Science.gov

Sample records for activity index cai

  1. Thermal maturity patterns in the Ordovician and Devonian of Pennsylvania using conodont color alteration index (CAI) and vitrinite reflectance (%Ro)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, J.E.; Ryder, R.T.; Harper, J.A.; Trippi, M.H.

    2006-01-01

    This new series of maps enhances previous thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface CAI data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved CAI-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.

  2. Developing Large CAI Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Mary Jac M.; Smith, Lynn H.

    1983-01-01

    When developing large computer-assisted instructional (CAI) courseware packages, it is suggested that there be more attentive planning to the overall package design before actual lesson development is begun. This process has been simplified by modifying the systems approach used to develop single CAI lessons, followed by planning for the…

  3. CAI Terminal Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Peter

    The bewildering number of available terminals which are offered to CAI users presents a rather formidable problem of which one to choose. This article surveys what appear to be evolving standards for terminals. The usefulness of these terminals for CAI purposes is discussed, together with the best known prototype exhibiting the particular feature.…

  4. Carbon, CAIs and chondrules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ash, R. D.; Russell, S. S.

    1994-01-01

    It has been shown that C is present in CAI's and chondrules. It can be distinguished from matrix C both by its thermal stability and isotopic composition, which implies that it was not introduced after parent body accretion. It is concluded that C must have been present in the chondrule and CAI precursor material. Therefore any models of chondrule and CAI formation and inferences drawn about solar system conditions during these events must take into account the consequences of the presence of C on inclusion chemistry, mineralogy, and oxidation state.

  5. NALDA (Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis) CAI (computer aided instruction)

    SciTech Connect

    Handler, B.H. ); France, P.A.; Frey, S.C.; Gaubas, N.F.; Hyland, K.J.; Lindsey, A.M.; Manley, D.O. ); Hunnum, W.H. ); Smith, D.L. )

    1990-07-01

    Data Systems Engineering Organization (DSEO) personnel developed a prototype computer aided instruction CAI system for the Naval Aviation Logistics Data Analysis (NALDA) system. The objective of this project was to provide a CAI prototype that could be used as an enhancement to existing NALDA training. The CAI prototype project was performed in phases. The task undertaken in Phase I was to analyze the problem and the alternative solutions and to develop a set of recommendations on how best to proceed. The findings from Phase I are documented in Recommended CAI Approach for the NALDA System (Duncan et al., 1987). In Phase II, a structured design and specifications were developed, and a prototype CAI system was created. A report, NALDA CAI Prototype: Phase II Final Report, was written to record the findings and results of Phase II. NALDA CAI: Recommendations for an Advanced Instructional Model, is comprised of related papers encompassing research on computer aided instruction CAI, newly developing training technologies, instructional systems development, and an Advanced Instructional Model. These topics were selected because of their relevancy to the CAI needs of NALDA. These papers provide general background information on various aspects of CAI and give a broad overview of new technologies and their impact on the future design and development of training programs. The paper within have been index separately elsewhere.

  6. Skill Specific CAI Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavine, Roberta Z.; Fechter, Sharon Ahern

    Advantages of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for grammar-oriented exercises are considered, and a learning module to help the student prepare for the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) exam is described. The exercises are modeled on the TOEFL exam: the student is given a sentence, one part of which is incorrect and is asked to…

  7. Magnesium, Silicon, and Oxygen Isotopic Consequences of CAI Evaporation and Inversion for Primordial Melt Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, E. D.; Shahar, A.

    2012-03-01

    We show how realistic activity-composition relationships in CMAS melts can be used to invert silicon- and magnesium-isotope ratios for evaporation histories of CAIs. Results suggest igneous CAIs were indeed condensates from a solar gas.

  8. Man-Computer Communications and CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A variety of direct and indirect instructional activities during the last ten years have employed computers. Within Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) programs, the following broad classes of instructional strategies have been generally accepted: tutorial, drill and practice, review, testing, remediation and diagnosis, problem solving, and…

  9. Maxi CAI with a Micro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhold, George; And Others

    This paper describes an effective microprocessor-based CAI system which has been repeatedly tested by a large number of students and edited accordingly. Tasks not suitable for microprocessor based systems (authoring, testing, and debugging) were handled on larger multi-terminal systems. This approach requires that the CAI language used on the…

  10. Zr Isotope Systematics of Allende CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mane, P.; Romaniello, S. J.; Brennecka, G. A.; Williams, C. D.; Wadhwa, M.

    2014-09-01

    We report high precision Zr isotopic measurements of CAIs from Allende CV3 meteorite. Our results indicate a uniform Zr isotopic composition in the CAI forming region, with enrichment in r-process isotope 96Zr.

  11. Teacher's Handbook for CAI Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suppes, Patrick; And Others

    The handbooks for the most widely used computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courses now available on computer terminals at the Institute for Mathematical Studies in the Social Sciences at Stanford University are presented. Handbooks are included for the following courses: Strands Drill-and-practice (arithmetic fundamentals for fourth grade), Logic…

  12. INAA of CAIs from the Maralinga CK4 chondrite: Effects of parent body thermal metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindstrom, D. J.; Keller, L. P.; Martinez, R. R.

    1993-01-01

    Maralinga is an anomalous CK4 carbonaceous chondrite which contains numerous Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAI's) unlike the other members of the CK group. These CAI's are characterized by abundant green hercynitic spinel intergrown with plagioclase and high-Ca clinopyroxene, and a total lack of melilite. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was used to further characterize the meteorite, with special focus on the CAI's. High sensitivity INAA was done on eight sample disks about 100-150 microns in diameter obtained from a normal 30 micron thin section with a diamond microcoring device. The CAI's are enriched by 60-70X bulk meteorite values in Zn, suggesting that the substantial exchange of Fe for Mg that made the spinel in the CAI's hercynitic also allowed efficient scavenging of Zn from the rest of the meteorite during parent body thermal metamorphism. Less mobile elements appear to have maintained their initial heterogeneity.

  13. The Screen Display Syntax for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Boyd F.; Salisbury, David F.

    1987-01-01

    Describes four storyboard techniques frequently used in designing computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs, and explains screen display syntax (SDS), a new technique combining the major advantages of the storyboard techniques. SDS was developed to facilitate communication among designers, programmers, and editors working on a large CAI basic…

  14. Implications of Windowing Techniques for CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heines, Jesse M.; Grinstein, Georges G.

    This paper discusses the use of a technique called windowing in computer assisted instruction to allow independent control of functional areas in complex CAI displays and simultaneous display of output from a running computer program and coordinated instructional material. Two obstacles to widespread use of CAI in computer science courses are…

  15. CAI: Its Cost and Its Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Israel; Rosenbloom, Bruce

    1984-01-01

    Describes and evaluates costs of hardware, software, training, and maintenance for computer assisted instruction (CAI) as they relate to total system cost. An example of an educational system provides an illustration of CAI cost analysis. Future developments, cost effectiveness, affordability, and applications in public and private environments…

  16. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Hardware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stifle, John E.

    After six years of research in computer assisted instruction (CAI) using PLATO III, a decision was made at the University of Illinois to develop a larger system as a national CAI resource. This document describes the design specifications and problems in the development of PLATO IV, a system which is capable of accomodating up to 4,000 terminals…

  17. Economic Evaluation of CAI in Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Gene L.

    This is an introductory presentation of economic evaluation methods for assessing computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Six different costing techniques, including cost effectiveness, are reviewed. Cost effectiveness is then examined in terms of its usefulness for evaluating CAI. A simplified system for cost effectiveness evaluation is presented…

  18. Computers for Your Classroom: CAI and CMI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, David B.; Bozeman, William C.

    1981-01-01

    The availability of compact, low-cost computer systems provides a means of assisting classroom teachers in the performance of their duties. Computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and computer-managed instruction (CMI) are two applications of computer technology with which school administrators should become familiar. CAI is a teaching medium in which…

  19. A new activity index for comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, Fred L.

    1992-12-01

    An activity index, AI, is derived from observational data to measure the increase of activity in magnitudes for comets when brightest near perihelion as compared to their inactive reflective brightness at great solar distances. Because the observational data are still instrumentally limited in the latter case and because many comets carry particulate clouds about them at great solar distances, the application of the activity index is still limited. A tentative application is made for the comets observed by Max Beyer over a period of nearly 40 years, providing a uniform magnitude system for the near-perihelion observations. In all, 32 determinations are made for long-period (L-P) comets and 15 for short-period (S-P). Although the correlations are scarcely definitive, the data suggest that the faintest comets are just as active as the brightest and that the S-P comets are almost as active as those with periods (P) exceeding 104 years or those with orbital inclinations of i less than 120 deg. Comets in the range 102 less than P less than 104 yr. or with i greater than 120 deg appear to be somewhat more active than the others. There is no evidence to suggest aging among the L-P comets or to suggest other than a common nature for comets generally.

  20. A new activity index for comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Fred L.

    1992-01-01

    An activity index, AI, is derived from observational data to measure the increase of activity in magnitudes for comets when brightest near perihelion as compared to their inactive reflective brightness at great solar distances. Because the observational data are still instrumentally limited in the latter case and because many comets carry particulate clouds about them at great solar distances, the application of the activity index is still limited. A tentative application is made for the comets observed by Max Beyer over a period of nearly 40 years, providing a uniform magnitude system for the near-perihelion observations. In all, 32 determinations are made for long-period (L-P) comets and 15 for short-period (S-P). Although the correlations are scarcely definitive, the data suggest that the faintest comets are just as active as the brightest and that the S-P comets are almost as active as those with periods (P) exceeding 10(exp 4) years or those with orbital inclinations of i less than 120 deg. Comets in the range 10(exp 2) less than P less than 10(exp 4) yr. or with i greater than 120 deg appear to be somewhat more active than the others. There is no evidence to suggest aging among the L-P comets or to suggest other than a common nature for comets generally.

  1. A unified framework for producing CAI melting, Wark-Lovering rims and bowl-shaped CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liffman, Kurt; Cuello, Nicolas; Paterson, David A.

    2016-10-01

    Calcium-Aluminium inclusions (CAIs) formed in the Solar system, some 4567 million years ago. CAIs are almost always surrounded by Wark-Lovering rims (WLRs), which are a sequence of thin, mono/bi-mineralic layers of refractory minerals, with a total thickness in the range of 1-100 microns. Recently, some CAIs have been found that have tektite-like bowl-shapes. To form such shapes, the CAI must have travelled through a rarefied gas at hypersonic speeds. We show how CAIs may have been ejected from the inner solar accretion disc via the centrifugal interaction between the solar magnetosphere and the inner disc rim. They subsequently punched through the hot, inner disc rim wall at hypersonic speeds. This re-entry heating partially or completely evaporated the CAIs. Such evaporation could have significantly increased the metal abundances of the inner disc rim. High speed movement through the inner disc produced WLRs. To match the observed thickness of WLRs required metal abundances at the inner disc wall that are of order 10 times that of standard solar abundances. The CAIs cooled as they moved away from the protosun, the deduced CAI cooling rates are consistent with the CAI cooling rates obtained from experiment and observation. The speeds and gas densities required to form bowl-shaped CAIs are also consistent with the expected speeds and gas densities for larger, ˜1 cm, CAIs punching through an inner accretion disc wall.

  2. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  3. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described.

  4. CAIS. Condition Assessment Information System

    SciTech Connect

    Oak, J.C.

    1996-09-30

    CAIS is used by Architects and Engineers to gather facility condition assessment data. This data consist of architectural, civil, structural, electrical, and mechanical systems and components that are a part of the inspected facility. Data is collected using a hand-held, pen-based computer system which is preprogrammed for detailed inventories of individual components. The program is deficiency based for collecting data for repair and replacement observations. Observations are recorded on checklists preformatted to individual site needs, allowing for comments on unusual conditions to be documented on site. Data is transferred to a central database, where it can be reviewed, costed, and reported on using different scenarios. Information can be transferred to the DOE operations offices as well as to the DOE FIMS database for each site.

  5. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  6. Activity based video indexing and search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Jiang, Qin; Medasani, Swarup; Allen, David; Lu, Tsai-ching

    2010-04-01

    We describe a method for searching videos in large video databases based on the activity contents present in the videos. Being able to search videos based on the contents (such as human activities) has many applications such as security, surveillance, and other commercial applications such as on-line video search. Conventional video content-based retrieval (CBR) systems are either feature based or semantics based, with the former trying to model the dynamics video contents using the statistics of image features, and the latter relying on automated scene understanding of the video contents. Neither approach has been successful. Our approach is inspired by the success of visual vocabulary of "Video Google" by Sivic and Zisserman, and the work of Nister and Stewenius who showed that building a visual vocabulary tree can improve the performance in both scalability and retrieval accuracy for 2-D images. We apply visual vocabulary and vocabulary tree approach to spatio-temporal video descriptors for video indexing, and take advantage of the discrimination power of these descriptors as well as the scalability of vocabulary tree for indexing. Furthermore, this approach does not rely on any model-based activity recognition. In fact, training of the vocabulary tree is done off-line using unlabeled data with unsupervised learning. Therefore the approach is widely applicable. Experimental results using standard human activity recognition videos will be presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  7. Forecasting geomagnetic activities from the Boyle Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, R.; Reiff, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Boyle Index (BI), Φ =10-4}( {v{2}/{km/sec) + 11.7({(B)/(nT)})sin 3}{(θ /2) kV, has been successful in predicting the geomagnetic activity since its inception in October 2003. It is available in near-real-time from http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/wind.html and provides space weather predictions of geomagnetic indices (Kp, Dst and the AE) in real time through neural network algorithms. In addition, it provides free email alerts to its 700+ subscribers whenever the magnetospheric activity levels exceed certain pre-defined thresholds. We are constantly improving our algorithms, in the interest of either including more data or improving the accuracy and lead-time of forecasts. For example, with the inclusion of two more years of data (2008 and 2009) in the training, we have the advantage of modeling one of the deepest solar minimums, which has been exceptionally low in terms of the activity level. Our algorithms have been successful in capturing the effects of ``preconditioning" and the non-linearity in the solar wind parameters (for example, see figure 1). This paper presents our new attempts to include the effects of solar turbulence by incorporating the standard deviations in the solar wind parameters along with the BI, for greater the turbulence the higher the energy input into the magnetosphere as some of the previous studies have shown. Furthermore, we will also present how 3-hour averaged 1-hour sliding window scheme have improved our predictions with lead times of 3 hours or longer. Our predictions from a recent activity, 03 August 2010.

  8. CAIs in Semarkona (LL3.0)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.; Marhas, K. K.

    2016-01-01

    Calcium, Aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the first forming solids of the Solar system. Their observed abundance, mean size, and mineralogy vary quite significantly between different groups of chondrites. These differences may reflect the dynamics and distinct cosmochemical conditions present in the region(s) of the protoplanetary disk from which each type likely accreted. Only about 11 such objects have been found in L and LL type while another 57 have been found in H type ordinary chondrites, compared to thousands in carbonaceous chondrites. At issue is whether the rare CAIs contained in ordinary chondrites truly reflect a distinct population from the inclusions commonly found in other chondrite types. Semarkona (LL3.00) (fall, 691 g) is the most pristine chondrite available in our meteorite collection. Here we report petrography and mineralogy of 3 CAIs from Semarkona

  9. CAI in Music Theory: Paradigms: Potential: Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hultberg, W. Earle; Hultberg, Mary Lou

    Computer-assisted instructional programs have been developed at the State University College at Potsdam, New York, to teach basic concepts of music theory. The Computer-based Learning Experiences in Music Fundamentals (CLEF) project has spawned computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs which use an IBM 360/30 configuration with 2741 terminals…

  10. Individual Differences in Learner Controlled CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Wilson A.; And Others

    Two assumptions in support of learner-controlled computer-assisted instruction (CAI) are that (1) instruction administered under learner control will be less aversive than if administered under program control, and (2) the student is sufficiently aware of his learning state to make, in most instances, his own instructional decisions. Some 130…

  11. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Evaluation Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avner, R. A.

    The role of evaluation in the development of evolutionary procedures is briefly described and highlighted. Four aspects of evaluation technique which distinguish efficient from inefficient CAI programs are identified. Evaluation of products is also characterized. Findings of a continuing survey of students via questionnaire as to the value of…

  12. The Relevance of AI Research to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearsley, Greg P.

    This article provides a tutorial introduction to Artificial Intelligence (AI) research for those involved in Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). The general theme is that much of the current work in AI, particularly in the areas of natural language understanding systems, rule induction, programming languages, and socratic systems, has important…

  13. The Evolutionary Development of CAI Courseware.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Esther R.

    The history of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) courseware is described with specific reference to the PLATO system. Among the goals of courseware authors are finding better ways to develop the cognitive skills of students, to shift some of the burden of routine classroom instruction away from the teacher so that more class time can be spent in…

  14. Concurrent Validity For an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing 182 subjects, this study determined the concurrent validity between the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) index of anxiety and scores on the IPAT Anxiety Scale. The IPAT and the AVA index of anxiety seem essentially to measure the same construct of basic anxiety. (Author/PN)

  15. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  16. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  17. Variable and Extreme Irradiation Conditions in the Early Solar System Inferred from the Initial Abundance of 10Be in Isheyevo CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gounelle, Matthieu; Chaussidon, Marc; Rollion-Bard, Claire

    2013-02-01

    A search for short-lived 10Be in 21 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) from Isheyevo, a rare CB/CH chondrite, showed that only 5 CAIs had 10B/11B ratios higher than chondritic correlating with the elemental ratio 9Be/11B, suggestive of in situ decay of this key short-lived radionuclide. The initial (10Be/9Be)0 ratios vary between ~10-3 and ~10-2 for CAI 411. The initial ratio of CAI 411 is one order of magnitude higher than the highest ratio found in CV3 CAIs, suggesting that the more likely origin of CAI 411 10Be is early solar system irradiation. The low (26Al/27Al)0 [<= 8.9 × 10-7] with which CAI 411 formed indicates that it was exposed to gradual flares with a proton fluence of a few 1019 protons cm-2, during the earliest phases of the solar system, possibly the infrared class 0. The irradiation conditions for other CAIs are less well constrained, with calculated fluences ranging between a few 1019 and 1020 protons cm-2. The variable and extreme value of the initial 10Be/9Be ratios in carbonaceous chondrite CAIs is the reflection of the variable and extreme magnetic activity in young stars observed in the X-ray domain.

  18. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  19. Research on TRIZ and CAIs Application Problems for Technology Innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiangdong; Li, Qinghai; Bai, Zhonghang; Geng, Lixiao

    In order to realize application of invent problem solve theory (TRIZ) and computer aided innovation software (CAIs) , need to solve some key problems, such as the mode choice of technology innovation, establishment of technology innovation organization network(TION), and achievement of innovative process based on TRIZ and CAIs, etc.. This paper shows that the demands for TRIZ and CAIs according to the characteristics and existing problem of the manufacturing enterprises. Have explained that the manufacturing enterprises need to set up an open TION of enterprise leading type, and achieve the longitudinal cooperation innovation with institution of higher learning. The process of technology innovation based on TRIZ and CAIs has been set up from researching and developing point of view. Application of TRIZ and CAIs in FY Company has been summarized. The application effect of TRIZ and CAIs has been explained using technology innovation of the close goggle valve product.

  20. Initial Validation of the Activity Choice Index among Overweight Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Sean P.; Silva, Marlene N.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was designed to evaluate psychometric properties of the Activity Choice Index (ACI), a measure for assessing one's choice to engage in more effortful, physically active behaviors in the course of daily routines over less-demanding, sedentary behaviors, in a sample of overweight women. Method: The sample included 192…

  1. Computer System Requirements for CAI/CMI Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Robert J.

    This paper oriented for new researchers entering the field of CAI research discusses the research experience in this area, outlines some of the important computer requirements of CAI research, and proposes a conservative computer development strategy to meet those requirements. The development of PLATO and TICCIT are described as examples of the…

  2. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; Perry, James

    This final report summarizes research findings and presents a model for generative computer assisted instruction (CAI) with respect to its usefulness in the classroom environment. Methods used to individualize instruction, and the evolution of a procedure used to select a concept for presentation to a student with the generative CAI system are…

  3. A CAI Study of Learning Geologic Time and Evolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, James P.; Stolurow, Lawrence M.

    Twenty-two college students in science education were given an adjunctive computer-assisted instruction (CAI) program by means of typewriter consoles and computer-controlled colored slide presentations of critical information. Students were pretested, told how to respond at the student console, taught by the Harvard CAI System, and posttested. The…

  4. A Pilot CAI Scheme for the Malaysian Secondary Education System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rao, A. Kanakaratnam; Rao, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    A multi-phase computer aided instruction (CAI) scheme for Malaysian Secondary Schools and Matriculation Centres attached to local universities is presented as an aid for improving instruction and for solving some problems presently faced by the Malaysian Secondary Education System. Some approaches for successful implementation of a CAI scheme are…

  5. Fifteen Years of Teaching Elementary Applied Statistics Using CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunka, S.

    A computer-assisted instructional (CAI) course in applied statistics has been taught for 15 years in the Faculty of Education at the University of Manitoba. The CAI courseware was originally created to be the primary mode of instruction for the course, and it is very extensive in terms of content and style of presentation. The course includes 14…

  6. A CAI Approach to Teaching an Office Technology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Souza, Patricia Veasey

    1989-01-01

    Describes study that investigated the difference between computer-assisted instruction (CAI) and traditional lecture instruction in teaching an office technology course. The effects of CAI on student achievement and student attitudes is discussed, hypotheses tested and pretests and posttests are described, and further research needs are suggested.…

  7. The Effectiveness of CAI Designed for the Hearing-Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogel, Nancy S.

    Two pilot studies probed effectiveness of linguistically controlled, highly visual computer-assisted instruction (CAI) for English grammar instruction with hearing-impaired high school students (N=29 in the first study and N=71 in the second). Results from the first study suggested that state-of-the-art CAI designed specifically for use with this…

  8. The Role of the CAI-1 Fatty Acid Tail in the Vibrio cholerae Quorum Sensing Response

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Lark J.; Ng, Wai-Leung; Marano, Paul; Brook, Karolina; Bassler, Bonnie L.; Semmelhack, Martin F.

    2013-01-01

    Quorum sensing is a mechanism of chemical communication among bacteria that enables collective behaviors. In V. cholerae, the etiological agent of the disease cholera, quorum sensing controls group behaviors including virulence factor production and biofilm formation. The major V. cholerae quorum-sensing system consists of the extracellular signal molecule called CAI-1 and its cognate membrane bound receptor called CqsS. Here, the ligand binding activity of CqsS is probed with structural analogs of the natural signal. Enabled by our discovery of a structurally simplified analog of CAI-1, we prepared and analyzed a focused library. The molecules were designed to probe the effects of conformational and structural changes along the length of the fatty acid tail of CAI-1. Our results, combined with pharmacophore modeling, suggest a molecular basis for signal molecule recognition and receptor fidelity with respect to the fatty acid tail portion of CAI-1. These efforts provide novel probes to enhance discovery of anti-virulence agents for the treatment of V. cholerae. PMID:23092313

  9. New Titanium Isotope Data for Allende and Efremovka CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leya, Ingo; Schönbächler, Maria; Krähenbühl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-01

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., 50Ti/47Ti, 48Ti/47Ti, and 46Ti/47Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in 50Ti/47Ti and 46Ti/47Ti and are slightly depleted in 48Ti/47Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional 50Ti excess of ~8ɛ relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in 50Ti by ~2ɛ relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of ~10ɛ. This additional 50Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in 62Ni and 96Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., 10Be, 26Al, and 41Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the measured data.

  10. Activation of NALP1 inflammasomes in rats with adjuvant arthritis; a novel therapeutic target of carboxyamidotriazole in a model of rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Lei; Li, Juan; Guo, Lei; Yu, Xiaoli; Wu, Danwei; Luo, Lifeng; Zhu, Lingzhi; Chen, Wei; Chen, Chen; Ye, Caiying; Zhang, Dechang

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Pro-inflammatory cytokines are important in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and their production is mainly regulated by NF-κB and inflammasomes. Carboxyamidotriazole (CAI) exhibits potent anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing cytokines. Here, we have investigated NACHT, LRR and PYD domains-containing protein (NALP) inflammasomes in a rat model of RA and explored the therapeutic effects of CAI in this model and the involvement of NF-κB and inflammasomes in the actions of CAI. Experimental Approach The anti-arthritic effects of CAI were assessed in the adjuvant arthritis (AA) model in rats, using radiological and histological techniques. NALP1 and NALP3 inflammasomes, NF-κB pathway and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels were measured with Western blots, immunohistochemistry and elisa. Key Results CAI decreased the arthritis index, improved radiological and histological changes, and reduced synovial IL-1β, IL-6, IL-18 and TNF-α levels in rats with AA. Compared with normal rats, the 70 kDa NALP1 isoform was up-regulated, NALP3 was down-regulated, and levels of the 165 kDa NALP1 isoform and the adaptor protein ASC were unchanged in synovial tissue from AA rats. CAI reduced the 70 kDa NALP1 isoform and restored NALP3 levels in AA rats; CAI inhibited caspase-1 activation in AA synovial tissue, but not its enzymic activity in vitro. In addition, CAI reduced expression of p65 NF-κB subunit and IκBα phosphorylation and degradation in AA rats. Conclusion and Implications NALP1 inflammasomes were activated in synovial tissues from AA rats and appeared to be a novel therapeutic target for RA. CAI could have therapeutic value in RA by inhibiting activation of NF-κB and NALP1 inflammasomes and by decreasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:25799914

  11. CAI System of Obunsha Co., Ltd. Using CD-ROM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todokoro, Shigeru; Mukai, Yoshihiro

    This paper introduces the present status of R & D on CAI teaching materials in Obunsha Co., Ltd. Characteristics of CAI using CD-ROM as well as Culture-in CAI Teaching Materials System for junior high school English are described. The system consists of CD-ROM driver XM-2000 and Pasopia 700 of Toshiba Corporation having both features of CD-ROM and FD. CD-ROM stores vast amount of voice data while FD does text and graphics data. It is a frame-oriented mode system enabling to raise learning effect.

  12. Astrophysics of CAI formation as revealed by silicon isotope LA-MC-ICPMS of an igneous CAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahar, Anat; Young, Edward D.

    2007-05-01

    Silicon isotope ratios of a typical CAI from the Leoville carbonaceous chondrite, obtained in situ by laser ablation MC-ICPMS, together with existing 25Mg/ 24Mg data, reveal a detailed picture of the astrophysical setting of CAI melting and subsequent heating. Models for the chemical and isotopic effects of evaporation of the molten CAI are used to produce a univariant relationship between PH 2 and time during melting. The result shows that this CAI was molten for a cumulative time of no more than 70 days and probably less than 15 days depending on temperature. The object could have been molten for an integrated time of just a few hours if isotope ratio zoning was eliminated after melting by high subsolidus temperatures (e.g., > 1300 K) for ˜ 500 yr. In all cases subsolidus heating sufficient to produce diffusion-limited isotope fractionation at the margin of the solidified CAI is required. These stable isotope data point to a two-stage history for this igneous CAI involving melting for a cumulative timescale of hours to months followed by subsolidus heating for years to hundreds of years. The thermobarometric history deduced from combining Si and Mg isotope ratio data implicates thermal processing in the disk, perhaps by passage through shockwaves, following melting. This study underscores the direct link between the meaning of stable isotope ratio zoning, or lack thereof, and the inferred astrophysical setting of melting and subsequent processing of CAIs.

  13. The Relative Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) for Teaching Students To Read English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Richard A.

    In a review of research on computer assisted instruction (CAI) related to reading, evidence collected provides tentative conclusions about CAI effectiveness. CAI was effective as an instructional medium in the surveyed studies. In a number of instances, CAI groups achieved higher scores than the control groups. Some studies indicated that CAI…

  14. A CAI in the Ivuna CI1 Chondrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, David R.; Zolensky, M.; Martinez, J.; Mikouchi, T.; Ohsumi, K.; Hagiya, K.; Satake, W.; Le, L.; Ross, D.; Peslier, A.

    2011-01-01

    We have recently discovered the first well-preserved calcium aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) in a CI1 chondrite (Ivuna). Previously, all CI1 chondrites were thought to be devoid of preserved CAI and chondrules due to the near total aqueous alteration to which their parent body (bodies) have been subjected. The CAI is roughly spherical, but with a slight teardrop geometry and a maximum diameter of 170 microns (fig. 1). It lacks any Wark-Lovering Rim. Incipient aqueous alteration, and probably shock, have rendered large portions of the CAI poorly crystalline. It is extremely fine-grained, with only a few grains exceeding 10 microns. We have performed electron microprobe analyses (EPMA), FEG-SEM imaging and element mapping, as well as electron back-scattered diffraction (EBSD) and synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD) in order to determine the fundamental characteristics of this apparently unique object.

  15. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  16. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  17. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  18. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  19. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  20. Survey of Health Sciences CAI Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Martin

    A project to develop an automated index of information about existing computerized instruction in the health sciences is reported and described. Methods of obtaining and indexing materials for the catalog are detailed. Entry and recovery techniques and selection of descriptors are described. Results to date show that the data base contains…

  1. NEW TITANIUM ISOTOPE DATA FOR ALLENDE AND EFREMOVKA CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Leya, Ingo; Schoenbaechler, Maria; Kraehenbuehl, Urs; Halliday, Alex N.

    2009-09-10

    We measured the titanium (Ti) isotope composition, i.e., {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti, in five calcium-rich-aluminum-rich refractory inclusions (CAIs) from the oxidized CV3 chondrite Allende and in two CAIs from the reduced CV3 chondrite Efremovka. Our data indicate that CAIs are enriched in {sup 50}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and {sup 46}Ti/{sup 47}Ti and are slightly depleted in {sup 48}Ti/{sup 47}Ti compared to normal Ti defined by ordinary chondrites, eucrites, ureilites, mesosiderites, Earth, Moon, and Mars. Some CAIs have an additional {sup 50}Ti excess of {approx}8{epsilon} relative to bulk carbonaceous chondrites, which are enriched in {sup 50}Ti by {approx}2{epsilon} relative to terrestrial values, leading to a total excess of {approx}10{epsilon}. This additional {sup 50}Ti excess is correlated with nucleosynthetic anomalies found in {sup 62}Ni and {sup 96}Zr, all indicating an origin from a neutron-rich stellar source. Bulk carbonaceous chondrites show a similar trend, however, the extent of the anomalies is either less than or similar to the smallest anomalies seen in CAIs. Mass balance calculations suggest that bulk Allende Ti possibly consists of a mixture of at least two Ti components, anomalous Ti located in CAIs and a normal component possibly for matrix and chondrules. This argues for a heterogeneous distribution of Ti isotopes in the solar system. The finding that anomalous Ti is concentrated in CAIs suggests that CAIs formed in a specific region of the solar system and were, after their formation, not homogeneously redistributed within the solar system. Combining the CAI data with improved model predictions for early solar system irradiation effects indicates that a local production scenario for the relatively short lived radionuclides can be excluded, because the production of, e.g., {sup 10}Be, {sup 26}Al, and {sup 41}Ca, would result in a significant collateral shift in Ti isotopes, which is not seen in the

  2. Evaluation of neutralized chemical agent identification sets (CAIS) for skin injury with an overview of the vesicant potential of agent degradation products.

    PubMed

    Olajos, E J; Olson, C T; Salem, H; Singer, A W; Hayes, T L; Menton, R G; Miller, T L; Rosso, T; MacIver, B

    1998-01-01

    Vesication and skin irritation studies were conducted in hairless guinea-pigs to determine the vesicant and skin irritation potential of chemically-neutralized Chemical Agent Identification Sets (CAIS). The CAIS are training items that contain chemical warfare-related material--sulfur mustard (HD), nitrogen mustard (HN) or lewisite (L)--and were declared obsolete in 1971. Animals were dosed topically with 'test article'--neat HD, 10% agent/chloroform solutions or product solutions (waste-streams) from neutralized CAIS--and evaluated for skin-damaging effects (gross and microscopic). Product solutions from the chemical neutralization of neat sulfur mustard resulted in microvesicle formation. All agent-dosed (HD or agent/chloroform solutions) sites manifested microblisters as well as other histopathological lesions of the skin. Waste-streams from the neutralization of agent (agent/chloroform or agent/charcoal) were devoid of vesicant activity. Cutaneous effects (erythema and edema) were consistent with the skin-injurious activity associated with the neutralizing reagent 1,3-dichloro-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DCDMH). Chemical neutralization of CAIS was effective in eliminating/reducing the vesicant property of CAIS containing agent in chloroform or agent on charcoal but was inefficient in reducing the vesicant potential of CAIS containing neat sulfur mustard.

  3. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  4. Thermal Maturity Patterns (CAI and %Ro) in Upper Ordovician and Devonian Rocks of the Appalachian Basin: A Major Revision of USGS Map I-917-E Using New Subsurface Collections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Weary, David J.; Harris, Anita G.; Trippi, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) introduced by Epstein and others (1977) and Harris and others (1978) is an important criterion for estimating the thermal maturity of Ordovician to Mississippian rocks in the Appalachian basin. Consequently, the CAI isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) are commonly used by geologists to characterize the thermal and burial history of the Appalachian basin and to better understand the origin and distribution of oil and gas resources in the basin. The main objectives of our report are to present new CAI isograd maps for Ordovician and Devonian rocks in the Appalachian basin and to interpret the geologic and petroleum resource implications of these maps. The CAI isograd maps presented herein complement, and in some areas replace, the CAI-based isograd maps of Harris and others (1978) for the Appalachian basin. The CAI data presented in this report were derived almost entirely from subsurface samples, whereas the CAI data used by Harris and others (1978) were derived almost entirely from outcrop samples. Because of the different sampling methods, there is little geographic overlap of the two data sets. The new data set is mostly from the Allegheny Plateau structural province and most of the data set of Harris and others (1978) is from the Valley and Ridge structural province, east of the Allegheny structural front.

  5. Spectral reflectance of conodonts: A step toward quantitative color alteration and thermal maturity indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Deaton, B.C.; Nestell, M.; Balsam, W.L.

    1996-07-01

    Changes in the color of conodonts have long been used to assess thermal maturity. Color is a subjective measure, and color changes in conodonts are related to a subjective scale, the conodont alteration index or CAI. In this paper, we propose a simple, nondestructive method for objectively determining CAI and relating CAI to thermal maturity, the spectral reflectance of conodonts (SRC). The diffuse reflectance of about 30 large conodont fragments arranged on a barium-sulfate slide was determined with a total reflectance spectrophotometer in the wavelength range of 300-850 nm. By examining conodonts that ranged form a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 6 we found that the average slope of the reflectance curve from 550 to 800 nm is a good proxy for CAI. A second-order regression equation estimates CAI from this slope with high accuracy (correlation coefficient = 0.99). These estimates appear most accurate for a CAI of 1 to a CAI of 4, where the slopes change most rapidly, but give reasonable results up to a CAI of 6. Based on the results of our analysis of two samples with known thermal maturities form the Valles Caldera region of New Mexico, we propose a preliminary relationship among SRC slope, CAI, and in-situ alteration temperature.

  6. CAI for the Developmentally Handicapped: Nine Years of Progress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallworth, H. J.; Brebner, Ann

    Initiated nine years ago by the University of Calgary Faculty of Education Computer Applications Unit in cooperation with the nearby Vocational and Rehabilitation Research Institute (VRRI), this project uses computer assisted instruction (CAI) to teach social and vocational skills to developmentally handicapped young adults, many of whom also have…

  7. Conjunctival mucin deficiency in complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS).

    PubMed

    Mantelli, Flavio; Moretti, Costanzo; Micera, Alessandra; Bonini, Stefano

    2007-06-01

    Sex steroid hormones are essential for a healthy ocular surface and the androgen receptor impairment found in patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) has been described to cause meibomian gland dysfunction and functional dry eye for lipid tear film layer instability. However, it has not been reported if the mucous layer is also affected. A 37-year-old CAIS patient with persistent symptoms of dry eye underwent ophthalmological examination and was evaluated for qualitative and quantitative tear function tests and conjunctival cytology. Samples obtained from the conjunctival epithelium were stained for histology and immunohistochemistry and compared with three age-matched female controls. Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR for MUC1 and MUC5AC were also performed on these samples. Immunohistochemistry, Western blot and relative real-time RT-PCR showed a decrease in the expression of MUC1 and MUC5AC in CAIS. Changes in the tear film mucous layer were accompanied by a reduction in the tear film break up time test. This is the first report describing mucous layer alteration associated with androgen receptor impairment. Decreased mucin levels contribute in explaining the tear film instability in CAIS and should be considered an additional cause of dry eye in sex steroid hormone pathology.

  8. An Intelligent CAI Monitor and Generative Tutor. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.; And Others

    Design techniques for generative computer-assisted-instructional (CAI) systems are described in this report. These are systems capable of generating problems for students and of deriving and monitoring solutions; problem difficulty, instructional pace, and depth of monitoring are all individually tailored and parts of the solution algorithms can…

  9. Introductory CAI Dialogue in Differential Calculus for Freshman Physics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalman, C. S.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    A project on computer based dialogue for freshmen is described and evaluated. The dialogue utilizes a CAI language written in Fortran that allows a designer to easily write and edit questions at his own desk without the use of a terminal. (Author/DT)

  10. CAI: Overcoming Attitude Barriers of Prospective Primary Teachers. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kockler, Lois H.

