity at work, generated by Polish patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to investigate the association between activity of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and decrease in quality of life as well as productivity loss of affected patients in a specified group of patients in the Polish setting. Material and methods An questionnaire survey was conducted using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) to assess disease activity, as well as the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaires to assess productivity loss; quality of life was presented as utility calculated using the EuroQol 5 questionnaire and also measured on a visual analogue scale (VAS). Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach implying gross domestic product per capita or gross value added per worker in Poland in 2014 and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. Correlation was presented using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. Results We performed our analysis based on 78 full questionnaires collected. A mean BASDAI score of 5.91 in the analysed group of patients was detected and mean utility of 0.5135 was observed. Average quality of life measured on the visual analogue scale was 46.55. Mean number of days off work was 45.26 days per year and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 49.29%. Average annual indirect costs per patient were €4241 (17 686 PLN) calculated using gross domestic product and €10 172 (42 417 PLN) estimated using gross value added. Total productivity loss was significantly correlated with disease activity (strong correlation of 0.6005) and utility (moderate correlation of –0.3698). Conclusions Ankylosing spondylitis causes a great decrease in quality of life as well as patients’ productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. The greater the disease activity is, the lower is the utility, the lower is the quality of life measured on the VAS, and the greater are the total annual indirect costs. Total indirect costs were

  7. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  8. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  9. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  10. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  11. Post-Movement Beta Activity in Sensorimotor Cortex Indexes Confidence in the Estimations from Internal Models

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Cian; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Beta oscillations are a dominant feature of the sensorimotor system. A transient and prominent increase in beta oscillations is consistently observed across the sensorimotor cortical-basal ganglia network after cessation of voluntary movement: the post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS). Current theories about the function of the PMBS have been focused on either the closure of motor response or the processing of sensory afferance. Computational models of sensorimotor control have emphasized the importance of the integration between feedforward estimation and sensory feedback, and therefore the putative motor and sensory functions of beta oscillations may reciprocally interact with each other and in fact be indissociable. Here we show that the amplitude of sensorimotor PMBS is modulated by the history of visual feedback of task-relevant errors, and negatively correlated with the trial-to-trial exploratory adjustment in a sensorimotor adaptation task in young healthy human subjects. The PMBS also negatively correlated with the uncertainty associated with the feedforward estimation, which was recursively updated in light of new sensory feedback, as identified by a Bayesian learning model. These results reconcile the two opposing motor and sensory views of the function of PMBS, and suggest a unifying theory in which PMBS indexes the confidence in internal feedforward estimation in Bayesian sensorimotor integration. Its amplitude simultaneously reflects cortical sensory processing and signals the need for maintenance or adaptation of the motor output, and if necessary, exploration to identify an altered sensorimotor transformation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For optimal sensorimotor control, sensory feedback and feedforward estimation of a movement's sensory consequences should be weighted by the inverse of their corresponding uncertainties, which require recursive updating in a dynamic environment. We show that post-movement beta activity (13–30 Hz) over sensorimotor

  12. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  13. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  14. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  15. Correlation between the spermicidal activity and the haemolytic index of certain plant saponins.

    PubMed

    Elbary, A A; Nour, S A

    1979-01-01

    The haemolytic index, the spermicidal efficacy and the effect on the vaginal mucosa of some plant saponins were determined. It was proved that a certain correlation exists between the haemolytic index and the spermicidal efficacy of these saponins. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata was proved to be relatively superior when used in aqueous solution or when formulated in polyethylene glycol ointment base. PMID:542490

  16. 75 FR 75481 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., respectively)). The final rule (72 FR 69108, December 6, 2007) implements section 572 of the FD&C Act, which... Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species AGENCY... technology. Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species--21 CFR Part 516...

  17. 75 FR 75475 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., respectively)). The final rule (72 FR 69108, December 6, 2007) implements section 572 of the FD&C Act, which... Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species AGENCY... technology. Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species--21 CFR Part 516...

  18. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  19. Surface polaritons in a negative-index metamaterial with active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2015-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize stable propagation of linear and nonlinear surface polaritons (SPs) by placing a N -type four-level quantum emitters at the interface between a dielectric and a negative-index metamaterial (NIMM). We show that in linear propagation regime SPs can acquire an active Raman gain (ARG) from a pump field and a gain doublet appears in the gain spectrum of a signal field induced by the quantum interference effect from a control field. The ARG can be used not only to completely compensate the Ohmic loss in the NIMM but also to acquire a superluminal group velocity for the SPs. We also show that in the nonlinear propagation regime a huge enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity of the SPs can be obtained. As a result, ARG-assisted (1 + 1 )- and (2 + 1 )- dimensional superluminal surface polaritonic solitons with extremely low generation power may be produced based on the strong confinement of the electric field at the dielectric-NIMM interface.

  20. Use of the Crohn’s disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn’s disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals. PMID:18636655

  1. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056

  2. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Brain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Gach, H. Michael; Longstreth, W. T.; Teverovskiy, Leonid; Kuller, Lewis H.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a novel imaging biomarker to assess the associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4) from the multi-site Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n=724), AD (n=104), and MCI (n=135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry for analyzing regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes, and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration. PMID:25248607

  3. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    PubMed

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description. PMID:24359433

  4. Glycine-mediated syntheses of Pt concave nanocubes with high-index {hk0} facets and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Hui, Jun-feng; Liu, Zhi-Chang; Zhang, Xin; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2012-10-23

    Metal nanocrystals with high-index facets (HIFs) have drawn significant attention for their superior catalysis activity compared to that of low-index faces. However, because of the high surface energy of HIFs, it is still challenging to preserve HIFs during the growth of nanocrystals. In this study, highly selective Pt concave nanocubes (CNCs) with high-index {hk0} facets have been successfully prepared in a simple aqueous solution. The vital role of glycine as the surface controller in the formation of CNCs was demonstrated. These Pt CNCs exhibited enhanced specific activities toward the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid in comparison to commercial Pt black and Pt/C catalysts. PMID:23046108

  5. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  6. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  7. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  8. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  9. Use of the liver activity index and other metabolic variables in the assessment of metabolic health in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio

    2013-07-01

    The usefulness of the metabolic profile in dairy cows has been questioned because of poor standardization of procedures, high cost of analysis, and perceived inefficiency of the approach. Composite indices based on multiple variables, namely the Liver Activity Index and the Liver Functionality Index, which consider the pattern of changes of some negative acute-phase proteins in the first month of lactation, appear promising in the assessment of metabolic health status and the prediction of lactational and reproductive performance. The application of such indices depends on their reliability and on making them practical and economical regarding test cost and number of sampling points required. PMID:23809898

  10. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  11. The Type III Radio Burst Occurrence Rate as a New Solar Activity Index: Rieger-Type periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.

    2012-12-01

    The type III radio burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) strongly correlates with solar activity and was recently proposed as a new index of solar activity. This index can provide complementary information and may be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. The first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156 days in the daily T3BOR are presented. This periodicity was detected during the time interval from 22 June 2000 to 31 December 2003. This interval partially contains maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN).

  12. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  13. Foaming Scum Index (FSI)--a new tool for the assessment and characterisation of biological mediated activated sludge foams.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Martin; Gray, N F

    2012-11-15

    The formation of thick stable brown foams within the activated sludge process has become a familiar operational problem. Despite much research having already been carried out into establishing the causes of activated sludge foaming there is still no general consensus on the mechanisms involved. Historically investigation into activated sludge foaming has involved either measuring, under aeration conditions, the propensity of mixed liquor samples to foam, or evaluating different physico-chemical properties of the sludge which have previously been linked to activated sludge foaming. Both approaches do not present a means to quantify the risk posed to the treatment plants once foams have started to develop on the surface of aeration basins and final clarifiers. The Foaming Scum Index (FSI) is designed to offer a means to quantify risk on the basis of different foam characteristics which can easily be measured. For example, foam stability, foam coverage, foam suspended solids content and biological composition. The FSI was developed by measuring foam samples taken from several different domestic and municipal wastewater treatment sites located in Greater Dublin area (South-East Ireland). Path analysis was used to predict co-dependencies among the different sets of variables following a number of separate hypotheses. The standardized beta coefficients (β) produced from the multivariate correlation analysis (providing a measure of the contribution of each variable in the structural equation model) was used to finalise the weighting of each parameter in the index accordingly. According to this principal, foam coverage exerted the greatest influence on the overall FSI (β = 0.33), whilst the filamentous bacterial composition in terms of the filament index of foam, provided the least (β = 0.03). From this work it is proposed that the index can be readily applied as a standard tool in the coordination of research into the phenomenon of activated sludge foaming. PMID

  14. Body Mass Index, Dieting, Romance, and Sexual Activity in Adolescent Girls: Relationships over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Oslak, Selene G.; Udry, J. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships constitute an important, but understudied, developmental context for accommodation to pubertal change. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,487 black, white, and Hispanic adolescent females, this study examined associations among body mass index, current romantic involvement, and dieting. For each one point increase…

  15. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency. PMID:27548184

  16. The association of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically active,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic index(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical activity (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among active and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to active participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic index across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. active) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256

  17. Active modulation of refractive index by stress in the terahertz frequency range: erratum.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-03-20

    A previous paper [Appl. Opt.52, 6364 (2013)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.52.006364] presented experimental work on the stress-optical effect in the terahertz frequency range. Although the theoretical model of experimental measurement is correct, there are two errors in the original version. As a result, the presented experimentally measured value of the refractive index-stress coefficient A of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is erroneous. This erratum points out the errors in the original paper and reports the correct values. PMID:27140555

  18. The Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum Estimated Using the Mg II K Index and Ca II K disk Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a program to estimate the solar spectrum backward in time to the early twentieth century, we have generated fits to UV spectral irradiance measurements (150 - 410 nm) as a function of two solar activity proxies, the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, or Mg II index, and the total Ca II K disk activity derived from ground based observations. In addition, irradiance spectra at shorter wavelengths (1 - 150 nm) where used to generate fits to the Mg II core-to-wing ratio alone. Two sets of spectra were used in these fitting procedures. The fits at longer wavelengths (150 to 410 nm) were based on the high resolution spectra taken by the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Spectra measured by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite were used for the fits at wavelengths from 1 to 150 nm. To generate fits between solar irradiance and solar proxies, this study uses the above irradiance data, the NOAA composite Mg II index, and daily Ca II K disk activity determined from images measured by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among the results of this study is an estimated relationship between the fraction of the disk with enhanced Ca II K activity and the Mg II index, an upper bound of the average solar UV spectral irradiance during periods of pure quiet sun as was believed to be present during the Maunder Minimum, and results indicating that more than 60 % of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) variability occurs between 150 and 400nm. In this presentation we will discuss the results of this study and the implications for estimating UV spectra for use in long-term climate models.

  19. SPECTRAL INDEX STUDIES OF THE DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 2256: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERGER ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.i

    2010-08-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the merging rich cluster of galaxies, Abell 2256 (A2256). We have observed A2256 at 150 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and successfully detected the diffuse radio halo and the relic emission over a {approx}1.2 Mpc{sup 2} extent. Using this 150 MHz image and the images made using archival observations from the Very Large Array (VLA; 1369 MHz) and the Westerbrok Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 330 MHz), we have produced spectral index images of the diffuse radio emission in A2256. These spectral index images show a distribution of flat spectral index (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}, {alpha} in the range -0.7 to -0.9) plasma in the region NW of the cluster center. Regions showing steep spectral indices ({alpha} in the range -1.0 to -2.3) are toward the SE of the cluster center. These spectral indices indicate synchrotron lifetimes for the relativistic plasmas in the range 0.08-0.4 Gyr. We interpret this spectral behavior as resulting from a merger event along the direction SE to NW within the last 0.5 Gyr or so. A shock may be responsible for the NW relic in A2256 and the megaparsec scale radio halo toward the SE is likely to be generated by the turbulence injected by mergers. Furthermore, the diffuse radio emission shows spectral steepening toward lower frequencies. This low-frequency spectral steepening is consistent with a combination of spectra from two populations of relativistic electrons created at two epochs (two mergers) within the last {approx}0.5 Gyr. Earlier interpretations of the X-ray and the optical data also suggested that there were two mergers in Abell 2256 in the last 0.5 Gyr, consistent with the current findings. Also highlighted in this study is the futility of correlating the average temperatures of thermal gas and the average spectral indices of diffuse radio emission in the respective clusters.

  20. High-index faceted Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays as highly active and ultrastable electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang-Liang; Yu, Guangtao; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Hui; Sun, Yuanhui; Asefa, Tewodros; Chen, Wei; Zou, Xiaoxin

    2015-11-11

    Elaborate design of highly active and stable catalysts from Earth-abundant elements has great potential to produce materials that can replace the noble-metal-based catalysts commonly used in a range of useful (electro)chemical processes. Here we report, for the first time, a synthetic method that leads to in situ growth of {2̅10} high-index faceted Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays on nickel foam (NF). We show that the resulting material, denoted Ni3S2/NF, can serve as a highly active, binder-free, bifunctional electrocatalyst for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Ni3S2/NF is found to give ∼100% Faradaic yield toward both HER and OER and to show remarkable catalytic stability (for >200 h). Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate that Ni3S2/NF's excellent catalytic activity is mainly due to the synergistic catalytic effects produced in it by its nanosheet arrays and exposed {2̅10} high-index facets. PMID:26352297

  1. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  2. Variations of solar EUV radiation and coronal index of solar activity. (Slovak Title: Variácie EUV žiarenia Slnka a koronálny index slnečnej aktivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc, M.; Pastorek, L.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-12-01

    This is a follow-up contribution of the work Lukáč and Rybanský "Modified coronal index of solar activity (MCI) - presented during the last workshop. While MCI has been derived from measurements of the CELIAS/SEM spectrometer onboard the SOHO satellite, in this paper we have focused on the application of the measurements from satellites SORCE and TIMED SEE to the same goal, i.e. for compiling the coronal index of solar activity replacing the ground based coronal measurements.

  3. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  4. Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M; Greco, M A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the proliferative activity of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative activity that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative activity was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative activity of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative activity in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875

  5. The 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments. [index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented on current and planned spacecraft activity for various disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, solar physics, and life sciences. For active orbiting spacecraft, the epoch date, orbit type, orbit period, apoasis, periapsis, and inclination are given along with the spacecraft weight, launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, and sponsoring agency. For each planned orbiting spacecraft, the orbit parameters, planned launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, spacecraft weight, and sponsoring agency are given.

  6. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  7. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  8. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    PubMed

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. PMID:24628442

  9. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry T.-K.; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this study were to (1) assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2) explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS) association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 6.51, P value <.05) and females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 7.36, P value <.01), South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.40, P value <.05), and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.87, P value <.05). Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships. PMID:24971171

  10. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borker, Abraham L.; McKown, Matthew W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15–111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m2. We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife.

  11. Fecal calprotectin and ulcerative colitis endoscopic activity index as indicators of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6%), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5%), left-sided colitis (15.8%), extensive colitis (11.7%), and normal endoscopy (42.4%). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383

  12. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Matteo; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus; Wolk, Alicja; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n = 2589). Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64). They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62) and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65) compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of immigrants

  13. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 Levels and Their Correlation with Angiogenic Cytokines and Disease Activity in Ankylosing Spondylitis, Psoriatic Arthritis, and SAPHO Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Przepiera-Będzak, Hanna; Fischer, Katarzyna; Brzosko, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To assess serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-23 (IL-23) and their correlation with angiogenic cytokines and disease activity in ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), and SAPHO syndrome. Patients and Methods. We studied 152 spondyloarthritis (SpA) patients: 69 PsA, 61 AS, 22 SAPHO, and 29 controls. We recorded age, sex, disease duration, and treatment. We assessed BASDAI, VAS, and PASI scores. Serum IL-6, IL-23, VEGF, EGF, FGFb, and FGFa levels were determined using ELISA. We estimated ESR and CRP. Results. Serum IL-6 and IL-23 levels were higher in SpA than in control (P < 0.00001 and P = 0.0004, resp.). There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and CRP in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.000001), and SAPHO (P = 0.0003) patients. There was a positive correlation between serum IL-6 and ESR in AS (P = 0.000001), PsA (P = 0.002), and SAPHO (P = 0.02) patients. There was no correlation of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines in SpA. Conclusions. Serum IL-6 but not serum IL-23 correlated with ESR and CRP in SpA. No correlation was found of serum IL-6 and IL-23 with VAS, BASDAI, and angiogenic cytokines. PMID:26339141

  14. Relationship of serum osteoprotegerin with arterial stiffness, preclinical atherosclerosis, and disease activity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Serdaroğlu Beyazal, Münevver; Erdoğan, Turan; Türkyılmaz, Aysegül Kücükali; Devrimsel, Gül; Cüre, Medine Cumhur; Beyazal, Mehmet; Sahin, Ismail

    2016-09-01

    Patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) reportedly have a higher mortality and morbidity risk. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) was recently defined as an important cardiovascular (CV) marker in the general population. We aimed to assess the relationship of serum OPG levels with arterial stiffness, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT), and clinical and laboratory data in AS patients. We examined 60 AS patients without CV disease or risk factors and 50 healthy controls. Disease activity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS), whereas functional capacity was evaluated using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI). Serum OPG levels were measured with the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) was used as an indicator of arterial stiffness, whereas CIMT (examined via carotid ultrasonography) was used to evaluate preclinical atherosclerosis. The mean serum OPG level, PWV, and CIMT were significantly higher in AS patients than in controls (106.7 ± 50.9 vs. 58.1 ± 12.7 pg/mL; 7.4 ± 1.8 vs. 6.2 ± 1.2 m/s; 0.72 ± 0.13 vs. 0.57 ± 0.07 mm, respectively; P < 0.001 for all). In AS patients, the serum OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV and CIMT but were significantly correlated with erthrocyte sedimentation rate, BASFI, and ASDAS. AS patients without CV disease or risk exhibited high OPG levels and increased PWV and CIMT values. Although OPG levels were not significantly correlated with PWV or CIMT, future long-term follow-up studies will help define the predictive value of OPG in these patients. PMID:26847856

  15. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  16. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  17. Development of Preparatory Activity Indexed by the Contingent Negative Variation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Angelica B.; Digiacomo, Marcia R.; Meneres, Susana; Trigo, Eva; Gomez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effect of age on task-specific preparatory activation induced by a spatial cue using the central cue Posner's paradigm. The behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) generated between S1 (the warning stimulus) and S2 (the imperative stimulus) were compared between 16 healthy…

  18. An Active Sensor Nitrogen Application Algorithm for Corn Using a Chlorophyll Meter Based Sufficiency Index Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional N fertilizer management schemes for U.S. corn production systems have resulted in low N use efficiency, reduced water quality, and considerable public debate regarding N use in crop production. We have built a prototype high clearance N applicator configured with active sensors, controll...

  19. Middle School Students' Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Oh, Hyunju; Sheng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical public concerns in the United States is the rapid increase in childhood obesity, partly due to the social and environmental changes (e.g., excessive TV and computer use, pressures of standardized testing, etc.) in the past few decades, which has resulted in less physical activity in school children's daily routines.…

  20. Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Increases the Therapeutic Index of CHOP in Lymphoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, William D; Xiao, Jingwei; Heyward, Scott; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Junran; Baer, Maria R; Hassan, Hazem E; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and NR1i3) is a key regulator of CYP2B6, the enzyme predominantly responsible for the biotransformation of cyclophosphamide (CPA) to its pharmacologically active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OH-CPA). Previous studies from our laboratory illustrated that CAR activation increases the formation of 4-OH-CPA; however, CPA is rarely used clinically outside of combination therapies. Here, we hypothesize that including a selective human CAR activator with the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimen can improve the efficacy without exacerbating off-target toxicity of this regimen in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. In this study, we have developed a novel multiorgan coculture system containing human primary hepatocytes for hepatic metabolism, lymphoma cells as a model target for CHOP, and cardiomyocytes as a major site of off-target toxicity associated with this regimen. We found that a selective human CAR activator, CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime), altered expression of key drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human hepatocytes, which positively affects the metabolic profile of CHOP. Coadministration of CITCO and CHOP in the coculture model led to significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in lymphoma cells but not in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the beneficial effects of CITCO were abrogated when CAR knockout HepaRG cells were used in the coculture model. Importantly, synergistic anticancer effects were observed between CITCO and CHOP, in that inclusion of CITCO alongside the CHOP regimen offers comparable antineoplastic activity toward lymphoma cells at significantly reduced drug concentrations, and the decreased CHOP load attenuates cardiotoxicity. Overall, these findings provide a potentially promising novel strategy for facilitating CHOP-based chemotherapy. PMID:26823489

  1. Active terahertz beam steering by photo-generated graded index gratings in thin semiconductor films.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, T P; Tyagi, H K; Schaafsma, M C; Georgiou, G; Gómez Rivas, J

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate active beam steering of terahertz radiation using a photo-excited thin layer of gallium arsenide. A constant gradient of phase discontinuity along the interface is introduced by an spatially inhomogeneous density of free charge carriers that are photo-generated in the GaAs with an optical pump. The optical pump has been spatially modulated to form the shape of a planar blazed grating. The phase gradient leads to an asymmetry between the +1 and -1 transmission diffracted orders of more than a factor two. Optimization of the grating structure can lead to an asymmetry of more than one order of magnitude. Similar to metasurfaces made of plasmonic antennas, the photo-generated grating is a planar structure that can achieve large beam steering efficiency. Moreover, the photo-generation of such structures provides a platform for active THz beam steering. PMID:25401807

  2. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  3. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits chemotaxis, adhesion, activation of THP-1 cells and improves the plasma HDL inflammatory index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei-Zhong; Wu, Man-Ping

    2010-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are well described, however, such effects of Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are less studied. Building on our previous study, we further explored the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of ApoA-I, and focused especially on the interaction between monocyte and endothelial cells and plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits. Our results show that ApoA-I significantly decreased LPS-induced MCP-1 release from THP-1 cells and ox-LDL-induced THP-1 migration ratio (P<0.01, respectively). ApoA-I significantly decreased sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 release (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively) from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, ApoA-I significantly inhibited LPS-induced CD11b and VCAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). ApoA-I diminished LPS-induced mCD14 expression (P<0.01) and NFkappaB nuclear translocation in THP-1 cells. After single dose treatment of ApoA-I, the value of plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits was improved significantly (P<0.05). These results suggest that ApoA-I can inhibit chemotaxis, adhesion and activation of human monocytes and improve plasma HDL inflammatory index with presenting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:19819722

  4. The Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI): A regulatory factor for dust activity over southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Houssos, E. E.; Rashki, A.; Francois, P.; Legrand, M.; Goto, D.; Bartzokas, A.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Takemura, T.

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the modulation in dust activity over southwest (SW) Asia attributed to changes in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) between the Caspian Sea (CS) and Hindu Kush (HK) during the summer months (June-July-August-September, JJAS) of the period 2000-2014. The MSLP anomalies obtained via NCEP/NCAR re-analysis are evaluated via a new climatology index, the Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI), which is defined as CasHKI = MSLPanom.CS - MSLPanom.HK, over specific domains taken over the CS and HK. The changes in CasHKI intensity are examined against dust activity and rainfall distributions over south Asia. The satellite remote sensing (Meteosat, OMI, MODIS) analyses show that high CasHKI values corresponding to enhanced pressure gradient between the CS and the HK, are associated with intensification of northerly winds, increased dust emissions and transportation over SW Asia and north Arabian Sea. In contrast, variations in CasHKI intensity do not seem to have a significant effect on the Indian summer monsoon. Only a slight decrease of precipitation over the southern Indian peninsula and the neighboring oceanic areas and an increase of precipitation along the Ganges Basin and Himalayan range are found to be related to high CasHKI values. Model (MIROC-SPRINTARS) simulations of dust concentration and dust AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over SW Asia are consistent with the satellite observations, highlighting for the first time the modulation of the SW Asian dust activity by CasHKI.

  5. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  6. Development and Validation of a Symptom-Based Activity Index for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Schoepfer, Alain M.; Straumann, Alex; Panczak, Radoslaw; Coslovsky, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Maurer, Elisabeth; Haas, Nadine A.; Romero, Yvonne; Hirano, Ikuo; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Furuta, Glenn T.; Dellon, Evan S.; Leung, John; Collins, Margaret H.; Bussmann, Christian; Netzer, Peter; Gupta, Sandeep K.; Aceves, Seema S.; Chehade, Mirna; Moawad, Fouad J.; Enders, Felicity T.; Yost, Kathleen J.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Kern, Emily; Zwahlen, Marcel; Safroneeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Standardized instruments are needed to assess the activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), to provide endpoints for clinical trials and observational studies. We aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument and score, based on items that could account for variations in patients’ assessments of disease severity. We also evaluated relationships between patients’ assessment of disease severity and EoE-associated endoscopic, histologic, and laboratory findings. METHODS We collected information from 186 patients with EoE in Switzerland and the US (69.4% male; median age, 43 years) via surveys (n = 135), focus groups (n = 27), and semi-structured interviews (n = 24). Items were generated for the instruments to assess biologic activity based on physician input. Linear regression was used to quantify the extent to which variations in patient-reported disease characteristics could account for variations in patients’ assessment of EoE severity. The PRO instrument was prospectively used in 153 adult patients with EoE (72.5% male; median age, 38 years), and validated in an independent group of 120 patients with EoE (60.8% male; median age, 40.5 years). RESULTS Seven PRO factors that are used to assess characteristics of dysphagia, behavioral adaptations to living with dysphagia, and pain while swallowing accounted for 67% of the variation in patients’ assessment of disease severity. Based on statistical consideration and patient input, a 7-day recall period was selected. Highly active EoE, based on endoscopic and histologic findings, was associated with an increase in patient-assessed disease severity. In the validation study, the mean difference between patient assessment of EoE severity and PRO score was 0.13 (on a scale from 0 to 10). CONCLUSIONS We developed and validated an EoE scoring system based on 7 PRO items that assesses symptoms over a 7-day recall period. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00939263. PMID

  7. The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John M.; Stokes, Robert J.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Kofner, Aaron; Ridgeway, Greg K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The built environment can constrain or facilitate physical activity. Most studies of the health consequences of the built environment suffer from problems of selection bias associated with confounding effects of residential choice and transportation decisions. Purpose To examine the cross-sectional associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment, BMI, obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2), and meeting weekly recommended physical activity (RPA) levels through walking and vigorous exercise. To assess effect of using light rail transit system (LRT) on changes in BMI, obesity, and meeting weekly RPA levels. Methods Data were collected on individuals before (July 2006–February of 2007) and after (March 2008–July 2008) completion of a light rail system in Charlotte, NC. BMI, obesity, and physical activity levels were calculated for a comparison of these factors pre- and post-LRT construction. A propensity score weighting approach adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics among LRT and non-LRT users. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results More positive perceptions of one’s neighborhood at baseline were associated with a −0.36 (p<.05) lower BMI, 15% lower odds (95% CI=0.77, 0.94) of obesity, 9% higher odds (95% CI = 0.99, 1.20) of meeting weekly RPA through walking, and 11% higher odds (95% CI= 1.01, 1.22) of meeting RPA levels of vigorous exercise. The use of light rail transit to commute to work was associated with an average −1.18 reduction in BMI (p<0.05) and an 81% reduced odds (95% CI= 0.04, 0.92) of becoming obese over time. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that improving neighborhood environments and increasing the public’s use of LRT systems could provide improvements in health outcomes for millions of individuals. PMID:20621257

  8. Quasi-causal associations of physical activity and neighborhood walkability with body mass index: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Glen E.; Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) associations were tested using quasi-experimental twin methods. We hypothesized that physical activity and walkability were independently associated with BMI within twin pairs, controlling for genetic and environmental background shared between them. Methods Data were from 6,376 (64% female; 58% identical) same-sex pairs, University of Washington Twin Registry, 2008–2013. Neighborhood walking, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and BMI were self-reported. Residential address was used to calculate walkability. Phenotypic (non-genetically informed) and biometric (genetically informed) regression was employed, controlling for age, sex, and race. Results Walking and MVPA were associated with BMI in phenotypic analyses; associations were attenuated but significant in biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05). Walkability was not associated with BMI, however, was associated with walking (but not MVPA) in both phenotypic and biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05), with no attenuation accounting for shared genetic and environmental background. Conclusions The association between activity and BMI is largely due to shared genetic and environmental factors, but a significant causal relationship remains accounting for shared background. Although walkability is not associated with BMI, it is associated with neighborhood walking (but not MVPA) accounting for shared background, suggesting a causal relationship between them. PMID:25482422

  9. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  10. Lyman-alpha line as a solar activity index for calculations of solar spectrum in the EUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Katyushina, Valeria; Woods, Thomas

    It is investigated a possibility of retrieval of solar spectrum data using intensity observational data of the only solar spectral line L (Hydrogen Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm).Using as an example spectra obtained by SEE instruments on TIMED satellite, it was shown, that both for lines and for continuum in the spectral range 27-105 nm, which is essential for ionization processes in the ionosphere, a correlation between their intensities and L was high. Therefore it becomes possible to use L measurements data as a natural solar activity index for calculations of EUV solar emission spectrum for solving aeronomical problems. It is noticed, that EUV model, obtained with using SEE data, does not allow to calculate correctly critical frequencies of ionospheric E-layer owing to low intensities of lines 97.7 and 102.6 nm, which produce the main part of ionization in ionospheric E-region.