    During each of two school quarters, approximately 60 college students enrolled in a mathematics course were randomly assigned to an experimental group or a control group. The control group received instruction by the lecture method only; the experimental group received the same instruction, except that six computer-assisted instruction (CAI) units…

  11. CAISYS-8- A CAI Language Developed For A Minicomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Cheryl; And Others

    The University of Texas Medical Branch developed a minicomputer-based computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system which employed a teacher oriented software package called CAISYS-8, consisting of a highly modularized teaching compiler and operating system. CAISYS-8 used instructional quanta which generalized the flow of information to and from the…

  12. A Comparison of Student Option Versus Program Controlled CAI Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCann, Patrick H.; And Others

    A research study compared two methods for individualizing computer-assisted instruction (CAI) training and evaluated the effect of providing a lesson narrative before training. A 2x2 factorial design was used with 96 Navy trainees in the Basic Electricity/Electronics School. The two pretraining conditions were: 1) a narrative overview read before…

  13. Distribution and Origin of 36Cl In Allende CAIs

    SciTech Connect

    Matzel, J P; Jacobsen, B; Hutcheon, I D; Krot, A N; Nagashima, K; Yin, Q; Ramon, E C; Weber, P; Wasserburg, G J

    2009-12-11

    The abundance of short-lived radionuclides (SLRs) in early solar system materials provide key information about their nucleosynthetic origin and can constrain the timing of early solar system events. Excesses of {sup 36}S ({sup 36}S*) correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S ratios provide direct evidence for in situ decay of {sup 36}Cl ({tau}{sub 1/2} {approx} 0.3 Ma) and have been reported in sodalite (Na{sub 8}Al{sub 6}Si{sub 6}O{sub 24}Cl{sub 2}) and wadalite (Ca{sub 6}Al{sub 5}Si{sub 2}O{sub 16}Cl{sub 3}) in CAIs and chondrules from the Allende and Ningqiang CV carbonaceous chondrites. While previous studies demonstrate unequivocally that {sup 36}Cl was extant in the early solar system, no consensus on the origin or initial abundance of {sup 36}Cl has emerged. Understanding the origin of {sup 36}Cl, as well as the reported variation in the initial {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio, requires addressing when, where and how chlorine was incorporated into CAIs and chondrules. These factors are key to distinguishing between stellar nucleosynthesis or energetic particle irradiation for the origin of {sup 36}Cl. Wadalite is a chlorine-rich secondary mineral with structural and chemical affinities to grossular. The high chlorine ({approx}12 wt%) and very low sulfur content (<<0.01 wt%) make wadalite ideal for studies of the {sup 36}Cl-{sup 36}S system. Wadalite is present in Allende CAIs exclusively in the interior regions either in veins crosscutting melilite or in zones between melilite and anorthite associated with intergrowths of grossular, monticellite, and wollastonite. Wadalite and sodalite most likely resulted from open-system alteration of primary minerals with a chlorine-rich fluid phase. We recently reported large {sup 36}S* correlated with {sup 35}Cl/{sup 34}S in wadalite in Allende Type B CAI AJEF, yielding a ({sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl){sub 0} ratio of (1.7 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup -5}. This value is the highest reported {sup 36}Cl/{sup 35}Cl ratio and is {approx}5 times

  14. Effectiveness of CAI Package on Achievement in Physics of IX Standard Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maheswari, I. Uma; Ramakrishnan, N.

    2015-01-01

    The present study is an experimental one in nature, to find out the effectiveness of CAI package on in Physics of IX std. students. For this purpose a CAI package was developed and validated. The validated CAI package formed an independent variable of this study. The dependent variable is students' achievements in physics content. In order to find…

  15. Harvard University Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI) Laboratory. Technical Report Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolurow, Lawrence M.; Peterson, Theodore I.

    This report is a detailed description of the Harvard CAI Laboratory, including its history, organization, functions, staffing, programs and support. Discussed are materials relating to CAI in general, such as psychological research, modes of instruction, advantages and implementation of CAI. Reviewed also are specific projects of this facility. A…

  16. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line.

    PubMed

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  17. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  18. CAIs in CO3 Meteorites: Parent Body or Nebular Alteration?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, R. C.; Hutchison, R.; Huss, G. R.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    1992-07-01

    It is widely held that alteration of Ca Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) in CV3 and CO3 meteorites occurred in the nebula (Hashimoto 1992). The CO3 chondrites, however, appear to define a metamorphic sequence dominated by parent body, and not nebular, metamorphic effects (Scott and Jones, 1990). To investigate the effects of metamorphism on CAIs we have studied inclusions from 4 CO chondrites: Colony (3.0), Felix (3.2), Lance (3.4), and Warrenton (3.6). In a section of Colony (74 mm^2) 81 CAIs, 30-870 micrometers long, comprise 52 nodular spinel-rich inclusions (fragments of Type-A CAI composed largely of spinel), 12 spinel-pyroxene inclusions, 10 melilite-rich inclusions, 2 hibonite-only inclusions, 2 CaAl4O7-bearing inclusions, and 3 spinel-pyroxene- olivine inclusions. Although a find, CAIs in Colony are relatively fresh, melilite in particular being little altered. In 79% of the spinel-bearing inclusions, spinel has <2wt% FeO, which otherwise ranges to 34.8%. Mg isotopic compositions were determined in 5 selected Colony inclusion; evidence of ^26Mg* from decay of ^26Al was found in 4 CAI. A hibonite-only inclusion has the largest ^26Mg* excess, delta^26Mg 32o/oo. Data show no evidence of isotopic disturbance and define a linear array with slope ^26Mg* /^27Al = (3.4+- 0.6) x 10^-5, like that obtained by Davis and Hinton (1986) in a hibonite-bearing spherule from Ornans. Despite Al/Mg ratios of up to 1500, CaAl4O7 in one inclusion shows no evidence of ^26Mg*; ^26Mg* < 4 x 10^-6. All three melilite-bearing inclusions from Colony C21 (angstrom k(sub)8.3-14.3), C56 (angstrom k(sub)10.5-16) and C62 (angstrom k(sub)15-21) show evidence of radiogenic ^26Mg*. Excess ^26Mg positively correlates with the Al/Mg ratios but the data do not define a unique initial value of ^26Al/^27Al. Data for melilite in C21, in particular, show evidence for disturbance of the Al-Mg system, as is common for Allende CAI (Podosek et al. 1991). Melilites in C56 in contrast show no evidence of

  19. Oxygen Isotope Measurements of a Rare Murchison Type A CAI and Its Rim

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, J. I.; Hutcheon, I. D.; Jacobsen, B.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.

    2013-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from CV chondrites commonly show oxygen isotope heterogeneity among different mineral phases within individual inclusions reflecting the complex history of CAIs in both the solar nebula and/or parent bodies. The degree of isotopic exchange is typically mineral-specific, yielding O-16-rich spinel, hibonite and pyroxene and O-16-depleted melilite and anorthite. Recent work demonstrated large and systematic variations in oxygen isotope composition within the margin and Wark-Lovering rim of an Allende Type A CAI. These variations suggest that some CV CAIs formed from several oxygen reservoirs and may reflect transport between distinct regions of the solar nebula or varying gas composition near the proto-Sun. Oxygen isotope compositions of CAIs from other, less-altered chondrites show less intra-CAI variability and 16O-rich compositions. The record of intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability in CM chondrites, which commonly show evidence for low-temperature aqueous alteration, is less clear, in part because the most common CAIs found in CM chondrites are mineralogically simple (hibonite +/- spinel or spinel +/- pyroxene) and are composed of minerals less susceptible to O-isotopic exchange. No measurements of the oxygen isotope compositions of rims on CAIs in CM chondrites have been reported. Here, we present oxygen isotope data from a rare, Type A CAI from the Murchison meteorite, MUM-1. The data were collected from melilite, hibonite, perovskite and spinel in a traverse into the interior of the CAI and from pyroxene, melilite, anorthite, and spinel in the Wark-Lovering rim. Our objectives were to (1) document any evidence for intra-CAI oxygen isotope variability; (2) determine the isotopic composition of the rim minerals and compare their composition(s) to the CAI interior; and (3) compare the MUM-1 data to oxygen isotope zoning profiles measured from CAIs in other chondrites.

  20. Replacement textures in CAI and implications regarding planetary metamorphism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meeker, G. P.; Wasserburg, G. J.; Armstrong, J. T.

    1983-01-01

    Formation by a secondary metamorphic event, rather than primary crystallization from a melt or a sequential nebular condensation, is indicated by textural and chemical features of five coarse grained, Ca- and Al-rich inclusions (CAI) from the Allende meteorite which contain embayed pyroxene surrounded by melilite. It is suggested that the most probable environment for a metamorphic process (requiring the addition of Ca derived from calcite or from the introduction of a fluid phase) is that of a small planetary body, rather than the solar nebula. These results are compatible with O isotopic heterogeneities within CAI, and offer a mechanism for the production of lower temperature alteration phases, together with the rim phases found in these inclusions.

  1. Naval Academy's CAI Project (Computer-Assisted Instruction Project). Final Project Report 1 July 1968 - 30 June 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandeford, W. H.; And Others

    Aimed at improving officer education through the use of modern technology, a two-pronged computer-assisted instruction (CAI) effort was initiated. CAI techniques and methods utilized in the dual projects (CAI-Teletype and CAI 1500) are discussed under three categories: computational, non-computational, and computer management of instruction.…

  2. Silicon Isotopic Fractionation of CAI-like Vacuum Evaporation Residues

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, K; Kita, N; Mendybaev, R; Richter, F; Davis, A; Valley, J

    2009-06-18

    Calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are often enriched in the heavy isotopes of magnesium and silicon relative to bulk solar system materials. It is likely that these isotopic enrichments resulted from evaporative mass loss of magnesium and silicon from early solar system condensates while they were molten during one or more high-temperature reheating events. Quantitative interpretation of these enrichments requires laboratory determinations of the evaporation kinetics and associated isotopic fractionation effects for these elements. The experimental data for the kinetics of evaporation of magnesium and silicon and the evaporative isotopic fractionation of magnesium is reasonably complete for Type B CAI liquids (Richter et al., 2002, 2007a). However, the isotopic fractionation factor for silicon evaporating from such liquids has not been as extensively studied. Here we report new ion microprobe silicon isotopic measurements of residual glass from partial evaporation of Type B CAI liquids into vacuum. The silicon isotopic fractionation is reported as a kinetic fractionation factor, {alpha}{sub Si}, corresponding to the ratio of the silicon isotopic composition of the evaporation flux to that of the residual silicate liquid. For CAI-like melts, we find that {alpha}{sub Si} = 0.98985 {+-} 0.00044 (2{sigma}) for {sup 29}Si/{sup 28}Si with no resolvable variation with temperature over the temperature range of the experiments, 1600-1900 C. This value is different from what has been reported for evaporation of liquid Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} (Davis et al., 1990) and of a melt with CI chondritic proportions of the major elements (Wang et al., 2001). There appears to be some compositional control on {alpha}{sub Si}, whereas no compositional effects have been reported for {alpha}{sub Mg}. We use the values of {alpha}Si and {alpha}Mg, to calculate the chemical compositions of the unevaporated precursors of a number of isotopically fractionated CAIs from CV chondrites whose

  3. Using CAI to accommodate a variety of learning styles in a biomechanics course.

    PubMed

    Washington, N; Parnianpour, M

    1997-01-01

    Multimedia technology offers a more interactive approach to instruction than the traditional classroom lectures. Through computer-aided instruction (CAI), a number of teaching styles can be used that take into account the different preferences of the students. The Biomechanics Tutorial program that the authors have written is a CAI that incorporates audio, video, simulations, and graphics to: review concepts of mechanics (kinematics and kinetics of interconnected rigid bodies), familiarize students with functional anatomy, and allow students to interactively evaluate the law of mechanics applied to physical performance of activities modeled by a set of biomechanical models of the joints. Principles of ergonomics are reinforced by enabling the student to perform numerous numerical experiments within the context of workplace or task redesign and see the real time consequences of these alterations. For example, the task of holding a load is simulated by allowing the student to change elbow and shoulder angles and the orientation and magnitude of the load. The consequences of these in terms of required muscle forces and joint reaction forces at the elbow and shoulder will be updated on the screen. The detailed rationale of developing this Biomechanics Tutorial which integrates a variety of learning styles will be presented.

  4. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Buchner, David M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10-100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60-91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI's largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  5. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Buchner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10–100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60–91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI’s largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  6. Coordinated Oxygen Isotopic and Petrologic Studies of CAIS Record Varying Composition of Protosolar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Justin I.; Matzel, J. E. P.; Simon, S. B.; Weber, P. K.; Grossman, L.; Ross, D. K.; Hutcheon, I. D.

    2012-01-01

    Ca-, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) record the O-isotope composition of Solar nebular gas from which they grew [1]. High spatial resolution O-isotope measurements afforded by ion microprobe analysis across the rims and margin of CAIs reveal systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 and suggest formation from a diversity of nebular environments [2-4]. This heterogeneity has been explained by isotopic mixing between the O-16-rich Solar reservoir [6] and a second O-16-poor reservoir (probably nebular gas) with a "planetary-like" isotopic composition [e.g., 1, 6-7], but the mechanism and location(s) where these events occur within the protoplanetary disk remain uncertain. The orientation of large and systematic variations in (Delta)O-17 reported by [3] for a compact Type A CAI from the Efremovka reduced CV3 chondrite differs dramatically from reports by [4] of a similar CAI, A37 from the Allende oxidized CV3 chondrite. Both studies conclude that CAIs were exposed to distinct, nebular O-isotope reservoirs, implying the transfer of CAIs among different settings within the protoplanetary disk [4]. To test this hypothesis further and the extent of intra-CAI O-isotopic variation, a pristine compact Type A CAI, Ef-1 from Efremovka, and a Type B2 CAI, TS4 from Allende were studied. Our new results are equally intriguing because, collectively, O-isotopic zoning patterns in the CAIs indicate a progressive and cyclic record. The results imply that CAIs were commonly exposed to multiple environments of distinct gas during their formation. Numerical models help constrain conditions and duration of these events.

  7. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  8. The Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing autoinducer CAI-1: analysis of the biosynthetic enzyme CqsA

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.; Bolitho, M; Higgins, D; Lu, W; Ng, W; Jeffrey, P; Rabinowitz, J; Semmelhack, M; Hughson, F; Bassler, B

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the bacterium that causes the disease cholera, controls virulence factor production and biofilm development in response to two extracellular quorum-sensing molecules, called autoinducers. The strongest autoinducer, called CAI-1 (for cholera autoinducer-1), was previously identified as (S)-3-hydroxytridecan-4-one. Biosynthesis of CAI-1 requires the enzyme CqsA. Here, we determine the CqsA reaction mechanism, identify the CqsA substrates as (S)-2-aminobutyrate and decanoyl coenzyme A, and demonstrate that the product of the reaction is 3-aminotridecan-4-one, dubbed amino-CAI-1. CqsA produces amino-CAI-1 by a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent acyl-CoA transferase reaction. Amino-CAI-1 is converted to CAI-1 in a subsequent step via a CqsA-independent mechanism. Consistent with this, we find cells release {ge}100 times more CAI-1 than amino-CAI-1. Nonetheless, V. cholerae responds to amino-CAI-1 as well as CAI-1, whereas other CAI-1 variants do not elicit a quorum-sensing response. Thus, both CAI-1 and amino-CAI-1 have potential as lead molecules in the development of an anticholera treatment.

  9. Audio-Tutorial and CAI Aids for Problem Solving in Introductory Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lower, Stephen K.

    1970-01-01

    Starting from a successful audio-tutorial program, the author initiated a computer assisted tutorial program in solving chemistry problems. Discusses the advantages of computer assisted instruction (CAI) over audiotapes and the advantages of both over conventional instructional methods. Presents a flow chart of a CAI program on a calorimetry…

  10. Knowledge-Based CAI: CINS for Individualized Curriculum Sequencing. Final Technical Report No. 290.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wescourt, Keith T.; And Others

    This report describes research on the Curriculum Information Network (CIN) paradigm for computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in technical subjects. The CIN concept was first conceived and implemented in the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP). The primary objective of CIN-based CAI and the BIP project has been to develop procedures for providing each…

  11. The Computer as a Socializing Agent: Some Socioaffective Outcomes of CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robert D.; And Others

    The socializing role of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) was seen to be a positive one in this study. The students, predominantly Mexican-American, who experienced CAI, and other students, in a control group, who did not, liked the computer. They thought it gave the right answers and they respected it as having a vast array of information…

  12. A Study of Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) over Classroom Lecture (CRL) at ICS Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaousar, Tayyeba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed

    2008-01-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of CAI vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with classroom lecture and computer-assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of CAI and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypotheses of…

  13. The Graphics Terminal Display System; a Powerful General-Purpose CAI Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornbeck, Frederick W., Brock, Lynn

    The Graphic Terminal Display System (GTDS) was created to support research and development in computer-assisted instruction (CAI). The system uses an IBM 360/50 computer and interfaces with a large-screen graphics display terminal, a random-access slide projector, and a speech synthesizer. An authoring language, GRAIL, was developed for CAI, and…

  14. Effects of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) on Secondary School Students' Performance in Biology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yusuf, Mudasiru Olalere; Afolabi, Adedeji Olufemi

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of computer assisted instruction (CAI) on secondary school students' performance in biology. Also, the influence of gender on the performance of students exposed to CAI in individualised or cooperative learning settings package was examined. The research was a quasi experimental involving a 3 x 2 factorial…

  15. Curricular and Computer System Compatibility of CAI Programs for Multi-University Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    A brief introduction to developmental efforts in computer assisted instruction (CAI) at Pennsylvania State University is followed by a description of a program of mobile CAI facilities inaugurated in 1970 as part of the inservice continuing education program for teachers. The paper includes very brief descriptions of the graduate level courses…

  16. Distribution of vanadium and melting of opaque assemblages in Efremovka CAI's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.

    1993-01-01

    A petrographic and chemical study of compact Type A CAI's from the Efremovka CV3 chondrite strongly suggests that the opaque assemblages (OA's) that they contain were molten at temperatures below the CAI silicate solidus, and that the V-rich magnetite presently observed in association with OA's formed by in situ oxidation of their FeNi.

  17. Generative Computer Assisted Instruction: An Application of Artificial Intelligence to CAI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koffman, Elliot B.

    Frame-oriented computer-assisted instruction (CAI) systems dominate the field, but these mechanized programed texts utilize the computational power of the computer to a minimal degree and are difficult to modify. Newer, generative CAI systems which are supplied with a knowledge of subject matter can generate their own problems and solutions, can…

  18. An Object-Oriented Architecture for a Web-Based CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakabayashi, Kiyoshi; Hoshide, Takahide; Seshimo, Hitoshi; Fukuhara, Yoshimi

    This paper describes the design and implementation of an object-oriented World Wide Web-based CAI (Computer-Assisted Instruction) system. The goal of the design is to provide a flexible CAI/ITS (Intelligent Tutoring System) framework with full extendibility and reusability, as well as to exploit Web-based software technologies such as JAVA, ASP (a…

  19. Petrological Investigations of CAIs from Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, M. A.; Lorenz, C. A.; Korochantseva, E. V.; MacPherson, G. J.

    2010-03-01

    Several new big CAIs were extracted from the Efremovka and NWA 3118 CV3 chondrites to analyze petrology, chemistry and isotopic compositions. Here we report preliminary results on mineralogy, petrology and bulk chemistry of two CAIs, of Type B1 and of Type A.

  20. A Multi-Media CAI Terminal Based upon a Microprocessor with Applications for the Handicapped.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brebner, Ann; Hallworth, H. J.

    The design of the CAI interface described is based on the microprocessor in order to meet three basic requirements for providing appropriate instruction to the developmentally handicapped: (1) portability, so that CAI can be taken into the customary learning environment; (2) reliability; and (3) flexibility, to permit use of new input and output…

  1. A Position Paper on CAI Research and Development. A Series Two Paper from ERIC at Stanford.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldhusen, John H.; Lorton, Paul, Jr.

    After a critical review of the papers on Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) of several prominent educators, recommendations are proffered for CAI systems improvements prior to new research. These include replacing the typed message with an inexpensive cathode ray tube, developing the student interface as an efficient and pleasant carrel which…

  2. Computer-Aided Technical Training Using Electronic Equipment On-Line with the CAI System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggett, Geoffrey; And Others

    This report describes an experimental course in the operation and troubleshooting of a communications transceiver, the AN/URC-32, in which the transceiver is used as part of an instructional station in a CAI system. The transceiver and the CAI system are hard-wired together to form a single training system. The system is presently operating in the…

  3. Nebular History of the Allende FoB CAI SJ101

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petaev, M. I.; Jacobsen, S. B.

    2009-03-01

    We compare petrologic and chemical characteristics of a unique FoB CAI SJ101 with the results of thermodynamic modeling of condensation of its precursors in a system of solar composition and speculate about nebular formation history of this CAI.

  4. A New Polar Magnetic Index of Geomagnetic Activity and its Application to Monitoring Ionospheric Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new, PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating in high latitude ionosphere, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters is approximately 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  5. The Dst index underestimates the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temerin, Michael; Li, Xinlin

    2015-07-01

    It is known that the correction of the Kyoto Dst index for the secular variation of the Earth's internal field produces a discontinuity in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year. We show that this secular correction also introduces a significant baseline error to the Kyoto Dst index that leads to an underestimate of the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity and of the strength of the ring current as measured by the Kyoto Dst index. Thus, the average value of the Kyoto Dst index would be approximately 13 nT more negative for the active year 2003 compared to quiet years 2006 and 2009 if the Kyoto Dst index properly measured the effects of the ring current and other currents that influence the Dst observatories. Discontinuities in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year have an average value of about 5 nT, but the discontinuity at the end of year 2002 was approximately 12 nT, and the discontinuity at the end of year 1982 may have been as large as 20 nT.

  6. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  7. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  8. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  9. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  10. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  11. New index of pain triggered by spinal activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Ryugo; Tsukamoto, Mina; Shimoshige, Yukinori; Aoki, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2013-12-01

    Voltage-dependent sodium channels (VDSCs) are crucial for pain generation. Here, to develop a new behavioral index of pain induced by spinal VDSC activation, we examined whether intrathecal veratridine injection produced nociceptive behavior. Intrathecal injection of the VDSC opener veratridine in mice dose-dependently induced nociceptive responses, with response times subsequently reduced by administration of morphine or pregabalin. Systemic administration of lidocaine and mexiletine, but not amitriptyline, also decreased this response time. Taken together, these results demonstrated that response time of nociceptive behavior induced by intrathecal veratridine injection is a quantitative index of pain triggered by spinal VDSC activation. PMID:23760511

  12. Effects of Computer-assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-02-01

    This study investigated whether the use of the combination of the lecture, discussion and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved the experimental students' attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. The sample comprised 77 Jamaican grade 11 female students from two traditional high schools in Kingston. Attitudes to a biology questionnaire, attitudes to the computer/CAI questionnaire and a biology achievement test (BAT) were used for data collection. The results indicated that the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and the computer/CAI were significantly better than those of the control group subjects taught with the lecture and discussion methods; the experimental subjects significantly outscored the control group subjects on the post-test BAT; there were significant differences in their post-test BAT means based on their attitudes to biology in favour of experimental subjects with highly favourable attitudes to biology, but there were no significant differences in their means attributable to their post-test attitudes to the computer/CAI; there was a positive statistically significant but weak relationship between the experimental subjects' post-test attitudes to biology and their post-test BAT scores.

  13. Microstructural Investigation of a Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, J.; Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.; Simon, J. I.

    2015-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi-layered mineral sequences that surround many CAIs. These rim layers consist of the primary minerals found in the CAI interiors, but vary in their mineralogy. Several models for their origin have been proposed including condensation, reaction with a nebular gas, evaporation, or combinations of these. However, there still is little consensus on how and when the rims formed. Here, we describe the microstructure and mineralogy of a WL rim on a type B CAI from the Vigarano CV(sub red) chondrite using FIB/TEM to better understand the astrophysical significance of WL rim formation.

  14. Index to NASA tech briefs, 1973. [technology transfer of research and development activities chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Short announcements of technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission are issued to encourage commercial application. Emphasis is placed on information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines. Abstracts and indexes are given.

  15. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  16. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  17. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets.

  18. Formation of refractory metal nuggets and their link to the history of CAIs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwander, D.; Kööp, L.; Berg, T.; Schönhense, G.; Heck, P. R.; Davis, A. M.; Ott, U.

    2015-11-01

    Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) often contain numerous refractory metal nuggets (RMNs), consisting of elements like Os, Ir, Mo, Pt and Ru. The nuggets are usually thought to have formed by equilibrium condensation from a gas of solar composition, simultaneously with or prior to oxide and silicate minerals. However, the exact mechanisms responsible for their extremely variable compositions, small sizes and associations with CAI minerals remain puzzling. Expanding on previous work on chemically separated RMNs, we have studied a large number of RMNs within their host CAIs from three different meteorite types, i.e., the highly primitive chondrite Acfer 094 (C2-ungrouped), Allende (CV3ox) and Murchison (CM2). Our results show several inconsistencies between the observed features and a direct condensation origin, including a lack of correlated abundance variations in the refractory metals that are expected from variations in condensation temperature. Instead, we show that most RMN features are consistent with RMN formation by precipitation from a CAI liquid enriched in refractory metals. This scenario is additionally supported by the common occurrence of RMNs in CAIs with clear melt crystallization textures as well as the occurrence of synthetic RMNs with highly variable compositions in run products from Schwander et al. (2015). In some cases, the sizes of meteoritic RMNs correlate with the sizes of their host minerals in CAIs, which indicates common cooling rates.

  19. Forecasting the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index using multiscale radial basis function networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. L.; Zhu, D. Q.; Billings, S. A.; Balikhin, M. A.

    The Dst index is a key parameter which characterises the disturbance of the geomagnetic field in magnetic storms. Modelling of the Dst index is thus very important for the analysis of the geomagnetic field. A data-based modelling approach, aimed at obtaining efficient models from limited input-output observational data, provides a powerful tool for analysing and forecasting geomagnetic activities including the prediction of the Dst index. In this study, the process of the Dst index is treated to be a structure-unknown system, where the solar wind parameter ( VBs) and the solar wind dynamic pressure ( P) are the system inputs, and the Dst index is the system output. A novel multiscale RBF (MSRBF) network is introduced to represent such a two-input and single-output system, where the Dst index is related to the solar wind parameter and the dynamic pressure, via a hybrid network model consisting of two submodels: a linear part that reflects the linear relationship between the output and the inputs, and a nonlinear part that captures the effect of the interacting contribution of past observations of the inputs and the output, on the current output. The proposed MSRBF network can easily be converted into a linear-in-the-parameters form and the training of the linear network model can easily be implemented using a forward orthogonal regression (FOR) algorithm. One advantage of the new MSRBF network, compared with traditional single scale RBF networks, is that the new network is more flexible for describing complex nonlinear dynamical systems.

  20. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index (SRI); a new SLE disease activity assessment.

    PubMed

    Luijten, K M A C; Tekstra, J; Bijlsma, J W J; Bijl, M

    2012-03-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), because of its complex and multisystemic presentation, lacks a reliable and sensitive gold standard for measuring disease activity. In addition, there is no standardized method for defining response to therapy. Several disease activity indices have been developed over the years, each with their own positive and negative aspects. Growing insight in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases like SLE leads to the introduction of specific targeted biologic therapies. To investigate the efficacy of these new biologic agents, disease activity must be monitored regularly by a reliable and validated instrument. Recent studies on new biologics for treatment of SLE use a new composite measurement for disease activity and response in SLE. This new disease activity assessment, called SLE Responder Index (SRI), comprises criteria from three different internationally validated indices, SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI), Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) 2004. This review gives an overview of current available disease activity indices in relation to the newly developed composite SRI.

  1. Effects of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) on 11th Graders' Attitudes to Biology and CAI and Understanding of Reproduction in Plants and Animals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Hudson, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Investigates whether the use of the combination of lecture, discussion, and computer-assisted instruction (CAI) significantly improved students' attitudes toward biology and their understanding of reproduction in plants and animals. Studies grade 11 Jamaican female students (n=77) from two traditional high schools in Kingston. (Contains 19…

  2. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer. PMID:27335798

  3. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  4. Search for extinct 36Cl: Vigarano CAIs, the Pink Angel from Allende, and a Ningqiang chondrule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, Daisuke; Ott, Ulrich; Hoppe, Peter; El Goresy, Ahmed

    2008-12-01

    We have searched for excesses of 36S derived from the decay of extinct 36Cl in sodalite, a secondary Cl-rich mineral, in Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) from the Vigarano and Allende CV3 chondrites and in a chondrule from the Ningqiang carbonaceous chondrite. The presence of sodalite in two CAIs from Vigarano and its absence from surrounding CAI fragments suggests sodalite formation after CAI fragmentation. As for sodalite in the Allende Pink Angel CAI, oxygen isotopic compositions have been interpreted as indicative of high temperature interactions, thus suggesting formation prior to accretion to the parent body, probably in a nebular setting. Sodalite in the Ningqiang chondrule is considered to have formed via alkali-Ca exchange, which is believed to have occurred before accretion to the parent body. Sodalites in the Vigarano CAIs and in the Ningqiang chondrule show no clear evidence for the presence of radiogenic 36S. The inferred 2 σ upper limits for 36Cl/ 35Cl at the time of sodalite formation are 1.6 × 10 -6 (Vigarano CAIs) and 3.3 × 10 -6 (Ningqiang chondrule), respectively. In the Pink Angel CAI sodalite exhibits small 36S excesses which weakly correlate with 35Cl/ 34S ratios. The inferred 36Cl/ 35Cl ratio of (1.8 ± 2.2) × 10 -6 (2 σ error) is lower than that found by Hsu et al. [Hsu, W., Guan, Y., Leshin, L. A., Ushikubo, T. and Wasserburg, G. J. (2006) A late episode of irradiation in the early solar system: Evidence from extinct 36Cl and 26Al in meteorites. Astrophys. J. 640, 525-529], thus indicative of heterogeneous distribution of 36Cl in this CAI. Spallation reactions induced by energetic particles from the young Sun are suggested for the origin of 36Cl, similar to the case of 10Be. While 10Be appears to be present in roughly equal abundance in all studied CAIs, our study indicates the level of 36Cl abundances to be variable so that there seems to be no simple relationship between 10Be and 36Cl. This would be expected if trapped cosmic rays rather

  5. Reduced cortical activity during maximal bilateral contractions of the index finger.

    PubMed

    Post, Marijn; van Duinen, Hiske; Steens, Anneke; Renken, Remco; Kuipers, Bart; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-03-01

    The bilateral deficit refers to the phenomenon in which homologous muscles produce per muscle less force when contracting simultaneously than when contracting individually. The mechanism underlying the bilateral deficit is still unknown, but the most likely cause is a decline in the activation of motor units during bilateral contractions. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the degree of brain activity during unilateral and bilateral maximal contractions in combination with force and EMG measurements. Subjects performed, in a semi-randomized order, maximal isometric contractions (MVC) with the right index finger, the left index finger and with both fingers simultaneously. During the task, brain activation was measured with a 3 T MR scanner, in combination with force and EMG recordings. The most important activated areas in the brain during the contractions were the sensorimotor cortex (precentral and postcentral gyrus), cerebellum, premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. During bilateral contractions, a significant decline in force and EMG values was found and detailed analysis of the brain activation data showed that this decline was accompanied with a significant decline in the activation of the precentral gyrus. This result suggests that the bilateral decline is the resultant of a decline in input to the primary motor area and shows that the main source of the bilateral deficit lies upstream of the primary motor cortex.

  6. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  7. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  8. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS.

  9. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state.

  10. Evidence for extinct 135Cs from Ba isotopes in Allende CAIs?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermingham, K. R.; Mezger, K.; Desch, S. J.; Scherer, E. E.; Horstmann, M.

    2014-05-01

    The abundance and distribution of isotopes throughout the Solar System can be used to constrain the number and type of nucleosynthetic events that contributed material to the early nebula. Barium is particularly well suited to quantifying the degree of isotope heterogeneity in the Solar System because it comprises seven stable isotopes that were synthesized by three different nucleosynthetic processes (s-, r-, and p-processes), all of which contributed material to the Solar System. There is also potential contribution to 135Ba from short-lived radioisotope 135Cs, conclusive evidence for which is yet to be reported. Four Allende (CV3) Ca,Al-rich inclusions (CAI 1, CAI 2, CAI 4, CAI 5) and one Allende dark inclusion (DI) were analyzed for Ba isotope variability. Two CAIs (CAI 2 and CAI 5) display 135Ba excesses that are not accompanied by 137Ba anomalies. Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 1 displays a 135Ba excess that is possibly coupled with a 137Ba excess, and the remaining refractory inclusions (CAI 2 and DI) have terrestrial Ba isotope compositions. These Ba isotope data are presented in conjunction with published whole rock Ba isotope data from individual Allende CAIs. The enrichment in 135Ba and absence of coupled 137Ba excesses in CAI 2 and CAI 5 is interpreted to indicate that the anomalies are not purely nucleosynthetic in origin but also contain contributions (16-48 ppm) from the decay of short-lived 135Cs. The majority of Allende CAIs studied to date may also have similar contributions from 135Cs on the basis of higher than expected 135Ba excesses if the Ba isotope anomalies were purely nucleosynthetic in origin. The 135Ba anomalies appear not to be coupled with superchondritic Cs/Ba, which may imply that the contribution to 135Ba did not occur via in situ decay of live 135Cs. However, it is feasible that the CAIs had a superchondritic Cs/Ba during decay of 135Cs, but Cs was subsequently removed from the system during aqueous alteration on the parent body

  11. Forecasting geomagnetic activity indices using the Boyle index through artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Ramkumar

    2010-11-01

    Adverse space weather conditions affect various sectors making both human lives and technologies highly susceptible. This dissertation introduces a new set of algorithms suitable for short term space weather forecasts with an enhanced lead-time and better accuracy in predicting Kp, Dst and the AE index over some leading models. Kp is a 3-hour averaged global geomagnetic activity index good for midlatitude regions. The Dst index, an hourly index calculated using four ground based magnetic field measurements near the equator, measures the energy of the Earth's ring current. The Auroral Electrojet indices or AE indices are hourly indices used to characterize the global geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone. Our algorithms can predict these indices purely from the solar wind data with lead times up to 6 hours. We have trained and tested an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) over a complete solar cycle to serve this purpose. Over the last couple of decades, ANNs have been successful for temporal prediction problems amongst other advanced non-linear techniques. Our ANN-based algorithms receive near-real-time inputs either from ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer), located at L1, and a handful of ground-based magnetometers or only from ACE. The Boyle potential, phi = 10-4 (vkm/sec)2+ 11.7BnT sin3 (theta/2) kV, or the Boyle Index (BI) is an empirically-derived formula that approximates the Earth's polar cap potential and is easily derivable in real time using the solar wind data from ACE. The logarithms of both 3-hour and 1-hour averages of the Boyle Index correlate well with the subsequent Kp, Dst and AE: Kp = 8.93 log 10 - 12.55. Dst = 0.355 - 6.48, and AE = 5.87 - 83.46. Inputs to our ANN models have greatly benefitted from the BI and its proven record as a forecasting parameter since its initiation in October, 2003. A preconditioning event tunes the magnetosphere to a specific state before an impending geomagnetic storm. The neural net not only improves the

  12. Two systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) global disease activity indexes--the SLE Disease Activity Index and the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure--demonstrate different correlations with activation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Daca, Agnieszka; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Smoleńska, Zaneta; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    Global disease activity measurement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is important for the clinical estimation and adjustment of therapy. By contrast, immune system activation plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis, with CD4+ lymphocytes acting as central cells in the immune response. We investigated which scale better correlates with immunologic changes in the blood of SLE patients, the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) or the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) scale. Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from 45 SLE patients with different disease activity as assessed by the SLEDAI and the SLAM scales on the same day. We assessed the percentage of CD4+ T cells with activation-associated receptors: CD69, CD25int, CD95, HLA-DR, and CD4+ T cells with killing properties containing perforin and granzyme B. Our results indicated that the percentage of CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25(int) cells did not correlate with either the SLEDAI or the SLAM scale. Significant and positive correlations were observed between percentages of CD4+CD95+ and CD4+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes and SLE activity, but only when activity was measured using the SLAM scale, not with the SLEDAI scale. The percentage of CD4+perforin+ and CD4+granzyme B+ cells also strongly correlated with disease activity measured only with the SLAM scale. We conclude that the SLAM scale better reflects changes of immune system activity in SLE patients compared with the SLEDAI scale.

  13. The Formation Of The First Solids In The Solar System: An Investigation Of CAI Diversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taillifet, Esther; Baillié, K.; Charnoz, S.; Aléon, J.

    2012-10-01

    Chondritic meteorites are primitive bodies and therefore an important source of information on the first moments of planets formation. Chondrites contain several materials especially calcium and aluminum rich inclusions (CAIs), known to be the oldest objects of the solar system (4.567 Gyr - Amelin et al., 2002; Connelly et al., 2008) and thus the first solids to be formed. CAIs appear in various textures, sizes and compositions in chondrites. Though, all of them should have formed at high temperature (1300-1800 K) in the same region of the solar nebula by condensation from the gas (e.g. Grossman, 1972; Yoneda & Grossman, 1995; Petaev & Wood, 1998; Ebel & Grossman 2000). To answer this problem we study the CAI formation within the solar nebula using numerical simulations. For this work we developed a self consistent thermodynamical model of the solar nebula (see associated talk from Baillié et. al ) based on previous works (Calvet et. al, 1991; Hueso & Guillot, 2005; Dullemond, Dominik and Natta, 2001). Using this model, we simulate the young system with Lagrangian Implicit Disk Transport code (LIDT - Charnoz et. al, 2010). We will focus on the very first instants of the CAIs within the few years following their condensation. We will report our first results in terms of thermal history and investigate if turbulence-driven transport may explain the CAI diversity.

  14. The ethnoecology of Caiçara metapopulations (Atlantic Forest, Brazil): ecological concepts and questions

    PubMed Central

    Begossi, Alpina

    2006-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is represented on the coast of Brazil by approximately 7,5% of remnants, much of these concentrated on the country's SE coast. Within these southeastern remnants, we still find the coastal Caiçaras who descend from Native Indians and Portuguese Colonizers. The maintenance of such populations, and their existence in spite of the deforestation that occurred on the Atlantic Forest coast, deserves especial attention and analysis. In this study, I address, in particular, the Caiçaras who live on the coast of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro States, illustrating with examples of coastal inhabitants from other areas, such as Bahia State (NE coast) and of other forested areas (riverine caboclos of the Amazon). The major focus of this study, based on previous research, performed since 1986 in several populations or villages of the Atlantic Forest coast, is to understand the resilience of the Caiçaras, which is analyzed using ecological concepts, such as metapopulation, resilience and adaptive cycles. The Caiçara populations are located on islands (Búzios, Comprida, Grande, Ilhabela, Jaguanum, Gipóia) and on the coast (Bertioga, Puruba, Picinguaba, among others). Information gathered about the Caiçaras regarding the economic cycles of the local regions, along with ecological, historical and economic data available, are used to understand such resilience, and are complemented with comparative examples from the Brazilian Amazon and with variables such as the local restrictions imposed by environmental governmental agencies. PMID:17010204

  15. Mineralogy and Petrology of EK-459-5-1, A Type B1 CAI from Allende

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2015-01-01

    Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) are a type of coarse-grained clast composed of Ca-, Al-, and Mg-rich silicates and oxides found in chondrite meteorites. Type B (CAIs) are exclusively found in the CV chondrite meteorites and are the most well studied type of inclusion found in chondritic meteorites. Type B1 CAIs are distinguished by a nearly monomineralic rim of melilite that surrounds an interior predominantly composed of melilite, fassaite (Ti and Al-rich clinopyroxene), anorthite, and spinel with varying amounts of other minor primary and secondary phases. The formation of Type B CAIs has received considerable attention in the course of CAI research and quantitative models, experimental results and observations from Type B inclusions remain largely in disagreement. Recent experimental results and quantitative models have shown that the formation of B1 mantles could have occurred by the evaporative loss of Si and Mg during the crystallization of these objects. However, comparative studies suggest that the lower bulk SiO2 compositions in B1s result in more prior melilite crystallization before the onset of fassaite and anorthite crystallization leading to the formation of thick melilite rich rims in B1 inclusions. Detailed petrographic and cosmochemical studies of these inclusions will further our understanding of these complex objects.

  16. [Indexes of integrative activity of motor system in norm and at neuromotor pathology].

    PubMed

    Aleksanian, Z A; Romanov, S P

    2012-11-01

    Characteristics of integrative activity of motor control system are received by the methods of the time series analysis. The methods allow to give an objective estimation of human brain pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems functional state. Authors consider the voluntary regulation of isometric effort as a model of movement and investigate this effort as the integrative motor output of a motor control system. Using of peculiar methodology of non-invasive research of parameters of isometric effort as indexes of CNS integrative activity, and application of modern methods of the time-series analysis has allowed to receive a new data concerning an estimation of activity of structures of motor control system in norm and in some neurodegenerative diseases of CNS (Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis). These results represent the new knowledge in the field of movement physiology, and also expand opportunity of hardware diagnostics of neuromotor dysfunctions.

  17. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  18. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.

  19. A FIB/TEM Study of a Complex Wark-Lovering Rim on a Vigarano CAI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.

    2013-01-01

    Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multilayered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). Several processes have been proposed for WL rim formation, including condensation, flash-heating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these [e.g. 1-7], but no consensus exists. Our previous coordinated transmission electron microscope (TEM) and NanoSIMS O isotopic measurements showed that a WL rim experienced flash heating events in a nebular environment with planetary O isotopic composition, distinct from the (16)O-rich formation environment [6]. Our efforts have focused on CAIs from the CV(sub red) chondrites, especially Vigarano, because these have escaped much of the parent body alteration effects that are common in CAIs from CV(sub ox) group.

  20. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  1. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study.

    PubMed

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs.

  2. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  3. Deriving High Resolution UV Aerosol Optical Depth over East Asia using CAI-OMI Joint Retrieval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, S.; Kim, J.; KIM, M.; Lee, S.

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring aerosols using near UV spectral region have been successfully performed over decades by Ozong Monitoring Instruments (OMI) with benefit of strong aerosol signal over continuous dark surface reflectance, both land and ocean. However, because of big foot print of OMI, the cloud contamination error was a big issue in the UV aerosol algorithm. In the present study, high resolution UV aerosol optical depth (AOD) over East Asia was derived by collaborating the Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite/Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (GOSAT/TANSO)-Cloud and Aerosol Imager (CAI) and OMI together. AOD of 0.1 degree grid resolution was retrieved using CAI band 1 (380nm) by bring OMI lv.2 aerosol type, single scattering albedo, and aerosol layer peak height in 1 degree grid resolution. Collocation of the two dataset within the 0.5 degree grid with time difference of OMI and CAI less than 5 minute was selected. Selected region becomes wider as it goes to the higher latitude. Also, calculated degradation factor of 1.57 was applied to CAI band1 (380nm) by comparing normalized radiance and Lambertian Equivalent Reflectivity (LER) of both sensors. The calculated degradation factor was reasonable over dark scene, but inconsistent over cirrus cloud and bright area. Then, surface reflectance was developed by compositing CAI LER minimum data over three month period, since the infrequent sampling rate associated with the three-day recursion period of GOSAT and the narrow CAI swath of 1000 km. To retrieve AOD, look up table (LUT) was generated using radiative transfer model VLIDORT NGST. Finally, the retrieved AOD was validated with AERONET ground based measurement data during the Dragon-NE Asia campaign in 2012.

  4. Verification of new cloud discrimination algorithm using GOSAT TANSO-CAI in the Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Y.; Ishida, H.; Nakajima, T. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT) was launched in 2009 to measure the global atmospheric CO2 and CH4 concentrations. GOSAT is equipped with two sensors: the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) and the Cloud and Aerosol Imager (TANSO-CAI). The presence of clouds in the instantaneous field-of-view (IFOV) of the FTS leads to incorrect estimates of the concentrations. Thus, the FTS data which are suspected to be cloud-contaminated must be identified using a CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and rejected. Conversely, overestimation of clouds leads to reduce the amount of the FTS data which can be used to estimate the greenhouse gases concentrations. It becomes a serious problem in the region of tropical rainforest such as the Amazon, where there are very few remaining FTS data by cloud cover. The preparation for the launch of the GOSAT-2 in fiscal 2017 has been progressing. To improve the accuracy of estimates of the greenhouse gases concentrations, we need to refine the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm. For the reason, a new cloud discrimination algorithm using support vector machines (SVM) was developed. Visual inspections can use the locally optimized thresholds, though the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm uses the common thresholds all over the world. Thus, it is certain that the accuracy of visual inspections is better than these algorithms in the limited region without areas such as ice and snow, where it is difficult to discriminate between clouds and ground surfaces. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of the new cloud discrimination algorithm by comparing with the existing CAI cloud discrimination algorithm and visual inspections of the same CAI images in the Amazon. We will present our latest results.

  5. Relationships between plasma insulin triglyceride, body mass index, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    PubMed

    Juhan-Vague, I; Vague, P; Alessi, M C; Badier, C; Valadier, J; Aillaud, M F; Atlan, C

    1987-07-01

    Low fibrinolytic activity, as measured by euglobulin (EFA), has been observed in obese subjects, and hypofibrinolysis may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications. Blood fibrinolytic activity is regulated through a complex system of activators and inhibitors, especially plasminogen activator inhibitors (PA Inhibitors). In a group of 35 non-diabetic subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI), EFA was negatively correlated, and PA Inhibitor activity positively correlated, with BMI and plasma insulin levels. In a population of 49 non-diabetic obese women (differing from a control group of normal weight by lower EFA and higher level, of PA Inhibitor activity, plasma insulin and triglyceride), the PA Inhibitor activity was positively correlated with BMI, insulin and triglyceride. The increase in PA Inhibitor activity was associated with a high value of PA Inhibitor 1 antigen measured by an immuno-radiometric assay, indicating that the increased activity was due to a high level of circulating PA Inhibitor 1. Plasma insulin was lowered in obese non-diabetic subjects, without modification of the body weight, by a 24 hour fast or by treatment with Metformin. After 24 hours' fast, ten obese subjects had lower levels of insulin and PA Inhibitor activity and an increase in EFA. Treatment for 15 days by 1.75 g Metformin (or placebo), on a weight maintaining diet, induced, in the Metformin group, a decrease in plasma insulin, triglyceride and PA Inhibitor activity and an increase in EFA, while no change was observed in the placebo group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an allende CAI

    PubMed

    Young; Russell

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta17O against delta18O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in 17O and 18O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive 16O-rich component of CAIs.

  7. Oxygen reservoirs in the early solar nebula inferred from an Allende CAI.

    PubMed

    Young, E D; Russell, S S

    1998-10-16

    Ultraviolet laser microprobe analyses of a calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (CAI) from the Allende meteorite suggest that a line with a slope of exactly 1.00 on a plot of delta (17)O against delta (18)O represents the primitive oxygen isotope reservoir of the early solar nebula. Most meteorites are enriched in (17)O and (18)O relative to this line, and their oxygen isotope ratios can be explained by mass fractionation or isotope exchange initiating from the primitive reservoir. These data establish a link between the oxygen isotopic composition of the abundant ordinary chondrites and the primitive (16)O-rich component of CAIs.

  8. Germination of white radish, buckwheat and qing-geng-cai under low pressure in closed environment.

    PubMed

    Hinokuchi, Tsutomu; Oshima, Satoshi; Hashimoto, Hirofumi

    2004-11-01

    In order to cultivate plants under low pressure in closed environment, the germination rate of seeds of white radish was investigated under low pressure, low oxygen partial pressure and condition of pure oxygen. The result of these experiments showed that the germination rate was affected by the oxygen partial pressure. From this fact, it is possible to lower the total pressure by using only the pure oxygen in germination. Furthermore, the germination rates of seeds of buckwheat and qing-geng-cai were also investigated in pure oxygen for the comparison. Consequently, though tendency in germination rate of white radish was similar to qing-geng-cai, it was different from buckwheat.

  9. Suitability of Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and filamentous bacteria analysis for assessing activated sludge process performance: the case of piggery slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Menoni, Laura; Nembrini, Stefano; Manili, Livia; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Piggery slaughterhouse wastewater poses serious issues in terms of disposal feasibility and environmental impact, due to its huge organic load and variability. It is commonly treated by means of activated sludge processes, whose performance, in case of municipal wastewater, can be monitored by means of specific analyses, such as Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and floc and filamentous bacteria observation. Therefore, this paper was aimed at assessing the applicability of these techniques to piggery slaughterhouse sewage. A plant located in Northern Italy was monitored for 1 year. Physical, chemical and operation parameters were measured; the activated sludge community (ciliates, flagellates, amoebae and small metazoa) was analysed for calculating SBI and SI. Floc and filamentous bacteria were examined and described accordingly with internationally adopted criteria. The results showed the full applicability of the studied techniques for optimizing the operation of a piggery slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27072565

  10. Disease activity and response assessment in psoriatic arthritis using the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA). A brief review.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Schoels, Monika; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this review we provide reasons to use joint specific composite measures of disease activity for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) rather than composite scores that combine several manifestations of psoriatic disease, including skin involvement. Based on a principal component analysis, which, indeed, excluded skin involvement as a major factor in PsA, the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) was validated using clinical trial and observational data. Further, disease activity states and response criteria were recently defined. The DAPSA is simply calculated by summing swollen + tender joint counts + patient pain + patient global assessments + CRP, using 66/68 joint counts. DAPSA has meanwhile been validated in other studies and has shown to have a very high level of validity, also when compared with joint sonography. Thus, DAPSA is useful in clinical practice, clinical trials and observational studies.

  11. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  12. The Fidelity Index provides a systematic quantitation of star activity of DNA restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Therrien, Caitlin; Blanchard, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases are the basic tools of molecular biology. Many restriction endonucleases show relaxed sequence recognition, called star activity, as an inherent property under various digestion conditions including the optimal ones. To quantify this property we propose the concept of the Fidelity Index (FI), which is defined as the ratio of the maximum enzyme amount showing no star activity to the minimum amount needed for complete digestion at the cognate recognition site for any particular restriction endonuclease. Fidelity indices for a large number of restriction endonucleases are reported here. The effects of reaction vessel, reaction volume, incubation mode, substrate differences, reaction time, reaction temperature and additional glycerol, DMSO, ethanol and Mn2+ on the FI are also investigated. The FI provides a practical guideline for the use of restriction endonucleases and defines a fundamental property by which restriction endonucleases can be characterized. PMID:18413342

  13. Stable Magnesium Isotope Variation in Melilite Mantle of Allende Type B1 CAI EK 459-5-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Jeffcoat, C. R.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.

    2014-01-01

    Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) are the earliest formed crystalline material in our solar system and they record early Solar System processes. Here we present petrographic and delta Mg-25 data of melilite mantles in a Type B1 CAI that records early solar nebular processes.

  14. The Matriculation Science Curriculum of the USM in the Context of the PPI and CAI Modes of Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Chuah Chong; Seng, Chin Pin

    1985-01-01

    Discusses philosophy, aims and objectives, and structure of the Matriculation Science Curriculum of the University Sains Malaysia. Includes comments on instructional strategies, individualized learning, programmed instruction, systems approach to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) implementation, CAI authoring system, and various program…

  15. Gender Role, Gender Identity and Sexual Orientation in CAIS ("XY-Women") Compared With Subfertile and Infertile 46,XX Women.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Franziska; Fliegner, Maike; Krupp, Kerstin; Rall, Katharina; Brucker, Sara; Richter-Appelt, Hertha

    2016-01-01

    The perception of gender development of individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) as unambiguously female has recently been challenged in both qualitative data and case reports of male gender identity. The aim of the mixed-method study presented was to examine the self-perception of CAIS individuals regarding different aspects of gender and to identify commonalities and differences in comparison with subfertile and infertile XX-chromosomal women with diagnoses of Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome (MRKHS) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The study sample comprised 11 participants with CAIS, 49 with MRKHS, and 55 with PCOS. Gender identity was assessed by means of a multidimensional instrument, which showed significant differences between the CAIS group and the XX-chromosomal women. Other-than-female gender roles and neither-female-nor-male sexes/genders were reported only by individuals with CAIS. The percentage with a not exclusively androphile sexual orientation was unexceptionally high in the CAIS group compared to the prevalence in "normative" women and the clinical groups. The findings support the assumption made by Meyer-Bahlburg ( 2010 ) that gender outcome in people with CAIS is more variable than generally stated. Parents and professionals should thus be open to courses of gender development other than typically female in individuals with CAIS.

  16. The Interplay between Different Forms of CAI and Students' Preferences of Learning Environment in the Secondary Science Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This evaluation study investigated the effects of a teacher-centered versus student-centered computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on 10th graders' earth science student learning outcomes. This study also explored whether the effects of different forms of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on student learning outcomes were influenced by student…

  17. Revision of the Oriental leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Ledrinae), with a new synonym and two new combinations.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Webb, Michael D; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Destinoides Cai & He is revised to include two species D. latifrons (Walker 1851, Ledra) n. comb. and D. conspicuus (Distant 1907, Petalocephala) n. comb. Destinoides fasciata Cai & He, 2000 is placed as a junior synonym of D. latifrons, syn. nov. These two species are redescribed and illustrated in detail and a key is given based on the males.

  18. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  19. [CAIS correction for blood matrix effect on determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio by ICP-MS].

    PubMed

    Zeng, Jing; Wang, Xiao-yan; Liu, Hu-sheng; Dun, Zhe; Zhai, Lei; Wang, Jing-yu

    2007-02-01

    The research studied the influence of matrix effect on the determination of lead concentration and isotope ratio through simulating blood matrix, and its correction by common analyte internal standardization (CAIS) method. The experiment results showed that CAIS method was suitable for the multi-element-matrix. The relative errors between the determined and the true concentration values are 20% (without correction), 8% (by conventional internal reference correction) and 2% (by CAIS correction), respectively. Otherwise, the influence of matrix effect and its correction for isotope ratio determination are not that obvious. Similarity of the mass number and properties between internal reference and analyte elements seems not important for CAIS correction, since very close correction results were obtained by using Tl and Dy as internal reference elements. Besides, correction results are not affected by different matrix dilution. Reliability and practicality of CAIS were proved by bovine blood standard material determination.

  20. Sedentary versus active leisure activities and their relationship with sleeping habits and body mass index in children of 9 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Peña, Elsa; Errasti, José Manuel; Busto, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    A random sample of 291 9- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and leisure activities were the independent variables and the body mass index was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary and active leisure time and hours spent sleeping are predictors of the body mass index in children. Those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer tend to have a greater body mass index, while those children who go to bed earlier and have spent more time reading or playing in the park or at home have a lower body mass index. Encouraging active leisure activities can have an extremely positive effect on their body mass index.

  1. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  2. A real-time framework for classifying, indexing and querying image database volcano activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2013-12-01

    INGV-OE monitors explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano in order to analyze its eruptive dynamics. Since strombolian activity can be monitored using thermal camera frames, an efficient system able to require information from a huge amount of frames is needed. Aim of this work is the development of a novel system capable of fast data retrieval, based on similarity concepts. In the light of it, an indexing algorithm was developed. The concept is finding elements of a set that are close respect to a query element, according to a similarity criterion. To accomplish this task each video frame is processed using morphological image processing techniques to extract the image area of the explosion. Each closed curve, representing the explosion contour, is processed in order to extract useful features that constitute the metric space in which similarity between objects can be evaluated calculating the distances using an appropriate distance function. This approach suffers from an intrinsic problem related to the number of distances to be computed on a huge amount of data. To overcome this drawback, an indexing algorithm was applied. The idea behind this concept is a tree data structure that minimizes the number of distances to be computed among objects. Proposed method allows us to perform a fast query execution. The proposed system is able to find similar objects using distance among their features. Thus, we can group together explosions related to different kinds of activities using reference items. For instance, if we have a known image sequence, showing a given explosion, we can easily and quickly find all sequences containing explosions similar to it. The developed framework is able to both classifying each new explosion and dynamically insert the corresponding object into the tree structure. Therefore, by our approach, we can cluster the entire data space grouping objects having similar characteristics and classify them.

  3. Feasibility and Validity of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Jennifer L.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Zhang, Peixin; Forrest, Christopher B; Bailey, L. Charles; Colletti, Richard B.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive disease activity index developed as a clinical trial endpoint. More recently, practice guidelines have recommended the use of PUCAI in routine clinical care. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of PUCAI in a large, diverse collection of pediatric gastroenterology practices. Methods We extracted data from the two most recent encounters for patients with ulcerative colitis in the ImproveCareNow registry. Feasibility was determined by the percent of patients for whom all PUCAI components were recorded, validity by correlation of PUCAI scores across Physician Global Assessment (PGA) categories, and responsiveness to change by the correlation between the change in PUCAI and PGA scores between visits. Results 2503 patients were included (49.5% male, age 15.2±4.1 years, disease duration 3.7±3.2 years). All items in the PUCAI were completed for 96% of visits. PUCAI demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability between remission, mild and moderate disease; discrimination between moderate and severe disease was less robust. There was good correlation with PGA [r=0.76 (p<0.001), weighted kappa k=0.73 (p<0.001)]. The PUCAI change scores correlated well with PGA change scores (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability of the PUCAI was good (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.72 [95% CI 0.70–0.75], p<0.001). Guyatt’s responsiveness statistic was 1.18 and the correlation of ΔPUCAI with ΔPGA was 0.69 (p<0.001). Conclusions The PUCAI is feasible to use in routine clinical settings. Evidence of its validity and responsiveness support its use as a clinical tool for monitoring disease activity for patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:25221935

  4. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  5. Real-Time Graphics for CAI: A Rudimentary Grammar and Demonstration Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William

    This paper focuses on graphics and how they can be created, in real time, from information stored in a database, and the application of this technique to computer-assisted instruction (CAI). It is noted that this is a special case of the general trend towards endowing instructional systems with a degree of decision-making or design expertise, as…

  6. Role of Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI) in an Introductory Computer Concepts Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skudrna, Vincent J.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the role of computer assisted instruction (CAI) in undergraduate education via a survey of related literature and specific applications. Describes an undergraduate computer concepts course and includes appendices of instructions, flowcharts, programs, sample student work in accounting, COBOL instructional model, decision logic in a…

  7. Toward a Market Success for CAI; An Overview of the TICCIT Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stetten, Kenneth J.

    A new computer-assisted instruction (CAI) system for college teaching is being tested in two locations by the MITRE Corporation. The system, called TICCIT (Time-Share Interactive Computer-Controlled Information Television), now interacts with more than 100 students, each moving at his own pace, for four semesters of community college math and…

  8. Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instructions (CAI) in Teaching of Mathematics at Secondary Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhevakrishnan, R.; Devi, S.; Chinnaiyan, K.

    2012-09-01

    The present study was aimed at effectiveness of computer assisted instructions (CAI) in teaching of mathematics at secondary level adopted experimental method and observing the difference between (CAI) and traditional method. A sample of sixty (60) students of IX class in VVB Matriculation Higher Secondary School at Elayampalayam, Namakkal district were selected for a sample and sample was divided into two group namely experiment and control group. The experimental group consisted 30 students who were taught 'Mensurationí by the computer assisted instructions and the control groups comprising 30 students were taught by the conventional method of teaching. Data analyzed using mean, S.D. and t-test. Findings of the study clearly point out that significant increase in the mean gain scores has been found in the post test scores of the experimental group. Significant differences have been found between the control group and experimental group on post test gain scores. The experiment group, which was taught by the CAI showed better, learning. The conclusion is evident that the CAI is an effective media of instruction for teaching Mathematics at secondary students.s

  9. Web Pages: An Effective Method of Providing CAI Resource Material in Histology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Michelle

    2001-01-01

    Presents research that introduces computer-aided instruction (CAI) resource material as an integral part of the second-year histology course at the University of Natal Medical School. Describes the ease with which this software can be developed, using limited resources and available skills, while providing students with valuable learning…

  10. The Development and Utilization of Mobile CAI for the Education of Nurses in Remote Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Keith A.

    In providing for inservice nursing educational opportunities, the obvious advantages of the computer-assisted instruction (CAI) mobile system are its inherent interactive quality and the flexibility of scheduling made available to those who are already working in a field. The rationale for the development of the system is based on the past and…

  11. Assessing the Impact of Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) in Undergraduate Latin American Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child, Jack

    This paper assesses the impact of using computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in three American University undergraduate classes, a General Education survey course on Latin America (taught in English), and two Spanish language courses. The courses utilized both commercial software programs and software programs authored by faculty using Macintosh…

  12. Examination and Application of Formative Evaluation for Author Utilization During the Preparation of a CAI Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Marjorie Ellen

    A study was devised to investigate the use of formative evaluation during the preparation of a course entitled "Education of Visually Handicapped Children" designed for presentation to students through computer-assisted instruction (CAI). Various models for formative evaluation were examined, the Baker and Schutz cycle for instructional product…

  13. On the Design and Development of Pedagogy-First CAI Tools for CS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vadaparty, K.; And Others

    This paper presents the implications of an ongoing project on the design and development of multimedia instructional material for teaching and learning computer science topics at both graduate and undergraduate levels. Important pedagogical requirements that CAI software should satisfy include: (1) animation of the changes in tree topologies; (2)…

  14. Development of a Computer-Assisted Instruction (CAI) Program on the Delphi Technique.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurdy, Carol

    The concept of Delphi technique was presented in a computer-assisted instruction (CAI) module designed for educational administration classes or inservice training of administrators. Instructional Dialogue Facility (IDF) Author Language on a 2000F Hewlett-Packard time-sharing system was used to write the sequence. Instructional objectives,…

  15. Consumption of fa cai Nostoc soup: a potential for BMAA exposure from Nostoc cyanobacteria in China?

    PubMed

    Roney, Britton R; Renhui, Li; Banack, Sandra Anne; Murch, Susan; Honegger, Rosmarie; Cox, Paul Alan

    2009-01-01

    Grown in arid regions of western China the cyanobacterium Nostoc flagelliforme--called fa cai in Mandarin and fat choy in Cantonese--is wild-harvested and used to make soup consumed during New Year's celebrations. High prices, up to $125 USD/kg, led to overharvesting in Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Gansu, Qinghai, and Xinjiang. Degradation of arid ecosystems, desertification, and conflicts between Nostoc harvesters and Mongol herdsmen concerned the Chinese environmental authorities, leading to a government ban of Nostoc commerce. This ban stimulated increased marketing of a substitute made from starch. We analysed samples purchased throughout China as well as in Chinese markets in the United States and the United Kingdom. Some were counterfeits consisting of dyed starch noodles. A few samples from California contained Nostoc flagelliforme but were adulterated with starch noodles. Other samples, including those from the United Kingdom, consisted of pure Nostoc flagelliforme. A recent survey of markets in Cheng Du showed no real Nostoc flagelliforme to be marketed. Real and artificial fa cai differ in the presence of beta-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA). Given its status as a high-priced luxury food, the government ban on collection and marketing, and the replacement of real fa cai with starch substitutes consumed only on special occasions, it is anticipated that dietary exposure to BMAA from fa cai will be reduced in the future in China.

  16. A Cross-National CAI Tool To Support Learning Operations Decision-Making and Market Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockler, Robert J.; Afanasiev, Mikhail Y.; Dologite, Dorothy G.

    1999-01-01

    Describes bicultural (United States and Russia) development of a computer-aided instruction (CAI) tool to learn management decision-making using information systems technologies. The program has been used with undergraduate and graduate students in both countries; it integrates free and controlled market concepts and combines traditional computer…

  17. Computer-Assisted Instruction in Engineering Dynamics. CAI-Systems Memo Number 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, John W.

    A 90-minute computer-assisted instruction (CAI) unit course supplemented by a 1-hour lecture on the dynamic nature of three-dimensional rotations and Euler angles was given to 29 undergraduate engineering students. The area of Euler angles was selected because it is essential to problem-working in three-dimensional rotations of a rigid body, yet…

  18. Calibration correction of an active scattering spectrometer probe to account for refractive index of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Overbeck, V. R.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Ferry, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the active scattering spectrometer probe (ASAS-X) to measure sulfuric acid aerosols on U-2 and ER-2 research aircraft has yielded results that are at times ambiguous due to the dependence of particles' optical signatures on refractive index as well as physical dimensions. The calibration correction of the ASAS-X optical spectrometer probe for stratospheric aerosol studies is validated through an independent and simultaneous sampling of the particles with impactors; sizing and counting of particles on SEM images yields total particle areas and volumes. Upon correction of calibration in light of these data, spectrometer results averaged over four size distributions are found to agree with similarly averaged impactor results to within a few percent: indicating that the optical properties or chemical composition of the sample aerosol must be known in order to achieve accurate optical aerosol spectrometer size analysis.

  19. An ion microprobe study of CAIs from CO3 meteorites. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, S. S.; Greenwood, R. C.; Fahey, A. J.; Huss, G. R.; Wasserburg, G. J.

    1994-01-01

    When attempting to interpret the history of Ca, Al-rich inclusions (CAIs) it is often difficult to distinguish between primary features inherited from the nebula and those produced during secondary processing on the parent body. We have undertaken a systematic study of CAIs from 10 CO chondrites, believed to represent a metamorphic sequence with the goal of distinguishing primary and secondary features. ALHA 77307 (3.0), Colony (3.0), Kainsaz (3.1), Felix (3.2), ALH 82101 (3.3), Ornans (3.3), Lance (3.4), ALHA 77003 (3.5), Warrenton (3.6), and Isna (3.7) were examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscopy. We have identified 141 CAIs within these samples, and studied in detail the petrology of 34 inclusions. The primary phases in the lower petrologic types are spinel, melilite, and hibonite. Perovskite, FeS, ilmenite, anorthite, kirschsteinite, and metallic Fe are present as minor phases. Melilite becomes less abundant in higher petrologic types and was not detected in chondrites of type 3.5 and above, confirming previous reports that this mineral easily breaks down during heating. Iron, an element that would not be expected to condense at high temperatures, has a lower abundance in spinel from low-petrologic-type meteorites than those of higher grade, and CaTiO3 is replaced by FeTiO3 in meteorites of higher petrologic type. The abundance of CAIs is similar in each meteorite. Eight inclusions have been analyzed by ion probe. The results are summarized. The results obtained to date show that CAIs in CO meteorites, like those from other meteorite classes, contain Mg* and that Mg in some inclusions has been redistributed.

  20. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  1. Tracking the will to attend: Cortical activity indexes self-generated, voluntary shifts of attention.

    PubMed

    Gmeindl, Leon; Chiu, Yu-Chin; Esterman, Michael S; Greenberg, Adam S; Courtney, Susan M; Yantis, Steven

    2016-10-01

    The neural substrates of volition have long tantalized philosophers and scientists. Over the past few decades, researchers have employed increasingly sophisticated technology to investigate this issue, but many studies have been limited considerably by their reliance on intrusive experimental procedures (e.g., abrupt instructional cues), measures of brain activity contaminated by overt behavior, or introspective self-report techniques of questionable validity. Here, we used multivoxel pattern time-course analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to index voluntary, covert perceptual acts-shifts of visuospatial attention-in the absence of instructional cues, overt behavioral indices, and self-report. We found that these self-generated, voluntary attention shifts were time-locked to activity in the medial superior parietal lobule, supporting the hypothesis that this brain region is engaged in voluntary attentional reconfiguration. Self-generated attention shifts were also time-locked to activity in the basal ganglia, a novel finding that motivates further research into the role of the basal ganglia in acts of volition. Remarkably, prior to self-generated shifts of attention, we observed early and selective increases in the activation of medial frontal (dorsal anterior cingulate) and lateral prefrontal (right middle frontal gyrus) cortex-activity that likely reflects processing related to the intention or preparation to reorient attention. These findings, which extend recent evidence on freely chosen motor movements, suggest that dorsal anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices play key roles in both overt and covert acts of volition, and may constitute core components of a brain network underlying the will to attend. PMID:27301353

  2. Relationship Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Scores and Subclinical Cardiac Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mirfeizi, Zahra; Poorzand, Hoorak; Javanbakht, Aida; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective-tissue disease involving multiple organs and systems. Some evidence has demonstrated that disease activity could be associated with increased risk of organ damage. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between systemic lupus erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores and subclinical cardiac involvement. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 SLE patients (88% female; mean age: 31.2 ± 8.2 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Mashhad, Iran. The patients had no clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac problems or risk factors for cardiovascular disease and were selected consecutively. All patients underwent complete echocardiographic examinations (using two dimensional (2D) tissue Doppler and 2D speckle tracking). Disease activity was evaluated by using the SLEDAI. Results Patients with higher SLEDAI scores had higher pulmonary artery pressure rates (r = 0.34; P = 0.024; 95% CI (0.086 to 0.595)) and SLE durations (r = 0.43; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.165 to 0.664). The correlation between disease duration and left ventricular mass was also significant (r = 0.43; P = 0.009; 95% CI (0.172 to 0.681)), even after adjusting for age (r = 0.405; P = 0.016). There was no correlation between SLEDAI scores or disease duration and the left/right ventricle systolic function parameters. This was true while assessing the right ventricle’s diastolic function. A statistically significant correlation was found between mitral E/E’ as an index of left ventricle diastolic impairment and the SLEDAI scores (r = 0.33; P = 0.037; 95% CI (0.074 to 0.574)) along with disease duration (r = 0.45; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.130 to 0.662); adjusted for age: r = 0.478; P = 0.002). Conclusions Echocardiography is a useful noninvasive technique for screening subclinical heart problems in SLE patients. Although disease activity in general should suggest a closer follow-up, regular scanning

  3. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  4. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  5. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  6. Active roll control for rollover prevention of heavy articulated vehicles with multiple-rollover-index minimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsun-Hsuan; Yedavalli, Rama K.; Guenther, Dennis A.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the application of a nominal control design algorithm for rollover prevention of heavy articulated vehicles with active anti-roll-bar control. This proposed methodology is based on an extension of linear quadratic regulator control for 'state derivative-induced (control coupled) output regulation' problems. For heavy articulated vehicles with multiple axles, a performance index with multiple rollover indices is proposed. The proposed methodology allows us to compare the usefulness of various control configurations (i.e. actuators at different axles of the vehicle) based on the interaction of this control configuration with vehicle dynamics. Application of this methodology to a specific heavy articulated vehicle with a tractor semi-trailer shows that a single active anti-roll-bar system at the trailer unit gives better performance than multiple-axle actuators at tractor and trailer together with the single lane change manoeuvre as the external disturbance. Thus, the proposed methodology of this paper not only highlights the importance of the interactions between control and vehicle dynamics in rollover prevention problems but, in fact, proposes a novel technique to exploit the benefits of these interactions judiciously.

  7. Compound ultrarefractory CAI-bearing inclusions from CV3 carbonaceous chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, Marina A.; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; MacPherson, Glenn J.