  11. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and

  12. Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kevin C.; Kuramoto, Lisa K.; Schulzer, Michael; Retallack, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. Many local governments have enacted policies to increase physical activity in schools as a way to combat childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index (BMI) in children. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September 2008. We also hand-searched relevant journals and article reference lists. We included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that had objective data for BMI from before and after the intervention, that involved school-based physical activity interventions and that lasted for a minimum of 6 months. Results Of 398 potentially relevant articles that we identified, 18 studies involving 18 141 children met the inclusion criteria. The participants were primarily elementary school children. The study duration ranged from 6 months to 3 years. In 15 of these 18 studies, there was some type of co-intervention. Meta-analysis showed that BMI did not improve with physical activity interventions (weighted mean difference –0.05 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval –0.19 to 0.10). We found no consistent changes in other measures of body composition. Interpretation School-based physical activity interventions did not improve BMI, although they had other beneficial health effects. Current population-based policies that mandate increased physical activity in schools are unlikely to have a significant effect on the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. PMID:19332753

  13. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  14. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p < 0.0001), whereas the index of δ-6 desaturase activity decreased by 17.7 ± 18.2 % (p < 0.0001) post-supplementation. Index of elongase activity decreased by 39.5 ± 27.9 % (p < 0.0001). Some gene-diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism. PMID:25367143

  15. Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity across Body Mass Index in Females: Moderating Effect of Endocannabinoids and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Sauchelli, Sarah; Pastor, Antoni; Gonzalez, Marcela L.; de la Torre, Rafael; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Fernández-García, Jose C.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B.; Agüera, Zaida; Miró, Jordi; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Methods Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Results Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = −0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001) and low Harm avoidance (b = −0.16, p<.001). Conclusions Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity. PMID:25101961

  16. Brain Efflux Index To Investigate the Influence of Active Efflux on Brain Distribution of Pemetrexed and Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Agarwal, Sagar

    2013-01-01

    Antifolates, in particular methotrexate (MTX), have been widely used in the treatment of primary and secondary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Pemetrexed (PMX) is a novel antifolate that also exhibits potent antitumor activity against CNS malignancies. Studies have shown that brain distribution of both antifolates is significantly restricted, possible due to active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study characterizes the brain-to-blood transport of PMX and MTX and examines the role of several efflux transporters in brain distribution of the antifolates by use of the intracerebral microinjection technique (brain efflux index). The results from this study show that both PMX and MTX undergo saturable efflux transport across the BBB, with elimination half-lives of approximately 39 minutes and 29 minutes, respectively. Of the various efflux transporters this study investigated, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) does not play an important role in the brain distribution of the two antifolate drugs. Interestingly, breast-cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) makes a significant contribution to the brain elimination of MTX but not PMX. In addition, the brain-to-blood transport of both antifolates was inhibited by probenecid and benzylpenicillin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters in the efflux of these compounds from the brain, with organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) being a possibility. Our results suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms behind the limited brain distribution of PMX and MTX is active efflux transport processes at the BBB, including a benzylpenicillin-sensitive transport system and/or the active transporter Bcrp. PMID:23297298

  17. Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease associated with lower body mass index and heavy leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sääksjärvi, Katri; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lyytinen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Kanerva, Noora; Heliövaara, Markku

    2014-04-01

    The risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. We therefore examined the prediction of various lifestyle factors on the incidence of PD in a cohort drawn from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1973-1976. The study population comprised 6,715 men and women aged 50-79 years and free of PD at the baseline. All of the subjects completed a baseline health examination (including height and weight measurements) and a questionnaire providing information on leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of PD occurred. The statistical analyses were based on Cox's model including age, sex, education, community density, occupation, coffee consumption, body mass index (BMI), leisure-time physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption as independent variables. At first, BMI was not associated with PD risk, but after exclusion of the first 15 years of follow-up, an elevated risk appeared at higher BMI levels (P for trend 0.02). Furthermore, subjects with heavy leisure-time physical activity had a lower PD risk than those with no activity [relative risk (RR) 0.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.90]. In variance with findings for other chronic diseases, current smokers had a lower PD risk than those who had never smoked (RR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.08-0.67), and individuals with moderate alcohol intake (at the level of <5 g/day) had an elevated PD risk compared to non-drinkers. The results support the hypothesis that lifestyle factors predict the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed. PMID:24633681

  18. The association of body mass index with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mirpourian, Maryam; Salesi, Mansour; Abdolahi, Hadi; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Karimzadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of obesity in clinical curse of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not clear. We investigated the association of obesity and adiposity with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in RA patients. Materials and Methods: Active RA patients with the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) > 2.6 were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Patients were treated with methotrexate (7.5 to 10 mg/week) plus hydroxychloroquine (200 to 400 mg/day) and prednisolone (2.5 to 10 mg/day) and were followed by DAS28 for up to 24 weeks. Results: One hundred and six patients were studied; age = 48.5 ± 13.8 years, 87.7% female, disease duration = 4.4 years [SE = 0.48]. DAS28 was decreased from 4.5 ± 1.6 to 2.9 ± 1.4 (P < 0.001) after 24 weeks of treatment. Only in patients with disease duration of ≤2 years, BMI (r = –0.415, P = 0.005) and waist circumference (r = –0.296, P = 0.05) were correlated with baseline DAS28. Although BMI (r = –0.337, P = 0.025) and waist circumference (r = –0.315, P = 0.038) were correlated with change in DAS28 after therapy, these correlations were disappeared after controlling for baseline DAS28. Conclusion: Obesity and adiposity are associated with less severe disease activity in early stage of RA, but are not associated with response to combination therapy with methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine in RA patients. PMID:25197291

  19. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  20. Bio-active engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic activity: therapeutic index, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ~50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic index we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition activity using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:24333519

  1. [Vitamin D levels in ankylosing spondylitis: does deficiency correspond to disease activity?].

    PubMed

    Pokhai, Gabriel G; Bandagi, Sabiha; Abrudescu, Adriana

    2014-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an inflammatory disorder that presents with arthritis of the axial skeleton, including sacroiliac joints. Vitamin D is a secosteroid hormone with a long-established role in calcium and phosphate homeostasis, and in the regulation of bone formation and resorption. It is now known that vitamin D plays an immunosuppressive role in the body, and there is interest of late in the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases. Inflammation may be responsible for some of the loss of bone mineral density seen in AS. We reviewed the literature for studies assessing vitamin D level as a marker of AS disease activity and those examining vitamin D levels in AS in comparison to healthy controls. Four of 7 studies found a significant negative correlation between vitamin D levels and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Index (BASDAI), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP). In a review of 8 case-control studies, the mean level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 was 22.8 ± 14.1 ng/mL in 555 AS patients versus 26.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL in 557 healthy controls. When compared with a 2-sample t test, vitamin D levels were significantly higher in healthy controls (p < 0.01). We conclude that patients with AS appear to have lower vitamin D levels versus healthy controls; however, the cause is unclear. Existing studies do not demonstrate a consistent link between vitamin D levels and disease activity in AS. Further studies are in need to determine if a causative link exists between vitamin D deficiency and AS. PMID:25627231

  2. Renal tubular dysfunction measured by N-acetyl-beta glucosaminidase/Creatinine activity index in children receiving antiepileptic drugs: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mojgan; Samaie, Afshin; Semnani, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate renal side-effects of anti-epileptic medication by valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ), we performed a prospective study to assess renal tubular function by measuring N-acetyl-β glucosaminidase (NAG)/Cr activity index in epileptic children. The study was conducted on 112 children who were diagnosed with epilepsy (28 patients were observed before treatment with anti-epileptics, 28 children were administered VPA, 28 children were treated with CBZ, and 28 healthy children were selected age &sex matched for). An especial NAG assay kit was used for quantitative measuring of NAG in patient urine samples. The patients receiving VPA exhibited higher rate of NAG activity compared with the two groups which not receiving anti-epileptic drugs. Measurement of urinary NAG/Cr index in the children who received CBZ also, was significantly higher than those who were not administered anti-epileptic drugs. The measurement of NAG/Cr index in the VPA group was significantly higher than that in the CBZ group (NAG index: 2.75 versus 1.71). Children on anti-epileptic treatment with VPA or CBZ might demonstrate signs of renal tubular dysfunction, reflected by NAG/Cr activity index. This side effect can be potentially more occurred following VPA administration. PMID:21569539

  3. Renal tubular dysfunction measured by N-acetyl-beta glucosaminidase/Creatinine activity index in children receiving antiepileptic drugs: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate renal side-effects of anti-epileptic medication by valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ), we performed a prospective study to assess renal tubular function by measuring N-acetyl-β glucosaminidase (NAG)/Cr activity index in epileptic children. The study was conducted on 112 children who were diagnosed with epilepsy (28 patients were observed before treatment with anti-epileptics, 28 children were administered VPA, 28 children were treated with CBZ, and 28 healthy children were selected age &sex matched for). An especial NAG assay kit was used for quantitative measuring of NAG in patient urine samples. The patients receiving VPA exhibited higher rate of NAG activity compared with the two groups which not receiving anti-epileptic drugs. Measurement of urinary NAG/Cr index in the children who received CBZ also, was significantly higher than those who were not administered anti-epileptic drugs. The measurement of NAG/Cr index in the VPA group was significantly higher than that in the CBZ group (NAG index: 2.75 versus 1.71). Children on anti-epileptic treatment with VPA or CBZ might demonstrate signs of renal tubular dysfunction, reflected by NAG/Cr activity index. This side effect can be potentially more occurred following VPA administration. PMID:21569539

  4. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  5. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  6. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  7. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  8. Modeling of decomposition activity and priming effect in soil using the versatile index of microbial physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskiy, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of microbial biomass in soil organic matter (SOM) models is still unresolved issue. The approaches using explicit description of microbial biomass (decomposer) interaction with SOM usually cannot be easily verified by means of experimental estimating of total microbial biomass dynamics. Standard experimental methods, such as fumigation extraction or direct microscopic count, does not represent microbial activity (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2013), which is essential for the control of decomposition rate. More advanced approaches, explicitly simulating intracellular metabolic activity (Resat et al., 2012) and e.g. production and turnover of extracellular enzymes (Lawrence et al., 2009) are prohibitively complex for the field and larger scales, which are most often under demand for SOM modelling. One possible parsimonious solution is an application of index of microbial physiological state (r), which describes the adaptive variation of the cell composition and metabolic activity by one variable (Panikov, 1995). This variable (r) can reflect the microbial response to the availability of carbon and nitrogen and shift of microbial biomass between active and dormant state (Blagodatsky and Richter, 1998), but also can be used for the description of the effect of external factors, such as temperature and moisture, on microbial activity. This approach is extremely useful for the description of priming effect (Blagodatsky et al., 2010) and the influence of substrate availability and external factors on the size and dynamics of priming. Distinguishing of these two types of driving forces for priming is crucial for modelling of SOM dynamics and steady-state stocks of different SOM pools. I will present the analysis of model response on combination of limiting factors presented as functions controlling the change of microbial physiological state and size of priming effect. Alternatively, the direct effect of the same factors on decomposition rate and priming

  9. Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

    2014-11-01

    Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

  10. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-11

    Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-index facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:24084858

  11. High-Efficiency WOLEDs with High Color-Rendering Index based on a Chromaticity-Adjustable Yellow Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Long; Xie, Gaozhan; Liu, Ming; Chen, Dongcheng; Cai, Xinyi; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-06-01

    A chromaticity-adjustable yellow thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material, PXZDSO2 as a triplet harvester provides a rational device concept, giving two-color and three-color pure organic white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with unprecedented color-rendering index of 95 and external quantum efficiency of 19.2%. PMID:27062637

  12. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  13. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H⁺/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [³H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  14. Relationship between Body Mass Index, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme Activity Estimates in Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, C. Austin; Matsuo, Karen H.; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF- α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786

  15. Physical Activity Matters: Associations Among Body Mass Index, Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Feeny, David; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Thompson, Amanda; McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.; Blanchard, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults. Methods Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every two years between 1996/97 and 2006/07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females. Results Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared to individuals who were active in their leisure time. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL. PMID:24176861

  16. One-pot synthesis of high-index faceted AgCl nanocrystals with trapezohedral, concave hexoctahedral structures and their photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Hong; Fang, Jingzhong

    2015-07-01

    AgCl semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with trapezohedral (TPH) and concave hexoctahedral (HOH) structures have been successfully synthesized for the first time in high yield by a direct one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared TPH, concave HOH AgCl NCs with unconventional polyhedral shapes and smooth surfaces were enclosed by 24 high-index {311} facets and 48 high-index {15 5 2} facets, respectively. A specific ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) acted as both a Cl- ion precursor and a morphology-controlled stabilizer, which was indispensable for the formation of these high-index faceted AgCl polyhedra and the derived uniform octahedral AgCl in an appropriate concentration of hot AgNO3 and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. With high-index facets exposed, both TPH and concave HOH AgCl NCs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than octahedral AgCl NCs that have mainly {111} faces exposed, with lower surface areas and surface energies, for the degradation of organics under sunlight. It is expected that the use of polyhedral AgCl NCs with high-index facets is an effective approach for the design of alternative semiconductor photocatalysts with a high performance, which may find potential applications such as in photochromics and environmental management.

  17. One-pot synthesis of high-index faceted AgCl nanocrystals with trapezohedral, concave hexoctahedral structures and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Hong; Fang, Jingzhong

    2015-07-21

    AgCl semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with trapezohedral (TPH) and concave hexoctahedral (HOH) structures have been successfully synthesized for the first time in high yield by a direct one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared TPH, concave HOH AgCl NCs with unconventional polyhedral shapes and smooth surfaces were enclosed by 24 high-index {311} facets and 48 high-index {15 5 2} facets, respectively. A specific ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) acted as both a Cl(-) ion precursor and a morphology-controlled stabilizer, which was indispensable for the formation of these high-index faceted AgCl polyhedra and the derived uniform octahedral AgCl in an appropriate concentration of hot AgNO3 and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. With high-index facets exposed, both TPH and concave HOH AgCl NCs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than octahedral AgCl NCs that have mainly {111} faces exposed, with lower surface areas and surface energies, for the degradation of organics under sunlight. It is expected that the use of polyhedral AgCl NCs with high-index facets is an effective approach for the design of alternative semiconductor photocatalysts with a high performance, which may find potential applications such as in photochromics and environmental management. PMID:26088365

  18. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  19. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  20. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  1. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  2. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  3. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Di Carlo, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+) and PASS (−) groups (p < 0.0001). The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID) score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA) index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD) questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p = 0.0007) and functional state level (0.006). Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS. PMID:26167506

  4. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  5. Geomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Seppälä, A.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy is used to simulate polar surface air temperature effects of geomagnetic activity variations. A transient model simulation was performed for the years 1960-2004 and is shown to develop polar surface air temperature patterns that depend on geomagnetic activity strength, similar to previous studies. In order to eliminate influencing factors such as sea surface temperatures (SST) or UV variations, two nine-year long simulations were carried out, with strong and weak geomagnetic activity, respectively, while all other boundary conditions were held to year 2000 levels. Statistically significant temperature effects that were observed in previous reanalysis and model results are also obtained from this set of simulations, suggesting that such patterns are indeed related to geomagnetic activity. In the model, strong geomagnetic activity and the associated NOx enhancements lead to polar stratospheric ozone loss. Compared with the simulation with weak geomagnetic activity, the ozone loss causes a decrease in ozone radiative cooling and thus a temperature increase in the polar winter mesosphere. Similar to previous studies, a cooling is found below the stratopause, which other authors have attributed to a decrease in the mean meridional circulation. In the polar stratosphere this leads to a more stable vortex. A strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere vortex is known to be associated with a positive (negative) Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index; our simulations exhibit a positive NAM index for strong geomagnetic activity, and a negative NAM for weak geomagnetic activity. Such NAM anomalies have been shown to propagate to the surface, and this is also seen in the model simulations. NAM anomalies are known to lead to specific surface temperature anomalies: a positive NAM is associated with warmer than average northern Eurasia and colder than average eastern North Atlantic. This is also the case in our simulation. Our

  6. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-07-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. PMID:23719781

  7. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men. PMID:22171524

  8. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-06-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals.We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00695f

  9. Mechanisms of Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on High-Index Platinum n(111)-(111) Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jeffrey; Du, Zheng; Shao, Minhua

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) on high-index planes of Pt n(111)-(111) were studied by density functional theory (DFT). The stepped surfaces, where n = 2, 3, and 4, showed that O2, O, and OH exhibited higher binding energies along the step compared to the terrace plane. The Pt atoms along the step can become distorted through the binding of the O and OH, where the shift in position of the Pt atoms is the largest along the stepped sites, hence forming stronger bonds with O atoms. One of the two O atoms produced from the bond dissociation of O2 will push the other one down a step with lower binding energies, consequently reducing the energy required for the protonation reaction (O + H(+) → OH, and OH + H(+) → H2O). The quicker recovery back to the clean Pt surface would therefore improve the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, especially those with exposure to high-indexed facets. PMID:26267316

  10. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  11. Estimating Pan Arctic Net Ecosystem Exchange using Functional Relationships with Air temperature, Leaf Area Index and Photosynthetic Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbufong, H.; Kusbach, A.; Lund, M.; Persson, A.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Connolly, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high variability in Arctic tundra net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon (C) is often attributed to the high spatial heterogeneity of Arctic tundra. Current models of carbon exchange thus handle the Arctic as either a single or few ecosystems, responding to environmental change in the same manner. In this study, we developed and tested a simple NEE model using the Misterlich light response curve (LRC) function with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) as the main driving variable. Model calibration was carried out with eddy covariance carbon dioxide data from 12 Arctic tundra sites. The model input parameters (fcsat, Rd and α) were estimated as a function of air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) and represent specific characteristics of the NEE-PPFD relationship. They describe the saturation flux, dark respiration and initial light use efficiency, respectively. While remotely sensed LAI is readily available as a MODIS Terra product (MCD15A3), air temperature was estimated from a direct relationship with MODIS land surface temperature (MOD11A2, LST). Therefore, no specific knowledge of the vegetation type is required. Preliminary results show the model captures the spatial heterogeneity of the Arctic tundra but so far, overestimates NEE on all 17 test sites which include heaths, bogs, fens, and tussock tundra vegetation. The final updated results and error assessment will be presented at the conference in December.

  12. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  13. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  14. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  15. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  16. Identification of Changing Lower Limb Neuromuscular Activation in Parkinson's Disease during Treadmill Gait with and without Levodopa Using a Nonlinear Analysis Index

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Daniel P.; Paloski, William H.; Layne, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of electromyographic (EMG) data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson's disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS) that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA) has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson's disease in a simple manner. PMID:25688326

  17. Geomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Seppälä, A.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy is used to simulate polar surface air temperature effects of geomagnetic activity variations. A transient model simulation was performed for the years 1960-2004 and is shown to develop polar surface air temperature patterns that depend on geomagnetic activity strength, similar to previous studies. In order to eliminate influencing factors such as sea surface temperatures (SST) or UV variations, two nine-year long simulations were carried out, with strong and weak geomagnetic activity, respectively, while all other boundary conditions were held to year 2000 levels. Statistically significant temperature effects that were observed in previous reanalysis and model results are also obtained from this set of simulations, suggesting that such patterns are indeed related to geomagnetic activity. In the model, strong geomagnetic activity and the associated NOx (= NO + NO2) enhancements lead to polar stratospheric ozone loss. Compared with the simulation with weak geomagnetic activity, the ozone loss causes a decrease in ozone radiative cooling and thus a temperature increase in the polar winter mesosphere. Similar to previous studies, a cooling is found below the stratopause, which other authors have attributed to a decrease in the mean meridional circulation. In the polar stratosphere this leads to a more stable vortex. A strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere vortex is known to be associated with a positive (negative) Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index; our simulations exhibit a positive NAM index for strong geomagnetic activity, and a negative NAM for weak geomagnetic activity. Such NAM anomalies have been shown to propagate to the surface, and this is also seen in the model simulations. NAM anomalies are known to lead to specific surface temperature anomalies: a positive NAM is associated with warmer than average northern Eurasia and colder than average eastern North Atlantic. This is also the case in our

  18. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

  19. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children’s body mass index (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by

  20. Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Working Memory in a Sample of Children with Down Syndrome: Can Physical Activity Improve Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Geertina Houthuijzen

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested that in typical developing children a positive relationship exists between physical activity level and cognitive functioning. For some children, academic performance may increase when levels of physical activity are increased. Moreover, some studies have supported the idea that physical activity seems to improve attention.…

  1. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  2. Comparison of active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of active dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood indexes related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. PMID:26472702

  3. Incidence of Adult-onset Asthma After Hypothetical Interventions on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Danaei, Goodarz; Camargo,, Carlos A.; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased asthma risk, but uncertainty persists about the role of physical activity. We estimated the independent and joint associations of hypothetical interventions on BMI and physical activity with the risk of adult-onset asthma in 76,470 asthma-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were followed between 1988 and 1998. Information about asthma, BMI, physical activity, and other factors was updated every 2 years. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 10-year asthma risk in the following 4 scenarios: no intervention, 5% BMI reduction in a 2-year period for those who were overweight or obese, at least 2.5 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and both of the previous 2 interventions. At baseline, women had a mean age of 55 (standard deviation, 7) years and a mean BMI of 25.4 (standard deviation, 4.8). Median time spent in physical activity was 0.7 hours/week. During follow-up, 1,146 women developed asthma. The 10-year asthma risk under no intervention was 1.5%. Compared with no intervention, the population risk ratios were 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.99) under the BMI intervention, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) under the physical activity intervention, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06) under the joint intervention. Interventions on BMI and physical activity may have a modest impact on the risk of adult-onset asthma in this population of US women. PMID:24107616

  4. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  5. Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity by body mass index in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL☆

    PubMed Central

    Palta, P.; McMurray, R.G.; Gouskova, N.A.; Sotres-Alvarez, D.; Davis, S.M.; Carnethon, M.; Castañeda, S.F.; Gellman, M.D.; Hankinson, A.L.; Isasi, C.R.; Schneiderman, N.; Talavera, G.A.; Evenson, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Body mass index (BMI) was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively) compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively). The prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26835248

  6. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  7. Occupational Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational Activity (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996

  8. Atomic scale analysis of the enhanced electro- and photo-catalytic activity in high-index faceted porous NiO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  9. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  10. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale.

  11. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  12. Evaluation of Biological Activity of Cellulose Pulp by Means of the Static Respiration Index (At4)/ Ocena Aktywności Biologicznej Pulpy Celulozowej Testem Respiracyjnym At4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Krochmal, Agata

    2014-09-01

    In the countries of the European Union, work is presently being conducted on the standardisation of the limit values and test methods for the determination of the biological activity of waste. The aim of conducting the tests is to monitor the effectiveness of waste biodegradation during composting, the evaluate any decrease in the biological activity of the waste before its landfilling and control processes taking place at landfills. The evaluation of the waste's biological activity can be performed, among others, by testing respiration. One such method is AT4 (Static Respiration Index) determination. The results of respirometric tests depict the availability of substrates for microorganisms, that is, the biodegradability. The article describes the tests of the biological activity of the cellulose pulp, the impact of the degree of compost inoculation on the value of this parameter and the dependence on the content of organic mass and total organic carbon in the tested substrate. The measurements of the oxygen demand were made using the OxiTop® Control measuring system. W krajach UE prowadzone są obecnie prace nad ujednoliceniem wartości granicznych oraz metod testowych oznaczania aktywności biologicznej odpadów. Celem prowadzenia testów jest monitoring efektywności biologicznego rozkładu odpadów podczas kompostowania, ocena zmniejszenia aktywności biologicznej odpadów przed ich składowaniem, kontrola procesów zachodzących na składowiskach. Ocenę aktywności biologicznej odpadów można przeprowadzić m.in. poprzez badanie respiracji. Jedną z takich metod jest oznaczenie AT4 (Static Respiration Index). Wyniki badań respirometrycznych obrazują dostępność substratów dla mikroorganizmów, czyli podatność na biodegradację. W artykule opisano badania aktywności biologicznej pulpy celulozowej testem AT4, wpływ stopnia zaczepienia kompostem na wartość tego parametru oraz zależność od zawartości masy organicznej i OWO w badanym substracie

  13. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture. PMID:26035225

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  19. Is the association of continuous metabolic syndrome risk score with body mass index independent of physical activity? The CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Asayesh, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although the association of body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well documented, there is little knowledge on the independent and joint associations of BMI and physical activity with MetS risk based on a continuous scoring system. This study was designed to explore the effect of physical activity on interactions between excess body weight and continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) in a nationwide survey of Iranian children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data on 5,625 school students between 10 and 18 years of age were analyzed. BMI percentiles, screen time activity (STA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels, and components of cMetS risk score were extracted. Standardized residuals (z-scores) were calculated for MetS components. Linear regression models were used to study the interactions between different combinations of cMetS, LTPA, and BMI percentiles. RESULTS Overall, 984 (17.5%) subjects were underweight, whereas 501 (8.9%) and 451 (8%) participants were overweight and obese, respectively. All standardized values for cMetS components, except fasting blood glucose level, were directly correlated with BMI percentiles in all models (P-trend < 0.001); these associations were independent of STA and LTPA levels. Linear associations were also observed among LTPA and standardized residuals for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and waist circumference (P-trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that BMI percentiles are associated with cMetS risk score independent of LTPA and STA levels. PMID:26244080

  20. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53%. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57% female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  1. Association of IL1Β (-511 A/C) and IL6 (-174 G > C) polymorphisms with higher disease activity and clinical pattern of psoriatic arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cubino, N; Montilla, C; Usategui-Martín, R; Cieza-Borrela, C; Carranco, T; Calero-Paniagua, I; Quesada, A; Cañete, J D; Queiro, R; Sánchez, M D; Hidalgo, C; Martínez, O; Del Pino-Montes, J; Díaz-Álvarez, A; González-Sarmiento, R

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze whether IL1β (-511G > A) and IL6 (-174 G > C) polymorphisms are associated with inflammatory activity, radiographic damage or clinical pattern of psoriatic arthritis (PsA). One hundred twenty-five patients classified as PsA according to the Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis (CASPAR) criteria were included. Patients were stratified according to their clinical pattern at inclusion as peripheral, axial, or mixed involvement. Disease activity in peripheral or mixed forms was measured using the number of swollen and tender joints, pain analog visual scale, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and disease activity score 28 (DAS28). Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) was used for axial and mixed forms, as were pain visual analog scale, ESR and CRP. Radiographic damage was evaluated using a modified Sharp score and modified stoke ankylosing spondylitis spinal score (SASSSm). The polymorphisms for the promoter region of IL1β (-511 G/A) and IL-6 (-174 G/C) were analyzed. The G allele of IL1B (-511G/A) polymorphism was associated with higher peripheral joint disease activity (OR 3.13; p < 0.0004; CI 95 % 1.43-6.82, p (corrected) <0.008), while the G allele of the IL6 (174G > C) polymorphism presented a strong trend to be associated with peripheral forms (70.86 %) (OR 1.89; p < 0.03; CI 95 % 1.06-3.39, p-corrected 0.05). In addition, this allele showed a lower association with HLA-B27 (15.78 %) compared with C allele (28.57 %) (OR 0.469; p = 0.02; CI 95 % 0.238-0.923, p-corrected 0.03). This study suggests that the G allele polymorphism of IL1B (-511 A/C) is associated with higher peripheral joint disease activity. On the other hand, the IL6 (-174 G/C) polymorphism showed a strong trend to be associated with the peripheral pattern of PsA. PMID:27188858

  2. Infliximab Dose Reduction Sustains the Clinical Treatment Effect in Active HLAB27 Positive Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Two-Year Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Mörck, Boel; Bremell, Tomas; Forsblad-d'Elia, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The rationale of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of infliximab (IFX) treatment in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to determine whether IFX dose reduction and interval extension sustains the treatment effect. Nineteen patients were included and treated with IFX 5 mg/kg every 6 weeks for 56 weeks. All patients concomitantly received MTX with median dose 7.5 mg/weekly. During the second year, the IFX dose was reduced to 3 mg/kg every 8 weeks. Eighteen patients completed the 1-year and 15 patients the 2-year trial. The ≥50% improvement at week 16 from baseline of BASDAI was achieved in 16/19 (84%) patients. Significant reductions in BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores, decrease in ESR and CRP, and improvement in SF-36 were observed at weeks 16 and 56. The MRI-defined inflammatory changes in the sacroiliac joints disappeared in 10/15 patients (67%) already at 16 weeks. IFX treatment effect was sustained throughout the second year after IFX dose reduction and interval extension. We conclude that IFX treatment is effective in well-established active AS and a dose reduction sustains the treatment effect. These observations are of clinical importance and open the opportunity to reduce the drug costs. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01850121. PMID:24089587

  3. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  4. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  5. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients. PMID:23815565

  6. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  7. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995–97 and in 2006–08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  8. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  9. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  10. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  11. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  12. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  13. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  14. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Stals, M; Verhoeven, S; Bruggeman, M; Pellens, V; Schroeyers, W; Schreurs, S

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr3(Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from (226)Ra and its progeny; (232)Th progeny and (40)K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. PMID:24158046

  15. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.

    PubMed

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-10-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of "obesogenic" neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child's residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments' contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students' reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children's BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food

  16. Relationship of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating with Mortality and Incident Heart Failure among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawgoud, Ahmed; Brown, Cynthia J.; Sui, Xuemei; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Bittner, Vera; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Blair, Steven N.; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality and may be achieved by physical activity (PA), healthy eating (HE), or both. We examined the association of PA and HE with mortality and incident heart failure (HF) among 2040 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with baseline BMI 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m2 during 13 years of follow-up in Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods and results Baseline PA was defined as ≥500 weekly metabolic equivalent task-minutes (MET-minutes) and HE as ≥5 daily servings of vegetable and fruit intake. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: (1) PA−/HE− (n=384); (2) PA+/HE− (n=992); (3) PA−/HE+ (n=162); and (4) PA+/HE+ (n=502). Participants had a mean age of 74 (±6) years, mean BMI of 22.6 (±1.5) kg/m2, 61% were women, and 4% African American. Compared with PA−/HE−, age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality for PA−/HE+, PA+/HE−, and PA+/HE+ groups were 0.96 (0.76–1.21), 0.61 (0.52–0.71) and 0.62 (0.52–0.75), respectively. These associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment and were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortalities. Respective demographic-adjusted HRs (95% Cis) for incident HF among 1954 participants without baseline HF were 1.21 (0.81–1.81), 0.71 (0.54–0.94) and 0.71 (0.51–0.98). These later associations lost significance after multivariable-adjustment. Conclusion Among community-dwelling older adults with normal BMI, physical activity, regardless of healthy eating, was associated with lower risk of mortality and incident HF, but healthy eating had no similar protective association in this cohort.

  17. Comparison of performance of the Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society, the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group and the modified New York criteria in a cohort of Chinese patients with spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho Yin; Lau, Chak Sing; Wu, Ka Pik; Wong, Woon Sing; MOK, Mo Yin

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) is essential as anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy can achieve significant symptomatic relief and control of disease activity. This study aims to compare the clinical characteristics, disease activity, and functional status of a Chinese cohort of SpA patients who were re-classified into ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients fulfilling the modified New York (MNY) criteria, those with undifferentiated SpA (USpA) fulfilling the European Spondyloarthropathy Study Group (ESSG) classification criteria only (USpA/ESSG) and those who fulfill Assessment of SpondyloArthritis International Society (ASAS) only (USpA/ASAS). Disease activity was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), severity of morning stiffness, patient global assessment, and C-reactive protein. Functional status was evaluated by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), modified Schober index, and dimension of chest expansion. One hundred and twenty-eight patients with disease duration of 16.3 ± 10.4 years were recruited. Patients in USpA/ESSG and USpA/ASAS were significantly younger (p = 0.01), had shorter disease duration (p < 0.01), and lower BASFI (p = 0.03) than established AS patients. All three groups have active disease with comparable BASDAI >3. BASFI correlated inversely with dimension of chest expansion and negatively modified Schober index in AS patients (p < 0.01) and modestly with BASDAI (r = 0.25, p < 0.01). BASFI correlated moderately with BASDAI in USpA/ESSG (r = 0.61, p < 0.01) but not with chest expansion or modified Schober index. Compared with established AS patients recognized by MNY criteria, patients fulfilling USpA defined by ESSG or ASAS criteria had earlier disease, as active disease and less irreversible functional deficit. PMID:21336823

  18. Synthesis of convex hexoctahedral palladium@gold core-shell nanocrystals with {431} high-index facets with remarkable electrochemiluminescence activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Niu, Wenxin; Gao, Wenyue; Qi, Liming; Lai, Jianping; Zhao, Jianming; Xu, Guobao

    2014-06-24

    Convex hexoctahedral nanocrystals have been synthesized through fast growth kinetics and the use of cetylpyridinium chloride as a capping agent. Monodisperse convex hexoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals with {431} high-index facets are obtained at high reaction rates by using high concentrations of ascorbic acid in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride. In contrast, octahedral nanocrystals with {111} low-index facets and their {100}-truncated counterparts are formed at low ascorbic acid concentrations. The substitute of cetylpyridinium chloride with cetyltrimethylammonium chloride leads to the generation of concave trisoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals with {331} high-index facets, indicating that cetylpyridinium plays an important role in the formation of convex hexoctahedral nanocrystals. The as-prepared convex hexoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals exhibit remarkable catalytic performances toward electrochemiluminescence compared with truncated octahedral and concave trisoctahedral Pd@Au core-shell nanocrystals. PMID:24878293

  19. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  20. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  1. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  2. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model…

  3. California Nitrogen Index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California N Index User Manual is designed to help you become accustomed to the software environment in which the N Index runs. This manual will use an example scenario to demonstrate how to use the N Index to assess nitrogen losses. The objective of this theoretical example is to guide you towa...