    2012-12-01

    Abstract-Two compound calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), 3N from the oxidized CV chondrite Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 and 33E from the reduced CV chondrite Efremovka, contain ultrarefractory (UR) inclusions. 3N is a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that encloses UR inclusion 3N-24 composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopside. 33E contains a fluffy type A (FTA) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and UR <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 33E-1, surrounded by Wark-Lovering rim layers of spinel, Al-diopside, and forsterite, and a common forsterite-rich accretionary rim. 33E-1 is composed of Zr,Sc,Y-rich oxides, Y-rich perovskite, Zr,Sc,Y-rich pyroxenes (Al,Ti-diopside, Sc-rich pyroxene), and gehlenite. 3N-24's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-poor (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰). Spinel in 3N-24 and spinel and Al-diopside in the FoB <span class="hlt">CAI</span> are 16O-rich (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰). 33E-1's UR oxides and Zr,Sc-rich Al,Ti-diopsides are 16O-depleted (Δ17O approximately -2‰ to -5‰) vs. Al,Ti-diopside of the FTA <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and spinel (Δ17O approximately -23 ± 2‰), and Wark-Lovering rim Al,Ti-diopside (Δ17O approximately -7‰ to -19‰). We infer that the inclusions experienced multistage formation in nebular regions with different oxygen-isotope compositions. 3N-24 and 33E-1's precursors formed by evaporation/condensation above 1600 °C. 3N and 33E's precursors formed by condensation and melting (3N only) at significantly lower temperatures. 3N-24 and 3N's precursors aggregated into a compound object and experienced partial melting and thermal annealing. 33E-1 and 33E avoided melting prior to and after aggregation. They acquired Wark-Lovering and common forsterite-rich accretionary rims, probably by condensation, followed by thermal annealing. We suggest 3N-24 and 33E-1 originated in a 16O-rich gaseous reservoir and subsequently experienced isotope exchange in a 16O-poor gaseous reservoir. Mechanism and timing of oxygen-isotope exchange remain</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4932047','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4932047"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and oswestry disability <span class="hlt">index</span> of patients with chronic low back pain</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> by inducing trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and <span class="hlt">activating</span> muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> alone and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span>. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390406"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and oswestry disability <span class="hlt">index</span> of patients with chronic low back pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> by inducing trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and <span class="hlt">activating</span> muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> alone and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span>. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390406','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27390406"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and oswestry disability <span class="hlt">index</span> of patients with chronic low back pain.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> and Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> by inducing trunk muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and <span class="hlt">activating</span> muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span> within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> alone and in the Oswestry Disability <span class="hlt">Index</span>. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737767','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4737767"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Movement Beta <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Sensorimotor Cortex <span class="hlt">Indexes</span> Confidence in the Estimations from Internal Models</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wade, Cian; Brown, Peter</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Beta oscillations are a dominant feature of the sensorimotor system. A transient and prominent increase in beta oscillations is consistently observed across the sensorimotor cortical-basal ganglia network after cessation of voluntary movement: the post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS). Current theories about the function of the PMBS have been focused on either the closure of motor response or the processing of sensory afferance. Computational models of sensorimotor control have emphasized the importance of the integration between feedforward estimation and sensory feedback, and therefore the putative motor and sensory functions of beta oscillations may reciprocally interact with each other and in fact be indissociable. Here we show that the amplitude of sensorimotor PMBS is modulated by the history of visual feedback of task-relevant errors, and negatively correlated with the trial-to-trial exploratory adjustment in a sensorimotor adaptation task in young healthy human subjects. The PMBS also negatively correlated with the uncertainty associated with the feedforward estimation, which was recursively updated in light of new sensory feedback, as identified by a Bayesian learning model. These results reconcile the two opposing motor and sensory views of the function of PMBS, and suggest a unifying theory in which PMBS <span class="hlt">indexes</span> the confidence in internal feedforward estimation in Bayesian sensorimotor integration. Its amplitude simultaneously reflects cortical sensory processing and signals the need for maintenance or adaptation of the motor output, and if necessary, exploration to identify an altered sensorimotor transformation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For optimal sensorimotor control, sensory feedback and feedforward estimation of a movement's sensory consequences should be weighted by the inverse of their corresponding uncertainties, which require recursive updating in a dynamic environment. We show that post-movement beta <span class="hlt">activity</span> (13–30 Hz) over sensorimotor</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4932251','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4932251"><span id="translatedtitle">Does body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Score in axial spondyloarthritis?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH13B1974L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFMSH13B1974L"><span id="translatedtitle">Solar Cycle Variations of the Occurrence of Coronal Type III Radio Bursts and a New Solar <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts are presented. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare <span class="hlt">index</span>. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. This <span class="hlt">index</span> can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS). Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24-hour radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this <span class="hlt">index</span>. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with <span class="hlt">active</span> regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of <span class="hlt">active</span> regions exhibits solar cycle variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562517','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21562517"><span id="translatedtitle">SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR <span class="hlt">ACTIVITY</span> <span class="hlt">INDEX</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.</p> <p>2011-07-20</p> <p>This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare <span class="hlt">index</span>. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. This <span class="hlt">index</span> can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this <span class="hlt">index</span>. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with <span class="hlt">active</span> regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of <span class="hlt">active</span> regions exhibits solar cycle variations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990295','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4990295"><span id="translatedtitle">Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for <span class="hlt">Active</span>-Aging Programs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span>, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span>. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical <span class="hlt">activities</span>, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span> and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty <span class="hlt">Index</span>, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750022313"><span id="translatedtitle">Alternative communication network designs for an operational Plato 4 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> system</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Mobley, R. E., Jr.; Eastwood, L. F., Jr.</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>The cost of alternative communications networks for the dissemination of PLATO IV computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) was studied. Four communication techniques are compared: leased telephone lines, satellite communication, UHF TV, and low-power microwave radio. For each network design, costs per student contact hour are computed. These costs are derived as functions of student population density, a parameter which can be calculated from census data for one potential market for <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, the public primary and secondary schools. Calculating costs in this way allows one to determine which of the four communications alternatives can serve this market least expensively for any given area in the U.S. The analysis indicates that radio distribution techniques are cost optimum over a wide range of conditions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24995767"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> changes during highly <span class="hlt">active</span> antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Denue, B A; Ikunaiye, P N Y; Denue, C B A</p> <p>2014-01-09</p> <p>Wasting remains an important condition in HIV-infected patients receiving highly <span class="hlt">active</span> antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, 120 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were prospectively evaluated to determine the effect of HAART on body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). Eighty-nine (83.1%) patients gained weight, 5 (4.7%) had no weight change, and 13 (12.2%) lost weight. There was a significant increase in overweight and obese patients. On multivariate analysis, time-updated CD4 count and higher baseline BMI were associated with a greater increase in BMI. Anaemia at diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in BMI. There were no significant effects of age, sex, disease severity, viral load or educational status on BMI changes. About 27% of the HIV patients presented with weight loss, which emphasizes that weight loss and wasting remain important AIDS-defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART. A linear association was observed between time-updated CD4 count and increase in BMI. The association between time-updated CD4 count and greater increase in BMI suggests that BMI could be a surrogate for CD4 count in monitoring treatment response in resource-limited settings.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248607','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248607"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Boyle, Christina P; Raji, Cyrus A; Erickson, Kirk I; Lopez, Oscar L; Becker, James T; Gach, H Michael; Longstreth, W T; Teverovskiy, Leonid; Kuller, Lewis H; Carmichael, Owen T; Thompson, Paul M</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The purpose of this study was to use a novel imaging biomarker to assess associations between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA), body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia. We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4 years) from the multisite Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n = 724), Alzheimer's dementia patients (n = 104), and people with mild cognitive impairment (n = 135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry to analyze regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex, and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24359433','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24359433"><span id="translatedtitle">Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal <span class="hlt">activity</span> coupling <span class="hlt">indexed</span> by pointwise transinformation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal <span class="hlt">activity</span> (EDA) coupling pattern, as <span class="hlt">indexed</span> by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description. PMID:24359433</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028943','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4028943"><span id="translatedtitle">Duke <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Status <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background The Duke <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Status <span class="hlt">Index</span> (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_8");'>8</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li class="active"><span>10</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_10 --> <div id="page_11" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="201"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2913844','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2913844"><span id="translatedtitle">Objectively Measured Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Preschool Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26277019','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26277019"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased alpha band <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">indexes</span> inhibitory competition across a border during figure assignment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M; Allen, John J B; Peterson, Mary A</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>Figure-ground assignment is thought to entail inhibitory competition between potential objects on opposite sides of a shared border; the winner is perceived as the figure, and the loser as the shapeless ground. Computational models and response time measures support this understanding but to date no online measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment has been reported. The current study assays electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power as a measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment. <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in the EEG alpha band has been linked to functional inhibition in the brain, and it has been proposed that increased alpha power reflects increased inhibition. In 2 experiments participants viewed silhouettes designed so that the insides would be perceived as figures. Real-world silhouettes depicted namable objects. Novel silhouettes depicted novel objects on the insides of their borders, but varied in the amount of hypothesized cross-border competition for figural status: In "Low-Competition" silhouettes, the borders suggested novel objects on the outside as well as on the inside. In "High-Competition" silhouettes the borders suggested portions of real-world objects on the outside; these compete with the figural properties favoring the inside as figure. Participants accurately categorized both types of novel silhouettes as "novel" objects and were unaware of the real world objects suggested on the outside of the High-Competition silhouettes. In both experiments, we observed more alpha power while participants viewed High- rather than Low-Competition novel silhouettes. These are the first results to show via an online <span class="hlt">index</span> of neural <span class="hlt">activity</span> that figure assignment entails inhibitory competition.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566040','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25566040"><span id="translatedtitle">Interhemispheric synchrony in the neonatal EEG revisited: <span class="hlt">activation</span> synchrony <span class="hlt">index</span> as a promising classifier.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Koolen, Ninah; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Räsänen, Okko; Jansen, Katrien; Vervisch, Jan; Matic, Vladimir; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar; Vanhatalo, Sampsa</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A key feature of normal neonatal EEG at term age is interhemispheric synchrony (IHS), which refers to the temporal co-incidence of bursting across hemispheres during trace alternant EEG <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The assessment of IHS in both clinical and scientific work relies on visual, qualitative EEG assessment without clearly quantifiable definitions. A quantitative measure, <span class="hlt">activation</span> synchrony <span class="hlt">index</span> (ASI), was recently shown to perform well as compared to visual assessments. The present study was set out to test whether IHS is stable enough for clinical use, and whether it could be an objective feature of EEG normality. We analyzed 31 neonatal EEG recordings that had been clinically classified as normal (n = 14) or abnormal (n = 17) using holistic, conventional visual criteria including amplitude, focal differences, qualitative synchrony, and focal abnormalities. We selected 20-min epochs of discontinuous background pattern. ASI values were computed separately for different channel pair combinations and window lengths to define them for the optimal ASI intraindividual stability. Finally, ROC curves were computed to find trade-offs related to compromised data lengths, a common challenge in neonatal EEG studies. Using the average of four consecutive 2.5-min epochs in the centro-occipital bipolar derivations gave ASI estimates that very accurately distinguished babies clinically classified as normal vs. abnormal. It was even possible to draw a cut-off limit (ASI~3.6) which correctly classified the EEGs in 97% of all cases. Finally, we showed that compromising the length of EEG segments from 20 to 5 min leads to increased variability in ASI-based classification. Our findings support the prior literature that IHS is an important feature of normal neonatal brain function. We show that ASI may provide diagnostic value even at individual level, which strongly supports its use in prospective clinical studies on neonatal EEG as well as in the feature set of upcoming EEG classifiers</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19940011928"><span id="translatedtitle">Limited subsolidus diffusion in type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence from Ti distribution in spinel</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Meeker, G. P.; Quick, J. E.; Paque, Julie M.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>Most models of calcium aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) have focused on early stages of formation by equilibrium crystallization of a homogeneous liquid. Less is known about the subsolidus cooling history of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Chemical and isotopic heterogeneties on a scale of tens to hundreds of micrometers (e.g. MacPherson et al. (1989) and Podosek, et al. (1991)) suggest fairly rapid cooling with a minimum of subsolidus diffusion. However, transmission electron microscopy indicates that solid state diffusion may have been an important process at a smaller scale (Barber et al. 1984). If so, chemical evidence for diffusion could provide constraints on cooling times and temperatures. With this in mind, we have begun an investigation of the Ti distribution in spinels from two type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende to determine if post-crystallization diffusion was a significant process. The type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, 3529Z and 5241 have been described by Podosek et al. (1991) and by El Goresy et al. (1985) and MacPherson et al. (1989). We have analyzed spinels in these inclusions using the electron microprobe. These spinels are generally euhedral, range in size from less than 10 to 15 micron and are poikilitically enclosed by millimeter-sized pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite. Analyses were obtained from both the mantles and cores of the inclusions. Compositions of pyroxene in the vicinity of individual spinel grains were obtained by analyzing at least two points on opposite sides of the spinel and averaging the compositions. The pyroxene analyses were obtained within 15 microns of the spinel-pyroxene interface. No compositional gradients were observed within single spinel crystals. Ti concentrations in spinels included within pyroxene, melilite, and anorthite are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016MS%26E..148a2083P"><span id="translatedtitle">Numerical investigation of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>This paper is focused on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25186361"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystal structures of hydrates of simple inorganic salts. II. Water-rich calcium bromide and iodide hydrates: CaBr2 · 9H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 8H2O, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 7H2O and <span class="hlt">CaI</span>2 · 6.5H2O.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hennings, Erik; Schmidt, Horst; Voigt, Wolfgang</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Single crystals of calcium bromide enneahydrate, CaBr(2) · 9H2O, calcium iodide octahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 8H2O, calcium iodide heptahydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 7H2O, and calcium iodide 6.5-hydrate, <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O, were grown from their aqueous solutions at and below room temperature according to the solid-liquid phase diagram. The crystal structure of <span class="hlt">CaI</span>(2) · 6.5H2O was redetermined. All four structures are built up from distorted Ca(H2O)8 antiprisms. The antiprisms of the iodide hydrate structures are connected either via trigonal-plane-sharing or edge-sharing, forming dimeric units. The antiprisms in calcium bromide enneahydrate are monomeric. PMID:25186361</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4313073','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4313073"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve <span class="hlt">activity</span> and improves augmentation <span class="hlt">index</span> in patients with chronic kidney disease</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation <span class="hlt">index</span> (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span> and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477424','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25477424"><span id="translatedtitle">Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve <span class="hlt">activity</span> and improves augmentation <span class="hlt">index</span> in patients with chronic kidney disease.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation <span class="hlt">index</span> (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS <span class="hlt">activity</span> and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cdc&pg=4&id=EJ1010707','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cdc&pg=4&id=EJ1010707"><span id="translatedtitle">The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Children's <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Levels in Physical Education Classes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=z-score&pg=2&id=EJ1049103','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=z-score&pg=2&id=EJ1049103"><span id="translatedtitle">Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Environments and the Change in Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> during Adolescence</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) from…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016E%26PSL.440...62A"><span id="translatedtitle">Oxygen isotopes in the early protoplanetary disk inferred from pyroxene in a classical type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Aléon, Jérôme</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>A major unanswered question in solar system formation is the origin of the oxygen isotopic dichotomy between the Sun and the planets. Individual Calcium-Aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) from CV chondrites exhibit almost the full isotopic range, but how their composition evolved is still unclear, which prevents robust astrochemical conclusions. A key issue is notably the yet unsolved origin of the 16O-rich isotopic composition of pyroxene in type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Here, I report an in-situ oxygen isotope study of the archetypal type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span> USNM-3529-Z from Allende with emphasis on the isotopic composition of pyroxene and its isotopic and petrographic relationships with other major minerals. The O isotopic composition of pyroxene is correlated with indicators of magmatic growth, indicating that the pyroxene evolved from a 16O-poor composition and became progressively enriched in 16O during its crystallization, contrary to the long held assumption that pyroxene was initially 16O-rich. This variation is well explained by isotopic exchange between a 16O-poor partial melt having the isotopic composition of melilite and a 16O-rich gas having the isotopic composition of spinel, during pyroxene crystallization. The isotopic evolution of 3529-Z is consistent with formation in an initially 16O-rich environment where spinel and gehlenitic melilite crystallized, followed by a 16O-depletion associated with melilite partial melting and recrystallization and finally a return to the initial 16O-rich environment before pyroxene crystallization. This strongly suggests that the environment of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation was globally 16O-rich, with local 16O-depletions systematically associated with high temperature events. The Al/Mg isotopic systematics of 3529-Z further indicates that this suite of isotopic changes occurred in the first 150 000 yr of the solar system, during the main <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation period. A new astrophysical setting is proposed, where the 16O-depletion occurs in an optically thin surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20090020501"><span id="translatedtitle">Rare Earth Element Measurements of Melilite and Fassaite in Allende <span class="hlt">Cai</span> by Nanosims</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, Scott</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>The rare earth elements (REEs) are concentrated in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> by approx. 20 times the chondritic average [e.g., 1]. The REEs in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are important to understand processes of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation including the role of volatilization, condensation, and fractional crystallization [1,2]. REE measurements are a well established application of ion microprobes [e.g., 3]. However the spatial resolution of REE measurements by ion microprobe (approx.20 m) is not adequate to resolve heterogeneous distributions of REEs among/within minerals. We have developed methods for measuring REE with the NanoSIMS 50L at smaller spatial scales. Here we present our initial measurements of REEs in melilite and fassaite in an Allende Type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with the JSC NanoSIMS 50L. We found that the key parameters for accurate REE abundance measurements differ between the NanoSIMS and conventional SIMS, in particular the oxide-to-element ratios, the relative sensitivity factors, the energy distributions, and requisite energy offset. Our REE abundance measurements of the 100 ppm REE diopside glass standards yielded good reproducibility and accuracy, 0.5-2.5 % and 5-25 %, respectively. We determined abundances and spatial distributions of REEs in core and rim within single crystals of fassaite, and adjacent melilite with 5-10 m spatial resolution. The REE abundances in fassaite core and rim are 20-100 times CI abundance but show a large negative Eu anomaly, exhibiting a well-defined Group III pattern. This is consistent with previous work [4]. On the other hand, adjacent melilite shows modified Group II pattern with no strong depletions of Eu and Yb, and no Tm positive anomaly. REE abundances (2-10 x CI) were lower than that of fassaite. These patterns suggest that fassaite crystallized first followed by a crystallization of melilite from the residual melt. In future work, we will carry out a correlated study of O and Mg isotopes and REEs of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in order to better understand the nature and timescales of its</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19555811','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19555811"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiovascular risk factors in young, overweight, and obese European adults and associations with physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and omega-3 <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ramel, Alfons; Pumberger, Christina; Martinéz, Alfredo J; Kiely, Mairead; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Thorsdottir, Inga</p> <p>2009-05-01</p> <p>Excess body fat is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The hypothesis of the study was that physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and omega-3 <span class="hlt">index</span>, a marker of past long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption, counteract the negative associations between fatness and CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults. A total of 324 subjects (20-40 years, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> [BMI], 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain, and Ireland) were investigated cross-sectionally. Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, CVD risk factors, and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were analyzed. Information on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was collected. Linear models were constructed to find out the associations of BMI, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (quartiles), and omega-3 <span class="hlt">index</span> with CVD risk factors. The most frequently increased risk factors were blood lipids (41.4%) and blood pressure (32.1%); fewer participants experienced disturbed glucose metabolism (11.8%). Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> was significantly associated with increased CVD risk factors (P = .001-.029), with the exception of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein. The highest physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> quartile had a lower fat mass (P = .005, at a given BMI), leptin (P = .008, in male participants only), and interleukin 6 (P = .021) but higher high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) than other quartiles; however, an approximate dose-response relationship could only be observed for leptin. The omega-3 <span class="hlt">index</span> was not associated with lower low-density lipoprotein (P = .056), but docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane was associated to it (P = .016). It is concluded that physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and docosahexaenoic acid diminish some of the negative health effects associated with overweight and obesity; however, body fatness remains the most important variable associated with increased CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults. PMID:19555811</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036564','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22036564"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Active</span> suppression of air refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Air refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the <span class="hlt">active</span> suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/944372"><span id="translatedtitle">OXYGEN ISOTOPIC COMPOSITIONS OF THE ALLENDE TYPE C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: EVIDENCE FOR ISOTOPIC EXCHANGE DURING NEBULAR MELTING AND ASTEROIDAL THERMAL METAMORPHISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Krot, A N; Chaussidon, M; Yurimoto, H; Sakamoto, N; Nagashima, K; Hutcheon, I D; MacPherson, G J</p> <p>2008-02-21</p> <p>Based on the mineralogy and petrography, coarse-grained, igneous, anorthite-rich (Type C) calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) in the CV3 carbonaceous chondrite Allende have been recently divided into three groups: (i) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with melilite and Al,Ti-diopside of massive and lacy textures (coarse grains with numerous rounded inclusions of anorthite) in a fine-grained anorthite groundmass (6-1-72, 100, 160), (ii) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> CG5 with massive melilite, Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite, and (iii) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> associated with chondrule material: either containing chondrule fragments in their peripheries (ABC, TS26) or surrounded by chondrule-like, igneous rims (93) (Krot et al., 2007a,b). Here, we report in situ oxygen isotopic measurements of primary (melilite, spinel, Al,Ti-diopside, anorthite) and secondary (grossular, monticellite, forsterite) minerals in these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -25{per_thousand} to -20{per_thousand}), massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -20{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}) and fine-grained anorthite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -15{per_thousand} to -2{per_thousand}) in 100, 160 and 6-1-72 are {sup 16}O-enriched relative spinel and coarse-grained Al,Ti-diopside and anorthite in ABC, 93 and TS26 ({Delta}{sup 17}O ranges from -20{per_thousand} to -15{per_thousand}, from -15{per_thousand} to -5{per_thousand}, and from -5{per_thousand} to 0{per_thousand}, respectively). In 6-1-72, massive and lacy Al,Ti-diopside grains are {sup 16}O-depleted ({Delta}{sup 17}O {approx} -13{per_thousand}) relative to spinel ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -23{per_thousand}). Melilite is the most {sup 16}O-depleted mineral in all Allende Type C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 100, melilite and secondary grossular, monticellite and forsterite (minerals replacing melilite) are similarly {sup 16}O-depleted, whereas grossular in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 160 is {sup 16}O-enriched ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -10{per_thousand} to -6{per_thousand}) relative to melilite ({Delta}{sup 17}O = -5{per_thousand} to -3{per_thousand}). We infer</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009AGUFM.V43J..02O"><span id="translatedtitle">The isotopic homogeneity in the early solar system: Revisiting the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ozima, M.; Yamada, A.</p> <p>2009-12-01</p> <p>Since the first discovery of the mass-independently fractionated oxygen isotopes in anhydrous, high temperature Ca-Al rich inclusion minerals in carbonaceous meteorites (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) by Clayton et al. (1), their common occurrence in primitive meteorites has generally been regarded to reflect some fundamental process prevalent in the early solar nebula. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic composition is uniquely characterized by (i) large mass independent isotopic fractionation and (ii) their isotopic data in an oxygen three isotope plot (δ17O - δ18O (δ17O ≡ {(17O/16O)/(17O/16O)SMOW - 1} × 1000) yield nearly a straight line with a slope 1.0. In establishing these characteristics, ion microprobe analyses has played a central role, especially an isotopic mapping technique (isotopography) was crucial (e.g., 2). The extraordinary oxygen isotopic ratio in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is widely attributed to the self-shielding absorption of UV radiation in CO, one of the dominant chemical compounds in the early solar nebula (3). However, the self-shielding scenario necessarily leads to the unusual prediction that a mean solar oxygen isotopic composition differs from most of planetary bodies including Earth, Moon, and Mars. If the self-shielding process were indeed responsible to the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen isotopic anomaly, this would require a fundamental revision of the current theory of the origin of the solar system, which generally assumes the initial total vaporization of nebula material to give rise to isotopic homogenization. The GENESIS mission launched in 2001(4), which collected oxygen in the solar wind was hoped to resolve the isotopic composition of the Sun. However, because of difficulties in correcting for instrumental and more importantly for intrinsic isotopic fractionation between the SW and the Sun, a final answer is yet to be seen (5). Here, we show on the basis of the oxygen isotopic fractionation systematics that the self shielding hypothesis cannot explain the key characteristics of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> oxygen</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016EGUGA..18.5734Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Study on remote sensing of aerosols over land using TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhong, Guosheng; Wang, Xiufeng; Yin, Shuai; Sun, Zhongyi; Tani, Hiroshi</p> <p>2016-04-01</p> <p>The Cloud and Aerosol Imager (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) is one of the subunits of observation instrument Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO) onboard the GOSAT, and is used to observe aerosol optical properties and clouds. TANSO-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> includes 4 bands (370~390 nm, 668~688 nm, 860~880 nm and 1560~1680 nm), bands 1 to 3 have a 0.5-km spatial resolution at the nadir and 1000-km observation swath. The spatial resolution and swath of band 4 are 1.5 km and 750 km, respectively. In this study, it was assumed that the surface reflectance at 670 nm can be obatined using an empirical relationship between the reflectances at 670 nm and at 1600 nm. For analyzing the empirical relationship, dark fields were selected from the GOSAT-<span class="hlt">CAI</span> data, where AERONET sun photometer measurements were available within 30 minutes, the distance from the AERONET station was within 30 km, and the AOD at 550 nm was below 0.1. The surface reflectance was derived by atmospheric correction with the Second Simulation of a Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6S) radiative transfer model and AERONET AOD. A regression function between top-of-atmosphere reflectances at 1600 nm and surface reflectances at 670 nm was summarized. AODs were retrieved using a look-up table method and compared with AERONET AODs. The results show that more than 70% validating data are located within expected errors for MODIS (±0.05 ±0.15τ, τ is AOD).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20150018570"><span id="translatedtitle">Characterization of Meteorites by Focused Ion Beam Sectioning: Recent Applications to <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Primitive Meteorite Matrices</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Christoffersen, Roy; Keller, Lindsay P.; Han, Jangmi; Rahman, Zia; Berger, Eve L.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Focused ion beam (FIB) sectioning has revolutionized preparation of meteorite samples for characterization by analytical transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and other techniques. Although FIB is not "non-destructive" in the purest sense, each extracted section amounts to no more than nanograms (approximately 500 cubic microns) removed intact from locations precisely controlled by SEM imaging and analysis. Physical alteration of surrounding material by ion damage, fracture or sputter contamination effects is localized to within a few micrometers around the lift-out point. This leaves adjacent material intact for coordinate geochemical analysis by SIMS, microdrill extraction/TIMS and other techniques. After lift out, FIB sections can be quantitatively analyzed by electron microprobe prior to final thinning, synchrotron x-ray techniques, and by the full range of state-of-the-art analytical field-emission scanning transmission electron microscope (FE-STEM) techniques once thinning is complete. Multiple meteorite studies supported by FIB/FE-STEM are currently underway at NASA-JSC, including coordinated analysis of refractory phase assemblages in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and fine-grained matrices in carbonaceous chondrites. FIB sectioning of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> has uncovered epitaxial and other overgrowth relations between corundum-hibonite-spinel consistent with hibonite preceding corundum and/or spinel in non-equilibrium condensation sequences at combinations of higher gas pressures, dust-gas enrichments or significant nebular transport. For all of these cases, the ability of FIB to allow for coordination with spatially-associated isotopic data by SIMS provides immense value for constraining the formation scenarios of the particular <span class="hlt">CAI</span> assemblage. For carbonaceous chondrites matrix material, FIB has allowed us to obtain intact continuous sections of the immediate outer surface of Murchison (CM2) after it has been experimentally ion processed to simulate solar wind space weathering. The surface</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.169...99K"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al-26Mg chronology and oxygen isotope distributions of multiple melting for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kawasaki, Noriyuki; Kato, Chizu; Itoh, Shoichi; Wakaki, Shigeyuki; Ito, Motoo; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Disequilibrium oxygen isotopic distributions of Ca-Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) correspond to multiple melting events in the solar nebula. 26Al-26Mg systematics may be applicable for age differences among such melting events. We have carried out a coordinated study of detailed petrographic observations and in-situ oxygen and magnesium isotope measurements for a Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, EK1-04-2, from the Allende CV3 meteorite to determine the melting events and their ages. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists mainly of spinel, anorthite, olivine, and pyroxene, and has a core and mantle structure. Petrography of the core suggests that the crystallization sequence of the core minerals is from spinel, anorthite, olivine, and to pyroxene. The mantle has the same mineral assemblage as the core, and shows incomplete melting and solidification textures. Oxygen isotopic compositions of the minerals are distributed along the carbonaceous chondrite anhydrous mineral (CCAM) line (δ18O = -44‰ to +9‰), which indicates to preserve a chemical disequilibrium status in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Spinel shows a 16O-rich signature (δ18O ∼ -43‰), while anorthite is 16O-poor (δ18O ∼ +8‰). Olivine and pyroxene in the core have the same oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O ∼ -15‰), which indicates their equilibrium. Olivine and pyroxene in the mantle have variable oxygen isotopic compositions and are slightly depleted in 16O (δ18O = -13‰ to -4‰) compared with the same minerals in the core. The 26Al-26Mg systematics is consistent with the disequilibrium status observed according to the petrography and oxygen isotopes. Spinel is plotted on a line of (26Al/27Al)0 = (3.5 ± 0.2) × 10-5, anorthite is plotted on a line of (-1 ± 5) × 10-7, and olivine and pyroxene in the core are plotted on a line of (-1 ± 7) × 10-6. Plots of olivine and pyroxene in the mantle are scattered below the isochron of these minerals in the core. This study indicates that the EK1-04-2 Type C <span class="hlt">CAI</span> underwent multiple heating events after the</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1993Metic..28Q.335C"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal Histories of PGE-rich Metal Particles in a Vigarano <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Casanova, I.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>1993-07-01</p> <p>Metal particles in Vigarano 1623-8, a Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> [1], underwent virtually no sulfidation, as is typical of opaque assemblages from Ca, Al-rich inclusions in the reduced CV3 chondrites [2]. In this study, we have identified two large metal grains (M1 and M2) with chemical and mineralogical features that may indicate cooling under different conditions and are, therefore, difficult to understand in the environment of a single <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> thermal evolution. M1 is an almost spherical, kamacite+taenite-bearing particle included in a fassaite grain of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> host; a 17.5 micrometer-long (0.5 micrometer steps) microprobe traverse along M1 shows that Ni and Ru contents in the taenite (31.5 and 1.1 wt%, respectively) are uniform, and differ from those in the adjacent kamacite (Ni=4.5, Ru=0.7 wt%). M2 is a 20 micrometer, irregularly-shaped taenite particle, embedded in a fine-grained (spinel-rich) portion of 1623-8. It has a homogeneous composition with 10.5 wt% Ni, 0.4% Co, 0.7% Re, 0.6% Pt and high concentrations of Ru (6.5 wt%), Os (4.3 wt%) and Ir (8.2 wt%), as previously recognized by [1]. The composition of M2 is such that it should have undergone exsolution at 800 = T >= 600 degrees C (according to experimental data by [3]) to form at least two (alpha+gamma-NiFe), or probably three (+epsilon-RuFe) different phases. Lack of exsolution features in this large grain is therefore indicative of equilibration at relatively high temperatures (T>600 degrees C) followed by rapid cooling. Other metal particles of similar bulk compositions in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Leoville chondrite (also a reduced CV3) show extensive exsolution features that have been interpreted as the result of low- temperature equilibration of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and their constituents after incorporation into their parent body [4, 5]. The relatively high equilibration temperature of M2 is, however, inconsistent with the existence of kamacite in M1. From the phase relations in the Fe-Ni binary, a grain like M1, with 25 wt% bulk Ni</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_9");'>9</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li class="active"><span>11</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_11 --> <div id="page_12" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="221"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1807767"><span id="translatedtitle">Hypertext and three-dimensional computer graphics in an all digital PC-based <span class="hlt">CAI</span> workstation.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Schwarz, D L; Wind, G G</p> <p>1991-01-01</p> <p>In the past several years there has been an enormous increase in the number of computer-assisted instructional (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) applications. Many medical educators and physicians have recognized the power and utility of hypertext. Some developers have incorporated simple diagrams, scanned monochrome graphics or still frame photographs from a laser disc or CD-ROM into their hypertext applications. These technologies have greatly increased the role of the microcomputer in education and training. There still remain numerous applications for these tools which are yet to be explored. One of these exciting areas involves the use of three-dimensional computer graphics. An all digital platform increases application portability.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009gdca.conf..321C&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo</p> <p></p> <p>It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014E%26PSL.401..327B"><span id="translatedtitle">An oxygen isotope study of Wark-Lovering rims on type A <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in primitive carbonaceous chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bodénan, Jean-David; Starkey, Natalie A.; Russell, Sara S.; Wright, Ian P.; Franchi, Ian A.</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) and the thin Wark-Lovering (WL) rims of minerals surrounding them offer a record of the nature of changing conditions during the earliest stages of Solar System formation. Considerable heterogeneity in the gas composition in the immediate vicinity of the proto-Sun had previously been inferred from oxygen isotopic variations in the WL rim of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from Allende (Simon et al., 2011). However, high precision and high spatial resolution oxygen isotope measurements presented in this study show that WL rim and pristine core minerals of individual <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from meteorites that had experienced only low degrees of alteration or low grade metamorphism (one from Léoville (reduced CV3), two in QUE 99177 (CR3.0) and two in ALHA 77307 (CO3.0)) are uniformly 16O-rich. This indicates that the previously observed variations are the result of secondary processes, most likely on the asteroid parent body, and that there were no temporal or spatial variations in oxygen isotopic composition during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and WL rim formation. Such homogeneity across three groups of carbonaceous chondrites lends further support for a common origin for the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in all chondrites. 16O-poor oxygen reservoirs such as those associated with chondrule formation, were probably generated by UV photo-dissociation involving self-shielding mechanisms and must have occurred elsewhere in outer regions of the solar accretion disk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20100005633"><span id="translatedtitle">FIB-NanoSIMS-TEM Coordinated Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim in a Vigarano Type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Cai, A.; Ito, M.; Keller, L. P.; Ross, D. K.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Wark-Lovering (WL) rims are thin multi layered mineral sequences that surround most Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>). Unaltered WL rims are composed of the same primary high temperature minerals as <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, such as melilite, spinel, pyroxene, hibonite, perovskite, anorthite and olivine. It is still unclear whether the rim minerals represent a different generation formed by a separate event from their associated <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> or are a byproduct of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Several models have been proposed for the origins of WL rims including condensation, flashheating, reaction of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> with a Mg-Si-rich reservoir (nebular gas or solid); on the basis of mineralogy, abundances of trace elements, O and Mg isotopic studies. Detailed mineralogical characterizations of WL rims at micrometer to nanometer scales have been obtained by TEM observations, but so far no coordinated isotopic - mineralogical studies have been performed. Thus, we have applied an O isotopic imaging technique by NanoSIMS 50L to investigate heterogeneous distributions of O isotopic ratios in minerals within a cross section of a WL rim prepared using a focused ion beam (FIB) instrument. After the isotopic measurements, we determine the detailed mineralogy and microstructure of the same WL FIB section to gain insight into its petrogenesis. Here we present preliminary results from O isotopic and elemental maps by NanoSIMS and mineralogical analysis by FE-SEM of a FIB section of a WL rim in the Vigarano reduced CV3 chondrite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/907835"><span id="translatedtitle">Constraints on the Origin of Chondrules and <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Short-Lived and Long-Lived Radionuclides</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kita, N T; Huss, G R; Tachibana, S; Amelin, Y; Nyquist, L E; Hutcheon, I D</p> <p>2005-10-24</p> <p>The high time resolution Pb-Pb ages and short-lived nuclide based relative ages for <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules are reviewed. The solar system started at 4567.2 {+-} 0.6Ma inferred from the high precision Pb-Pb ages of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Time scales of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ({le}0.1Myr), chondrules (1-3Myr), and early asteroidal differentiation ({ge}3Myr) inferred from {sup 26}Al relative ages are comparable to the time scale estimated from astronomical observations of young star; proto star, classical T Tauri star and week-lined T Tauri star, respectively. Pb-Pb ages of chondrules also indicate chondrule formation occur within 1-3 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. Mn-Cr isochron ages of chondrules are similar to or within 2 Myr after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation. Chondrules from different classes of chondrites show the same range of {sup 26}Al ages in spite of their different oxygen isotopes, indicating that chondrule formed in the localized environment. The {sup 26}Al ages of chondrules in each chondrite class show a hint of correlation with their chemical compositions, which implies the process of elemental fractionation during chondrule formation events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060109&hterms=Alicia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAlicia','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19930060109&hterms=Alicia&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D90%26Ntt%3DAlicia"><span id="translatedtitle">Periodic variation in the geomagnetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> - A study based on the Ap <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>The monthly and daily samples of the Ap <span class="hlt">index</span> for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CosRe..47..378Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2009CosRe..47..378Z"><span id="translatedtitle">Fluxes of low-energy particles in quiet periods of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the MgII <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zeldovich, M. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Surova, G. M.</p> <p>2009-10-01</p> <p>Low fluxes of protons with energies 0.3-10 MeV were studied during 21-23 solar cycles as a function of the MgII <span class="hlt">index</span> using the data of the instruments CPME, EIS ( IMP8), and EPHIN ( SOHO). It has been shown that a) during quiet time of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> the fluxes of protons (background protons) have a positive correlation with the MgII <span class="hlt">index</span> value throughout the solar cycle, b) specific features of variations of the MgII <span class="hlt">index</span> during the solar minima of 1986-1987 and 1996-1997 can be considered, as well as variations of background fluxes of low energy charged particles, to be manifestations of the 22-year magnetic cycle of the Sun, and c) periods of the lowest value of the MgII <span class="hlt">index</span> are also characterized by the smaller values of the ratio of intensities of protons and helium nuclei than in other quiet periods. A hypothesis is put forward that acceleration in a multitude of weak solar flares is one of the sources of background fluxes of low energy particles in the interplanetary space.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548184"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sufficient physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis to manage physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. AAEIReminder recognizes <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer <span class="hlt">activity</span> situations such as the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency. PMID:27548184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548184','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27548184"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai</p> <p>2016-08-19</p> <p>Sufficient physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis to manage physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. AAEIReminder recognizes <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer <span class="hlt">activity</span> situations such as the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017487','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5017487"><span id="translatedtitle">A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sufficient physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis to manage physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. AAEIReminder recognizes <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer <span class="hlt">activity</span> situations such as the amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency. PMID:27548184</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140012818"><span id="translatedtitle">In Situ Trace Element Analysis of an Allende Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-5-1</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A.; Lapen, T. J.; Andreasen, R.; Righter, M.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Variations in refractory major and trace element composition of calcium, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) provide constraints on physical and chemical conditions and processes in the earliest stages of the Solar System. Previous work indicates that <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have experienced complex histories involving, in many cases, multiple episodes of condensation, evaporation, and partial melting. We have analyzed major and trace element abundances in two core to rim transects of the melilite mantle as well as interior major phases of a Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (EK-459-5-1) from Allende by electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA) and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) to investigate the behavior of key trace elements with a primary focus on the REEs Tm and Yb.