  4. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  6. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Index to NASA Tech Briefs lists the technological innovations derived from the U.S. space program and published during the period January through December 1968. A new five year cycle of cumulative indexes begins with this index. The main section is arranged in six categories: Electrical (Electronic); Physical Sciences (Energy Sources); Materials (Chemistry); Life Sciences; Mechanical; and Computer Programs.

  7. Fatigue in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: prevalence and relationships with disease-specific variables, psychological status, and sleep disturbance.

    PubMed

    Aissaoui, N; Rostom, S; Hakkou, J; Berrada Ghziouel, K; Bahiri, R; Abouqal, R; Hajjaj-Hassouni, N

    2012-07-01

    This study aims to evaluate the frequency of fatigue in Moroccan patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and its relationships with disease-specific variables, psychological status, and sleep disturbance. A cross-sectional study included patients fulfilled the modified New York classification criteria for ankylosing spondylitis. To assess fatigue, the first item of Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) and the multidimensional assessment of fatigue (MAF) was used. The evaluation included the activity of the disease (BASDAI), global well-being (Bath ankylosing spondylitis global index), functional status (Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index), metrologic measurements (Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrological index), and visual analog scale of axial or joint pain. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein were measured. To assess psychological status, the hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) was used. Sleep disturbance was assessed by the fourth item of Hamilton anxiety scale. One hundred and ten patients were included, of average age 38.0 years ± 12.6. In our data, 66.4% experienced severe fatigue (BASDAI fatigue ≥ 5). The mean total score of MAF was 26 ± 12.77. The disease-specific variables contributed significantly with both BASDAI fatigue and MAF as dependent variables, accounting for 71.3 and 65.6% of the variance, respectively. The contribution of the depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance were 24.9, 18.4 and 15.4%, respectively. This study state the importance of fatigue in AS patients. Even though disease activity was the most powerful predictor of fatigue, the effects of psychogenic factors and sleep disturbance, should be taken into consideration in the management of AS. PMID:21516494

  8. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. PMID:22614913

  9. Improving the Measurement of Disease Activity for Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: Validation of an Electronic Version of the Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3

    PubMed Central

    Chua, Ruthie M.; Mecchella, John N.; Zbehlik, Alicia J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. An electronic Routine Assessment of Patient Index Data 3 (RAPID 3) was incorporated into our electronic health records (EHRs) which did not replicate the visual presentation of the paper version. This study validated the electronic RAPID 3 compared to the paper version. Methods. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients (n = 50) completed both the electronic RAPID 3 online in the week prior to and a paper version on the day of their clinic visit. Results. Paired t-test showed no significant difference (p value = 0.46) between versions. Conclusion. The electronic version of RAPID 3 is valid and can be easily integrated in care of RA patients. PMID:26633974

  10. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  11. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  12. HUMAN USE INDEX (FUTURE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  13. HUMAN USE INDEX

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human land uses may have major impacts on ecosystems, affecting biodiversity, habitat, air and water quality. The human use index (also known as U-index) is the percentage of human land use in an area, including agriculture, urban and suburban development, and mining. Low values ...

  14. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  15. Drought Frequency Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J.; Valdes, J. B.

    2003-04-01

    Droughts are related with prolonged time periods during moisture is significantly below normal situation. Drought indexes try to scale the main drought features based on similar definitions. The Standard Precipitation Index (SPI) is a well-known index, which for a given aggregation-time measures the deviation from the normality of the precipitation. One of the SPI weak points in the representation of drought phenomenon is that drought duration should be analyzed by using different aggregation-times. In this work, a new index is presented, which simultaneously characterize droughts based on the deviation from the normal precipitation regime and the drought persistence, both from the statistical point of view. The new index does not require aggregation at different time-lengths. Instead droughts are treated as multivariate events, whose dimensionality depends on the duration. Probabilistic events with different dimensionalities are compared on a common dimension of interest. In this case the dimension chosen is the mean frequency of recurrence. The derived index, named Drought Frequency Index (DFI) may be used to characterize historical droughts or current situation. It can be apply not only over precipitation but also over flows or other hydroclimatic variables. The new index was applied to several places in USA and Spain both for precipitation and flow historical sequences, and compared with SPI. The DFI allows the representation of the main drought characteristics in a single value, based on the stochastic feature of the phenomenon, and scaled on the mean frequency of recurrence.

  16. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  17. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  18. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  19. Simulation Of Fluctuating Geomagnetic Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vedder, John; Tabor, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical model produces synthetic geomagnetic-index (ap) data including short-term fluctuations like those of real ap data. Measures geomagnetic activity computed from measurements of fluctuations in geomagnetic field taken at 12 high-latitude stations every 3 hours. Used in studies of interactions between solar wind and Earth, especially in studies of effect of geomagnetic field upon heating of thermosphere by impacts of energetic charged solar-wind particles.

  20. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. PMID:26416708

  1. [Impact factor and/or Hirsch index?].

    PubMed

    Gracza, Tünde; Somoskövi, Istvánné

    2007-05-01

    Is the best measure of a scientist's worth the total number of his or her published papers? For many years Institute for Scientific Information has been publishing the lists of impact factors providing quantitative tools for ranking scientists. The impact factor was devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. Impact factors are calculated each year by the Institute for Scientific Information for those journals which it indexes, and are published in Journal Citation Reports. These measures apply only to journals, not individual articles or individual scientists. For the impact factor of individual scientists, there exists the h-index or Hirsch number. The Hirsch-index (h-index) has recently been defined by Hirsch as a new method for measuring the scientific activity. If a scientist has published n articles which all have been cited at least n times, then he will have a h-index of n . The h-index seeks to describe the impact of individual researchers, rather than journals. The h-index is the result of the balance between the number of publications and the number of citations per publication. H-index: Impact of Individual Scientists. H-index or/and impact factor - it is the question of the future. PMID:17468068

  2. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Micallef, Malgre C.; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C.; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  3. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  4. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  5. Post-Outburst Observations of the Magnetically Active Pulsar J1846-0258: A New Braking Index, Increased Timing Noise, and Radiative Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    The approx.800yr-old pulsar J1846-0258 is a unique transition object between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars: though behaving like a rotation-powered pulsar most of the time, in 2006 it exhibited a distinctly magnetar-like outburst accompanied by a large glitch. Here we present X-ray timing observations taken with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer over a 2.2-yr period after the X-ray outburst and glitch had recovered. We observe that the braking index of the pulsar, previously measured to be n = 2.65+/-0.01, is now n = 2.16+/-0.13, a decrease of 18+/-5%. We also note a persistent increase in the timing noise relative to the pre-outburst level. Despite the timing changes, a 2009 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation shows that the X-ray flux and spectrum of the pulsar and its wind nebula are consistent with the quiescent levels observed in 2000. Subject headings: pulsars: general pulsars: individual (PSR J1846-0258) supernovae: individual (Kes 75 X-rays: stars)

  6. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  7. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  8. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  9. The relationship between the activates of antioxidant enzymes in red blood cells and body mass index in Iranian type 2 diabetes and healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder characterized by increased production of free radicals and oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione peroxide (GSH-PX) in type 2 diabetic patients compared with healthy subjects. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 100 type 2 diabetic patients and 100 healthy controls. Total antioxidant capacity and fasting serum levels of SOD, GR, and GSH-Px were measured. All data were analyzed using SPSS software compatible with Microsoft Windows. Results The activity levels of SOD were lower in diabetic patients (111.93 ± 354.99 U/g Hb) than in healthy controls (1158.53 ± 381.21 U/g Hb), but this was not significant. Activity levels of GSH-PX and GR in diabetics (62.33 ± 36.29 and 7.17 ± 5.51 U/g Hb, respectively) were higher than in controls (24.62 ± 11.2 and 3.16 ± 2.95 U/g Hb, respectively). The statistical difference in enzyme activity of both GSH-Px and GR was significant (P <0.05). Conclusion The increasing production of free radicals and changes in activity levels of antioxidant enzymes in order to scavenge free radicals and/or the effect of diabetes on the activity levels of antioxidant enzymes has an important effect on diabetic complications and insulin resistance. Evaluation of the levels of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant factors in patients at different stages of the disease, and pharmaceutical and nutritional interventions, can be helpful in reducing oxidative stress in type 2 diabetic patients. There were positive relationship between BMI and the activity of antioxidant enzymes including SOD, GR and GPX in both groups. PMID:23497678

  10. FECAL CALPROTECTIN AND GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) PERMEABILITY CORRELATE WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX, AND HISTOLOGIC, ENDOSCOPIC, AND RADIOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN DISEASE (CD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal calprotectin and permeability are noninvasive measures of GI inflammation and damage, respectively. However, there are scant data as to the possible association between the tests and CD disease activity in children. We hypothesized that levels of fecal calprotectin and permeability would corre...

  11. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538

  12. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  13. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  14. Sustainability index for Taipei

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Y.-J. . E-mail: yungjaanlee@pchome.com.tw; Huang Chingming . E-mail: michael@everwin.com.tw

    2007-08-15

    Sustainability indicators are an effective means of determining whether a city is moving towards sustainable development (SD). After considering the characteristics of Taipei, Taiwan, discussions with experts, scholars and government departments and an exhaustive literature review, this study selected 51 sustainability indicators corresponding to the socio-economic characteristic of Taipei City. Such indicators should be regarded as a basis for assessing SD in Taipei City. The 51 indicators are classified into economic, social, environmental and institutional dimensions. Furthermore, statistical data is adopted to identify the trend of SD from 1994 to 2004. Moreover, the sustainability index is calculated for the four dimensions and for Taipei as a whole. Analysis results demonstrate that social and environmental indicators are moving towards SD, while economic and institutional dimensions are performing relatively poorly. However, since 2002, the economic sustainability index has gradually moved towards SD. Overall, the Taipei sustainability index indicates a gradual trend towards sustainable development during the past 11 years.

  15. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  16. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each, a ``Trust,'' and collectively, the ``Trusts''), IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ Advisors'') and...

  17. Index of endemicity

    PubMed Central

    Swaroop, Satya

    1957-01-01

    The author discusses the difficulties involved in defining the term “endemicity”, and suggests a new approach to the problem—namely, the establishment of indices of endemicity, based on such data as are usually collected by national health administrations (mortality and morbidity rates, spleen-rates, case incidence in seaports, etc.). Examples are given of the calculation of the endemicity index for a number of diseases from different types of data obtained from various countries. An important advantage of the endemicity index is that it provides an easy means of studying the geographical pattern of endemic foci of disease. PMID:13479767

  18. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis in patients with ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Dogru, Atalay; Balkarli, Ayse; Cetin, Gozde Yildirim; Neselioglu, Salim; Erel, Ozcan; Tunc, Sevket Ercan; Sahin, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory disease. In many inflammatory diseases, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines is associated with an increase in oxidative stress mediators. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis is a marker for oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to examine the dynamic thiol/disulfide homeostasis in AS. Sixty-nine patients with AS and 60 age- and sex-matched controls were included in the study. The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were used to determine the disease activity. Native thiol, total thiol, and disulfide levels were measured with a novel automated method recently described by Erel and Neselioglu. The aforementioned method is also optionally manual spectrophotometric assay. The total thiol levels were significantly lower in the AS group compared with the control group (p = 0.03). When the patients were divided into active (n = 35) and inactive (n = 34) subgroups using BASDAI scores, the native plasma thiol and total thiol levels were significantly lower in the active AS patients compared to the inactive AS patients (p = 0.02, p = 0.03 respectively). There was a negative correlation between the plasma native thiol levels and VAS, BASDAI scores. Thiol/disulfide homeostasis may be used for elucidating the effects of oxidative stress in AS. Understanding the role of thiol/disulfide homeostasis in AS might provide new therapeutic intervention strategies for patients.

  19. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Stephanie A.; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Katherine; Billette, Jean-Michel; Sawada, Michael; Ali, Amira; Tremblay, Mark S.; Prud’homme, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA) and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003–2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43) and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20). Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89). In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed. PMID:22073022

  20. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  1. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  2. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  3. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  4. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  5. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption. PMID:25204084

  6. Biliary excretion of acetaminophen-glutathione as an index of toxic activation of acetaminophen: effect of chemicals that alter acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Madhu, C.; Gregus, Z.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    Acetaminophen (AA) is converted, presumably by cytochrome P-450, to an electrophile which is conjugated with glutathione (GS). AA-GS is excreted into bile, therefore the biliary excretion rate of AA-GS may reflect the rate of activation of AA in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of agents capable of altering the activation of AA including cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors, cobaltous chloride which decreases the amount of P-450, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and naproxen), antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid palmitate) and other chemicals known to decrease AA hepatotoxicity (dimethylsulfoxide and cysteamine), on the biliary excretion of AA-GS was studied in hamsters, the species most sensitive to AA-induced hepatotoxicity. The biliary excretion of AA-GS increased linearly up to 1 mmol/kg of AA i.v., but at higher dosages exhibited saturation kinetics. Dosages above 0.5 mmol/kg lowered hepatic GS concentration. Of the cytochrome P-450 inducers, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, increased the biliary excretion of AA-GS (2.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively) whereas ethanol and isoniazid did not affect it, and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile tended to decrease it (43%). Phenobarbital tended to increase the biliary excretion of AA-GS, but not in a statistically significant manner. Several cytochrome P-450 inhibitors (metyrapone, 8-methoxypsoralen, 2-(4,6-dichloro-biphenyloxy) ethylamine, alpha-naphthoflavone and cimetidine) decreased the biliary excretion of AA-GS, although SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide did not. Cobaltous chloride decreased dramatically the biliary excretion of AA-GS.

  7. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Davy, Brenda M.; Myers, Emily A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  8. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  9. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  10. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  11. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  12. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  13. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  14. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  15. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  16. The great contribution: Index Medicus, Index-Catalogue, and IndexCat

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Stephen J.; Gallagher, Patricia E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The systematic indexing of medical literature by the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office (now the National Library of Medicine) has been called “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” In the 1870s, the library launched two indexes: the Index Medicus and the Index-Catalogue of the Library of the Surgeon-General's Office. Index Medicus is better remembered today as the forerunner of MEDLINE, but Index Medicus began as the junior partner of what the library saw as its major publication, the Index-Catalogue. However, the Index-Catalogue had been largely overlooked by many medical librarians until 2004, when the National Library of Medicine released IndexCat, the online version of Index-Catalogue. Access to this huge amount of material raised new questions: What was the coverage of the Index-Catalogue? How did it compare and overlap with the Index Medicus? Method: Over 1,000 randomly generated Index Medicus citations were cross-referenced in IndexCat. Results: Inclusion, form, content, authority control, and subject headings were evaluated, revealing that the relationship between the two publications was neither simple nor static through time. In addition, the authors found interesting anomalies that shed light on how medical literature was selected and indexed in “America's greatest contribution to medical knowledge.” PMID:19404501

  17. Association Study of IL-12B Polymorphisms Susceptibility with Ankylosing Spondylitis in Mainland Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li; Yang, Ting; Ding, Ning; Hu, Yanting; Cai, Guoqi; Wang, Li; Xin, Lihong; Xia, Qing; Li, Xiaona; Xu, Shengqian; Xu, Jianhua; Yang, Xiao; Zou, Yanfeng; Pan, Faming

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of IL-12B gene is a susceptibility factor to Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in mainland Han Chinese population. Method Eight single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs10045431, rs11167764, rs3212227, rs6556412, rs6556416, rs6871626, rs6887695 and rs7709212) in the IL-12B gene were genotyped by iMLDR Assay technology in 400 patients [96% (384/400) HLA-B27(+)] and 395 geographically and ethnically matched healthy controls in mainland Han Chinese population. The correlation between IL-12B genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI) were tested. Results The significant difference was found in genotype distribution between AS and healthy controls (χ2 = 6.942, P-value = 0.031) of the SNP rs6871626. Furthermore, significant evidence was also detected under the recessive model for minor allele A. The AA genotype carrier had 1.830 fold risk compared with C allele carrier (with CC and AC genotypes) [OR (95% CI) = 1.830 (1.131-2.961), P-value = 0.014]. Nevertheless, the difference was no longer significant after Bonferroni correction. Subset analysis on cases with HLA-B27(+) did find the same results. Three genotypic groups (AA, CC and CA) in rs6871626 site was highly associated with the BASDAI and BASFI (P-value = 0.012 and P-value = 0.023, respectively), after adjustment for effect of age, sex, and disease duration, the P-value was 0.031 and 0.041, respectively. The AA genotype of rs6871626 was also significantly correlated with an increased BASDAI and BASFI compared to the AC and CC genotypes in AS patients. Conclusion Our findings suggest that rs6871626 may be associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASDAI, BASFI) in mainland Han Chinese population. PMID:26103568

  18. Developing a Vocational Index for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Existing methods of indexing the vocational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have made significant contributions to research. Nonetheless, they are limited by problems with sensitivity and reliability. We developed an index of vocational and educational outcomes that captures the full range of activities experienced by…

  19. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  20. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  1. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  2. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  3. Potential vorticity intrusion index and climate variability of surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, M.

    2003-04-01

    This paper proposes a potential vorticity intrusion index (denoted as PVI) as an alternative diagnostic tool to study the observed climate variability/trend of the surface temperature. The PVI index is defined as the percentage area of upper lever PV intrusion in the extratropics at any given time. Abundance (shortage) of extreme cold surface air temperature episodes in high latitudes coincides with a high (low) PVI index. The interannual variability of the PVI index exhibits a strong QBO- like signal. The high (low) PVI index prevails when the equatorial zonal mean zonal wind at 50 hPa is easterly (westerly). The probability distribution map of PV intrusion activities shows a shift of the preferred regions of frontogenesis from the oceans to the continents when the PVI index is high. This explains directly why more extreme cold events are observed over the northern Eurasian and Northern America continents when the PVI index is high or the QBO is in the easterly phase.

  4. Potential vorticity intrusion index and climate variability of surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Ming

    2003-02-01

    This paper proposes a potential vorticity intrusion index (denoted as PVI) as an alternative diagnostic tool to study the observed climate variability/trend of the surface temperature. The PVI index measures the percentage area of upper lever PV intrusion in the extratropics at any given time. More (fewer) outbreaks of extreme cold surface air temperature in high latitudes take place when the PVI index is high (low). The interannual variability of the PVI index exhibits a strong QBO- like signal. The high (low) PVI index prevails when the equatorial zonal mean zonal wind at 50 hPa is easterly (westerly). The probability distribution map of PV intrusion activities shows a shift of the preferred regions of frontogenesis from the oceans to the continents when the PVI index is high. This explains directly why more extreme cold events are observed over the northern Eurasian and Northern America continents when the PVI index is high, or the QBO is in the easterly phase.

  5. SCARF SOCIAL FUNCTIONING INDEX

    PubMed Central

    Padmavathi, R.; Thara, R.; Srinivasan, Latha; Kumar, Shuba

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments measuring social functioning have been developed in the last four decades, as a result of the increasing interest in community care of the chronic mentally ill. SCARF Social Functioning Index (SSFI) was developed to meet the pressing need for an instrument which was easy to administer and which could be used by all mental health professionals. The SSFI comprises four main sections: self concern, occupational role, role in the family and other social roles. Each section has several subsections covering different areas of social functioning. Validity and reliability have been established for a group of normals, patients suffering from schizophrenia and from Hansen's disease. Internal consistencies of these factors were high Factor analysis derived four main factors, which included nearly all items of the SSFI. This paper reports on the development and standardization of the instrument. PMID:21743742

  6. Disease Severity Index

    PubMed Central

    Maloney, Clifford J.

    1980-01-01

    Workers studying several diseases have devised severity levels under the term “disease staging” to facilitate both research on the disease and the choice of treatment for individual patients. These categories are usually ad hoc, and hence neither widely accepted nor susceptable to improvement with increasing knowledge. Other workers have developed quantitative assays of the sensitivity of biological organisms under the term bioassay. The present paper applies an adaptation of bioassay to the assessment of the degree of sickness severity of individual patients. In practice using the index requires only a simple table look-up. The feasibility and suitability of the technique were tested on records of 908 metastatic breast cancer patients which happened to be available. Study of other data is highly desirable.

  7. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  8. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  9. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  10. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  11. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported. PMID:27528524

  12. Efficient Index for Handwritten Text

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamel, Ibrahim

    This paper deals with one of the new emerging multimedia data types, namely, handwritten cursive text. The paper presents two indexing methods for searching a collection of cursive handwriting. The first index, word-level index, treats word as pictogram and uses global features for retrieval. The word-level index is suitable for large collection of cursive text. While the second one, called stroke-level index, treats the word as a set of strokes. The stroke-level index is more accurate, but more costly than the word level index. Each word (or stroke) can be described with a set of features and, thus, can be stored as points in the feature space. The Karhunen-Loeve transform is then used to minimize the number of features used (data dimensionality) and thus the index size. Feature vectors are stored in an R-tree. We implemented both indexes and carried many simulation experiments to measure the effectiveness and the cost of the search algorithm. The proposed indexes achieve substantial saving in the search time over the sequential search. Moreover, the proposed indexes improve the matching rate up to 46% over the sequential search.

  13. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  14. Treatment efficacy of etanercept and MTX combination therapy for ankylosing spondylitis hip joint lesion in Chinese population.

    PubMed

    Lian, Fan; Yang, Xiuyan; Liang, Liuqin; Xu, Hanshi; Zhan, Zhongping; Qiu, Qian; Ye, Yujin

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the efficacy of etanercept and MTX (methotrexate) combination therapy in Chinese patients with ankylosing spondylitis hip joint lesion, the possible courses and maintenance protocol, altogether 97 ankylosing spondylitis patients fulfilling the modified New York criteria with hip joint lesion were enrolled in a 12-month trial treated with combined etanercept and MTX. All these patients were required to be poor responders to SSZ (Sulfasalazine) or MTX therapy for 6 consecutive months or the longer. Etanercept was administered subcutaneously twice a week at a fixed dosage of 25 mg for the first six months, followed by 25 mg once a week in patients with good control of both symptoms and radiological progression, or twice a week for another six months in patients with BASDAI > or = 4. Combined MTX was administered intravenously once a week at the dosage of 15 mg. Demographics, clinical and laboratory features, physical function and quality of life using the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), Harris hip score, and radiological assessment using the BASRI-hip index were recorded. Most patients achieved pain release at the end point of assessment. Significant improvement in Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P < 0.05), Bath AS Functional Activity Index (BASFI) (P < 0.05), and Harris hip score (P < 0.05) was demonstrated. Radiographic progression was recorded as no exacerbation or alleviated. Larger interval between two etanercept administrations would provide similar advantages to standard method and possibly less adverse events if MTX was combined. Etanercept and MTX combination therapy was beneficial to ankylosing spondylitis patients with hip joint lesion, and staged dosage deduction in the long term proved to be effective as well as adverse event preventing. PMID:21387110

  15. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric

  16. The use of the reverse shock index to identify high-risk trauma patients in addition to the criteria for trauma team activation: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The presentation of decrease blood pressure with tachycardia is usually an indicator of significant blood loss. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the haemodynamic status of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI<1) may indicate haemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess whether RSI<1 can help to identify high-risk patients with potential shock and poor outcome, even though these patients do not yet meet the criteria for multidisciplinary trauma team activation (TTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 106 patients obtained from the trauma registry system of a level I trauma centre for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Patients for whom a trauma team was not activated (regular patients) and who had RSI<1 were compared with regular patients with RSI≥1. The ORs of the associated conditions and injuries were calculated with 95% CIs. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality. Results Among regular patients with RSI<1, significantly more patients had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.62; p<0.001) and the mortality rate was also higher (2.1% vs 0.5%; OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.10 to 7.08; p<0.001) than in regular patients with RSI≥1. The intensive care unit length of stay was longer in regular patients with RSI<1 than in regular patients with RSI≥1. Conclusions Among patients who did not reach the criteria for TTA, RSI<1 indicates a potentially worse outcome and a requirement for more attention and aggressive care in the emergency department. PMID:27329440

  17. Association between the ankle–brachial index, intermittent claudication, and physical activity level: what is the influence on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Nardi Gomes, Tiago José; Martins de Albuquerque, Isabella; de Moraes Costa, Patrícia; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; de Moraes Costa, Gabriela; da Costa Vieira, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease have a poor functional capacity; however, the influence of association among intermittent claudication (IC), abnormal ankle–brachial index (ABI), and physical activity level on functional capacity of these patients has not been fully studied. Objective The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between the ABI, IC, and physical activity level, and the influence of these variables on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease seen in a reference cardiology outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil. The secondary objective was to assess the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in this sample of patients. Patients and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 162 consecutive patients were evaluated and classified into three groups according to their ABI: normal ABI (n=104, values between 1.00 and 1.40); borderline PAD (n=23, values between 0.91 and 1.00); and patients with PAD (n=35, ≤0.90). The presence of IC was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and functional capacity was assessed by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results The prevalence of PAD was 21.6% in the total sample. The 6MWD showed strong correlation with the absence of IC (r=0.785; P<0.001), moderate correlation with age (r=−0.347; P<0.001), and weak correlations with IPAQ scores (r=0.164; P=0.038) and ABI (r=0.216; P=0.006). Age, ABI, and absence of IC were independently associated with the outcome (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusion The current study demonstrates that 6MWD is associated with IPAQ scores, ABI, and absence of IC. Age, ABI and absence of IC were independently associated with functional capacity in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease

  18. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  19. NASA Uniform Files Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This handbook is a guide for the use of all personnel engaged in handling NASA files. It is issued in accordance with the regulations of the National Archives and Records Administration, in the Code of Federal Regulations Title 36, Part 1224, Files Management; and the Federal Information Resources Management Regulation, Subpart 201-45.108, Files Management. It is intended to provide a standardized classification and filing scheme to achieve maximum uniformity and ease in maintaining and using agency records. It is a framework for consistent organization of information in an arrangement that will be useful to current and future researchers. The NASA Uniform Files Index coding structure is composed of the subject classification table used for NASA management directives and the subject groups in the NASA scientific and technical information system. It is designed to correlate files throughout NASA and it is anticipated that it may be useful with automated filing systems. It is expected that in the conversion of current files to this arrangement it will be necessary to add tertiary subjects and make further subdivisions under the existing categories. Established primary and secondary subject categories may not be changed arbitrarily. Proposals for additional subject categories of NASA-wide applicability, and suggestions for improvement in this handbook, should be addressed to the Records Program Manager at the pertinent installation who will forward it to the NASA Records Management Office, Code NTR, for approval. This handbook is issued in loose-leaf form and will be revised by page changes.

  20. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a)...

  1. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a)...

  2. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a)...

  3. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND THORIUM PROCESSING SITES Reimbursement Criteria § 765.12 Inflation index adjustment procedures. (a)...

  5. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  6. Computer aided indexing at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    The application of computer technology to the construction of the NASA Thesaurus and in NASA Lexical Dictionary development is discussed in a brief overview. Consideration is given to the printed and online versions of the Thesaurus, retrospective indexing, the NASA RECON frequency command, demand indexing, lists of terms by category, and the STAR and IAA annual subject indexes. The evolution of computer methods in the Lexical Dictionary program is traced, from DOD and DOE subject switching to LCSH machine-aided indexing and current techniques for handling natural language (e.g., the elimination of verbs to facilitate breakdown of sentences into words and phrases).

  7. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  8. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    PubMed

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277

  9. EQ Index, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    To assess the status of our environmental quality and determine if we are winning or losing the campaign to save our environment, the National Wildlife Federation has developed this "EQ" kit. Multi-media materials help measure one's attitudes and activities in the areas of air, water, forests, wildlife, minerals, and soil conservation. Living…

  10. A revised accumulated cyclone energy index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jia-Yuh; Chou, Chia; Chiu, Ping-Gin

    2009-07-01

    A new estimate of the wind energy associated with a tropical cyclone (TC), along with the revised accumulated cyclone energy (RACE) index, is introduced in this paper. In contrast to the conventional means employed in computing the ACE index, in which the wind energy is measured at the radius of maximum wind, the new estimate considers the mean wind energy averaged over a circular area based on the modified Rankine vortex structure. An examination of the seasonal TC activity using the JTWC best-track records over the western North Pacific suggests that, as long as there is a strong variability in TC activity (characterized by a substantial year-to-year variability in the RACE/ACE time series), employing a more precise estimate of the cyclone wind energy is not just physically reasonable, it can also be practically useful.

  11. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  12. Magazine Index: Popular Literature Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slade, Rod

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of Magazine Index (MI) which is now available on-line through the Dialog system. Features of MI include wide coverage of 372 general interest periodicals, cover to cover indexing, several access methods, and two name authority files. (JPF)

  13. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  14. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  15. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  16. INDEXABILITY AND OPTIMAL INDEX POLICIES FOR A CLASS OF REINITIALISING RESTLESS BANDITS

    PubMed Central

    Villar, Sofía S.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by a class of Partially Observable Markov Decision Processes with application in surveillance systems in which a set of imperfectly observed state processes is to be inferred from a subset of available observations through a Bayesian approach, we formulate and analyze a special family of multi-armed restless bandit problems. We consider the problem of finding an optimal policy for observing the processes that maximizes the total expected net rewards over an infinite time horizon subject to the resource availability. From the Lagrangian relaxation of the original problem, an index policy can be derived, as long as the existence of the Whittle index is ensured. We demonstrate that such a class of reinitializing bandits in which the projects’ state deteriorates while active and resets to its initial state when passive until its completion possesses the structural property of indexability and we further show how to compute the index in closed form. In general, the Whittle index rule for restless bandit problems does not achieve optimality. However, we show that the proposed Whittle index rule is optimal for the problem under study in the case of stochastically heterogenous arms under the expected total criterion, and it is further recovered by a simple tractable rule referred to as the 1-limited Round Robin rule. Moreover, we illustrate the significant suboptimality of other widely used heuristic: the Myopic index rule, by computing in closed form its suboptimality gap. We present numerical studies which illustrate for the more general instances the performance advantages of the Whittle index rule over other simple heuristics. PMID:27212781

  17. Index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following information was given for 1974: (1) abstracts of reports dealing with new technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, arranged by subjects: electronics/electrical, electronics/electrical systems, physical sciences, materials/chemistry, life sciences, mechanics, machines, equipment and tools, fabrication technology, and computer programs, (2) indexes for the above documents: subject, personal author, originating center.

  18. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  19. Price Indexes for Institutions of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael P.

    The need for a system of price indexes for colleges and universities is discussed. First, past efforts to develop price indexes are reviewed, dating back to 1952 and highlighting two specific indexes, the Higher Education Price Index (HEPI) and the Uniform Price Index Calculation System (UPICS). For the latter, the price indexes of direct costs…

  20. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  1. The nucleophilicity N index in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia

    2011-10-21

    The nucleophilicity N index (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 4615), the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, and the recently proposed inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻, (J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4957) have been checked toward (i) a series of single 5-substituted indoles for which rate constants are available, (ii) a series of para-substituted phenols, and for (iii) a series of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes which display concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. While all considered indices account well for the nucleophilic behavior of organic molecules having a single substitution, the nucleophilicity N index works better for more complex molecules. Unlike, the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, (R(2) = 0.71), and the inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻ (R(2) = 0.83), a very good correlation of the nucleophilicity N index of twelve 2-substituted-6-methoxy-bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes versus the activation energy associated with the nucleophilic attack on 1,1-dicyanoethylene is found (R(2) = 0.99). This comparative study allows to assert that the nucleophilicity N index is a measure of the nucleophilicity of complex organic molecules displaying concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. PMID:21842104

  2. L'index significant (The Pointed Index Finger).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calbris, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of a study of nonverbal communication, the various meanings attached to the pointed index finger are analyzed. The question is raised as to what extent the findings hold for cultures other than French. (AMH)

  3. Regional Hospital Input Price Indexes

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Schendler, Carol Ellen; Anderson, Gerard

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes the development of regional hospital input price indexes that is consistent with the general methodology used for the National Hospital Input Price Index. The feasibility of developing regional indexes was investigated because individuals inquired whether different regions experienced different rates of increase in hospital input prices. The regional indexes incorporate variations in cost-share weights (the amount an expense category contributes to total spending) associated with hospital type and location, and variations in the rate of input price increases for various regions. We found that between 1972 and 1979 none of the regional price indexes increased at average annual rates significantly different from the national rate. For the more recent period 1977 through 1979, the increase in one Census Region was significantly below the national rate. Further analyses indicated that variations in cost-share weights for various types of hospitals produced no substantial variations in the regional price indexes relative to the national index. We consider these findings preliminary because of limitations in the availability of current, relevant, and reliable data, especially for local area wage rate increases. PMID:10309557

  4. High refractive index photocurable resins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morford, Robert V.; Mercado, Ramil L.; Planje, Curtis E.; Flaim, Tony D.