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19890006945"><span id="translatedtitle">Extending the granularity of representation and control for the MIL-STD <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> 1.0 node model</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Rogers, Kathy L.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>The Common APSE (Ada 1 Program Support Environment) Interface Set (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>) (DoD85) node model provides an excellent baseline for interfaces in a single-host development environment. To encompass the entire spectrum of computing, however, the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> model should be extended in four areas. It should provide the interface between the engineering workstation and the host system throughout the entire lifecycle of the system. It should provide a basis for communication and integration functions needed by distributed host environments. It should provide common interfaces for communications mechanisms to and among target processors. It should provide facilities for integration, validation, and verification of test beds extending to distributed systems on geographically separate processors with heterogeneous instruction set architectures (ISAS). Additions to the PROCESS NODE model to extend the <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> into these four areas are proposed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21390725"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of fuel injection strategies in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hunicz, J.; Kordos, P.</p> <p>2011-01-15</p> <p>Combustion of gasoline in a direct injection controlled auto-ignition (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) single-cylinder research engine was studied. <span class="hlt">CAI</span> operation was achieved with the use of the negative valve overlap (NVO) technique and internal exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR). Experiments were performed at single injection and split injection, where some amount of fuel was injected close to top dead centre (TDC) during NVO interval, and the second injection was applied with variable timing. Additionally, combustion at variable fuel-rail pressure was examined. Investigation showed that at fuel injection into recompressed exhaust fuel reforming took place. This process was identified via an analysis of the exhaust-fuel mixture composition after NVO interval. It was found that at single fuel injection in NVO phase, its advance determined the heat release rate and auto-ignition timing, and had a strong influence on NO{sub X} emission. However, a delay of single injection to intake stroke resulted in deterioration of cycle-to-cycle variability. Application of split injection showed benefits of this strategy versus single injection. Examinations of different fuel mass split ratios and variable second injection timing resulted in further optimisation of mixture formation. At equal share of the fuel mass injected in the first injection during NVO and in the second injection at the beginning of compression, the lowest emission level and cyclic variability improvement were observed. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20120001852"><span id="translatedtitle">Ca-Fe and Alkali-Halide Alteration of an Allende Type B <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Aqueous Alteration in Nebular or Asteroidal Settings</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ross, D. K.; Simon, J. I.; Simon, S. B.; Grossman, L.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Ca-Fe and alkali-halide alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> is often attributed to aqueous alteration by fluids circulating on asteroidal parent bodies after the various chondritic components have been assembled, although debate continues about the roles of asteroidal vs. nebular modification processes [1-7]. Here we report de-tailed observations of alteration products in a large Type B2 <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, TS4 from Allende, one of the oxidized subgroup of CV3s, and propose a speculative model for aqueous alteration of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in a nebular setting. Ca-Fe alteration in this <span class="hlt">CAI</span> consists predominantly of end-member hedenbergite, end-member andradite, and compositionally variable, magnesian high-Ca pyroxene. These phases are strongly concentrated in an unusual "nodule" enclosed within the interior of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (Fig. 1). The Ca, Fe-rich nodule superficially resembles a clast that pre-dated and was engulfed by the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but closer inspection shows that relic spinel grains are enclosed in the nodule, and corroded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> primary phases interfinger with the Fe-rich phases at the nodule s margins. This <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also contains abundant sodalite and nepheline (alkali-halide) alteration that occurs around the rims of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, but also penetrates more deeply into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The two types of alteration (Ca-Fe and alkali-halide) are adjacent, and very fine-grained Fe-rich phases are associated with sodalite-rich regions. Both types of alteration appear to be replacive; if that is true, it would require substantial introduction of Fe, and transport of elements (Ti, Al and Mg) out of the nodule, and introduction of Na and Cl into alkali-halide rich zones. Parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> have been extensively metasomatized.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796899','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25796899"><span id="translatedtitle">[Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil <span class="hlt">active</span> organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management <span class="hlt">index</span>].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil <span class="hlt">active</span> organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management <span class="hlt">index</span>. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management <span class="hlt">index</span> increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management <span class="hlt">index</span> (P < 0.01), and had a significant correlation with dis- solved organic C and MBC (P < 0.05). Rice yield was significantly positively correlated with AOC contents and the C pool management <span class="hlt">index</span>, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management <span class="hlt">index</span>, improve soil quality and fertility.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002879','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5002879"><span id="translatedtitle">The association of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically <span class="hlt">active</span>,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic <span class="hlt">index</span>(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among <span class="hlt">active</span> and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to <span class="hlt">active</span> participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic <span class="hlt">index</span> across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. <span class="hlt">active</span>) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292141"><span id="translatedtitle">Leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> time per week. In case of women with low level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week <span class="hlt">activity</span> considered low-intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span> EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI <span class="hlt">index</span> with reference to the level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25292141"><span id="translatedtitle">Leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> time per week. In case of women with low level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week <span class="hlt">activity</span> considered low-intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span> EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI <span class="hlt">index</span> with reference to the level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical. PMID:25292141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18279038','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18279038"><span id="translatedtitle">Sex-specific effects of handling time on an <span class="hlt">index</span> of immune <span class="hlt">activity</span> in zebra finches.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Berzins, Lisha L; Tilman-Schindel, Elinor; Burness, Gary</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of the immune system in shaping life-history evolution, sexual selection strategies, and <span class="hlt">indexes</span> of individual quality. The most frequently used assay of immune function, particularly in avian field studies, is the phytohemagglunitin (PHA) skin test. PHA is injected subcutaneously into the wing web, and the magnitude of the resultant swelling has traditionally been interpreted as an <span class="hlt">index</span> of an individual's cell-mediated immunocompetence. The test follows one of two protocols: the traditional two-wing injection protocol, with one wing web injected with PHA and the other with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or the simplified one-wing protocol that omits the PBS injection. In this technical comment, we alert researchers to the importance of considering handling time when performing the PHA test. We show that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) subjected to the two-wing protocol had a lower wing-web swelling than individuals injected in one wing. In males, handling time explained over 50% of the variation in an individual's skin swelling response; females were relatively unaffected by handling time. We suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing the magnitude of wing-web swelling across studies in which the alternate protocol was followed. In addition, the recording of handling time, and its inclusion in subsequent statistical analyses, may aid in the detection of subtle differences across treatments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010679"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructures of Hibonite From an ALH A77307 (CO3.0) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: Evidence for Evaporative Loss of Calcium</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.; Keller, Lindsay P.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Hibonite is a comparatively rare, primary phase found in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from different chondrite groups and is also common in Wark-Lovering rims [1]. Hibonite is predicted to be one of the earliest refractory phases to form by equilibrium condensation from a cooling gas of solar composition [2] and, therefore, can be a potential recorder of very early solar system processes. In this study, we describe the microstructures of hibonite from one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> in ALH A77307 (CO3.0) using FIB/TEM techniques in order to reconstruct its formational history.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_10");'>10</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li class="active"><span>12</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_12 --> <div id="page_13" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="241"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002651"><span id="translatedtitle">Calcium and Titanium Isotope Fractionation in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>: Tracers of Condensation and Inheritance in the Early Solar Protoplanetary Disk</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Simon, J. I.; Jordan, M. K.; Tappa, M. J.; Kohl, I. E.; Young, E. D.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The chemical and isotopic compositions of calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) can be used to understand the conditions present in the protoplantary disk where they formed. The isotopic compositions of these early-formed nebular materials are largely controlled by chemical volatility. The isotopic effects of evaporation/sublimation, which are well explained by both theory and experimental work, lead to enrichments of the heavy isotopes that are often exhibited by the moderately refractory elements Mg and Si. Less well understood are the isotopic effects of condensation, which limits our ability to determine whether a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a primary condensate and/or retains any evidence of its primordial formation history.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC21B0879M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010AGUFMGC21B0879M"><span id="translatedtitle">The Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum Estimated Using the Mg II K <span class="hlt">Index</span> and Ca II K disk <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>McMullin, D. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>As part of a program to estimate the solar spectrum backward in time to the early twentieth century, we have generated fits to UV spectral irradiance measurements (150 - 410 nm) as a function of two solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> proxies, the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, or Mg II <span class="hlt">index</span>, and the total Ca II K disk <span class="hlt">activity</span> derived from ground based observations. In addition, irradiance spectra at shorter wavelengths (1 - 150 nm) where used to generate fits to the Mg II core-to-wing ratio alone. Two sets of spectra were used in these fitting procedures. The fits at longer wavelengths (150 to 410 nm) were based on the high resolution spectra taken by the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Spectra measured by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite were used for the fits at wavelengths from 1 to 150 nm. To generate fits between solar irradiance and solar proxies, this study uses the above irradiance data, the NOAA composite Mg II <span class="hlt">index</span>, and daily Ca II K disk <span class="hlt">activity</span> determined from images measured by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among the results of this study is an estimated relationship between the fraction of the disk with enhanced Ca II K <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the Mg II <span class="hlt">index</span>, an upper bound of the average solar UV spectral irradiance during periods of pure quiet sun as was believed to be present during the Maunder Minimum, and results indicating that more than 60 % of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) variability occurs between 150 and 400nm. In this presentation we will discuss the results of this study and the implications for estimating UV spectra for use in long-term climate models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350461','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18350461"><span id="translatedtitle">Mediating relationship between body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intention.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21455092','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/21455092"><span id="translatedtitle">SPECTRAL <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> STUDIES OF THE DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 2256: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERGER <span class="hlt">ACTIVITY</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.i</p> <p>2010-08-01</p> <p>We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the merging rich cluster of galaxies, Abell 2256 (A2256). We have observed A2256 at 150 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and successfully detected the diffuse radio halo and the relic emission over a {approx}1.2 Mpc{sup 2} extent. Using this 150 MHz image and the images made using archival observations from the Very Large Array (VLA; 1369 MHz) and the Westerbrok Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 330 MHz), we have produced spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> images of the diffuse radio emission in A2256. These spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> images show a distribution of flat spectral <span class="hlt">index</span> (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}, {alpha} in the range -0.7 to -0.9) plasma in the region NW of the cluster center. Regions showing steep spectral indices ({alpha} in the range -1.0 to -2.3) are toward the SE of the cluster center. These spectral indices indicate synchrotron lifetimes for the relativistic plasmas in the range 0.08-0.4 Gyr. We interpret this spectral behavior as resulting from a merger event along the direction SE to NW within the last 0.5 Gyr or so. A shock may be responsible for the NW relic in A2256 and the megaparsec scale radio halo toward the SE is likely to be generated by the turbulence injected by mergers. Furthermore, the diffuse radio emission shows spectral steepening toward lower frequencies. This low-frequency spectral steepening is consistent with a combination of spectra from two populations of relativistic electrons created at two epochs (two mergers) within the last {approx}0.5 Gyr. Earlier interpretations of the X-ray and the optical data also suggested that there were two mergers in Abell 2256 in the last 0.5 Gyr, consistent with the current findings. Also highlighted in this study is the futility of correlating the average temperatures of thermal gas and the average spectral indices of diffuse radio emission in the respective clusters.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED503459.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (RL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1102933.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Comparative Study to Evaluate the Effectiveness of Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) versus Class Room Lecture (CRL) for Computer Science at ICS Level</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kausar, Tayyaba; Choudhry, Bushra Naoreen; Gujjar, Aijaz Ahmed</p> <p>2008-01-01</p> <p>This study was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> vs. classroom lecture for computer science at ICS level. The objectives were to compare the learning effects of two groups with class room lecture and computer assisted instruction studying the same curriculum and the effects of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and CRL in terms of cognitive development. Hypothesis of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20000061','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20000061"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and dietary fat as determinants of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in a cross-sectional corelational design.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Okeyo, Omondi D; Ayado, Othuon L O; Mbagaya, Grace M</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and dietary fat. The main indicator of overweight/obesity is Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> (BMI . The purpose of this article is to present the prediction power of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and dietary fat intake on BMI of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The studyadopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers who participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires, which had sections including physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> checklist, 24-hour food recall, anthropometrics measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis of data involved the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression. A significant inverse association occurred between BMI and minutes spent in moderate intense physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> per day (r=-0322, p<0.01). Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> also predicted BMI (R2=0.096, F=13.616, beta=-3.22, t=-3.69, N=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). In conclusion, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was a significant predictor to BMI and on the contrary no significant impact was caused by dietary fat intake. Therefore, we still need further investigations on the effect of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and dietary fat on BMI and risk factors associated poor diet should take priority.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296093','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4296093"><span id="translatedtitle">An Accumulated <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Effective <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Promoting Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: A Design and Development Study in a Mobile and Pervasive Health Context</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Liu, Chung-Tse</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Increased physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> has become a principal personal health goal worldwide because sufficient physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> can reduce the risk of many adverse conditions. Motivating individuals to increase their levels of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> can increase life expectancy and contribute to a healthy life. Sharing and comparison of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> information by using the Internet, with fewer privacy concerns, might also help encourage people to promote and maintain sufficient physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. To promote and manage physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, an accumulated <span class="hlt">activity</span> effective <span class="hlt">index</span> (AAEI) is proposed in this paper. Objective The purpose of the AAEI design is to maintain and promote physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The public can easily accept a clear indicator that reveals the current status of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The AAEI is not only an assessment and tracking tool for personal physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, but is also useful for goal setting and for sharing content with the Internet community. Methods The AAEI is derived from input in the form of accumulated physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and evaluates the status of physical <span class="hlt">activities</span> and days spent exercising. The term AAEI(t1,t2) is an <span class="hlt">index</span> of the accumulated physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the time interval (t1,t2), where the base unit of time is the day. The AAEI is determined according to accumulated physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and is adjusted using the previous status of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The previous status of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> is estimated according to the number of days spent exercising and the accumulated physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> that has been performed. An analysis of the AAEI performance was conducted using a simulation model and a real-world trial with 2 participants. Results The AAEI increased as the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and days spent exercising accumulated. Conversely, the AAEI decreased with lack of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and increased resting days. In simulation, the shape of the AAEI line indicated different types of exercise. The moving average AAEI represented long</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ECONOMY&pg=2&id=EJ1028942','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=ECONOMY&pg=2&id=EJ1028942"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3202164','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3202164"><span id="translatedtitle">Aspirin Use, Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, Plasma C-Peptide, and Colon Cancer Risk in US Health Professionals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhang, Xuehong; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Aspirin use decreases colon cancer risk, but this association may vary among population subgroups. The aspirin-colon cancer association was evaluated according to body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in 1,701 incident colon cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up of 139,310 participants for up to 26 years in 2 US prospective cohort studies that began in 1980 and 1992, respectively. Whether plasma C-peptide levels modified the association was examined by using a nested case-control design (n = 384 cases, 749 controls). Multiplicative and additive interactions were tested. Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> did not modify the association; pooled multivariable relative risks for regular aspirin use versus nonuse ranged from 0.74 to 0.75 in the normal weight and obese groups (test for multiplicative interaction, P = 0.75; test for additive interaction, P = 0.66). Pooled multivariable relative risks for regular aspirin use were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 1.11) in the low and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.77) in the high physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> groups with no interaction evident on either the multiplicative or additive scale (P > 0.10). Plasma C-peptide levels also did not modify the aspirin-colon cancer association, with multivariable relative risks of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.10) for the low and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.92) for the high group. Reductions in colon cancer risk associated with aspirin use were not significantly modified by body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, or plasma C-peptide level in this study. PMID:21673123</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9025875','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9025875"><span id="translatedtitle">Proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fasano, M; Greco, M A</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>To investigate the proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990BlDok..43....9S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1990BlDok..43....9S"><span id="translatedtitle">Microzonality of luminescence of cave stalactites as a new indirect <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shopov, I.; Dermendzhiev, V.</p> <p></p> <p>Solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> as registered in cave stalactites is discussed. Laser luminescence microzonal analysis was conducted on a polished section of a cave flowstone. The molecular admixture of the stone was excited by an ultraviolet laser and its luminescence was photographed using a microscope. The data were processed and correlated with solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> data. It is suggested that solar wind and heliospheric changes could lead to an anticorrelation between the galactic cosmic ray flux and the solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> and this effect could be used for interpolation of past solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> by radioactive isotopes. Data on solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> during periods of up to seven million years (which is the age of the oldest cave stalactites) can be obtained.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016DPS....4850505D"><span id="translatedtitle">Linking <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance to polarimetric response in a population of ancient asteroids</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Devogele, Maxime; Tanga, Paolo; Bendjoya, Philippe; Rivet, Jean-Pierre; Surdej, Jean; Bus, Schelte J.; Sunshine, Jessica M.; Cellino, Alberto; Campins, Humberto; Licandro, Javier; Pinilla-Alonso, Noemi; Carry, Benoit</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Polarimetry constitutes one of the fundamental tools for characterizing the surface texture and composition of airless Solar System bodies. In 2006, polarimetric observations led to the discovery of a new type of asteroids, which displays a peculiar polarimetric response. These asteroids are collectively known as "Barbarians", from (234) Barbara the first discovered one.The most commonly accepted explanation for this perculiar polarization response seems to be the presence of a high percentage of fluffy-type Calcium Aluminium-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), whose optical properties could produce the observed polarization. Their reflectance spectra also exibit an absorption feature in the near-infrared around 2.1-2.2 microns, that is characteristic of this peculiar group.Based on these results, we organized a systematic polarimetric and near-infrared observational campaign of known Barbarians or candidate asteroids. These campaigns include members of the family of 1040 Klumpkea, 2085 Henan and 729 Watsonia, which are known to contain Barbarian and/or L-type asteroids also suspected to have such a polarimetric behaviour. We have made use of the ToPo polarimeter at the 1m telescope of the Centre pédagogique Planète et Univers (C2PU, Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur, France). The spectroscopic observations in the near-infrared were obtained with the SpeX instrument at the NASA's InfraRed Telescope Facility (IRTF).By combining polarimetry and spectroscopy we find a correlation between the abundance of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and the inversion angle of the phase-polarization curve of Barbarian asteroids. This is the first time that a direct link has been established between a specific polarimetric response and the surface composition of asteroids. In addition, we find a considerable variety of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> abundance from one object to the other, consistent with a wide range of possible albedos. Since these asteroids constitute a reservoir of primitive Solar System material, understanding their origin can</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578137','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26578137"><span id="translatedtitle">Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of <span class="hlt">index</span> cases of <span class="hlt">active</span> pulmonary tuberculosis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva de; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of <span class="hlt">index</span> cases of <span class="hlt">active</span> pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4635092','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4635092"><span id="translatedtitle">Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of <span class="hlt">index</span> cases of <span class="hlt">active</span> pulmonary tuberculosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of <span class="hlt">index</span> cases of <span class="hlt">active</span> pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010nspm.conf..131L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010nspm.conf..131L"><span id="translatedtitle">Variations of solar EUV radiation and coronal <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span>. (Slovak Title: Variácie EUV žiarenia Slnka a koronálny <span class="hlt">index</span> slnečnej aktivity)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lorenc, M.; Pastorek, L.; Rybanský, M.</p> <p>2010-12-01</p> <p>This is a follow-up contribution of the work Lukáč and Rybanský "Modified coronal <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MCI) - presented during the last workshop. While MCI has been derived from measurements of the CELIAS/SEM spectrometer onboard the SOHO satellite, in this paper we have focused on the application of the measurements from satellites SORCE and TIMED SEE to the same goal, i.e. for compiling the coronal <span class="hlt">index</span> of solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> replacing the ground based coronal measurements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ava&id=EJ308105','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Ava&id=EJ308105"><span id="translatedtitle">Concurrent Validity for an <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Vector Analysis <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Social Adjustment.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Plante, Thomas G.; Goldfarb, Lori A.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Administered the <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Vector Analysis (AVA) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (N=144 adults) to examine the concurrent validity of the AVA. Results supported the validity of the AVA's social adjustment measure. (LLL)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750006720','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19750006720"><span id="translatedtitle">The 1975 report on <span class="hlt">active</span> and planned spacecraft and experiments. [<span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)</p> <p>1975-01-01</p> <p>Information is presented on current and planned spacecraft <span class="hlt">activity</span> for various disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, solar physics, and life sciences. For <span class="hlt">active</span> orbiting spacecraft, the epoch date, orbit type, orbit period, apoasis, periapsis, and inclination are given along with the spacecraft weight, launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, and sponsoring agency. For each planned orbiting spacecraft, the orbit parameters, planned launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, spacecraft weight, and sponsoring agency are given.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24814691','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24814691"><span id="translatedtitle">Proliferative <span class="hlt">index</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> in oral squamous cell carcinoma: indication for postoperative radiotherapy?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gontarz, M; Wyszyńska-Pawelec, G; Zapała, J; Czopek, J; Lazar, A; Tomaszewska, R</p> <p>2014-10-01</p> <p>The predictive value of the Ki-67 labelling <span class="hlt">index</span> and its relationship with radiosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains controversial. We sought to evaluate whether the expression of Ki-67 antigen found in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth is an indication for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). The first study group included 34 patients who were treated only with primary surgery, while the second group included 26 patients who underwent primary surgery combined with PORT. The correlation between Ki-67 expression and loco-regional recurrence, as well as the 5-year disease-specific survival, was assessed in the two groups. Cases of high-proliferative tumours showed a significantly higher risk of loco-regional recurrence (P=0.018) and a poorer prognosis (P=0.001) only in the 34 patients treated with surgery alone. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high Ki-67 expression was an independent predictor of loco-regional recurrence (HR 5.42, P=0.029) and disease-specific survival (HR 9.02, P=0.004). The correlation between Ki-67 expression and the risk of loco-regional recurrence in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth may be useful in the selection of patients at a higher risk of recurrence who would benefit from PORT, despite adequate margins of resection and early stage of the disease.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=csr&pg=2&id=EJ1062828"><span id="translatedtitle">From Corporate Social Responsibility, through Entrepreneurial Orientation, to Knowledge Sharing: A Study in <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong (Renovated Theatre) Theatre Companies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tuan, Luu Trong</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Purpose: This paper aims to examine the role of antecedents such as corporate social responsibility (CSR) and entrepreneurial orientation in the chain effect to knowledge sharing among members of <span class="hlt">Cai</span> Luong theatre companies in the Vietnamese context. Knowledge sharing contributes to the depth of the knowledge pool of both the individuals and the…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_11");'>11</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li class="active"><span>13</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_13 --> <div id="page_14" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="261"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED077195.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">A Model Driven Question-Answering System for a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Environment. Final Report (July 1970 to May 1972).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, John S.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>A question answering system which permits a computer-assisted instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) student greater initiative in the variety of questions he can ask is described. A method is presented to represent the dynamic processes of a subject matter area by augmented finite state automata, which permits efficient inferencing about dynamic processes and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832141"><span id="translatedtitle">Phenotypic diversity and correlation between white-opaque switching and the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in Candida albicans.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Dai, Yu; Tao, Li; Zhang, Jianzhong; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>Candida albicans is a commensal fungal pathogen that is often found as part of the human microbial flora. The aim of the present study was to establish a relationship between diverse genotypes and phenotypes of clinical isolates of C. albicans. Totally 231 clinical isolates were collected and used for genotyping and phenotypic switching analysis. Based on the microsatellite locus (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) genotyping assay, 65 different genotypes were identified, and some dominant types were found in certain human niches. For example, the genotypes of 30-44 and 30-45 were enriched in vaginal infection samples. C. albicans has a number of morphological forms including the single-celled yeasts, multicellular filaments, white, and opaque cell types. The relationship between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> genotype and the ability to undergo phenotypic switching was examined in the clinical isolates. We found that the strains with longer CAA/G repeats in both alleles of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> locus were more opaque competent. We also discovered that some MTL heterozygous (a/alpha) isolates could undergo white-opaque switching when grown on regular culture medium (containing glucose as the sole carbon source). Our study establishes a link between phenotypic switching and genotypes of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> microsatellite locus in clinical isolates of C. albicans. PMID:26832141</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2784433"><span id="translatedtitle">Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>çaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26159472"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in flavour and microbial diversity during natural fermentation of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>, a traditional food made in Northeast China.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Rina; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Xiaoyu; Meng, Lingshuai; Wang, Qianqian; Xue, Yating; Wu, Junrui; Yue, Xiqing</p> <p>2015-10-15</p> <p>We measured changes in the main physical and chemical properties, flavour compounds and microbial diversity in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> during natural fermentation. The results showed that the pH and concentration of soluble protein initially decreased but were then maintained at a stable level; the concentration of nitrite increased in the initial fermentation stage and after reaching a peak it decreased significantly to a low level by the end of fermentation. Suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span> was rich in 17 free amino acids. All of the free amino acids increased in concentration to different degrees, except histidine. Total free amino acids reached their highest levels in the mid-fermentation stage. The 17 volatile flavour components identified at the start of fermentation increased to 57 by the mid-fermentation stage; esters and aldehydes were in the greatest diversity and abundance, contributing most to the aroma of suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>. Bacteria were more abundant and diverse than fungi in suan-<span class="hlt">cai</span>; 14 bacterial species were identified from the genera Leuconostoc, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Lactobacillus. The predominant fungal species identified were Debaryomyces hansenii, Candida tropicalis and Penicillium expansum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20140010652"><span id="translatedtitle">A FIB/TEM/Nanosims Study of a Wark-Lovering Rim on an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Keller, L. P.; Needham, A. W.; Messenger, S.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Ca- Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are commonly surrounded by Wark-Lovering (WL) rims - thin (approx. 50 micrometers) multilayered sequences - whose mineralogy is dominated by high temperature minerals similar to those that occur in the cores of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> [1]. The origins of these WL rims involved high temperature events in the early nebula such as condensation, flashheating or reaction with a nebular reservoir, or combinations of these processes. These rims formed after <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation but prior to accretion into their parent bodies. We have undertaken a coordinated mineralogical and isotopic study of WL rims to determine the formation conditions of the individual layers and to constrain the isotopic reservoirs they interacted with during their history. We focus here on the spinel layer, the first-formed highest- temperature layer in the WL rim sequence. Results and Discussion: We have performed mineralogical, chemical and isotopic analyses of an unusual ultrarefractory inclusion from the Allende CV3 chondrite (SHAL) consisting of an approx. 500 micrometers long single crystal of hibonite and co-existing coarsegrained perovskite. SHAL is partially surrounded by WL rim. We previously reported on the mineralogy, isotopic compositions and trace elements in SHAL [2-4]. The spinel layer in the WL rim is present only on the hibonite and terminates abruptly at the contact with the coarse perovskite. This simple observation shows that the spinel layer is not a condensate in this case (otherwise spinel would have condensed on the perovskite as well). The spinel layer appears to have formed by gas-phase corrosion of the hibonite by Mg-rich vapors such that the spinel layer grew at the expense of the hibonite. We also found that the spinel layer has the same 16Orich composition as the hibonite. The spinel layer is polycrystalline and individual crystals do not show a crystallographic relationship with the hibonite. An Al-diopside layer overlies the spinel layer, and is present on both</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NIMPB.361...69R"><span id="translatedtitle">Two years since SSAMS: Status of 14C AMS at <span class="hlt">CAIS</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ravi Prasad, G. V.; Cherkinsky, Alexander; Culp, Randy A.; Dvoracek, Doug K.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The NEC 250 kV single stage AMS accelerator (SSAMS) was installed two years ago at the Center for Applied Isotope Studies (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), University of Georgia. The accelerator is primarily being used for radiocarbon measurements to test the authenticity of natural and bio-based samples while all other samples such as geological, atmospheric, marine and archaeological. are run on the 500 kV, NEC 1.5SDH-1 model tandem accelerator, which has been operating since 2001. The data obtained over a six months period for OXI, OXII, ANU sucrose and FIRI-D are discussed. The mean value of ANU sucrose observed to be slightly lower than the consensus value. The processed blanks on SSAMS produce lower apparent age compared to the tandem accelerator as expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012E%26PSL.329...51S"><span id="translatedtitle">Lithium isotope compositions of chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and a dark inclusion from Allende and ordinary chondrites</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Seitz, Hans-Michael; Zipfel, Jutta; Brey, Gerhard P.; Ott, Ulrich</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites have distinct Li isotope compositions, indicating the existence of local reservoirs and distinct formation conditions in the early solar system. These differences may be also recorded in the components that compose chondrites. Here, Li concentrations and Li isotope compositions of 89 chondrules, 10 <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and 1 dark inclusion (DI) from the Allende (CV3) meteorite and from 5 ordinary chondrites of low petrologic types Semarkona, Bishunpur, Saratov, Bjurböle and Bremervörde are presented. In general, chondrules have highly variable Li isotope compositions, ranging from δ7Li of - 8.5 to + 10‰, whereby the mean isotope composition of chondrules separated from a single chondrite is slightly lighter than its bulk. Remarkable, however, are the differences in Li concentrations between bulk chondrite and chondrules. Of the entire set studied here, 98% of the chondrules have significantly lower Li abundances (in the range of 0.2 to 0.75 μg/g) than their hosts (typically around 1.5 μg/g). Our results indicate that Li elemental and isotopic fractionation has not occurred extensively during chondrule formation. Low, but highly variable Li abundances as well as the relatively large range in Li isotopes point to small-scale heterogeneities in the chondrule-forming reservoir. With respect to Li, such a non-chondritic reservoir is unique to all chondrules. The compositional differences in Li isotopes between bulk carbonaceous and ordinary chondrites (Seitz et al., 2007) are likely to be the result of mixing chondrules, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and matrix in different proportions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.102..261W"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic compositions of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object from Allende</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wakaki, S.; Itoh, S.; Tanaka, T.; Yurimoto, H.</p> <p>2013-02-01</p> <p>We report the petrology, trace element abundances and oxygen isotopic characteristics of a compound <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-chondrule object, WI-025, found in the Allende CV3 chondrite. The WI-025 is an irregularly shaped inclusion consisting of three texturally and chemically distinct portions: the interior portion, the igneous rim and the intermediate zone located between these two portions. The interior portion consists of anorthite, spinel, olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxene. The major element chemistry of the interior portion corresponds to that of Al-rich chondrules and is of intermediate character between fine-grained spinel-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and ferromagnesian chondrules. The interior portion has abundant 16O-rich spinel (Δ17O = -14.2 to -24.7) and displays a group II <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like REE composition. These observations indicate that the interior portion contains a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> component formed by fractional condensation. The major and trace element chemistry of the interior portion indicate that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> had subsequently assimilated chondrule materials through partial melting. The maximum heating temperature of the partial melting is estimated at approximately 1400 °C, similar to the maximum heating temperature of Type-B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene (Δ17O = -6.3) in the interior portion indicate that the partial melting and chondrule assimilation took place under a moderately 16O-poor nebular gas. The igneous rim is texturally and chemically similar to ferromagnesian chondrules and entirely surrounds the interior portion. The oxygen isotopic compositions of the olivine and low-Ca pyroxene in the igneous rim are indistinguishable from those of the interior olivine and Al-bearing low-Ca pyroxenes. These observations indicate that a chondrule material, which was melted in the same nebular gas as the interior portion, was accreted to the interior portion. The intermediate zone represents a reaction zone accompanying the igneous rim formation. The</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70099139','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70099139"><span id="translatedtitle">Vocal <span class="hlt">activity</span> as a low cost and scalable <span class="hlt">index</span> of seabird colony size</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Borker, Abraham L.; McKown, Matthew W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15–111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m2. We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean <span class="hlt">active</span> nest count at each colony. Acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically <span class="hlt">active</span> wildlife.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24628442','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24628442"><span id="translatedtitle">Vocal <span class="hlt">activity</span> as a low cost and scalable <span class="hlt">index</span> of seabird colony size.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean <span class="hlt">active</span> nest count at each colony. Acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic <span class="hlt">activity</span> is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically <span class="hlt">active</span> wildlife.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3946145','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3946145"><span id="translatedtitle">The antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span>, antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> and selectivity <span class="hlt">index</span> of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span> was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span> against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> and antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span> with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span> is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity <span class="hlt">index</span> of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial <span class="hlt">activity</span>. PMID:24589020</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TRIGO&pg=2&id=EJ852786','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=TRIGO&pg=2&id=EJ852786"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of Preparatory <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> by the Contingent Negative Variation in Children</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Flores, Angelica B.; Digiacomo, Marcia R.; Meneres, Susana; Trigo, Eva; Gomez, Carlos M.</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: The present study investigated the effect of age on task-specific preparatory <span class="hlt">activation</span> induced by a spatial cue using the central cue Posner's paradigm. The behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) generated between S1 (the warning stimulus) and S2 (the imperative stimulus) were compared between 16 healthy…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61196&keyword=mountaintop+AND+removal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78785259&CFTOKEN=51376116','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=61196&keyword=mountaintop+AND+removal&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78785259&CFTOKEN=51376116"><span id="translatedtitle">IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING <span class="hlt">ACTIVITIES</span> USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><br><br>Coal mining is a major resource extraction <span class="hlt">activity</span> on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PHYSICAL+AND+ACTIVITY+AND+ADULTS&pg=3&id=EJ966010','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=PHYSICAL+AND+ACTIVITY+AND+ADULTS&pg=3&id=EJ966010"><span id="translatedtitle">Middle School Students' Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Levels in Physical Education</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Gao, Zan; Oh, Hyunju; Sheng, Huiping</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>One of the most critical public concerns in the United States is the rapid increase in childhood obesity, partly due to the social and environmental changes (e.g., excessive TV and computer use, pressures of standardized testing, etc.) in the past few decades, which has resulted in less physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in school children's daily routines.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..1QH','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6916E..1QH"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of laterality <span class="hlt">index</span> of upper and lower limb movement using brain <span class="hlt">activated</span> fMRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha</p> <p>2008-03-01</p> <p>Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement <span class="hlt">activates</span> the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands <span class="hlt">activate</span> brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be <span class="hlt">activated</span> regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain <span class="hlt">activation</span> was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-03/pdf/2010-30316.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-03/pdf/2010-30316.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 75475 - Agency Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-03</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>; Proposed... Control Number 0910-0620)--Extension The Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act of 2004 (MUMS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-03/pdf/2010-30335.pdf','FEDREG'); return false;" href="https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2010-12-03/pdf/2010-30335.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">75 FR 75481 - Agency Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Legally...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/browse/collection.action?collectionCode=FR">Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-12-03</p> <p>... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection <span class="hlt">Activities</span>; Proposed... Control Number 0910-0620)--Extension The Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act of 2004 (MUMS...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19950005945"><span id="translatedtitle">CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>The CENDI <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, <span class="hlt">indexing</span> quality, an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information <span class="hlt">indexing</span> <span class="hlt">activities</span>, high-tech coding structures, category <span class="hlt">indexing</span> schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401807','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25401807"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Active</span> terahertz beam steering by photo-generated graded <span class="hlt">index</span> gratings in thin semiconductor films.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Steinbusch, T P; Tyagi, H K; Schaafsma, M C; Georgiou, G; Gómez Rivas, J</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>We demonstrate <span class="hlt">active</span> beam steering of terahertz radiation using a photo-excited thin layer of gallium arsenide. A constant gradient of phase discontinuity along the interface is introduced by an spatially inhomogeneous density of free charge carriers that are photo-generated in the GaAs with an optical pump. The optical pump has been spatially modulated to form the shape of a planar blazed grating. The phase gradient leads to an asymmetry between the +1 and -1 transmission diffracted orders of more than a factor two. Optimization of the grating structure can lead to an asymmetry of more than one order of magnitude. Similar to metasurfaces made of plasmonic antennas, the photo-generated grating is a planar structure that can achieve large beam steering efficiency. Moreover, the photo-generation of such structures provides a platform for <span class="hlt">active</span> THz beam steering. PMID:25401807</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25032742','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25032742"><span id="translatedtitle">Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun</p> <p>2014-07-16</p> <p>There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> than in children who engaged only in irregular physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically <span class="hlt">active</span> children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_12");'>12</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li class="active"><span>14</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_14 --> <div id="page_15" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="281"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21529738','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21529738"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L</p> <p>2011-07-01</p> <p>Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p <0.05) but additively only improved R(2) by 2%. There was a significant interaction between BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) subjects achieved higher CRF for a given level of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2919301','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2919301"><span id="translatedtitle">The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>MacDonald, John M.; Stokes, Robert J.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Kofner, Aaron; Ridgeway, Greg K.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background The built environment can constrain or facilitate physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Most studies of the health consequences of the built environment suffer from problems of selection bias associated with confounding effects of residential choice and transportation decisions. Purpose To examine the cross-sectional associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment, BMI, obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2), and meeting weekly recommended physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (RPA) levels through walking and vigorous exercise. To assess effect of using light rail transit system (LRT) on changes in BMI, obesity, and meeting weekly RPA levels. Methods Data were collected on individuals before (July 2006–February of 2007) and after (March 2008–July 2008) completion of a light rail system in Charlotte, NC. BMI, obesity, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels were calculated for a comparison of these factors pre- and post-LRT construction. A propensity score weighting approach adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics among LRT and non-LRT users. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results More positive perceptions of one’s neighborhood at baseline were associated with a −0.36 (p<.05) lower BMI, 15% lower odds (95% CI=0.77, 0.94) of obesity, 9% higher odds (95% CI = 0.99, 1.20) of meeting weekly RPA through walking, and 11% higher odds (95% CI= 1.01, 1.22) of meeting RPA levels of vigorous exercise. The use of light rail transit to commute to work was associated with an average −1.18 reduction in BMI (p<0.05) and an 81% reduced odds (95% CI= 0.04, 0.92) of becoming obese over time. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that improving neighborhood environments and increasing the public’s use of LRT systems could provide improvements in health outcomes for millions of individuals. PMID:20621257</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013GeCoA.116...52R"><span id="translatedtitle">The texture of a fine-grained calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) in three dimensions and implications for early solar system condensation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Russell, Sara S.; Howard, Lauren</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>A 16 mm fine-grained spinel-rich calcium-aluminium-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the Allende CV3 meteorite was analysed using nano-computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy on uncoated chips and a polished thin section. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is composed of spinel nodules surrounded by anorthite and Al-rich diopside rims. Minor secondary minerals including hedenbergite and nepheline are also present. The uncoated chips contain abundant wollastonite needles that are only rarely observed in the thin section. Nano-computed tomography shows that the structure of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is a branching interconnected network of nodules, most of which are attached to each other in three dimensions. However some nodules are unattached to the rest of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. The texture suggests that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formed by condensation from a gas, and condensation and aggregation of nodules occurred contemporaneously, implying a high density of newly-formed dust. One portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is compact and rich in melilite, with a composition and texture dissimilar to the bulk of the inclusion. We infer that this is a melilite-rich mantle of the same <span class="hlt">CAI</span> that has experienced melting on one side.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015M%26PS...50.1512I"><span id="translatedtitle">A compound Ca-, Al-rich inclusion from CV3 chondrite Northwest Africa 3118: Implications for understanding processes during <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Ivanova, Marina A.; Lorenz, Cyril A.; Krot, Alexander N.; MacPherson, Glenn J.</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion 3N from the Northwest Africa (NWA) 3118 CV3 carbonaceous chondrite is a unique cm-sized compound object, primarily a forsterite-bearing type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, that encloses at least 26 smaller <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> of different types, including compact type A (CTA), B, C, and an ultra-refractory inclusion. Relative to typical type A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> found elsewhere, the bulk compositions of the types A and B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> within 3N more closely match the bulk compositions predicted by equilibrium condensation of a gas of solar composition. Being trapped within the FoB melt may have protected them from melt evaporation that affected most "stand-alone" <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. 3N originated either as an aggregate of many smaller (mostly types A, B, C) <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> plus accreted Fo-bearing material (like an amoeboid olivine aggregate) which experienced partial melting of the whole, or else as a FoB melt droplet that collided with and trapped many smaller solid <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. In the former case, 3N recorded the earliest accretion of pebble-sized bodies known. In the latter case, the presence of a large number of individual refractory inclusions within 3N suggests a very high local density of refractory solids in the immediate region of the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> during the brief time while it was melted. Collisions would have occurred on time scales of hours at most, assuming a melt solidification interval for the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span> of 300-400 °C (maximum) and a cooling rate of ~10 °C/h.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442846','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18442846"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of copper on soil functional stability measured by relative soil stability <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSSI) based on two enzyme <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Dussault, Marylène; Bécaert, Valérie; François, Matthieu; Sauvé, Sébastien; Deschênes, Louise</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p>Copper can affect essential processes in soils, often for long periods. Enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> is considered a sensitive indicator to evaluate soil health and the potential toxic impact of a soil contaminant. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the responses from enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> assays because of the influence of pH and other physicochemical parameters on both enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> and metal speciation. This leads to complications when comparing soils and limits the validity of the results. To overcome these problems, this paper evaluates resistance and recovery, quantified by using a relative soil stability <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSSI), of the beta-glucosidase and protease <span class="hlt">activities</span> towards an additional heat disturbance (17 h at 60 degrees C) in soils where soil organic matter, pH and Cu content were modified in a factorial setup. Chemical analyses (dissolved Cu, pCu(2+), dissolved organic carbon, pH) were performed both before the heat-perturbation and after the enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> monitoring period. Results show that soil pH did not interfere with the RSSI scores of both enzymes. beta-glucosidase RSSI scores were scarcely affected by copper, making it inappropriate for evaluating copper-induced stress to soils. Protease <span class="hlt">activity</span> shows stimulations of up to 2.5 times the <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the unperturbed control in uncontaminated samples only. Thus, the protease RSSI score seems a good indicator for soil health relative to copper contamination given that all samples were affected by the presence of copper and high correlations were observed between RSSI scores and the different copper forms.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029073','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4029073"><span id="translatedtitle">Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">indexes</span> semantics, not lexical categories</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain <span class="hlt">activation</span>, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727103','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24727103"><span id="translatedtitle">Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">indexes</span> semantics, not lexical categories.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain <span class="hlt">activation</span>, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274205','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4274205"><span id="translatedtitle">Quasi-causal associations of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and neighborhood walkability with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>: A twin study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Duncan, Glen E.; Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, neighborhood walkability, and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI, kg/m2) associations were tested using quasi-experimental twin methods. We hypothesized that physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and walkability were independently associated with BMI within twin pairs, controlling for genetic and environmental background shared between them. Methods Data were from 6,376 (64% female; 58% identical) same-sex pairs, University of Washington Twin Registry, 2008–2013. Neighborhood walking, moderate-to-vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MVPA), and BMI were self-reported. Residential address was used to calculate walkability. Phenotypic (non-genetically informed) and biometric (genetically informed) regression was employed, controlling for age, sex, and race. Results Walking and MVPA were associated with BMI in phenotypic analyses; associations were attenuated but significant in biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05). Walkability was not associated with BMI, however, was associated with walking (but not MVPA) in both phenotypic and biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05), with no attenuation accounting for shared genetic and environmental background. Conclusions The association between <span class="hlt">activity</span> and BMI is largely due to shared genetic and environmental factors, but a significant causal relationship remains accounting for shared background. Although walkability is not associated with BMI, it is associated with neighborhood walking (but not MVPA) accounting for shared background, suggesting a causal relationship between them. PMID:25482422</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&id=EJ565473','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=image+AND+indexing&id=EJ565473"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasmussen, Edie M.</p> <p>1997-01-01</p> <p>Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; (5) Content-Based <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3551753','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3551753"><span id="translatedtitle">Future body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1111N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010cosp...38.1111N"><span id="translatedtitle">Lyman-alpha line as a solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> for calculations of solar spectrum in the EUV region</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Katyushina, Valeria; Woods, Thomas</p> <p></p> <p>It is investigated a possibility of retrieval of solar spectrum data using intensity observational data of the only solar spectral line L (Hydrogen Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm).Using as an example spectra obtained by SEE instruments on TIMED satellite, it was shown, that both for lines and for continuum in the spectral range 27-105 nm, which is essential for ionization processes in the ionosphere, a correlation between their intensities and L was high. Therefore it becomes possible to use L measurements data as a natural solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> for calculations of EUV solar emission spectrum for solving aeronomical problems. It is noticed, that EUV model, obtained with using SEE data, does not allow to calculate correctly critical frequencies of ionospheric E-layer owing to low intensities of lines 97.7 and 102.6 nm, which produce the main part of ionization in ionospheric E-region.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319824','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26319824"><span id="translatedtitle">[RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS <span class="hlt">INDEX</span>, PHYSICAL <span class="hlt">ACTIVITY</span> AND MEAL TIMES IN MEXICAN ADOLESCENTS].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesùs; Rodríguez Jiménez, Juana; Oliva Macías, Luz Alejandra; Villarreal Castillo, Martín; León Hernández, Rodrigo César; Fernández Cortés, Trinidad Lorena</p> <p>2015-09-01</p> <p>Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio son: 1) describir la distribución del IMC, los niveles de actividad física y la frecuencia de los tiempos de comida, y 2) examinar la relación de estas variables con el IMC en una muestra de adolescentes mexicanos estudiantes de preparatoria. Métodos: participaron 1.028 adolescentes (58,9% mujeres y 41,1% hombres) de 15 a 19 años de edad (M= 16,12; DE= 0,9). Se calculó el IMC y se utilizó la referencia del CDC-2000. Los tiempos de comida se midieron con uno de los factores del cuestionario Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Trastornos Alimentarios para Púberes (FRATAP). La actividad física se evaluó mediante el International Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnaire (IPAQ) en su versión corta. Se realizaron correlaciones de Pearson para ver la relación entre las variables. Resultados: la prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad alcanzó el 29,2% para mujeres y el 29,3% en hombres. En el factor tiempos de comida, los sujetos con desnutrición y bajo peso fueron quienes siempre obtuvieron los valores más altos en la opción de respuesta. El 31,9% del total de la muestra reportó un nivel de actividad física bajo. Los tiempos de comida mostraron asociaciones significativas con el IMC (r= -0,142, p < 0,01) y los niveles de actividad física (r= 0,125, p < 0,01). Discusión: en la muestra se identificaron problemas importantes de malnutrición, frecuencia de comidas e inactividad física. De estos hallazgos surge la necesidad de diseñar e implantar programas para promover estilos de vida saludables en adolescentes.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036323','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17036323"><span id="translatedtitle">Prospective study of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, height, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), height, recreational physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in bladder carcinogenesis.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/20919396"><span id="translatedtitle">An experimental study of the combustion characteristics in SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> based on direct-injection gasoline engine</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lee, C.H.; Lee, K.H.</p> <p>2007-08-15</p> <p>Emissions remain a critical issue affecting engine design and operation, while energy conservation is becoming increasingly important. One approach to favorably address these issues is to achieve homogeneous charge combustion and stratified charge combustion at lower peak temperatures with a variable compression ratio, a variable intake temperature and a trapped rate of the EGR using NVO (negative valve overlap). This experiment was attempted to investigate the origins of these lower temperature auto-ignition phenomena with SCCI and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> using gasoline fuel. In case of SCCI, the combustion and emission characteristics of gasoline-fueled stratified-charge compression ignition (SCCI) engine according to intake temperature and compression ratio was examined. We investigated the effects of air-fuel ratio, residual EGR rate and injection timing on the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> combustion area. In addition, the effect of injection timing on combustion factors such as the start of combustion, its duration and its heat release rate was also investigated. (author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2009GeCoA..73.5100P&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Petrologic study of SJ101, a new forsterite-bearing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Allende CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Petaev, Michail I.; Jacobsen, Stein B.</p> <p>2009-09-01</p> <p>The forsterite-bearing Type B (FoB) <span class="hlt">CAI</span> SJ101 consists of three major structural units: (1) light patches of sector-zoned, poikilitic Al-rich clinopyroxene (Cpx) with numerous inclusions of small spinel grains and aggregates and subordinate amounts of Mg-rich melilite (Mel) and anorthite (An) (Sp-Cpx lithology), (2) dark sinuous bands of Al-rich clinopyroxene with large (up to ˜300 × 60 μm) poikilitically enclosed euhedral forsterite (Fo) crystals (Fo-Cpx lithology), and (3) the external Cpx-Sp-An rim overlying the entire inclusion. The two major lithologies are always separated by a transition zone of clinopyroxene poikilitically enclosing both forsterite and spinel. The patches of the Sp-Cpx lithology exhibit significant textural and mineralogical variability that is size-dependent. Small patches typically consist of Cpx and spinel with minor remnants of melilite and/or its alteration products. Large patches contain Mel-An-rich cores with either equigranular-ophitic-subophitic or 'lacy' textures reminiscent of those in Types B or C <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, respectively. All silicates poikilitically enclose numerous spinel grains of identical habit. Both melilite and anorthite gradually disappear toward the boundary with the Fo-Cpx lithology. Neither the evaporation mantle of Al-rich melilite typical of other FoBs nor the Wark-Lovering rim is present. Secondary minerals include grossular, monticellite, magnetite, and a few grains of wollastonite, andradite, and nepheline. Being a rather typical FoB mineralogically and chemically, texturally SJ101 differs from other FoBs in displaying the nearly complete segregation of forsterite from spinel which occur only in the Fo-Cpx and Sp-Cpx lithologies, respectively. The complex, convoluted internal structure of SJ101 suggests that the coarse-grained Sp-An-Mel-Cpx cores and Fo-Cpx lithology represent the precursor materials of FoBs, proto-<span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and Fo-rich accretionary rims. While the inferred chemistry and mineralogy of the Fo-rich rims</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1994Metic..29..461E"><span id="translatedtitle">Efremovka E49: A compact type-A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> containing a partially molten spinel-melilite-diopside xenolith</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>El Goresy, A.; Zinner, E. K.</p> <p>1994-07-01</p> <p>Eframovka E49 is a triangular 2-mm segment from a Compact Type A (CTA) inclusion with large portions of intact core and rim sequence. It is probably a fragment from an originally round approximately equal to 4-mm Ca-Al rich Inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). The core consists of two lithologically different assemblages: (1) The major portion of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains melilite sprinkled with rare spinel, perovskite, and the new Ca-Ti silicate. It is covered by a six-layer rim consisting of (from the interior outward): two layers of Zr- and Y-rich perovskite, spinel, Al-diopside, diopside, and forsteritic olivine. (2) A 650-micron wide complex xenolith contains coarse spinel, melilite, perovskite, and metal in its interior, surrounded by a broad shell of Al-diopside, diopside, and minor fassaite and anorthite, and in the rim fassaite yields Al-diopside yields diopside. Coarse spinels abundantly display resorbtion outlines and some of the grains have been broken down to several amoeboid fragments floating in the eutectic assemblage. All these textures are evidence of local melting of the xenolith followed by fast cooling. No such features are observed in the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Since melting is confined to the xenolith, the melt event must have predated its capture into the core of E49. Ion microprobe trace-element studies reveal distinct differences between Rare Earth Element (REE) abundances in perovskites in the xenolith and the host <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. Perovskites in the xenolith display REE patterns with prominent Yb and small Ce excesses and large Eu depletions. Perovskites in the xenolith show higher abundances of Nb, Zr, and V. Magnesium in xenolith and the host is almost unfractionated. Excesses of Mg-26 are found both in the xenolith and the host with data points plotting along a line with a slope of 4 x 105. This is in accord with the petrographic interpretation and indicates that the melting of the xenolith and its capture in E49 took place early.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19950012911&hterms=Fractionation&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D60%26Ntt%3DFractionation"><span id="translatedtitle">Heating during solar nebula formation and Mg isotopic fractionation in precursor grains of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Sasaki, S.; Nagahara, H.; Kitagami, K.; Nakagawa, Y.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>In some Ca-Al-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) grains, mass-dependent isotopic fractionations of Mg, Si, and O are observed and large Mg isotopic fractionation is interpreted to have been produced by cosmochemical processes such as evaporation and condensation. Mass-dependent Mg isotopic fractionation was found in olivine chondrules of Allende meteorites. Presented is an approximate formula for the temperature of the solar nebula that depends on heliocentric distance and the initial gas distribution. Shock heating during solar nebula formation can cause evaporative fractionation within interstellar grains involved in a gas at the inner zone (a less than 3 AU) of the disk. Alternatively collision of late-accreting gas blobs might cause similar heating if Sigma(sub s) and Sigma are large enough. Since the grain size is small, the solid/gas mass ratio is low and solar (low P(sub O2)), and the ambient gas pressure is low, this heating event could not produce chondrules themselves. Chondrule formation should proceed around the disk midplane after dust grains would grow and sediment to increase the solid/gas ratio there. The heating source there is uncertain, but transient rapid accretion through the disk could release a large amount of heat, which would be observed as FU Orionis events.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21611971','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21611971"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in relation to the incidence of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Armstrong, Miranda E G; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Pirie, Kirstin; Green, Jane; Wright, F Lucy; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie</p> <p>2011-06-01</p> <p>Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline information on body size, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and other relevant factors was collected in 1996-2001, and participants were followed for incident hip fractures by record linkage to National Health Service (NHS) hospital admission data. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks of hip fracture. Among 925,345 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 6.2 years, 2582 were admitted to hospital with an incident hip fracture. Hip fracture risk increased with decreasing BMI: Compared with obese women (BMI of 30+ kg/m(2) ), relative risks were 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-1.97)] for BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and 2.55 (95% CI 2.22-2.94) for BMI of 20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2). The increase in fracture risk per unit decrease in BMI was significantly greater among lean women than among overweight women (p < .001). For women in every category of BMI, physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. There was no significant interaction between the relative effects of BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. For women who reported that they took any exercise versus no exercise, the adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 0.68 (95% CI 0.62-0.75), with similar results for strenuous exercise. In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, BMI and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> had independent effects on hip fracture risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19850054072&hterms=Prizes&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DTitle%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DPrizes"><span id="translatedtitle">Willy: A prize noble Ur-Fremdling - Its history and implications for the formation of Fremdlinge and <span class="hlt">CAI</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Armstrong, J. T.; El Goresy, A.; Wasserburg, G. J.</p> <p>1985-01-01</p> <p>The structure and composition of Willy, a 150-micron-diameter Fremdling in <span class="hlt">CAI</span> 5241 from the Allende meteorite, are investigated using optical, secondary-electron, and electron-backscatter microscopy and electron-microprobe analysis. The results are presented in diagrams, maps, tables, graphs, and micrographs and compared with those for other Allende Fremdlinge. Willy is found to have a concentric-zone structure comprising a complex porous core of magnetite, metal, sulfide, scheelite, and other minor phases; a compact magnetite-apatite mantle; a thin (20 microns or less) reaction-assemblage zone; and a dense outer rim of fassaite with minor spinel. A multistage formation sequence involving changes in T and fO2 and preceding the introduction of Willy into the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (which itself preceded <span class="hlt">CAI</span> spinel and silicate formation) is postulated, and it is inferred from the apparent lack of post-capture recrystallization that Willy has not been subjected to temperatures in excess of 600 C and may represent the precursor material for many other Fremdlinge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242613','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23242613"><span id="translatedtitle">Pain in long-term breast cancer survivors: the role of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and sedentary behavior.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Forsythe, Laura P; Alfano, Catherine M; George, Stephanie M; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Although pain is common among post-treatment breast cancer survivors, studies that are longitudinal, identify a case definition of clinically meaningful pain, or examine factors contributing to pain in survivors are limited. This study describes longitudinal patterns of pain in long-term breast cancer survivors, evaluating associations of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, sedentary behavior with mean pain severity and above-average pain. Women newly diagnosed with stages 0-IIIA breast cancer (N = 1183) were assessed, on average, 6 months (demographic/clinical characteristics), 30 months (demographics), 40 months (demographics, pain), 5 years (BMI, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and sedentary behavior), and 10 years (demographics, pain, BMI, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and sedentary behavior) post-diagnosis. This analysis includes survivors who completed pain assessments 40 months post-diagnosis (N = 801), 10 years post-diagnosis (N = 563), or both (N = 522). Above-average pain was defined by SF-36 bodily pain scores ≥1/2 standard deviation worse than age-specific population norms. We used multiple regression models to test unique associations of BMI, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and sedentary behavior with pain adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. The proportion of survivors reporting above-average pain was higher at 10 years than at 40 months (32.3 vs. 27.8 %, p < 0.05). Approximately one-quarter of survivors reported improved pain, while 9.0 % maintained above-average pain and 33.1 % reported worsened pain. Cross-sectionally at 10 years, overweight and obese survivors reported higher pain than normal-weight survivors and women meeting physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> guidelines were less likely to report above-average pain than survivors not meeting these guidelines (p < 0.05). Longitudinally, weight gain (>5 %) was positively associated, while meeting physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> guidelines was inversely associated, with above-average pain (OR, 95 % CI = 1.76, 1.03-3.01 and 0.40, 0</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_13");'>13</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li class="active"><span>15</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_15 --> <div id="page_16" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="301"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819952','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4819952"><span id="translatedtitle">Objectively measured physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial <span class="hlt">index</span>: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background Associations between bouts of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial <span class="hlt">index</span> (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926416','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3926416"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-<span class="hlt">active</span> engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic <span class="hlt">activity</span>: therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span>, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ~50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition <span class="hlt">activity</span> using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span>. PMID:24333519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333519','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24333519"><span id="translatedtitle">Bio-<span class="hlt">active</span> engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic <span class="hlt">activity</span>: therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span>, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A; Weitzmann, M Neale; Beck, George R</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ∼ 50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span> we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition <span class="hlt">activity</span> using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span>. PMID:24333519</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008E%26PSL.272..353J"><span id="translatedtitle">26Al- 26Mg and 207Pb- 206Pb systematics of Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Canonical solar initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio reinstated</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jacobsen, Benjamin; Yin, Qing-zhu; Moynier, Frederic; Amelin, Yuri; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Hutcheon, Ian D.; Palme, Herbert</p> <p>2008-07-01</p> <p>The precise knowledge of the initial 26Al/ 27Al ratio [( 26Al/ 27Al) 0] is crucial if we are to use the very first solid objects formed in our Solar System, calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) as the "time zero" age-anchor and guide future work with other short-lived radio-chronometers in the early Solar System, as well as determining the inventory of heat budgets from radioactivities for early planetary differentiation. New high-precision multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) measurements of 27Al/ 24Mg ratios and Mg-isotopic compositions of nine whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (six mineralogically characterized fragments and three micro-drilled inclusions) from the CV carbonaceous chondrite, Allende yield a well-defined 26Al- 26Mg fossil isochron with an ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of (5.23 ± 0.13) × 10 - 5 . Internal mineral isochrons obtained for three of these <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> ( A44A, AJEF, and A43) are consistent with the whole-rock <span class="hlt">CAI</span> isochron. The mineral isochron of AJEF with ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 = (4.96 ± 0.25) × 10 - 5 , anchored to our precisely determined absolute 207Pb- 206Pb age of 4567.60 ± 0.36 Ma for the same mineral separates, reinstate the "canonical" ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 of 5 × 10 - 5 for the early Solar System. The uncertainty in ( 26Al/ 27Al) 0 corresponds to a maximum time span of ± 20 Ka (thousand years), suggesting that the Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span> formation events were culminated within this time span. Although all Allende <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied experienced multistage formation history, including melting and evaporation in the solar nebula and post-crystallization alteration likely on the asteroidal parent body, the 26Al- 26Mg and U-Pb-isotopic systematics of the mineral separates and bulk <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> behaved largely as closed-system since their formation. Our data do not support the "supra-canonical" 26Al/ 27Al ratio of individual minerals or their mixtures in CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, suggesting that the supra-canonical 26Al/ 27Al ratio in the CV <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> may have resulted from post</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040215','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2040215"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intervention on body composition in young children: influence of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> status and gender</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Aim To fight overweight and obesity in childhood, this study proposes an additional physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) in young children aged 6–10 years. The objective was to evaluate the effect of school-based PA on the body composition according to body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) categories (nonobese vs. obese) and gender. Methods This 6-month study examined the effect of this intervention on body composition in 425 children in 14 primary schools (2 weekly PA sessions of 1 h each) compared to 5 control schools. Adiposity indices were evaluated or calculated: BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass. Results No difference in the prevalence of obesity and anthropometric characteristics was found between the intervention and control groups at baseline. In girls, PA intervention had significant effect on all anthropometric variables (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), except on BMI. In contrast, in boys only BMI z-score (p < 0.001) and fat-free mass (p < 0.001) were affected. Conclusions Six months of preventive PA intervention offer an effective means to improve body composition in obese children. The pattern of response related to PA was similar between girls and boys. In contrast, the pattern was different according to BMI category, with a higher response in obese than nonobese children. PMID:17718785</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6512E..1BS','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007SPIE.6512E..1BS"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> model: a unique approach for regional quantitative morphometry in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saha, P. K.; Zhang, H.; Sonka, M.; Christensen, G. E.; Rajapakse, C. S.</p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>Recent advancements in digital medical imaging have opened avenues for quantitative analyses of different volumetric and morphometric indices in response to a disease or a treatment. However, a major challenge in performing such an analysis is the lack of a technology of building a mean anatomic space (MAS) that allows mapping data of a given subject onto MAS. This approach leads to a tool for point-by-point regional analysis and comparison of quantitative indices for data coming from a longitudinal or transverse study. Toward this goal, we develop a new computation technique, called <span class="hlt">Active</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span> Model (AIM), which is a unique tool to solve the stated problem. AIM consists of three building blocks - (1) development of MAS for a particular anatomic site, (2) mapping a specific data onto MAS, (3) regional statistical analysis of data from different populations assessing regional response to a disease or treatment progression. The AIM presented here is built at the training phase from two known populations (e.g., normal and diseased) which will be immediately ready for diagnostic purpose in a subject whose clinical status is unknown. AIM will be useful for both cross sectional and longitudinal studies and for early diagnostic. This technique will be a vital tool for understanding regional response of a disease or treatment at various stages of its progression. This method has been applied for analyzing regional trabecular bone structural distribution in rabbit femur via micro-CT imaging and to localize the affected myocardial regions from cardiac MR data.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5000626','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5000626"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary Dopamine as a Potential <span class="hlt">Index</span> of the Transport <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an <span class="hlt">index</span> of the MATE transporter <span class="hlt">activity</span>. PMID:27483254</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476890"><span id="translatedtitle">Australian tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> lower than at any time over the past 550-1,500 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haig, Jordahna; Nott, Jonathan; Reichart, Gert-Jan</p> <p>2014-01-30</p> <p>The assessment of changes in tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> within the context of anthropogenically influenced climate change has been limited by the short temporal resolution of the instrumental tropical cyclone record (less than 50 years). Furthermore, controversy exists regarding the robustness of the observational record, especially before 1990. Here we show, on the basis of a new tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), that the present low levels of storm <span class="hlt">activity</span> on the mid west and northeast coasts of Australia are unprecedented over the past 550 to 1,500 years. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> allows for a direct comparison between the modern instrumental record and long-term palaeotempest (prehistoric tropical cyclone) records derived from the (18)O/(16)O ratio of seasonally accreting carbonate layers of <span class="hlt">actively</span> growing stalagmites. Our results reveal a repeated multicentennial cycle of tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span>, the most recent of which commenced around AD 1700. The present cycle includes a sharp decrease in <span class="hlt">activity</span> after 1960 in Western Australia. This is in contrast to the increasing frequency and destructiveness of Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones since 1970 in the Atlantic Ocean and the western North Pacific Ocean. Other studies project a decrease in the frequency of tropical cyclones towards the end of the twenty-first century in the southwest Pacific, southern Indian and Australian regions. Our results, although based on a limited record, suggest that this may be occurring much earlier than expected. PMID:24476890</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476890','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24476890"><span id="translatedtitle">Australian tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> lower than at any time over the past 550-1,500 years.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haig, Jordahna; Nott, Jonathan; Reichart, Gert-Jan</p> <p>2014-01-30</p> <p>The assessment of changes in tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> within the context of anthropogenically influenced climate change has been limited by the short temporal resolution of the instrumental tropical cyclone record (less than 50 years). Furthermore, controversy exists regarding the robustness of the observational record, especially before 1990. Here we show, on the basis of a new tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>), that the present low levels of storm <span class="hlt">activity</span> on the mid west and northeast coasts of Australia are unprecedented over the past 550 to 1,500 years. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span> allows for a direct comparison between the modern instrumental record and long-term palaeotempest (prehistoric tropical cyclone) records derived from the (18)O/(16)O ratio of seasonally accreting carbonate layers of <span class="hlt">actively</span> growing stalagmites. Our results reveal a repeated multicentennial cycle of tropical cyclone <span class="hlt">activity</span>, the most recent of which commenced around AD 1700. The present cycle includes a sharp decrease in <span class="hlt">activity</span> after 1960 in Western Australia. This is in contrast to the increasing frequency and destructiveness of Northern Hemisphere tropical cyclones since 1970 in the Atlantic Ocean and the western North Pacific Ocean. Other studies project a decrease in the frequency of tropical cyclones towards the end of the twenty-first century in the southwest Pacific, southern Indian and Australian regions. Our results, although based on a limited record, suggest that this may be occurring much earlier than expected.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050202018','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20050202018"><span id="translatedtitle">Urban forms, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Lin, Ge</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon <span class="hlt">index</span> was significantly associated with physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.6277H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014BGeo...11.6277H"><span id="translatedtitle">Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance <span class="hlt">index</span> for assessing xanthophyll cycle <span class="hlt">activity</span>: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance <span class="hlt">index</span> (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic <span class="hlt">activity</span>. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715046B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015EGUGA..1715046B"><span id="translatedtitle">Modeling of decomposition <span class="hlt">activity</span> and priming effect in soil using the versatile <span class="hlt">index</span> of microbial physiological state</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Blagodatskiy, Sergey</p> <p>2015-04-01</p> <p>The implementation of microbial biomass in soil organic matter (SOM) models is still unresolved issue. The approaches using explicit description of microbial biomass (decomposer) interaction with SOM usually cannot be easily verified by means of experimental estimating of total microbial biomass dynamics. Standard experimental methods, such as fumigation extraction or direct microscopic count, does not represent microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2013), which is essential for the control of decomposition rate. More advanced approaches, explicitly simulating intracellular metabolic <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Resat et al., 2012) and e.g. production and turnover of extracellular enzymes (Lawrence et al., 2009) are prohibitively complex for the field and larger scales, which are most often under demand for SOM modelling. One possible parsimonious solution is an application of <span class="hlt">index</span> of microbial physiological state (r), which describes the adaptive variation of the cell composition and metabolic <span class="hlt">activity</span> by one variable (Panikov, 1995). This variable (r) can reflect the microbial response to the availability of carbon and nitrogen and shift of microbial biomass between <span class="hlt">active</span> and dormant state (Blagodatsky and Richter, 1998), but also can be used for the description of the effect of external factors, such as temperature and moisture, on microbial <span class="hlt">activity</span>. This approach is extremely useful for the description of priming effect (Blagodatsky et al., 2010) and the influence of substrate availability and external factors on the size and dynamics of priming. Distinguishing of these two types of driving forces for priming is crucial for modelling of SOM dynamics and steady-state stocks of different SOM pools. I will present the analysis of model response on combination of limiting factors presented as functions controlling the change of microbial physiological state and size of priming effect. Alternatively, the direct effect of the same factors on decomposition rate and priming</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1998PhDT.......222B"><span id="translatedtitle">An investigative study into the effectiveness of using computer-aided instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) as a laboratory component of college-level biology: A case study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Barrett, Joan Beverly</p> <p></p> <p>Community colleges serve the most diverse student populations in higher education. They consist of non-traditional, part-time, older, intermittent, and mobile students of different races, ethnic backgrounds, language preferences, physical and mental abilities, and learning style preferences. Students who are academically challenged may have diverse learning characteristics that are not compatible with the more traditional approaches to the delivery of instruction. With this need come new ways of solving the dilemma, such as Computer-aided Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>). This case study investigated the use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a laboratory component of college-level biology in a small, rural community college setting. The intent was to begin to fill a void that seems to exist in the literature regarding the role of the faculty in the development and use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. In particular, the investigator was seeking to understand the practice and its effectiveness, especially in helping the under prepared student. The case study approach was chosen to examine a specific phenomenon within a single institution. Ethnographic techniques, such as interviewing, documentary analysis, life's experiences, and participant observations were used to collect data about the phenomena being studied. Results showed that the faculty was primarily self-motivated and self-taught in their use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> as a teaching and learning tool. The importance of faculty leadership and collegiality was evident. Findings showed the faculty confident that expectations of helping students who have difficulties with mathematical concepts have been met and that <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is becoming the most valuable of learning tools. In a traditional college classroom, or practice, time is the constant (semesters) and competence is the variable. In the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> laboratory time became the variable and competence the constant. The use of <span class="hlt">CAI</span> also eliminated hazardous chemicals that were routinely used in the more traditional lab. Outcomes showed that annual savings</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.224...39W','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014Geomo.224...39W"><span id="translatedtitle">Impact of wind erosion on detecting <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonics from geomorphic <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic <span class="hlt">indexes</span> (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) <span class="hlt">index</span>) to determine <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic <span class="hlt">indexes</span> are good indicators of <span class="hlt">active</span> faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic <span class="hlt">indexes</span> show quite <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly <span class="hlt">active</span> tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic <span class="hlt">indexes</span> exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher <span class="hlt">activities</span>, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Weight+AND+Management&pg=4&id=EJ1045588','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Weight+AND+Management&pg=4&id=EJ1045588"><span id="translatedtitle">Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> among Low-Income Housing Residents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084858"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets and their enhanced catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang</p> <p>2013-12-11</p> <p>Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:24084858</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084858','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24084858"><span id="translatedtitle">Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets and their enhanced catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang</p> <p>2013-12-11</p> <p>Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101612','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22101612"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Iranian versions of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span> (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional <span class="hlt">Index</span> (BASFI) and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bidad, Katayoon; Fallahi, Sasan; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Ahmadreza; Farhadi, Elham; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein</p> <p>2012-11-01</p> <p>The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span> (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional <span class="hlt">Index</span> (BASFI) are widely used instruments in assessment of patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) is regarded as a target for patients' well-being. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt BASDAI, BASFI and PASS into the Iranian official language, Farsi, and evaluate their reliability and validity. Ninety patients with AS were included in this study. The questionnaires were translated into Farsi and back translated into English, modified until the final versions were approved with minor adaptations and the VAS was changed to numerical rating scales from 0 to 10. Forty-eight-hour test-retest agreement showed good reliability: interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for BASDAI was 0.93 (CI at 95%, 0.90-0.95), for BASFI was 0.96 (CI at 95%, 0.94-0.97) and for PASS was 0.87 (CI at 95%, 0.79-0.92). Chronbach's alpha was 0.95, 0.96 and 0.87 for BASDAI, BASFI and PASS, respectively. BASDAI showed a significant correlation with patient global disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span>, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G), BASFI and BASMI. A significant correlation was also found between BASFI and occiput-to-wall distance, mentum-to-sternum distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASMI. Patients who answered "no" to PASS (found their condition unsatisfactory) reported significantly increased pain scores, patient global disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> scores, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASFI scores. The results showed that the Iranian versions of BASDAI, BASFI and PASS are adequately reliable and valid in patients with AS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4811535','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4811535"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Estimates in Adult Males</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Pickens, C. Austin; Matsuo, Karen H.; Fenton, Jenifer I.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF- α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27483254','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27483254"><span id="translatedtitle">Urinary Dopamine as a Potential <span class="hlt">Index</span> of the Transport <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H⁺/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [³H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an <span class="hlt">index</span> of the MATE transporter <span class="hlt">activity</span>. PMID:27483254</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_14");'>14</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li class="active"><span>16</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_16 --> <div id="page_17" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="321"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023786','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27023786"><span id="translatedtitle">Relationship between Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Estimates in Adult Males.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pickens, C Austin; Matsuo, Karen H; Fenton, Jenifer I</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme <span class="hlt">activity</span> estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF-α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015GeCoA.153..183F"><span id="translatedtitle">Evidence for an early nitrogen isotopic evolution in the solar nebula from volatile analyses of a <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Füri, Evelyn; Chaussidon, Marc; Marty, Bernard</p> <p>2015-03-01</p> <p>Nitrogen and noble gas (Ne-Ar) abundances and isotope ratios, determined by CO2 laser extraction static mass spectrometry analysis, as well as Al-Mg and O isotope data from secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses, are reported for a type B calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 chondrite NWA 8616. The high (26Al/27Al)i ratio of (5.06 ± 0.50) × 10-5 dates the last melting event of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> at 39-99+109ka after "time zero", limiting the period during which high-temperature exchanges between the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the nebular gas could have occurred to a very short time interval. Partial isotopic exchange with a 16O-poor reservoir resulted in Δ17O > -5‰ for melilite and anorthite, whereas spinel and Al-Ti-pyroxene retain the inferred original 16O-rich signature of the solar nebula (Δ17O ⩽ -20‰). The low 20Ne/22Ne (⩽0.83) and 36Ar/38Ar (⩽0.75) ratios of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> rule out the presence of any trapped planetary or solar noble gases. Cosmogenic 21Ne and 38Ar abundances are consistent with a cosmic ray exposure (CRE) age of ∼14 to 20 Ma, assuming CR fluxes similar to modern ones, without any evidence for pre-irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> before incorporation into the meteorite parent body. Strikingly, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> contains 1.4-3.4 ppm N with a δ15N value of +8‰ to +30‰. Even after correcting the measured δ15N values for cosmogenic 15N produced in situ, the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> is highly enriched in 15N compared to the protosolar nebula (δ15NPSN = -383 ± 8‰; Marty et al., 2011), implying that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-forming region was contaminated by 15N-rich material within the first 0.15 Ma of Solar System history, or, alternatively, that the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> was ejected into the outer Solar System where it interacted with a 15N-rich reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014M%26PS...49..812F"><span id="translatedtitle">Hydrothermal origin of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A <span class="hlt">CAI</span> from the Northwest Africa 2086 CV3 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Fintor, Krisztian; Park, Changkun; Nagy, Szabolcs; Pál-Molnár, Elemér; Krot, Alexander N.</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>We report an occurrence of hexagonal CaAl2Si2O8 (dmisteinbergite) in a compact type A calcium-aluminum-rich inclusion (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) from the CV3 (Vigarano-like) carbonaceous chondrite Northwest Africa 2086. Dmisteinbergite occurs as approximately 10 μm long and few micrometer-thick lath-shaped crystal aggregates in altered parts of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, and is associated with secondary nepheline, sodalite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, grossular, and Fe-rich spinel. Spinel is the only primary <span class="hlt">CAI</span> mineral that retained its original O-isotope composition (Δ17O ~ -24‰); Δ17O values of melilite, perovskite, and Al,Ti-diopside range from -3 to -11‰, suggesting postcrystallization isotope exchange. Dmisteinbergite, anorthite, Ti-poor Al-diopside, and ferroan olivine have 16O-poor compositions (Δ17O ~ -3‰). We infer that dmisteinbergite, together with the other secondary minerals, formed by replacement of melilite as a result of fluid-assisted thermal metamorphism experienced by the CV chondrite parent asteroid. Based on the textural appearance of dmisteinbergite in NWA 2086 and petrographic observations of altered <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Allende meteorite, we suggest that dmisteinbergite is a common secondary mineral in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the oxidized Allende-like CV3 chondrites that has been previously misidentified as a secondary anorthite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/10314','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/10314"><span id="translatedtitle">A description of the <span class="hlt">index</span> of <span class="hlt">active</span> Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Merritt, M.L.