    2005-04-01

    The performance of optoelectronic devices can be increased by incorporating a high refractive index layer into the system. This paper describes several potential high refractive index resin candidates. Our materials include the added advantages over other systems because the new materials are cationically photocurable and free flowing, have low shrinkage upon cure, have no (or little) volatile organic components, are applicable by a variety of methods (dip coating, roller coating, injection molding, or film casting), can be applied in a variety of thicknesses (10-100 m), are fast-curing, and possess robust physical properties. Particular attention focuses on the refractive index in the visible spectrum, light transmission, and formulation viscosity.

  5. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  6. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  7. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  8. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  9. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  10. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  11. A data fusion-based drought index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-03-01

    Drought and water stress monitoring plays an important role in the management of water resources, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. Here, a data fusion-based drought index (DFDI) has been developed and analyzed for three different locations of varying land use and climate regimes in Australia. The proposed index comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type. In deriving the proposed index, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were employed to first derive commonly used individual standardized drought indices (SDIs), which were then grouped using an advanced clustering method. Next, three different multivariate methods (principal component analysis, factor analysis, and independent component analysis) were utilized to aggregate the SDIs located within each group. For the two clusters in which the grouped SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables were aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of the different multivariate methods. Then, considering those two aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months (dry/wet months and active/non-active months), the proposed DFDI was developed. Finally, the symbolic regression method was used to derive mathematical equations for the proposed DFDI. The results presented here show that the proposed index has revealed new aspects in water stress monitoring which previous indices were not able to, by simultaneously considering both hydrometeorological and ecological concepts to define the real water stress of the study areas.

  12. Efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis: results of a randomised placebo-controlled trial (ABILITY-1)

    PubMed Central

    Sieper, Joachim; van der Heijde, Désirée; Dougados, Maxime; Mease, Philip J; Maksymowych, Walter P; Brown, Matthew A; Arora, Vipin; Pangan, Aileen L

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the efficacy and safety of adalimumab in patients with non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA). Methods Patients fulfilled Assessment of Spondyloarthritis international Society (ASAS) criteria for axial spondyloarthritis, had a Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) score of ≥ 4, total back pain score of ≥ 4 (10 cm visual analogue scale) and inadequate response, intolerance or contraindication to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); patients fulfilling modified New York criteria for ankylosing spondylitis were excluded. Patients were randomised to adalimumab (N=91) or placebo (N=94). The primary endpoint was the percentage of patients achieving ASAS40 at week 12. Efficacy assessments included BASDAI and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS). MRI was performed at baseline and week 12 and scored using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) index. Results Significantly more patients in the adalimumab group achieved ASAS40 at week 12 compared with patients in the placebo group (36% vs 15%, p<0.001). Significant clinical improvements based on other ASAS responses, ASDAS and BASDAI were also detected at week 12 with adalimumab treatment, as were improvements in quality of life measures. Inflammation in the spine and sacroiliac joints on MRI significantly decreased after 12 weeks of adalimumab treatment. Shorter disease duration, younger age, elevated baseline C-reactive protein or higher SPARCC MRI sacroiliac joint scores were associated with better week 12 responses to adalimumab. The safety profile was consistent with what is known for adalimumab in ankylosing spondylitis and other diseases. Conclusions In patients with nr-axSpA, adalimumab treatment resulted in effective control of disease activity, decreased inflammation and improved quality of life compared with placebo. Results from ABILITY-1 suggest that adalimumab has a positive benefit–risk profile

  13. Electronic evaluation for video commercials by impression index.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Hu, Sanqing; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals. PMID:24427225

  14. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ) the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. Information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Headers and Digests; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index; and Facility Index.

  15. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used. PMID:21647928

  16. Elevated Serum Levels of Soluble CD30 in Ankylosing Spondylitis Patients and Its Association with Disease Severity-Related Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rongfen; Sun, Wei; Chen, Yu; Su, Yuying; Wang, Chenqiong; Dong, Lingli

    2015-01-01

    Soluble CD30 (sCD30), a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, has been shown to be associated with various pathological conditions. This study was designed to measure the levels of serum sCD30 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and to evaluate the relationships between serum sCD30 levels and other disease severity-related indexes, including bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS), and bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI). Our results demonstrated significantly elevated sCD30 levels in AS patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) with mean values of 32.0 ± 12.2 and 24.9 ± 8.0 ng/mL, respectively (P** = 0.007), suggesting a potential role of sCD30 in the pathogenesis of AS. However, no significant correlations of sCD30 with BASDAI, ASDAS, or BASFI were detected in our study (P > 0.05). Therefore, sCD30 cannot be used as a reliable marker for reflecting disease activity and functional ability of AS patients. PMID:26273636

  17. Creatinine arm index as alternative for creatinine height index.

    PubMed

    Van Hoeyweghen, R J; De Leeuw, I H; Vandewoude, M F

    1992-10-01

    Nutritional assessment of elderly people is limited due to a lack of age-corrected standards. The objective of this study was to develop a new, more age-independent index for nutritional assessment by correcting the creatinine height index (CHI) for the age-induced changes in its variables. This might improve the differentiation between physiological reduction in muscle mass in elderly people and the changes induced by malnutrition. Seventy-four elderly and 100 young healthy volunteers were compared by anthropometric and biochemical-assessment variables. From the high correlation between total arm length and body length (r = 0.86; P less than 0.001) and the use of an alternative formula to calculate ideal body weight (IBW) from height and wrist circumference, a relatively age-independent estimate of IBW was determined. Creatinine arm index, as an adapted index of CHI, is proposed based on this age-independent IBW estimation and a specific creatinine coefficient for different age groups. PMID:1414958

  18. Spectral vegetation indexes and the remote sensing of biophysical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1992-01-01

    Combinations of remotely sensed data from different spectral bands have been combined into spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) and used to determine biophysical parameters. The characteristics of two-band SVIs made up of visible and near-infrared reflectances are examined. Two canopy reflectance models, a turbid media model and a geometrical model, are used to study the effects of different canopy structures on the measurement of leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically intercepted active radiation.

  19. 21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the index and content of an index listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Publication of the index and content of an index... MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the index and content of an index listing. (a) FDA will make the list of indexed...

  20. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the index of prices paid...

  1. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the index of prices paid...

  2. 21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the index and content of an index listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Publication of the index and content of an index... MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the index and content of an index listing. (a) FDA will make the list of indexed...

  3. 21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the index and content of an index listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Publication of the index and content of an index... MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the index and content of an index listing. (a) FDA will make the list of indexed...

  4. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the index of prices paid...

  5. 21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the index and content of an index listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Publication of the index and content of an index... MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the index and content of an index listing. (a) FDA will make the list of indexed...

  6. 21 CFR 516.157 - Publication of the index and content of an index listing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Publication of the index and content of an index... MINOR SPECIES Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species § 516.157 Publication of the index and content of an index listing. (a) FDA will make the list of indexed...

  7. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the index of prices paid...

  8. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers... § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related indices..., 1949, 1954, and 1956 (hereinafter referred to as section 301(a)) shall be the index of prices paid...

  9. Special Education Master Key and Index for Environmental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garowski, Robert; And Others

    Prepared for teachers working with disadvantaged students, this booklet contains keys and indexes for activities in the out-of-doors. It should be used in conjunction with field trip activity sheets and follow-up materials currently available through the Southeastern Pennsylvania Outdoor Education Center and described in the following documents:…

  10. Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox

    2003-09-08

    The Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of themore » crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "indexing" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of indexing. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits indexing to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.« less

  11. Index and Description of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    The tests described in this index are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…

  12. Optimal deployment of solar index

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, Matt

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal index for solar deployment. (author)

  13. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  14. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  15. 1988 Bulletin compilation and index

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information.

  16. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…

  17. An Incorrect Index of Skewness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettibone, Timothy J.; Diamond, James J.

    Checking of parametric assumptions is an often ignored step in the inferential process. A misconception regarding symmetry (one aspect of "robustness") is prevalent: that in nonsymmetric distributions the mean and median are always non-coincidental. It is to this fallacious point that the discussion is directed. A generally accepted index of…

  18. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-06-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).

  19. National Hospital Input Price Index

    PubMed Central

    Freeland, Mark S.; Anderson, Gerard; Schendler, Carol Ellen

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 percent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  20. Index to Computer Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.

    The computer-based programs and projects described in this index are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…

  1. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  2. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  3. Human development index: a critique.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, O H

    1991-09-01

    This discussion focuses on the advantages and disadvantages of constructing a summary measure of the multidimensional and dynamic concept of development. 2 indexes are referred to: the UN Development Programme; human development index (HDI) and the Physical Quality of Life Index (PQLI). PQLI weights equally life expectancy at 1 year, infant mortality, and literacy, regardless of the correlation of variables and the arbitrariness of the weights. PQLI also is assumed to measure the quantity of life, not the quality. HDI measures quantity and quality and includes life expectancy, literacy, and real GDP/capita, and may include a measure of human freedom. Objectivity is a major problem with any index. Assignment of weights is an example of arbitrariness without justification and the index is sensitive the weights assigned. There is a paradox between defending weights on the 1 hand and, if robustness of the index is assumed and components are correlated, then any single component could suffice. A more serious criticism of the HDI is the weighting of each rank order of the country by 1/3 and summing the weighted ranking of the 3 indicators. The flaw here is the problem of application of ratio scales on ordinal magnitudes. The rank correlation coefficient between real GDP/capita and life expectancy, real GDP/capita and literacy; and literacy and life expectancy are .90, .80, and .89, respectively. HDI is also correlated with GDP/capita (.87). Composite indexes are not sensitive to variability in components or the imbalance in components, e.g., a country with low means but high literacy. The goal should continue to be to develop a conceptually and methodologically acceptable summary measure. It is suggested that a necessary component is economic development. Countries may be ranked according to their level of economic development in order to measure their achievements in human development. A weighted distribution of income/capita is a better indicator of the economic well

  4. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  5. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  6. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  7. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  8. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  9. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  10. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  11. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  12. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  13. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  14. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  15. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  16. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  17. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  18. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  19. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  20. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  1. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  2. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  3. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  4. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  5. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  6. Empirical Examination of Fundamental Indexation in the German Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Max; Locarek-Junge, Hermann

    Index Funds, Exchange Traded Funds and Derivatives give investors easy access to well diversified index portfolios. These index-based investment products exhibit low fees, which make them an attractive alternative to actively managed funds. Against this background, a new class of stock indices has been established based on the concept of “Fundamental Indexation”. The selection and weighting of index constituents is conducted by means of fundamental criteria like total assets, book value or number of employees. This paper examines the performance of fundamental indices in the German equity market. For this purpose, a backtest of five fundamental indices is conducted over the last 20 years. Furthermore the index returns are analysed under the assumption of an efficient as well as an inefficient market. Index returns in efficient markets are explained by applying the three factor model for stock returns of Fama and French (J Financ Econ 33(1):3-56, 1993). The results show that the outperformance of fundamental indices is partly due to a higher risk exposure, particularly to companies with a low price to book ratio. By relaxing the assumption of market efficiency, a return drag of capitalisation weighted indices can be deduced. Given a mean-reverting movement of prices, a direct connection between market capitalisation and index weighting leads to inferior returns.

  7. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  8. Proposal for a dietary "phytochemical index".

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2004-01-01

    There is ample reason to believe that diets rich in phytochemicals provide protection from vascular diseases and many cancers; direct antioxidant activity as well as modulation of enzyme expression or hormone activity contribute to this effect. Phytochemicals derived from diverse foods presumably can interact additively and (possibly) synergistically; thus, the total dietary load of phytochemicals may have important implications for health. As a means of very roughly quantifying this load, a "phytochemical index" (PI) is proposed, defined as the percent of dietary calories derived from foods rich in phytochemicals. Calories derived from fruits, vegetables (excluding potatoes), legumes, whole grains, nuts, seeds, fruit/vegetable juices, soy products, wine, beer, and cider - and foods compounded therefrom - would be counted in this index. Partial credit could be given for antioxidant-rich extra virgin olive oil. Other added oils, refined sugars, refined grains, potato products, hard liquors, and animal products - regrettably, the chief sources of calories in typical Western diets - would be excluded. Although the PI would provide only a very rough approximation of the quantity or quality of phytochemical nutrition, it nonetheless could aid epidemiologists in exploring the health consequences of diets high in phytochemical-rich plant foods, and could also help clinical nutritionists in their efforts to improve the phytochemical nutrition of their clients. PMID:15488652

  9. NOTE: The specific uptake size index for quantifying radiopharmaceutical uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, John S.; Bolt, Livia; Stratford, Jennifer S.; Kemp, Paul M.

    2004-07-01

    Quantitative indices of radionuclide uptake in an object of interest provide a useful adjunct to qualitative interpretation in the diagnostic application of radionuclide imaging. This note describes a new measure of total uptake of an organ, the specific uptake size index (SUSI). It can either be related in absolute terms to the total activity injected or to the specific activity in a reference region. As it depends on the total activity in the object, the value obtained will not depend on the resolution of the imaging process, as is the case with some other similar quantitative indices. This has been demonstrated in an experiment using simulated images. The application of the index to quantification of dopamine receptor SPECT imaging and parathyroid thyroid subtraction planar scintigraphy is described. The index is considered to be of potential value in reducing variation in quantitative assessment of uptake in objects with applications in all areas of radionuclide imaging.

  10. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  11. Application of Artificial Neural Networks for estimating index floods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šimor, Viliam; Hlavčová, Kamila; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján

    2012-12-01

    This article presents an application of Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) and multiple regression models for estimating mean annual maximum discharge (index flood) at ungauged sites. Both approaches were tested for 145 small basins in Slovakia in areas ranging from 20 to 300 km2. Using the objective clustering method, the catchments were divided into ten homogeneous pooling groups; for each pooling group, mutually independent predictors (catchment characteristics) were selected for both models. The neural network was applied as a simple multilayer perceptron with one hidden layer and with a back propagation learning algorithm. Hyperbolic tangents were used as an activation function in the hidden layer. Estimating index floods by the multiple regression models were based on deriving relationships between the index floods and catchment predictors. The efficiencies of both approaches were tested by the Nash-Sutcliffe and a correlation coefficients. The results showed the comparative applicability of both models with slightly better results for the index floods achieved using the ANNs methodology.

  12. Liquefaction potential index: Field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential index (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The index is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.

  13. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  14. A Comparison of the Academic Index on CDROM with Four Wilson Indexes on the OPAC.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Betty

    1995-01-01

    Reports results of a comparison of the Academic Index on CD-ROM and four indexes on the OPAC (online public access catalog) at Brooklyn College (New York): General Science Index, Humanities Index, Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature, and Social Science Index. Coverage of the "New York Times" was found to be important. (LRW)

  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  16. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  18. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  19. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  20. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  1. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  2. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  6. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  9. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  10. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  13. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  14. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  15. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  16. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  17. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  18. Common catabolic enzyme patterns in a microplankton community of the Humboldt Current System off northern and central-south Chile: Malate dehydrogenase activity as an index of water-column metabolism in an oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2009-07-01

    An extensive subsurface oxygen minimum zone off northern and central-south Chile, associated with the Peru-Chile undercurrent, has important effects on the metabolism of the organisms inhabiting therein. Planktonic species deal with the hypoxic and anoxic environments by relying on biochemical as well as physiological processes related to their anaerobic metabolisms. Here we characterize, for the first time, the potential enzymatic activities involved in the aerobic and anaerobic energy production pathways of microplanktonic organisms (<100 μm), their relationship, and this relationship's association with the oxygen concentration and microplanktonic biomass in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas of the Humboldt Current System water column. Our results demonstrate significant potential enzymatic activity of catabolic pathways in the oxygen minimum zone. Malate dehydrogenase had the highest oxidizing activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) in the batch of catabolic enzymatic activities assayed, including potential pyruvate oxidoreductases activity, the electron transport system, and dissimilatory nitrate reductase. Malate dehydrogenase correlated significantly with almost all the enzymes analyzed within and above the oxygen minimum zone, and also with the oxygen concentration and microplankton biomass in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone off Iquique. These results suggest a possible specific pattern for the catabolic activity of the microplanktonic realm associated with the oxygen minimum zone spread along the Humboldt Current System off Chile. We hypothesize that malate dehydrogenase activity could be an appropriate indicator of microplankton catabolism in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas.

  19. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moody, Mally

    1992-01-01

    A series of four activities are presented to enhance students' abilities to appreciate and use trigonometry as a tool in problem solving. Activities cover problems applying the law of sines, the law of cosines, and matching equivalent trigonometric expressions. A teacher's guide, worksheets, and answers are provided. (MDH)

  20. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  1. Etanercept in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIU, YA-FEI; DONG, HUI; TU, SHENG-HAO; ZHENG, CUI-HONG; LIU, PEI-LIN; HU, YONG-HONG

    2014-01-01

    Etanercept (ETN) has been widely applied in the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). As the use of ETN has increased, associated adverse effects have been reported frequently. Previous meta-analyses have focused on comparing the differences in clinical outcomes between ETN and placebo (PBO). The present meta-analysis evaluated randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to compare the effects of ETN and a PBO or sulfasalazine (SSZ) in patients with AS. The study population characteristics and the main results, including the Assessment in AS 20% response (ASAS 20), the Bath AS Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath AS Functional Index (BASFI), were extracted. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) or weighted mean differences (MDs) were calculated using a fixed or random effects model. Fifteen randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 2,194 subjects were included. Compared with a PBO, ETN significantly improved the ASAS 20 [P<0.00001; OR, 8.25; 95% confidence interval (CI), 5.92–11.50], BASDAI (P<0.00001; MD, −18.81; 95% CI, −24.47 to −13.15) and BASFI (P<0.00001; standard MD, −0.68; 95% CI, −0.85 to −0.50). In comparison with SSZ, ETN significantly decreased the BASDAI (P<0.00001; MD, −2.40; 95% CI, −2.89 to −1.90) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (P<0.0001; MD, −8.01; 95% CI, −11.73 to −4.29). The most common adverse effect of ETN was an injection site reaction. This meta-analysis shows that ETN monotherapy is effective in improving physical function and reducing disease activity in patients with AS. Compared with SSZ, ETN markedly decreased the BASDAI and CRP levels. However, the efficacy of ETN in treating AS requires further evaluation by more RCTs in a larger population of patients prior to recommending ETN as a substitute for synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) monotherapy, or combinations of synthetic DMARDs. PMID:25289064

  2. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 index within the MDR model. Four microscopic equations of state are employed as input to two different computational codes that solve Einstein's equations numerically, either exactly or using the perturbative Hartle-Thorne method, to calculate the

  3. Stochastic modeling of the auroral electrojet index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anh, V. V.; Yong, J. M.; Yu, Z. G.

    2008-10-01

    Substorms are often identified by bursts of activities in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system characterized by the auroral electrojet (AE) index. The highly complex nature of substorm-related bursts suggests that a stochastic approach would be needed. Stochastic models including fractional Brownian motion, linear fractional stable motion, Fokker-Planck equation and Itô-type stochastic differential equation have been suggested to model the AE index. This paper provides a stochastic model for the AE in the form of fractional stochastic differential equation. The long memory of the AE time series is represented by a fractional derivative, while its bursty behavior is modeled by a Lévy noise with inverse Gaussian marginal distribution. The equation has the form of the classical Stokes-Boussinesq-Basset equation of motion for a spherical particle in a fluid with retarded viscosity. Parameter estimation and approximation schemes are detailed for the simulation of the equation. The fractional order of the equation conforms with the previous finding that the fluctuations of the magnetosphere-ionosphere system as seen in the AE reflect the fluctuations in the solar wind: they both possess the same extent of long-range dependence. The introduction of a fractional derivative term into the equation to capture the extent of long-range dependence together with an inverse Gaussian noise input describe the right amount of intermittency inherent in the AE data.

  4. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, July--December 1993. Volume 38, Index 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Digests and Headers; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  5. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--June 1995. Volume 41, Index 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. The information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; digests and headers; legal citations index; subject index; and facility index.

  6. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  7. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  8. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  9. Machine-Aided Indexing for NASA STI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John

    1987-01-01

    Describes the use of machine aided indexing as part of NASA's information systems. The discussion covers reasons for incorporating machine aided indexing, the lexical dictionary used, subject switching, natural language processing, benefits to the system, and possible future developments. (CLB)

  10. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  11. Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section Know Your Body Mass Index (BMI) Past Issues / Winter 2007 Table of ... healthy aging, it pays to understand your body mass index (BMI), a measure of body fat based ...

  12. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  13. Viscosity Index Improvers and Thickeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. L.; Kinker, B. G.

    The viscosity index of an oil or an oil formulation is an important physical parameter. Viscosity index improvers, VIIs, are comprised of five main classes of polymers: polymethylmethacrylates (PMAs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), hydrogenated poly(styrene-co-butadiene or isoprene) (HSD/SIP/HRIs), esterified polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (SPEs) and a combination of PMA/OCP systems. The chemistry, manufacture, dispersancy and utility of each class are described. The comparative functions, properties, thickening ability, dispersancy and degradation of VIIs are discussed. Permanent and temporary shear thinning of VII-thickened formulations are described and compared. The end-use performance and choice of VI improvers is discussed in terms of low- and high-temperature viscosities, journal bearing oil film thickness, fuel economy, oil consumption, high-temperature pumping efficiency and deposit control. Discussion of future developments concludes that VI improvers will evolve to meet new challenges of increased thermal-oxidative degradation from increased engine operating temperatures, different base stocks of either synthetic base oils or vegetable oil-based, together with alcohol- or vegetable oil-based fuels. VI improvers must also evolve to deal with higher levels of fuel dilution and new types of sludge and also enhanced low-temperature requirements.

  14. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  15. Do we need a geoelectric index?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holzworth, R.; Volland, H.

    1986-01-01

    The need for a geoelectric index (GI) measuring the global level of atmospheric electrical activity for a given time is assessed, and methods for defining a GI are compared. Current problems in atmospheric and space electrodynamics (the global circuit, solar-terrestrial coupling, lightning effects on the ionosphere/magnetosphere, and mesospheric generators), atmospheric chemistry (the stratospheric ozone cycle and atmospheric gravity waves), and meteorology (fog forecasting) are reviewed to illustrate the usefullness of a GI. Derivations of a GI from in situ electrical measurements and from ground or satellite remote sensing of source properties are described, and a system based on ground measurement of the intensity of the Schumann resonance lines (as proposed by Polk, 1982) is found to be the most practical, requiring as few as three (automatically operated) stations for global coverage.

  16. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  17. Educational Research: European Survey 1970, Volume V, Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borch-Jacobsen, Niels

    The second European Survey on Educational Research, carried out by the Secretariat of the Council of Europe in cooperation with member governments, covers the period 1969-1970. It contains, in four volumes, replies from 14 countries and reports on the activities of over 240 research institutes. This present index volume is in two parts. Part I…

  18. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  19. Parallel In Situ Indexing for Data-intensive Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jinoh; Abbasi, Hasan; Chacon, Luis; Docan, Ciprian; Klasky, Scott; Liu, Qing; Podhorszki, Norbert; Shoshani, Arie; Wu, Kesheng

    2011-09-09

    As computing power increases exponentially, vast amount of data is created by many scientific re- search activities. However, the bandwidth for storing the data to disks and reading the data from disks has been improving at a much slower pace. These two trends produce an ever-widening data access gap. Our work brings together two distinct technologies to address this data access issue: indexing and in situ processing. From decades of database research literature, we know that indexing is an effective way to address the data access issue, particularly for accessing relatively small fraction of data records. As data sets increase in sizes, more and more analysts need to use selective data access, which makes indexing an even more important for improving data access. The challenge is that most implementations of in- dexing technology are embedded in large database management systems (DBMS), but most scientific datasets are not managed by any DBMS. In this work, we choose to include indexes with the scientific data instead of requiring the data to be loaded into a DBMS. We use compressed bitmap indexes from the FastBit software which are known to be highly effective for query-intensive workloads common to scientific data analysis. To use the indexes, we need to build them first. The index building procedure needs to access the whole data set and may also require a significant amount of compute time. In this work, we adapt the in situ processing technology to generate the indexes, thus removing the need of read- ing data from disks and to build indexes in parallel. The in situ data processing system used is ADIOS, a middleware for high-performance I/O. Our experimental results show that the indexes can improve the data access time up to 200 times depending on the fraction of data selected, and using in situ data processing system can effectively reduce the time needed to create the indexes, up to 10 times with our in situ technique when using identical parallel settings.

  20. 45 CFR 1100.4 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Current index. 1100.4 Section 1100.4 Public... INFORMATION § 1100.4 Current index. Each agency shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which is...

  1. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  2. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  3. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  4. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  5. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  6. 45 CFR 1100.4 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Current index. 1100.4 Section 1100.4 Public... INFORMATION § 1100.4 Current index. Each agency shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which is...

  7. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  8. 45 CFR 1100.4 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Current index. 1100.4 Section 1100.4 Public... INFORMATION § 1100.4 Current index. Each agency shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which is...

  9. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  10. 45 CFR 1100.4 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Current index. 1100.4 Section 1100.4 Public... INFORMATION § 1100.4 Current index. The National Endowment for the Arts shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to...

  11. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  12. 45 CFR 1100.4 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Current index. 1100.4 Section 1100.4 Public... INFORMATION § 1100.4 Current index. Each agency shall maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which is...

  13. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  14. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  15. Education Price Index, Elementary-Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupuis, Y.

    This paper explains the education price index formulated in 1979 for Canada. It defines a price index as a statistical measure designed to show changes in the price of a commodity or a set of commodities with respect to time. The index calculated for the project covers salaries and wages, instructional supplies, school facilities, supplies and…

  16. One-Eyed King: Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Christine Tomaszuk

    1989-01-01

    Describes the mechanistic model of language on which automatic indexing is based, and examines the underlying assumptions of the model to demonstrate the ineffectiveness of this indexing. It is argued that theoretical research from the fields of linguistics, psychology, and philosophy need to be incorporated into automatic indexing to overcome…

  17. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 73 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Incorporated Standards Incorporation by reference. Pt. 73, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 73 Rules Apply to All Services, AM, FM, and TV,...

  18. Science Fair Project Index 1973-1980.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akron - Summit County Public Library, OH.

    This supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1973 through 1980. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  19. Science Fair Project Index 1981-1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Cynthia, Ed.; Crowe, Deborah, Ed.

    This second supplement to the "Science Fair Project Index 1960-1972" indexes science projects and experiments found in books and magazines published from 1981 through 1984. This index is intended for use by students in grade five through high school and by teachers who are involved in creating science fair projects. Emphasis is on actual projects,…

  20. 1 CFR 8.4 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2014-01-01 2012-01-01 true Indexes. 8.4 Section 8.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.4 Indexes. A subject index to the entire Code shall be annually revised and...

  1. 1 CFR 8.4 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indexes. 8.4 Section 8.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.4 Indexes. A subject index to the entire Code shall be annually revised and...

  2. 1 CFR 8.4 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indexes. 8.4 Section 8.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.4 Indexes. A subject index to the entire Code shall be annually revised and...

  3. 1 CFR 8.4 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2013-01-01 2012-01-01 true Indexes. 8.4 Section 8.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.4 Indexes. A subject index to the entire Code shall be annually revised and...

  4. 1 CFR 8.4 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 1 General Provisions 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indexes. 8.4 Section 8.4 General Provisions ADMINISTRATIVE COMMITTEE OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER SPECIAL EDITIONS OF THE FEDERAL REGISTER CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS § 8.4 Indexes. A subject index to the entire Code shall be annually revised and...

  5. Indexing: Its Importance in Health Education Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horowitz, Stephen M.; Laflin, Molly T.; Nims, Julia K.

    1999-01-01

    Investigated how health educators could improve literature searches and increase the accessibility of their research to others. A frequency count of databases indexed 84 health education journals and analyzed the 16 top indexes for journal coverage. Results indicated that selecting the appropriate indexes can help health educators more effectively…

  6. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... Pt. 74, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 74 A Additional orders by FCC (All Services) 74.28...

  7. 7 CFR 412.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Index. 412.3 Section 412.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION-FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 412.3 Index. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that each agency publish, or otherwise make available, a current index of all materials available for...

  8. 7 CFR 370.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Index. 370.3 Section 370.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 370.3 Index. Pursuant to the regulations in § 1.4(b) of this title, APHIS will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying a current index...

  9. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index table. 250.1401 Section 250.1401 Mineral... OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of the sections in this subpart: § 250.1401Table...

  10. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  11. 7 CFR 2811.3 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Indexes. 2811.3 Section 2811.3 Agriculture... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 2811.3 Indexes. (a) Background. 15 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) also requires that each agency maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current indexes...

  12. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 76

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Part 76 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND..., Index Alphabetical Index—Part 76 A A and B grade contours 76.5 Access, Channel enforcement 76.10...

  13. 7 CFR 3011.3 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Indexes. 3011.3 Section 3011.3 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 3011.3 Indexes. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) also requires that each agency maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current indexes...

  14. 7 CFR 412.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Index. 412.3 Section 412.3 Agriculture Regulations of... AGRICULTURE PUBLIC INFORMATION-FREEDOM OF INFORMATION § 412.3 Index. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that each agency publish, or otherwise make available, a current index of all materials available for...

  15. 44 CFR 5.28 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Indexes. 5.28 Section 5.28... Information, Rules, Orders, Policies, and Similar Material § 5.28 Indexes. FEMA will maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current indexes arranged by subject matter providing...

  16. 7 CFR 798.3 - Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Index. 798.3 Section 798.3 Agriculture Regulations of... RECORDS AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 798.3 Index. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) requires that each agency publish or otherwise make available a current index of all materials required to be made...

  17. 7 CFR 295.7 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indexes. 295.7 Section 295.7 Agriculture Regulations... GENERAL REGULATIONS AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION AND RECORDS TO THE PUBLIC § 295.7 Indexes. 5 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) also requires an index of the materials required to be made available for public inspection...

  18. 32 CFR 296.3 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indexes. 296.3 Section 296.3 National Defense... PROGRAM NATIONAL RECONNAISSANCE OFFICE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM REGULATION § 296.3 Indexes. (a... and executive order requirements, that it is unnecessary and impracticable to publish an index of...

  19. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 78

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Part 78 Index Alphabetical Index Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES CABLE TELEVISION RELAY SERVICE Technical Regulations Modulation limits. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78 A...

  20. 7 CFR 2811.3 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indexes. 2811.3 Section 2811.3 Agriculture... AVAILABILITY OF INFORMATION TO THE PUBLIC § 2811.3 Indexes. (a) Background. 15 U.S.C. 552(a)(2) also requires that each agency maintain and make available for public inspection and copying current indexes...