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A computerized <span class="hlt">index</span> of water-data collection <span class="hlt">activities</span> and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the <span class="hlt">index</span> is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905930','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4905930"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was evaluated using the International Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313391"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was evaluated using the International Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313391','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27313391"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J</p> <p>2016-05-01</p> <p>[Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was evaluated using the International Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptSp.112..465G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012OptSp.112..465G"><span id="translatedtitle">Kinetics of the refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> change in the core of <span class="hlt">active</span> fibers, doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, under pulsed optical pumping</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gainov, V. V.; Ryabushkin, O. A.</p> <p>2012-03-01</p> <p>The kinetics of refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> change (RIC) in the core of Yb3+/Er3+ fibers at a radiation wave-length lying beyond the range of resonant absorption of <span class="hlt">active</span> ions under pulsed pumping of fiber laser has been analyzed. The measurement of RIC kinetics with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer makes it possible to separate the contributions of the electronic and thermal RIC mechanisms and determine quantitatively the temperature profile inhomogeneity in the fiber. The measured values are compared with the numerical estimates derived from the spectral properties of the <span class="hlt">active</span> medium in order to check the modern models of RIC in <span class="hlt">active</span> fibers.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2002/of02-302/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %R) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in Pennsylvania</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Harper, John A.; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in Pennsylvania by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Group are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21633079"><span id="translatedtitle">In dialyzed squid axons oxidative stress inhibits the Na+/Ca2+ exchanger by impairing the <span class="hlt">Cai</span>2+-regulatory site.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>DiPolo, Reinaldo; Beaugé, Luis</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger, a major mechanism by which cells extrude calcium, is involved in several physiological and physiopathological interactions. In this work we have used the dialyzed squid giant axon to study the effects of two oxidants, SIN-1-buffered peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in the absence and presence of MgATP upregulation. The results show that oxidative stress induced by peroxynitrite and hydrogen peroxide inhibits the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger by impairing the intracellular Ca(2+) (<span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+))-regulatory sites, leaving unharmed the intracellular Na(+)- and Ca(2+)-transporting sites. This effect is efficiently counteracted by the presence of MgATP and by intracellular alkalinization, conditions that also protect H(i)(+) and (H(i)(+) + Na(i)(+)) inhibition of <span class="hlt">Ca(i</span>)(2+)-regulatory sites. In addition, 1 mM intracellular EGTA reduces oxidant inhibition. However, once the effects of oxidants are installed they cannot be reversed by either MgATP or EGTA. These results have significant implications regarding the role of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in response to pathological conditions leading to tissue ischemia-reperfusion and anoxia/reoxygenation; they concur with a marked reduction in ATP concentration, an increase in oxidant production, and a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration that seems to be the main factor responsible for cell damage.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014MS%26E...64a2009N"><span id="translatedtitle">Compression-after-impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) performance of epoxycarbon fibre-reinforced nanocomposites using nanosilica and rubber particle enhancement</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Nikfar, B.; Njuguna, J.</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>One of the problems in the design of automotive structures and body parts made by fibre reinforced composites is that these materials are susceptible to a small energy impact caused by for instance, accidental tool drop during maintenance or stone strike while in operation. This often lead to a barely visible impact damage which causes reduction in compressive strength of the composite part. To increase the impact tolerance of the composites, toughening agents like silica nanoparticles and rubber particles can be utilized to toughen the resin. To understand the effect of the particles enhancement, the impact tolerance was evaluated utilizing Compression After Impact (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) test after the impact induced by gas- gun impacting equipment. The results from <span class="hlt">CAI</span> test after 20 J impact (high energy stone strike) shows about 30% improvement in residual compressive strength for the nanosilica enhanced composite compared to unmodified CFRP. Also C-scan results after 7 J impact shows about 50% smaller delamination area for the nano-enhanced composite.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1078/"><span id="translatedtitle">Thermal maturity patterns (<span class="hlt">CAI</span> and %Ro) in the Ordovician and Devonian rocks of the Appalachian basin in West Virginia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Repetski, John E.; Ryder, Robert T.; Avary, Katharine Lee; Trippi, Michael H.</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p>The objective of this study is to enhance existing thermal maturity maps in West Virginia by establishing: 1) new subsurface <span class="hlt">CAI</span> data points for the Ordovician and Devonian and 2) new %Ro and Rock Eval subsurface data points for Middle and Upper Devonian black shale units. Thermal maturity values for the Ordovician and Devonian strata are of major interest because they contain the source rocks for most of the oil and natural gas resources in the basin. Thermal maturity patterns of the Middle Ordovician Trenton Limestone are evaluated here because they closely approximate those of the overlying Ordovician Utica Shale that is believed to be the source rock for the regional oil and gas accumulation in Lower Silurian sandstones (Ryder and others, 1998) and for natural gas fields in fractured dolomite reservoirs of the Ordovician Black River-Trenton Limestones. Improved <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-based thermal maturity maps of the Ordovician are important to identify areas of optimum gas generation from the Utica Shale and to provide constraints for interpreting the origin of oil and gas in the Lower Silurian regional accumulation and Ordovician Black River-Trenton fields. Thermal maturity maps of the Devonian will better constrain burial history-petroleum generation models of the Utica Shale, as well as place limitations on the origin of regional oil and gas accumulations in Upper Devonian sandstone and Middle to Upper Devonian black shale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3514325','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3514325"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and daily physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> among young Japanese and Thai female students</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> for controlling body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605982','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26605982"><span id="translatedtitle">Quantitative Structure-<span class="hlt">Activity</span> Relationship for High Affinity 5-HT1A Receptor Ligands Based on Norm <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jia, Qingzhu; Cui, Xue; Li, Lei; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng</p> <p>2015-12-24</p> <p>Arylpiperazine derivatives are promising 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor ligands which can inhibit serotonin reuptake effectively. In this work, some norm <span class="hlt">index</span> descriptors were proposed and further utilized to develop a model for predicting 5-HT1A receptor affinity (pKi) of 88 arylpiperazine derivatives. Results showed that this new model could provide satisfactory predictions with the square of the correction coefficient (R(2)) of 0.8891 and the squared correlation coefficient of cross-validation (Q(2)) of 0.8082, respectively. In addition, the applicability domain of this model was validated by using the leverage approach and results which suggested potential large scale for further utilization of this model. The results of statistical values and validation tests demonstrated that our proposed norm <span class="hlt">index</span> based model could be successfully applied for predicting the affinity 5-HT1A receptor ligands of arylpiperazine derivatives.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=lexicography&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlexicography','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19920071651&hterms=lexicography&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dlexicography"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computer-aided lexicography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Buchan, Ronald L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> with computers is a far cry from <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with the first <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer <span class="hlt">activity</span> in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> (RI), can be made to many <span class="hlt">indexing</span> systems. In addition to improving the quality of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080156','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5080156"><span id="translatedtitle">The effect of feedback respiratory exercise on muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span>, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability <span class="hlt">index</span> of the neck flexors of patients with forward head posture</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>[Purpose] This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalenus anterior muscle, which are agonists of neck and breathing accessory muscles, by implementing breathing exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen subjects were selected for the experimental group, which performed feedback respiratory exercises with McKenzie exercises, and 12 subjects were selected for the control group, which performed McKenzie exercises alone. The intervention program was performed for 30 minutes a session, once a day, four times a week, and for 2 weeks before conducting the experiment. Before intervention, muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> was measured using surface electromyogram, and the neck disability <span class="hlt">index</span> was evaluated. [Results] There were meaningful differences in <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalenus anterior muscle, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability <span class="hlt">index</span> within both the experimental group and control group after intervention. There also were meaningful differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle and neck disability <span class="hlt">index</span> changes between groups. [Conclusion] Neck flexors as accessory respiratory muscle can affect inefficient respiratory imbalance of forward head posture patients. Multimodal intervention method should be studied continually and not be exposed to upper chest breathing patterns by preventing such phenomenon. PMID:27799674</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED115225.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of the Experimental <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Network (1973-1975) of the Lister Hill National Center for Biomedical Communications, National Library of Medicine. Final Report. No. ED-75-1.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rubin, Martin L.; And Others</p> <p></p> <p>An evaluation was made of the biomedical Computer Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Network Experiment, established by the National Library of Medicine in 1973 to test the feasibility of sharing <span class="hlt">CAI</span> learning materials through a national computer network. The evaluation was designed to assist decision makers in planning a future mechanism for distributing…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/4177982"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">INDEXING</span> MECHANISM</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Kock, L.J.</p> <p>1959-09-22</p> <p>A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">Index</span> pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an <span class="hlt">index</span> pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the <span class="hlt">index</span> pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2006GeCoA..70.2622M"><span id="translatedtitle">Crystallization of melilite from CMAS-liquids and the formation of the melilite mantle of Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>: Experimental simulations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Mendybaev, Ruslan A.; Richter, Frank M.; Davis, Andrew M.</p> <p>2006-05-01</p> <p>Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> are subdivided into B1s, with well-developed melilite mantles, and B2s, with randomly distributed melilite. Despite intensive study, the origin of the characteristic melilite mantle of the B1s remains unclear. Recently, we proposed that formation of the melilite mantle is caused by depletion of the droplet surface in volatile magnesium and silicon due to higher evaporation rates of volatile species compared to their slow diffusion rates in the melt, thus making possible crystallization of melilite at the edge of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> first, followed by its crystallization in the central parts at lower temperatures. Here, we present the results of an experimental study that aimed to reproduce the texture observed in natural Type B <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. First, we experimentally determined crystallization temperatures of melilite for three melt compositions, which, combined with literature data, allowed us to find a simple relationship between the melt composition, crystallization temperature, and composition of first crystallizing melilite. Second, we conducted a series of evaporation and cooling experiments exposing <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts to gas mixtures with different oxygen fugacities (f). Cooling of the molten droplets in gases with logf⩾IW-4 resulted in crystallization of randomly distributed melilite, while under more reducing conditions, melilite mantles have been formed. Chemical profiles through samples quenched right before melilite started to crystallize showed no chemical gradients in samples exposed to relatively oxidizing gases (logf⩾IW-4), while the near-surface parts of the samples exposed to very reducing gases (logf⩽IW-7) were depleted in volatile MgO and SiO 2, and enriched in refractory Al 2O 3. Using these experimental results and the fact that the evaporation rate of magnesium and silicon from <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like melts is proportional to √{P}, we estimate that Type B1 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> could be formed by evaporation of a partially molten precursor in a gas of solar composition with P</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0037/report.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://pubs.usgs.gov/of/1983/0037/report.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Revised description of <span class="hlt">index</span> of Florida water data collection <span class="hlt">active</span> stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Geiger, Linda H.</p> <p>1983-01-01</p> <p>The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative <span class="hlt">index</span> of <span class="hlt">active</span> data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection <span class="hlt">activities</span>. District offices with extensive data-collection <span class="hlt">activities</span> will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is updated routinely. (USGS)</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_15");'>15</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li class="active"><span>17</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_17 --> <div id="page_18" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="341"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2003EAEJA.....9292C"><span id="translatedtitle">B and Mg isotopic variations in Leoville mrs-06 type B1 <span class="hlt">cai</span>:origin of 10Be and 26Al</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chaussidon, M.; Robert, F.; Russel, S. S.; Gounelle, M.; Ash, R. D.</p> <p>2003-04-01</p> <p>The finding [1-3] in Ca-Al-rich refractory inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) of primitive chondrites of traces of the in situ decay of radioactive 10Be (half-life 1.5Myr) indicates that irradiation of the protosolar nebula by the young Sun in its T-Tauri phase has produced significant amounts of the Li-Be-B elements. This irradiation may have produced also some or all of the short-lived 26Al (half-life 0.7Myr) and 41Ca (half-life 0.1Myr) previously detected in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. To constrain the origin of 10Be and 10Al it is important to look for coupled variations in the 10Be/9Be and 26Al/27Al ratios in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and to understand the processes responsible for these variations (e.g. variations in the fluences of irradiation, secondary perturbations of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, ...) We have thus studied the Li and B isotopic compositions and the Be/Li and Be/B concentration ratios in one <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (MRS-06) from the Leoville CV3 chondrite in which large variations of the Mg isotopic compositions showing both the in situ decay of 26Al and the secondary redistribution of Mg isotopes have been observed [4]. The results show large variations for the Li and B isotopic compositions (^7Li/^6Li ranging from 11.02±0.21 to 11.82±0.07, and 10B/11B ratios ranging from 0.2457±0.0053 to 0.2980±0.0085). The ^7Li/^6Li ratio tend to decrease towards the rim of the inclusion. The 10B/11B ratios are positively correlated with the ^9Be/11B ratios indicating the in situ decay of 10Be. However perturbations of the 10Be/B system are observed. They would correspond to an event which occurred approximately 2Myr after the formation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> and the irradiation of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> precursors which is responsible for the 10Be observed in the core of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. These perturbations seem compatible with those observed for the 26Al/Mg system but they might be due to an irradiation of the already-formed, isolated <span class="hlt">CAI</span> which would have resulted in increased 10Be/^9Be ratios and low ^7Li/^6Li ratios in the margin of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>. [1] McKeegan K. D. et al. (2000</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20070009991"><span id="translatedtitle">Isotopic Measurements in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the Nanosims: Implications to the understanding of the Formation process of Ca, Al-Rich Inclusions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Ito, M.; Messenger, S.; Walker, Robert M.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>Ca, Al-rich Inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) preserve evidence of thermal events that they experienced during their formation in the early solar system. Most <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from CV and CO chondrites are characterized by large variations in O-isotopic compositions of primary minerals, with spinel, hibonite, and pyroxene being more O-16-rich than melilite and anorthite, with delta 17, O-18 = approx. -40%o (DELTA O-17 = delta O-17 - 0.52 x delta O-18 = approx. - 20%o ). These anomalous compositions cannot be accounted for by standard mass dependent fractionation and diffusive process of those minerals. It requires the presence of an anomalous oxygen reservoir of nucleosynthetic origin or mass independent fractionations before the formation of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> in the early solar system. The CAMECA NanoSIMS is a new generation ion microprobe that offers high sensitivity isotopic measurements with sub 100 nm spatial resolution. The NanoSIMS has significantly improved abilities in the study of presolar grains in various kind of meteorites and the decay products of extinct nuclides in ancient solar system matter. This instrument promises significant improvements over other conventional ion probes in the precision isotopic characterization of sub-micron scales. We report the results of our first O isotopic measurements of various <span class="hlt">CAI</span> minerals from EK1-6-3 and 7R19-1(a) utilizing the JSC NanoSIMS 50L ion microprobe. We evaluate the measurement conditions, the instrumental mass fractionation factor (IMF) for O isotopic measurement and the accuracy of the isotopic ratio through the analysis of a San Carlos olivine standard and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> sample of 7R19-1(a).</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013M%26PS...48.1440B"><span id="translatedtitle">Mg and Si isotopic fractionation patterns in types B1 and B2 <fc><span class="hlt">CAI</span></fc>s: Implications for formation under different nebular conditions</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Bullock, Emma S.; Knight, Kim B.; Richter, Frank M.; Kita, Noriko T.; Ushikubo, Takayuki; MacPherson, Glenn J.; Davis, Andrew M.; Mendybaev, Ruslan A.</p> <p>2013-08-01</p> <p>Magnesium and silicon isotopic profiles across melilite grains in two type B1 and two type B2 calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) reveal differing but constant enrichments in heavy isotopes everywhere except ≤1000 μm from the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins. There is no close correlation in the B1s or the B2s between isotopic composition and åkermanite content of the melilite, a measure of progressive igneous crystallization, yet such a correlation might be expected in a type B2: without a melilite mantle (as in B1s) to seal the interior off and prevent further evaporation, the melt would have maintained communication with the external gas. These observations indicate a model in which B1s and B2s solidified under differing conditions. The B2s solidified under lower hydrogen pressures (PH2 ≤ 10-4 - 10-5 bars) than did B1s (PH2 > 10-4 bars), so surface volatilization was slower in the B2s and internal chemical and isotopic equilibrium was maintained over the interval of melilite crystallization. The outermost zones of the <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> (≤1000 μm from the edge) are not consistently enriched in heavy isotopes relative to the interiors, as might be expected from diffusion-limited surface evaporation of the melt. In all cases, the magnesium in the <span class="hlt">CAI</span> margins is lighter than in the interiors. In one case, silicon in the margin also is lighter, but locally in some <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>, it is isotopically heavier near the surface. If melt evaporation played a role in the formation of these outer zones, a later event in many cases caused isotopic re-equilibration with an external and isotopically near-normal reservoir.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059537','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5059537"><span id="translatedtitle">Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682). Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24) odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06) odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys). Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health. PMID:27774315</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014307','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5014307"><span id="translatedtitle">Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Rheumatoid Arthritis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high <span class="hlt">activity</span> through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated <span class="hlt">indexes</span> (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA <span class="hlt">activity</span> as remission if ≤2, low disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> was 0.909 and between moderate-high <span class="hlt">activity</span> 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957820','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4957820"><span id="translatedtitle">Associations between Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in the Korean Population</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Objective This study investigated the associations between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in <span class="hlt">active</span> men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very <span class="hlt">active</span> men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in <span class="hlt">active</span> men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very <span class="hlt">active</span> men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in <span class="hlt">active</span> men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very <span class="hlt">active</span> men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in <span class="hlt">active</span> women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very <span class="hlt">active</span> women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and different obesity measures in various populations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976346','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4976346"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span>, LC-MS, and NMR</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The traditional <span class="hlt">activity</span>-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering <span class="hlt">active</span> compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (AI), liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential <span class="hlt">active</span> constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory <span class="hlt">activities</span>. And eight potential <span class="hlt">active</span> constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27499135','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27499135"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span>, LC-MS, and NMR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The traditional <span class="hlt">activity</span>-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering <span class="hlt">active</span> compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating <span class="hlt">activity</span> <span class="hlt">index</span> (AI), liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential <span class="hlt">active</span> constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory <span class="hlt">activities</span>. And eight potential <span class="hlt">active</span> constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640094','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6640094"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Activated</span> carbon: waste water treatment. 1976-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering <span class="hlt">Index</span> Data Base). Report for 1976-Jun 80</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Cavagnaro, D.M.</p> <p>1980-07-01</p> <p>These citations from a worldwide literature survey cover <span class="hlt">activated</span> carbon as it is used in treating industrial and sewage wastes, relative to process description, economics, mathematical models, performance, and the property changes the carbon undergoes. (This updated bibliography contains 277 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED460097.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED460097.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">School Health <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Healthy Eating: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Elementary School.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.</p> <p></p> <p>This self-assessment and planning guide is intended to help schools identify the strengths and weaknesses of their health promotion policies and programs, develop an action plan for improving student health, and involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving school services. It focuses on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and nutrition. After…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9282221','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9282221"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> events in memory: evidence for <span class="hlt">index</span> dominance.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Taylor, H A; Tversky, B</p> <p>1997-07-01</p> <p>Research on narrative comprehension and autobiographical memory converge on three hypotheses which make different predictions about event organisation. The availability of different event components as <span class="hlt">indexes</span> may explain the convergence on three hypotheses rather than one. In this paper, three experiments assessed event <span class="hlt">indexing</span> in narratives with different available <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. In Experiment 1, participants read event descriptions organised by character or time. In Experiment 2, event descriptions were organised by character or location. In Experiment 3, participants read event descriptions where events were grouped by <span class="hlt">activity</span>. In each experiment, memory could be organised by any of the available components alone, by both components, or by using the organisation imposed by the discourse. Participants <span class="hlt">indexed</span> events by character in Experiment 1, re-<span class="hlt">indexing</span> information when necessary. Results of Experiment 2 indicated equal use of character and location <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. In this case, participants used the discourse organisation. In Experiment 3, participants <span class="hlt">indexed</span> events using <span class="hlt">activity</span> groupings, again re-<span class="hlt">indexing</span> events when necessary. Results are interpreted as indicating reliance on a single organising <span class="hlt">index</span> with flexibility in the selection of different event components as <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. PMID:9282221</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945995','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3945995"><span id="translatedtitle">Nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> policies and practices, and children’s body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intelligence+AND+exercise+AND+physical&id=ED555976','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Intelligence+AND+exercise+AND+physical&id=ED555976"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, and Working Memory in a Sample of Children with Down Syndrome: Can Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Improve Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Ellis, Geertina Houthuijzen</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Research has suggested that in typical developing children a positive relationship exists between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> level and cognitive functioning. For some children, academic performance may increase when levels of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> are increased. Moreover, some studies have supported the idea that physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> seems to improve attention.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085097','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4085097"><span id="translatedtitle">The Association Between Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Both Incident Coronary Artery Calcification and Ankle Brachial <span class="hlt">Index</span> Progression: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Delaney, Joseph A C; Jensky, Nicole E.; Criqui, Michael H.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Lima, João A. C.; Allison, Matthew A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objective Both coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the ankle brachial <span class="hlt">index</span> (ABI) are measures of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. The influence of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> on the longitudinal change in these measures remains unclear. To assess this we examined the association between these measures and self-reported physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods At baseline, the MESA participants were free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease. We included all participants with an ABI between 0.90 and 1.40 (n=5656). Predictor variables were based on self-reported measures with physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> being assessed using the Typical Week Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Survey from which metabolic equivalent-minutes/week of <span class="hlt">activity</span> were calculated. We focused on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> intensity, intentional exercise, sedentary behavior, and conditioning. Incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) was defined as the progression of ABI to values below 0.90 (given the baseline range of 0.90 to 1.40). Incident CAC was defined as a CAC score >0 Agatston units upon follow up with a baseline score of 0 Agatston units. Results Mean age was 61 years, 53% were female, and mean body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> was 28 kg/m2. After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic factors, intentional exercise was protective for incident peripheral artery disease (Relative Risk (RR)= 0.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.98). After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic factors, there was a significant association between vigorous PA and incident CAC (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.00). There was also a significant association between sedentary behavior and increased amount of CAC among participants with CAC at baseline (Δlog(Agatston Units +25)=0.027, 95% CI 0.002, 0.052). Conclusions These data suggest that there is an association between physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>/sedentary behavior and the progression of two different measures</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530477','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3530477"><span id="translatedtitle">Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as an <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Vagal <span class="hlt">Activity</span> during Stress in Infants: Respiratory Influences and Their Control</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ritz, Thomas; Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Schulz, Stefan M.; Kitts, Robert; Staudenmayer, John; Wright, Rosalind J.</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac <span class="hlt">activity</span>, respiration, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0–58.2%) of analyzed breaths were too short for RSA extraction. Higher respiration rate was associated with lower RSA amplitude in most infants, and lower tidal volume was associated with lower RSA amplitude in some infants. RSA amplitude corrected for respiration rate and tidal volume influences showed theoretically expected strong reductions during stress, whereas performance of uncorrected RSA was less consistent. We conclude that stress-induced changes of peak-valley RSA and effects of variations in breathing patterns on RSA can be determined for a representative percentage of infant breaths. As expected, breathing substantially affects infant RSA and needs to be considered in studies of infant psychophysiology. PMID:23300753</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472702','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472702"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparison of <span class="hlt">active</span> dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in finishing bulls.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang</p> <p>2016-08-01</p> <p>This study was conducted to compare the effect of <span class="hlt">active</span> dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood <span class="hlt">indexes</span> related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. PMID:26472702</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821001','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18821001"><span id="translatedtitle">Association between media alerts of air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> and change of outdoor <span class="hlt">activity</span> among adult asthma in six states, BRFSS, 2005.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali</p> <p>2009-02-01</p> <p>Media alerts of air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (AQI) were designed to inform the public the need to avoid harmful air pollution by changing their outdoor <span class="hlt">activities</span>. The relationship between AQI media alerts and change in outdoor <span class="hlt">activities</span> among people with asthma is unknown. Our objective is to examine this relationship. Data were analyzed in a cross-sectional study from 33,888 adults, in six states, who responded to the questions in the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) about reductions/changes in outdoor <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The prevalence of change in outdoor <span class="hlt">activity</span> due to media alerts was 31% among adults with lifetime asthma and 16% without asthma. The prevalence of outdoor <span class="hlt">activity</span> change increased to 75% among those with lifetime asthma and to 68% without asthma, when the combined the effects of media alerts and individual perception were examined. The odds of <span class="hlt">activity</span> change based on the media alerts was 2.30 (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.16, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.61, 2.90) among those with lifetime asthma and 1.72 (aO R = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.98) without asthma, compared to those unaware of media alerts, after adjustment for demographic variables and covariates. This study shows that awareness of media alerts as well as health professional advice may be associated with reported changes in outdoor <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Therefore, along with consistent efforts to improve the air quality, government agencies, health professionals, and community leaders should implement measures to effectively inform the public about air quality and educate them to take appropriate actions accordingly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20730597','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20730597"><span id="translatedtitle">Effects of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle</p> <p>2010-11-01</p> <p>The health benefits of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly <span class="hlt">active</span> men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically <span class="hlt">active</span> women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5042615','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5042615"><span id="translatedtitle">Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and <span class="hlt">activity</span> patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20160002232"><span id="translatedtitle">New Petrology, Mineral Chemistry and Stable MG Isotope Compositions of an Allende <span class="hlt">CAI</span>: EK-459-7-2</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jeffcoat, C. R.; Kerekgyarto, A. G.; Lapen, T. J.; Righter, M.; Simon, J. I.; Ross, D. K.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) are the key to understanding physical and chemical conditions in the nascent solar nebula. These inclusions have the oldest radiometric ages of solar system materials and are composed of phases that are predicted to condense early from a gas of solar composition. Thus, their chemistry and textures record conditions and processes in the earliest stages of development of the solar nebula. Type B inclusions are typically larger and more coarse grained than other types with substantial evidence that many of them were at least partially molten. Type B inclusions are further subdivided into Type B1 (possess thick melilite mantle) and Type B2 (lack melilite mantle). Despite being extensively studied, the origin of the melilite mantles of Type B1 inclusions remains uncertain. We present petrologic and chemical data for a Type B inclusion, EK-459-7-2, that bears features found in both Type B1 and B2 inclusions and likely represents an intermediate between the two types. Detailed studies of more of these intermediate objects may help to constrain models for Type B1 rim formation.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_16");'>16</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li class="active"><span>18</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_18 --> <div id="page_19" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="361"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Farkas%2c+D&id=EJ723775','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Farkas%2c+D&id=EJ723775"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of Refraction without Geometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>This article presents several <span class="hlt">activities</span> that permit students to determine the <span class="hlt">index</span> of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the <span class="hlt">index</span> of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAILURE+AND+PROJECT+AND+COMPUTER&pg=7&id=ED326402','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=FAILURE+AND+PROJECT+AND+COMPUTER&pg=7&id=ED326402"><span id="translatedtitle">Using <span class="hlt">CAI</span> To Improve Participation and Achievement in Science Research Projects in Middle School Science.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Price, Suzanne M.</p> <p></p> <p>The high percentage of students not participating in or completing a science research project has been a recurring problem for science teachers. In this project, three variables influencing the problem are identified: (1) students' failure to engage in an <span class="hlt">active</span> search for science research topics; (2) inadequate resource materials at the middle…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+advertising+AND+function&pg=2&id=ED295453','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=newspaper+AND+advertising+AND+function&pg=2&id=ED295453"><span id="translatedtitle">Teaching Popular Culture with a Computer-Assisted Instruction (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) Program.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>del Pozo, Ivania</p> <p></p> <p>The foreign language student must experience popular culture to fully comprehend the framework in which the foreign language functions. Traditional language learning, preoccupied with words, syntax, and pronunciation, has ignored this element, leaving students unprepared to interact with individuals in the target culture. Classroom <span class="hlt">activities</span> to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463394','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4463394"><span id="translatedtitle">Transit Use, Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objectives. We assessed effects on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864242','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2864242"><span id="translatedtitle">FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in European- and African-American youth</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4721348','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4721348"><span id="translatedtitle">Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> by body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL☆</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Palta, P.; McMurray, R.G.; Gouskova, N.A.; Sotres-Alvarez, D.; Davis, S.M.; Carnethon, M.; Castañeda, S.F.; Gellman, M.D.; Hankinson, A.L.; Isasi, C.R.; Schneiderman, N.; Talavera, G.A.; Evenson, K.R.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The association between obesity and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was measured using the 16-item Global Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 moderate–vigorous physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (MVPA) minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively) compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively). The prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an <span class="hlt">active</span> lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26835248</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4816339','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4816339"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupational Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational <span class="hlt">Activity</span> (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24759787"><span id="translatedtitle">Increasing maternal body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> is associated with systemic inflammation in the mother and the <span class="hlt">activation</span> of distinct placental inflammatory pathways.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Aye, Irving L M H; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Gaccioli, Francesca; Dudley, Donald J; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Obese pregnant women have increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in maternal circulation and placental tissues. However, the pathways contributing to placental inflammation in obesity are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that maternal body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) was associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines in maternal and fetal circulations and increased <span class="hlt">activation</span> of placental inflammatory pathways. A total of 60 women of varying pre-/early pregnancy BMI, undergoing delivery by Cesarean section at term, were studied. Maternal and fetal (cord) plasma were collected for analysis of insulin, leptin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, and TNFalpha by multiplex ELISA. <span class="hlt">Activation</span> of the inflammatory pathways in the placenta was investigated by measuring the phosphorylated and total protein expression of p38-mitogen-<span class="hlt">activated</span> protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-MAPK, signal transducer-<span class="hlt">activated</span> transcription factor (STAT) 3, caspase-1, IL-1beta, IkappaB-alpha protein, and p65 DNA-binding <span class="hlt">activity</span>. To determine the link between <span class="hlt">activated</span> placental inflammatory pathways and elevated maternal cytokines, cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells were treated with physiological concentrations of insulin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, and inflammatory signaling analyzed by Western blot. Maternal BMI was positively correlated with maternal insulin, leptin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, whereas only fetal leptin was increased with BMI. Placental phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and STAT3, and the expression of IL-1beta protein, were increased with maternal BMI; phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was also correlated with birth weight. In contrast, placental NFkappaB, JNK and caspase-1 signaling, and fetal cytokine levels were unaffected by maternal BMI. In PHT cells, p38-MAPK was <span class="hlt">activated</span> by MCP-1 and TNFalpha, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was increased following TNFalpha treatment. Maternal BMI is associated with elevated maternal</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8557S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015NatSR...5E8557S"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in High-<span class="hlt">Index</span> Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-<span class="hlt">index</span>-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically <span class="hlt">active</span> semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4338422','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4338422"><span id="translatedtitle">Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic <span class="hlt">Activity</span> in High-<span class="hlt">Index</span> Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-<span class="hlt">index</span>-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically <span class="hlt">active</span> semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960436','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24960436"><span id="translatedtitle">Opposite photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> orders of low-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets of anatase TiO₂ for liquid phase dye degradation and gaseous phase CO₂ photoreduction.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ye, Liqun; Mao, Jin; Peng, Tianyou; Zan, Ling; Zhang, Youxiang</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>We firstly demonstrate the opposite photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> orders of low-<span class="hlt">index</span> facets of anatase TiO2 in the liquid phase for rhodamine B (RhB) photocatalytic degradation and in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> order in the liquid phase for RhB photocatalytic degradation is revealed as {001} > {101} > {010}, whereas the photocatalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> order {010} > {101} > {001} is found in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The atomic arrangement of the different facets, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis show that the photoactivity order in the gas phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 mainly depends on the CO2 molecule adsorption properties on the different exposed facets, and the separation efficiency of the photo-generated carriers determines the photoactivity order for the dye degradation reaction in the liquid phase. These findings also provide a new direction to design efficient photocatalysts and the tuning of their photoreactivity for environmental and energy applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8248451','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8248451"><span id="translatedtitle">Amplitude and bilateral coherency of facial and jaw-elevator EMG <span class="hlt">activity</span> as an <span class="hlt">index</span> of effort during a two-choice serial reaction task.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Van Boxtel, A; Jessurun, M</p> <p>1993-11-01</p> <p>In earlier studies, positive but inconsistent relationships have been reported between mental effort and electromyogram (EMG) amplitude in task-irrelevant limb muscles. In this study, we explored whether facial EMG <span class="hlt">activity</span> would provide more consistent results. Tonic EMG <span class="hlt">activity</span> of six different facial and jaw-elevator muscles was bilaterally recorded during a two-choice serial reaction task with paced presentation of auditory or visual signals. In Experiment 1, task load (signal presentation rate) was kept constant for 20 min at the level of the subject's maximal capacity. In Experiment 2, task load was increased in a stepwise fashion over six successive 2-min periods from sub- to supramaximal capacity levels. EMG amplitude and coherency between momentary bilateral amplitude fluctuations were measured. In Experiment 1, EMG amplitude of frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oris inferior showed a strong gradual increase throughout the task period, whereas taks performance remained fairly stable. Orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus major, and temporalis EMG showed a much smaller increase or no increase. In Experiment 2, the first three muscles showed a fairly consistent increase in EMG amplitude with increasing task load. Orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major were not <span class="hlt">active</span> until task load became supramaximal. Effects of stimulus modality or laterality were not found in any experiment. These results are consistent with the notion that EMG amplitude of frontalis, corrugator, and orbicularis oris provides a sensitive <span class="hlt">index</span> of the degree of exerted mental effort. PMID:8248451</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4210924','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4210924"><span id="translatedtitle">Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating <span class="hlt">Index</span> 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. PMID:25329967</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035225"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span>: analysis with interaction <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and isobolograms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative <span class="hlt">activity</span>, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span>, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activities</span> were investigated. The antioxidant <span class="hlt">activities</span> of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture. PMID:26035225</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26035225"><span id="translatedtitle">Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span>: analysis with interaction <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and isobolograms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative <span class="hlt">activity</span>, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span>, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant <span class="hlt">activities</span> were investigated. The antioxidant <span class="hlt">activities</span> of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction <span class="hlt">indexes</span> and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant <span class="hlt">activity</span> of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488420','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24488420"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> and responder <span class="hlt">index</span> for psoriatic arthritis--report of the Psoriatic Arthritis Module at OMERACT 11.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D; Strand, Vibeke; Goel, Niti; Campbell, Ina; Krueger, Gerald; McHugh, Neil J; Helliwell, Philip S</p> <p>2014-04-01</p> <p>This module reflected work within the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) to develop and validate composite disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> measures in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). At the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 8 Meeting, a core set of domains to be assessed in randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies of PsA was agreed upon. At OMERACT 10, 5 proposed composite responder definitions for PsA were reviewed and discussed, including new data from the GRACE (GRAppa Composite Exercise) study. At OMERACT 11, ongoing retrospective analyses of RCT data using the 3 proposed measures (Composite Psoriatic Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Psoriatic Arthritis Disease <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Score, and Arithmetic Mean of the Desirability Function) were discussed in detail. There was agreement that developing composite outcome measures for use in RCT and longitudinal observational studies in PsA was important. Concerns were expressed regarding development of a single measure that encompassed diverse domains, such as joint counts, quality of life (QOL), and disability measures. It was emphasized that the use of any composite measure should include the ability to differentiate between <span class="hlt">activity</span> in individual domains, such as enthesitis or psoriasis, such that the effect of each could be assessed independently. It was also agreed that patients would be systematically involved in further development and refinement of composite measures. Future plans include qualitative work with patients to explore their experience of disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> and statistical modeling to explore how each of the proposed measures will perform in different disease subgroups. PMID:24488420</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014CEER...14...49M&link_type=ABSTRACT','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/cgi-bin/nph-data_query?bibcode=2014CEER...14...49M&link_type=ABSTRACT"><span id="translatedtitle">Evaluation of Biological <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of Cellulose Pulp by Means of the Static Respiration <span class="hlt">Index</span> (At4)/ Ocena Aktywności Biologicznej Pulpy Celulozowej Testem Respiracyjnym At4</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Myszograj, Sylwia; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Krochmal, Agata</p> <p>2014-09-01</p> <p>In the countries of the European Union, work is presently being conducted on the standardisation of the limit values and test methods for the determination of the biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> of waste. The aim of conducting the tests is to monitor the effectiveness of waste biodegradation during composting, the evaluate any decrease in the biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the waste before its landfilling and control processes taking place at landfills. The evaluation of the waste's biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> can be performed, among others, by testing respiration. One such method is AT4 (Static Respiration <span class="hlt">Index</span>) determination. The results of respirometric tests depict the availability of substrates for microorganisms, that is, the biodegradability. The article describes the tests of the biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> of the cellulose pulp, the impact of the degree of compost inoculation on the value of this parameter and the dependence on the content of organic mass and total organic carbon in the tested substrate. The measurements of the oxygen demand were made using the OxiTop® Control measuring system. W krajach UE prowadzone są obecnie prace nad ujednoliceniem wartości granicznych oraz metod testowych oznaczania aktywności biologicznej odpadów. Celem prowadzenia testów jest monitoring efektywności biologicznego rozkładu odpadów podczas kompostowania, ocena zmniejszenia aktywności biologicznej odpadów przed ich składowaniem, kontrola procesów zachodzących na składowiskach. Ocenę aktywności biologicznej odpadów można przeprowadzić m.in. poprzez badanie respiracji. Jedną z takich metod jest oznaczenie AT4 (Static Respiration <span class="hlt">Index</span>). Wyniki badań respirometrycznych obrazują dostępność substratów dla mikroorganizmów, czyli podatność na biodegradację. W artykule opisano badania aktywności biologicznej pulpy celulozowej testem AT4, wpływ stopnia zaczepienia kompostem na wartość tego parametru oraz zależność od zawartości masy organicznej i OWO w badanym substracie</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+water&pg=6&id=EJ503972','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=importance+AND+water&pg=6&id=EJ503972"><span id="translatedtitle">Choices and Preferences "Water <span class="hlt">Index</span>."</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Science Activities, 1995</p> <p>1995-01-01</p> <p>Presents a Project WET water education <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Students rank and compare different uses of water in order of their importance. The class develops a "Water <span class="hlt">Index</span>," an indication of the group's feelings and values about water and its uses. (LZ)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183734','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23183734"><span id="translatedtitle">Environment factors associated with adolescents' body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and physical fitness in Kuching South City, Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Cheah, Whye L; Chang, Ching T; Saimon, Rosalia</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the relationship between perceived built environment attributes and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, physical fitness and body weight among adolescents aged 14-16 years in Sarawak. This was a cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling. A set of questionnaires consisting of socio-demographic information, a self-administered physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> checklist and a Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) was used. Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) was measured and physical fitness was tested using a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 316 respondents participated. The mean BMI for boys was almost equal to the mean BMI for girls. Only 7.9% of the sampled population was found to be overweight or obese. The overall mean duration spent per day on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> was 128.4 min (SD 118.43), with mean of 56.1 min (SD 73.94) after school time. Girls reported to spend longer each day taking physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> before and during school. Boys were found to have significantly higher VO2max of 27.79±5.91 mL/kg/min as compared to girls (t=11.22, p<0.000). Based on comparison with other countries, the NEWS-Y scores indicated a mixture of low and high walkability neighborhoods. Respondents who had lower BMIs reported living in lower residential density areas and less risk of crime, and respondents who had better physical fitness reported less suitable infrastructure for walking. Promotion of exercise at all levels should be continuously encouraged as it would lead to improvement in the well-being of an individual.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6817746"><span id="translatedtitle">A polymorphic variant of human erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I with a widespread distribution in Australian aborigines, <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 (8 Asp leads to Gly): purification, properties, amino acid substitution, and possible physiological significance of the variant enzyme.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Jones, G L; Shaw, D C</p> <p>1982-10-01</p> <p>Carbonic anhydrase I (EC 4.2.1.1) purified from the pooled packed red blood cells of 100 individuals typed as heterozygous for the common Australian Aboriginal carbonic anhydrase I variant <span class="hlt">CAI</span> Australia-9 had a slightly higher specific CO2 hydratase or esterase (toward p-nitrophenyl acetate) <span class="hlt">activity</span> than the normal component and a higher Km and Vmax using the esterase substrate. The variant enzyme was slightly more resistant to heat inactivation. The extent of inhibition of both enzymes by the specific inhibitor acetazolamide was identical, as was their immunological behavior and the lability of the <span class="hlt">active</span>-site zinc ion. The variant enzyme was more resistant to chloride inhibition. The physiological importance of this observation is discussed in the context of a proposed adaptive advantage of the variant gene in the arid western and central regions of Australia. The amino acid substitution in the Aboriginal variant of a glycine for an aspartic acid residue has been located at residue 8 from the N terminus (i.e., 8 Asp leads to Gly), by proteolytic and partial acid hydrolyses. The possible effects of this substitution on the structure and function of the molecule are discussed. PMID:6817746</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_17");'>17</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li class="active"><span>19</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_19 --> <div id="page_20" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="381"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lotka&pg=4&id=ED032915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Lotka&pg=4&id=ED032915"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Consistency and Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.</p> <p></p> <p>A measure of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if <span class="hlt">indexers</span> agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an <span class="hlt">indexer</span>'s work and exhaustivity of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also proposed. Experimental data on <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697218','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26697218"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Self-Monitoring on Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> self-monitoring, on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) in overweight and obese 13-16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678089','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4678089"><span id="translatedtitle">Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Self-Monitoring on Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> self-monitoring, on physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284904','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26284904"><span id="translatedtitle">The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen <span class="hlt">activator</span> surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong</p> <p>2015-06-01</p> <p>suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen <span class="hlt">activator</span> surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614300','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27614300"><span id="translatedtitle">Instrumental-Variables Simultaneous Equations Model of Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Tien, Hsiao-Chuen; Kiefe, Catarina I; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny</p> <p>2016-09-15</p> <p>We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> relative to body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information maximum likelihood estimation to control for unobserved time-invariant and time-varying residual confounding and differential measurement error through model-derived discrete random effects. Comparing robust-variance ordinary least squares, random-effects regression, fixed-effects regression, single-equation-estimation IV-SEM, and full-system-estimation IV-SEM, estimates from random- and fixed-effects models and the full-system-estimation IV-SEM were unexpectedly similar, despite the lack of control for residual confounding with the random-effects estimator. Ordinary least squares tended to overstate the significance of health behaviors in BMI, while results from single-equation-estimation IV-SEM were notably different, revealing the impact of weak instruments in standard instrumental-variable methods. Our robust findings for fixed effects (which does not require instruments but has a high cost in lost degrees of freedom) and full-system-estimation IV-SEM (vs. standard IV-SEM) demonstrate potential for a full-system-estimation IV-SEM method even with weak instruments. PMID:27614300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082110"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082110','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27082110"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4833298','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4833298"><span id="translatedtitle">Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995–97 and in 2006–08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543160','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23543160"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> at different ages and risk of multiple myeloma in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hofmann, Jonathan N; Moore, Steven C; Lim, Unhee; Park, Yikyung; Baris, Dalsu; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Matthews, Charles E; Gibson, Todd M; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P</p> <p>2013-04-15</p> <p>Several studies have reported an increased risk of multiple myeloma associated with excess body weight. We investigated the risk of multiple myeloma in relation to separate measures of adiposity and energy balance at different ages in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort study in the United States. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire (1995-1996; n = 485,049), and a subset of participants completed a second questionnaire (1996-1997; n = 305,618) in which we solicited more detailed exposure information. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the risk of multiple myeloma (overall, n = 813; subset, n = 489) in relation to several measures of obesity and leisure time physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Multiple myeloma risk was associated with increasing body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) at cohort entry (per 5-kg/m(2) increase, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.22); similar associations were observed for BMI at age 50 years (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28), age 35 years (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36), and age 18 years (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.32) without adjustment for baseline BMI. Risk of multiple myeloma was not associated with physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> level at any age. These findings support the hypothesis that excess body weight, both in early adulthood and later in life, is a risk factor for multiple myeloma and suggest that maintaining a healthy body weight throughout life may reduce multiple myeloma risk.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158213','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18158213"><span id="translatedtitle">Development of a risk-based <span class="hlt">index</span> for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural <span class="hlt">activity</span> entering water resources.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Goss, Michael; Richards, Charlene</p> <p>2008-06-01</p> <p> watershed. To confirm that potential pathways are <span class="hlt">active</span> requires some microbial source tracking. One possibility is to identify the molecular types of Escherichia coli present in each hazard on a farm. An essential part of any such <span class="hlt">index</span> is the identification of mitigation strategies and practices that can reduce the magnitude of the hazard or block open pathways.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Cinnamon&id=ED229789"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Invention Strategies.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rodrigues, Raymond J.; Rodrigues, Dawn</p> <p></p> <p>Prewriting programs using computers fall into two broad categories: interactive and noninteractive. An early example of a noninteractive program is that of Ellen Nold, called "Cinnamon." Its purpose was to present the student with a series of content questions. In answering such questions, the student would be accumulating a set of data that could…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=cathode+AND+ray+AND+tube&pg=2&id=EJ020346"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">CAI</span> Physics Experiments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lindsay, Robert E.</p> <p>1970-01-01</p> <p>Describes a novel instructional method for physics involving the use of a computer assisted instruction system equipped with cathode-ray-tube terminals, light pen, and keyboard input. Discusses exercises with regard to content, mediation, scoring and control. Several examples of exercises are given along with results from student evaluation. (LC)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15644169','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15644169"><span id="translatedtitle">[Journal selection and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus and Chinese periodicals <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are <span class="hlt">indexed</span> for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being <span class="hlt">indexed</span> in <span class="hlt">Index</span> Medicus/MEDLINE.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spa&pg=3&id=EJ765413','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=spa&pg=3&id=EJ765413"><span id="translatedtitle">A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Energy Balance and Specific Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.</p> <p>2007-01-01</p> <p>The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23642646','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23642646"><span id="translatedtitle">Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, diet, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R</p> <p>2013-10-01</p> <p>Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of "obesogenic" neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child's residential environment on body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), diet, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments' contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students' reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children's BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849114','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4849114"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-<span class="hlt">activated</span> Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-<span class="hlt">activated</span> receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058500','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4058500"><span id="translatedtitle">Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, diet, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>: The role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of “obesogenic” neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child’s residential environment on body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), diet, and physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments’ contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students’ reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children’s BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED038269.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED038269.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Consistency and Quality.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.</p> <p></p> <p>Proposed is a measure of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if <span class="hlt">indexers</span> agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an <span class="hlt">indexer</span>'s work and exhaustivity of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also proposed. Experimental data on…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+american+AND+medical&pg=7&id=EJ399455','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=journal+AND+american+AND+medical&pg=7&id=EJ399455"><span id="translatedtitle">Comparative <span class="hlt">Index</span> Terms.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Describes a study that compared <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and <span class="hlt">indexer</span> <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. (CLB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435402.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED435402.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Quaker Resources Online <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Beke-Harrigan, Heidi</p> <p></p> <p>The Quaker Resources Online <span class="hlt">Index</span> is a World Wide Web-based <span class="hlt">index</span>, including author, title, subject, and meeting <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this <span class="hlt">index</span> brings together information from a variety of sources and…</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/872707"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>1999-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/873713"><span id="translatedtitle">Nucleic acid <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen</p> <p>2001-01-01</p> <p>A restriction site <span class="hlt">indexing</span> method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences complementary to fragment <span class="hlt">indexing</span> sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial <span class="hlt">indexing</span> facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.189...70K"><span id="translatedtitle">A link between oxygen, calcium and titanium isotopes in 26Al-poor hibonite-rich <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from Murchison and implications for the heterogeneity of dust reservoirs in the solar nebula</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Kööp, Levke; Davis, Andrew M.; Nakashima, Daisuke; Park, Changkun; Krot, Alexander N.; Nagashima, Kazuhide; Tenner, Travis J.; Heck, Philipp R.; Kita, Noriko T.</p> <p>2016-09-01</p> <p>PLACs (platy hibonite crystals) and related hibonite-rich calcium-, aluminum-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>; hereafter collectively referred to as PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>) have the largest nucleosynthetic isotope anomalies of all materials believed to have formed in the solar system. Most PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> have low inferred initial 26Al/27Al ratios and could have formed prior to injection or widespread distribution of 26Al in the solar nebula. In this study, we report 26Al-26Mg systematics combined with oxygen, calcium, and titanium isotopic compositions for a large number of newly separated PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> from the Murchison CM2 chondrite (32 <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> studied for oxygen, 26 of these also for 26Al-26Mg, calcium and titanium). Our results confirm (1) the large range of nucleosynthetic anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca (our data range from -70‰ to +170‰ and -60‰ to +80‰, respectively), (2) the substantial range of Δ17O values (-28‰ to -17‰, with Δ17O = δ17O - 0.52 × δ18O), and (3) general 26Al-depletion in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>. The multielement approach reveals a relationship between Δ17O and the degree of variability in 50Ti and 48Ca: PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with the highest Δ17O (∼-17‰) show large positive and negative 50Ti and 48Ca anomalies, while those with the lowest Δ17O (∼-28‰) have small to no anomalies in 50Ti and 48Ca. These observations could suggest a physical link between anomalous 48Ca and 50Ti carriers and an 16O-poor reservoir. We suggest that the solar nebula was isotopically heterogeneous shortly after collapse of the protosolar molecular cloud, and that the primordial dust reservoir, in which anomalous carrier phases were heterogeneously distributed, was 16O-poor (Δ17O ⩾ -17‰) relative to the primordial gaseous (CO + H2O) reservoir (Δ17O < -35‰). However, other models such as CO self-shielding in the protoplanetary disk are also considered to explain the link between oxygen and calcium and titanium isotopes in PLAC-like <span class="hlt">CAIs</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4225569"><span id="translatedtitle">Occupation and educational inequalities in laryngeal cancer: the use of a job <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Background Previous studies tried to assess the association between socioeconomic status and laryngeal cancer. Alcohol and tobacco consumption explain already a large part of the social inequalities. Occupational exposures might explain a part of the remaining but the components and pathways of the socioeconomic contribution have yet to be fully disentangled. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of occupation using different occupational indices, differentiating between physical, psycho-social and toxic exposures and trying to summarize the occupational burden into one variable. Methods A population-based case–control study conducted in Germany in 1998–2000 included 208 male cases and 702 controls. Information on occupational history, smoking, alcohol consumption and education was collected with face-to-face interviews. A recently developed job-classification <span class="hlt">index</span> was used to account for the occupational burden. A sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> focussed on jobs involving potentially carcinogenic agents (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) for the upper aero digestive tract. Results When adjusted for smoking and alcohol consumption, higher odds ratios (ORs) were found for lower education. This OR decreased after further adjustment using the physical and psycho-social job indices (OR = 3.2, 95%-CI: 1.5-6.8), similar to the OR using the sub-<span class="hlt">index</span> <span class="hlt">CAI</span> (OR = 3.0, 95%-CI: 1.4-6.5). Conclusions The use of an easily applicable control variable, simply constructed on standard occupational job classifications, provides the possibility to differentiate between educational and occupational contributions. Such an <span class="hlt">index</span> might indirectly reflect the effect of carcinogenic agents, which are not collected in many studies. PMID:24246148</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452569','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25452569"><span id="translatedtitle">Neural <span class="hlt">Activation</span> During Mental Rotation in Complete Androgen Insensitivity Syndrome: The Influence of Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>van Hemmen, Judy; Veltman, Dick J; Hoekzema, Elseline; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T; Dessens, Arianne B; Bakker, Julie</p> <p>2016-03-01</p> <p>Sex hormones, androgens in particular, are hypothesized to play a key role in the sexual differentiation of the human brain. However, possible direct effects of the sex chromosomes, that is, XX or XY, have not been well studied in humans. Individuals with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), who have a 46,XY karyotype but a female phenotype due to a complete androgen resistance, enable us to study the separate effects of gonadal hormones versus sex chromosomes on neural sex differences. Therefore, in the present study, we compared 46,XY men (n = 30) and 46,XX women (n = 29) to 46,XY individuals with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> (n = 21) on a mental rotation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Previously reported sex differences in neural <span class="hlt">activation</span> during mental rotation were replicated in the control groups, with control men showing more <span class="hlt">activation</span> in the inferior parietal lobe than control women. Individuals with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> showed a female-like neural <span class="hlt">activation</span> pattern in the parietal lobe, indicating feminization of the brain in <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>. Furthermore, this first neuroimaging study in individuals with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> provides evidence that sex differences in regional brain function during mental rotation are most likely not directly driven by genetic sex, but rather reflect gonadal hormone exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016GeCoA.183..176H"><span id="translatedtitle">Microstructural constraints on complex thermal histories of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in an amoeboid olivine aggregate from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Han, Jangmi; Brearley, Adrian J.</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>We have carried out a FIB/TEM study of refractory <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in one AOA from the ALHA77307 CO3.0 chondrite. The <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects in the AOA consist of a zoned sequence with a spinel-rich core through an intergrowth layer of spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside to a diopside rim. The spinel-rich core consists of polycrystalline aggregates of spinel and ±minor melilite showing equilibrated grain boundary textures. The intergrowth layer contains fine-grained diopside and spinel with minor anorthite with highly curved and embayed grain boundaries. The diopside rim consists of polycrystalline aggregates of diopside. The compositions of pyroxene change significantly outward from Al-Ti-rich diopside in contact with the spinel-rich core to Al-Ti-poor diopside next to the surrounding olivine of the AOA. Overall microstructural and chemical characteristics suggest that the spinel-rich core formed under equilibrium conditions whereas the intergrowth layer is the result of reactions that occurred under conditions that departed significantly from equilibrium. The remarkable changes in formation conditions of the <span class="hlt">CAI</span>-like objects may have been achieved by transport and injection of refractory objects into a region of a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas which reacted with spinel and melilite to form Al-Ti-rich diopside. Crystallographically-oriented TiO2 nanoparticles decorate the grain boundaries between spinel grains and between spinel and Al-Ti-rich diopside grains. During the disequilibrium back-reaction of spinel with a partially-condensed, Ca,Ti-saturated gas, metastable TiO2 nanoparticles may have condensed by an epitaxial nucleation mechanism and grown on the surface of spinel. These TiO2 nanoparticles are disordered intergrowths of the two TiO2 polymorphs, anatase and rutile. These nanoparticles are inferred to have nucleated as anatase that underwent partial transformation into rutile. The local presence of the TiO2 nanoparticles and intergrowth of anatase and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014cosp...40E3390T"><span id="translatedtitle">PC <span class="hlt">index</span> and magnetic substorms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly</p> <p></p> <p>PC <span class="hlt">index</span> is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> (PC-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-<span class="hlt">index</span>) and magnetic storms (Dst-<span class="hlt">index</span>), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС <span class="hlt">index</span> growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC <span class="hlt">index</span> exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+esteem+AND+adolescents&pg=7&id=EJ876987','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=self+AND+esteem+AND+adolescents&pg=7&id=EJ876987"><span id="translatedtitle">Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span>, and Self-Esteem</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18305787','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18305787"><span id="translatedtitle">Refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of air. 2. Group <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J</p> <p>1999-03-20</p> <p>In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive <span class="hlt">index</span>. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group <span class="hlt">index</span> that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1+AND+fm&pg=4&id=EJ240893','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=1+AND+fm&pg=4&id=EJ240893"><span id="translatedtitle">Improving Keyword <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward</p> <p>1981-01-01</p> <p>Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Six references are cited. (FM)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI). You and your health care provider ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ178044','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ178044"><span id="translatedtitle">Audio <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> for Efficiency</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>This article describes Zimdex, an audio <span class="hlt">indexing</span> system developed to solve the problem of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmi_tbl.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+biology&pg=5&id=EJ143550','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=space+AND+biology&pg=5&id=EJ143550"><span id="translatedtitle">Annual <span class="hlt">Index</span>. Volume 13, September 1975-May 1976</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Science and Children, 1976</p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>Presents an extensive author and subject <span class="hlt">index</span>. The subject <span class="hlt">index</span> is categorized into <span class="hlt">Activities</span> and Resource Information, Biology, Earth and Space Science, Measurement and Metric System, Professional Organization <span class="hlt">Activities</span>, Physics and Chemistry, Curriculum and Science Education. (EB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JBAA..111...28M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2001JBAA..111...28M"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> to Volume 110</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Marriott, R. A.</p> <p>2001-02-01</p> <p>The Subject <span class="hlt">Index</span> references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are <span class="hlt">indexed</span> as such, but their subjects are not further cross-<span class="hlt">indexed</span>. The Author <span class="hlt">Index</span> details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meulen&pg=3&id=EJ172210','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=meulen&pg=3&id=EJ172210"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic Versus Manual <span class="hlt">Indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.</p> <p>1977-01-01</p> <p>A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> was found equivalent to manual <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. (Author/KP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hyphen&pg=3&id=ED075038','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=hyphen&pg=3&id=ED075038"><span id="translatedtitle">Machine-Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jacobs, Charles R.</p> <p></p> <p>Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for <span class="hlt">indexing</span> text. A new <span class="hlt">indexing</span> subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitor&pg=3&id=EJ997592','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=monitor&pg=3&id=EJ997592"><span id="translatedtitle">The Europe 2020 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Pasimeni, Paolo</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>This paper presents a new <span class="hlt">index</span> to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This <span class="hlt">index</span> is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the <span class="hlt">index</span> shows…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=dolphin+AND+language&pg=2&id=ED287161"><span id="translatedtitle">Cost-Benefit Analysis for ECIA Chapter 1 and State DPPF Programs Comparing Groups Receiving Regular Program Instruction and Groups Receiving Computer Assisted Instruction/Computer Management System (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS). 1986-87.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chamberlain, Ed</p> <p></p> <p>A cost benefit study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a computer assisted instruction/computer management system (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>/CMS) as an alternative to conventional methods of teaching reading within Chapter 1 and DPPF funded programs of the Columbus (Ohio) Public Schools. The Chapter 1 funded Compensatory Language Experiences and Reading…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="https://archive.usgs.gov/archive/sites/www.nwrc.usgs.gov/wdb/pub/hsi/hsi-011.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> Models: Marten</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Allen, Arthur W.</p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability <span class="hlt">index</span> graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management <span class="hlt">activities</span>.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AnGeo..25.2007T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2007AnGeo..25.2007T"><span id="translatedtitle">The combined effects of electrojet strength and the geomagnetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> (Kp-<span class="hlt">index</span>) on the post sunset height rise of the F-layer and its role in the generation of ESF during high and low solar <span class="hlt">activity</span> periods</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Tulasi Ram, S.; Rama Rao, P. V. S.; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.; Niranjan, K.; Raja Babu, A.; Sridharan, R.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, Sudha</p> <p>2007-10-01</p> <p>Several investigations have been carried out to identify the factors that are responsible for the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread-F (ESF). But the precise forecasting of ESF on a day-to-day basis is still far from reality. The nonlinear development and the sustenance of ESF/plasma bubbles is decided by the background ionospheric conditions, such as the base height of the F-layer (h'F), the electron density gradient (dN/dz), maximum ionization density (Nmax), geomagnetic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and the neutral dynamics. There is increasing evidence in the literature during the recent past that shows a well developed Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) during the afternoon hours contributes significantly to the initiation of ESF during the post-sunset hours. Also, there exists a good correlation between the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and the Integrated Equatorial ElectroJet (IEEJ) strength, as the driving force for both is the same, namely, the zonal electric field at the equator. In this paper, we present a linear relationship that exists between the daytime integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) strength and the maximum elevated height of the F-layer during post-sunset hours (denoted as peak h'F). An inverse relationship that exists between the 6-h average Kp-<span class="hlt">index</span> prior to the local sunset and the peak h'F of the F-layer is also presented. A systematic study on the combined effects of the IEEJ and the average Kp-<span class="hlt">index</span> on the post-sunset, peak height of the F-layer (peak h'F), which controls the development of ESF/plasma bubbles, is carried out using the ionosonde data from an equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, dip.lat. 0.5° N), an off-equatorial station, SHAR (13.6° N, 79.8° E, dip.lat. 10.8° N) and VHF scintillations (244 MHz) observed over a nearby low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, dip.lat. 20° N). From this study, it has been found that the threshold base height of the F-layer at the equator for</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044836','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080044836"><span id="translatedtitle">Cumulative <span class="hlt">Index</span> to NASA Tech Briefs</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1969-01-01</p> <p>Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D <span class="hlt">activities</span> of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This <span class="hlt">Index</span> to NASA Tech Briefs lists the technological innovations derived from the U.S. space program and published during the period January through December 1968. A new five year cycle of cumulative <span class="hlt">indexes</span> begins with this <span class="hlt">index</span>. The main section is arranged in six categories: Electrical (Electronic); Physical Sciences (Energy Sources); Materials (Chemistry); Life Sciences; Mechanical; and Computer Programs.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268752','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27268752"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Active</span> Components of Essential Oils as Anti-Obesity Potential Drugs Investigated by in Silico Techniques.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Costa, Giosuè; Gidaro, Maria Concetta; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T; Alcaro, Stefano</p> <p>2016-07-01</p> <p>In this study, for the first time, we have considered essential oils (EOs) as possible resources of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), in particular against the mitochondrial isoform VA that, actually, represents an innovative target for the obesity treatment. In silico structure-based virtual screening was performed in order to speed up the identification of promising antiobesity agents. The potential hit compounds were submitted to in vitro assays and experimental results, corroborated by molecular modeling studies, showed EOs components as a new class of <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> with a competitive mechanism of action due to the zinc ion coordination within the <span class="hlt">active</span> sites of these metallo-enzymes. PMID:27268752</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14306025','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14306025"><span id="translatedtitle">NEW CONCEPTS IN <span class="hlt">INDEXING</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>SHANK, R</p> <p>1965-07-01</p> <p>Recent trends in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced <span class="hlt">indexes</span> in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These <span class="hlt">indexes</span> may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation <span class="hlt">indexing</span> seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of <span class="hlt">index</span> copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> and abstracting.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614913"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing <span class="hlt">activity</span>: influence on bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-<span class="hlt">active</span>, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. PMID:22614913</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614913','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22614913"><span id="translatedtitle">Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing <span class="hlt">activity</span>: influence on bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele</p> <p>2012-09-01</p> <p>Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-<span class="hlt">active</span>, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength <span class="hlt">index</span> at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Information+retrieval%22&pg=5&id=EJ659587','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Information+retrieval%22&pg=5&id=EJ659587"><span id="translatedtitle">Obtaining Feedback for <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> from Highlighted Text.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Villarroel, Miguel; Fuente, Pablo de la; Pedrero, Alberto; Vegas, Jesus; Adiego, Joaquin</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of weighted <span class="hlt">index</span> terms in information retrieval focuses on a method for adjusting <span class="hlt">index</span> weights by processing text in digital libraries that has been highlighted by users. Considers weights in query processing; feedback sources; <span class="hlt">active</span> reading while accessing digital documents; collaborative information retrieval; and improving index…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+abstracts&pg=3&id=EJ305638','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Psychological+AND+abstracts&pg=3&id=EJ305638"><span id="translatedtitle">Personnel Management <span class="hlt">Indexes</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Falcione, Carol</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Concentrates on four specialized <span class="hlt">indexes</span> that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader <span class="hlt">indexes</span>: "The Business…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computer&pg=6&id=ED138296','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=super+AND+computer&pg=6&id=ED138296"><span id="translatedtitle">EMMSE Media <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.</p> <p></p> <p>This <span class="hlt">index</span> provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The <span class="hlt">index</span> is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sea+side%22+OR+coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=%22Sea+side%22+OR+coastline&pg=6&id=ED257512"><span id="translatedtitle">Transfer <span class="hlt">Index</span>: One Definition.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Heinselman, James L.</p> <p></p> <p>A transfer <span class="hlt">index</span> of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate <span class="hlt">index</span> of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=urbano&pg=3&id=EJ673994"><span id="translatedtitle">A Factor Simplicity <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano</p> <p>2003-01-01</p> <p>Proposes an <span class="hlt">index</span> for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The <span class="hlt">index</span> does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Transportation+AND+affects+AND+air+AND+pollution&id=ED362285','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Transportation+AND+affects+AND+air+AND+pollution&id=ED362285"><span id="translatedtitle">Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Sherman, Dianne, Ed.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress <span class="hlt">Index</span>", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the <span class="hlt">index</span> ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fog&pg=4&id=ED154337','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=fog&pg=4&id=ED154337"><span id="translatedtitle">A Computer Calculated <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Brown, Francis J.</p> <p></p> <p>The Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog <span class="hlt">Index</span> of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/866788"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient <span class="hlt">index</span> retroreflector</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Layne, Clyde B.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>A retroreflector is formed of a graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded <span class="hlt">index</span> lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=7&id=EJ915335','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=volume&pg=7&id=EJ915335"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring Volumetrically <span class="hlt">Indexed</span> Cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777209','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22777209"><span id="translatedtitle">Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac <span class="hlt">indexes</span>, caspase-3 <span class="hlt">activity</span> ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan</p> <p>2012-10-01</p> <p>This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac <span class="hlt">indexs</span> were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 <span class="hlt">activity</span> ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416708"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in Self-Reported Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, particularly leisure-time <span class="hlt">activity</span>, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (not including walking), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were associated with lower body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (P < .001), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these <span class="hlt">activities</span> reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span>, particularly for older women. PMID:26416708</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416708','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26416708"><span id="translatedtitle">Differences in Self-Reported Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, particularly leisure-time <span class="hlt">activity</span>, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (not including walking), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> were associated with lower body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate <span class="hlt">activity</span> (P < .001), and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span> (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these <span class="hlt">activities</span> reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous <span class="hlt">activity</span>, particularly for older women.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26904065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26904065"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest <span class="hlt">Index</span> at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest <span class="hlt">index</span> were strongly related to seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source <span class="hlt">activities</span> in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4751281','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4751281"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest <span class="hlt">Index</span> at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Micallef, Malgre C.; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C.; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest <span class="hlt">index</span> were strongly related to seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source <span class="hlt">activities</span> in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26904065','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26904065"><span id="translatedtitle">Increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">Activity</span> Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest <span class="hlt">Index</span> at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span> and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest <span class="hlt">index</span> were strongly related to seed mtPDH <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source <span class="hlt">activities</span> in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033827','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20033827"><span id="translatedtitle">Amino acid substitutions in an alpha-helical antimicrobial arachnid peptide affect its chemical properties and biological <span class="hlt">activity</span> towards pathogenic bacteria but improves its therapeutic <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Rodríguez, A; Villegas, E; Satake, H; Possani, L D; Corzo, Gerardo</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Four variants of the highly hemolytic antimicrobial peptide Pin2 were chemically synthesized with the aim to investigate the role of the proline residue in this peptide, by replacing it with the motif glycine-valine-glycine [GVG], which was found to confer low hemolytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in a spider antimicrobial peptide. The proline residue in position 14 of Pin2 was substituted by [V], [GV], [VG] and [GVG]. Only the peptide variant with the proline substituted for [GVG] was less hemolytic compared to that of all other variants. The peptide variant [GVG] kept its antimicrobial <span class="hlt">activity</span> in Muller-Hilton agar diffusion assays, whereas the other three variants were less effective. However, all Pin2 antimicrobial peptide variants, were <span class="hlt">active</span> when challenged against a Gram-positive bacteria in Muller-Hilton broth assays suggesting that chemical properties of the antimicrobial peptides such as hydrophobicity is an important indication for antimicrobial <span class="hlt">activity</span> in semi-solid environments.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6668728','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6668728"><span id="translatedtitle">[Inhibition rate of gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase <span class="hlt">activity</span> in erythrocytes as a reliable <span class="hlt">index</span> for individual workers of low lead exposure].</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hirano, H; Omichi, M; Ohishi, H; Ishikawa, K; Hirashima, N</p> <p>1983-09-01</p> <p>As the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) <span class="hlt">activity</span> in erythrocytes is decreased by lead exposure, we considered that a net reduction of ALAD <span class="hlt">activity</span> by lead in blood should be the difference between the <span class="hlt">activity</span> fully <span class="hlt">activated</span> with zinc (Zn2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and that without <span class="hlt">activation</span>. The optimal condition of <span class="hlt">activation</span> of ALAD was found by addition of 0.25 mM of Zn2+ and 10 mM of DTT in the reaction mixture. Judging from our previous results that the amount of inhibition of ALAD <span class="hlt">activity</span> can be represented as the rate of inhibition and is closely correlated with the dose of lead administered to rabbits, the inhibition rate of ALAD <span class="hlt">activity</span> and lead content in blood (Pb-B) of lead workers were measured. The scatter diagram obtained from the inhibition rate and lead content in blood has two groups being divided at 50 micrograms/ml of Pb-B. In one group less than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B, the inhibition rate has been closely related to Pb-B., the regression equation being Y = 1.82 X + 11.7, and the correlation coefficient + 0.926. In another group more than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B the inhibition rate remained constant at the 90% level. Measurement of the inhibition rate suggests to have practical validity for monitoring lead exposure in workers, and by means of a nomograph lead content in blood can be estimated from the inhibition rate.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648373','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26648373"><span id="translatedtitle">Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span>, obesity, physical <span class="hlt">activity</span>, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Ward, Julia; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Roux, Ana V Diez</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America. PMID:26648373</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008084','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20110008084"><span id="translatedtitle">Post-Outburst Observations of the Magnetically <span class="hlt">Active</span> Pulsar J1846-0258: A New Braking <span class="hlt">Index</span>, Increased Timing Noise, and Radiative Recovery</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Gotthelf, E. V.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>The approx.800yr-old pulsar J1846-0258 is a unique transition object between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars: though behaving like a rotation-powered pulsar most of the time, in 2006 it exhibited a distinctly magnetar-like outburst accompanied by a large glitch. Here we present X-ray timing observations taken with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer over a 2.2-yr period after the X-ray outburst and glitch had recovered. We observe that the braking <span class="hlt">index</span> of the pulsar, previously measured to be n = 2.65+/-0.01, is now n = 2.16+/-0.13, a decrease of 18+/-5%. We also note a persistent increase in the timing noise relative to the pre-outburst level. Despite the timing changes, a 2009 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation shows that the X-ray flux and spectrum of the pulsar and its wind nebula are consistent with the quiescent levels observed in 2000. Subject headings: pulsars: general pulsars: individual (PSR J1846-0258) supernovae: individual (Kes 75 X-rays: stars)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19820024318"><span id="translatedtitle">NASA 1981 photography <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1982-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ078907','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=life+AND+insurance&pg=4&id=EJ078907"><span id="translatedtitle">Audio <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> for Individualization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others</p> <p>1973-01-01</p> <p>Article describes a new development in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2617...70C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1996SPIE.2617...70C"><span id="translatedtitle">Techniques for video <span class="hlt">indexing</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various <span class="hlt">indexing</span> techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically <span class="hlt">index</span> video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those <span class="hlt">indexing</span> techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3922219','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3922219"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Activation</span> of Src and release of intracellular calcium by phosphatidic acid during Xenopus laevis fertilization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bates, Ryan C.; Fees, Colby P.; Holland, William L.; Winger, Courtney C.; Batbayar, Khulan; Ancar, Rachel; Bergren, Todd; Petcoff, Douglas; Stith, Bradley J.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>We report a new step in the fertilization in Xenopus laevis which has been found to involve <span class="hlt">activation</span> of Src tyrosine kinase to stimulate phospholipase C-γ (PLC- γ) which increases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) to release intracellular calcium ([<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span>). Molecular species analysis and mass measurements suggested that sperm <span class="hlt">activate</span> phospholipase D (PLD) to elevate phosphatidic acid (PA). We now report that PA mass increased 2.7 fold by 1 minute after insemination and inhibition of PA production by two methods inhibited <span class="hlt">activation</span> of Src and PLCγ, increased [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> and other fertilization events. As compared to 14 other lipids, PA strongly bound Xenopus Src but not PLCγ. Addition of synthetic PA <span class="hlt">activated</span> egg Src (an action requiring intact lipid rafts) and PLCγ as well as doubling the amount of PLCγ in rafts. In the absence of elevated [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span>, PA addition elevated IP3 mass to levels equivalent to that induced by sperm (but twice that achieved by calcium ionophore). Finally, PA induced [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> release that was blocked by an IP3 receptor inhibitor. As only PLD1b message was detected, and Western blotting did not detect PLD2, we suggest that sperm <span class="hlt">activate</span> PLD1b to elevate PA which then binds to and <span class="hlt">activates</span> Src leading to PLCγ stimulation, IP3 elevation and [<span class="hlt">Ca]i</span> release. Due to these and other studies, PA may also play a role in membrane fusion events such as sperm-egg fusion, cortical granule exocytosis, the elevation of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and the large, late increase in sn 1,2-diacylglycerol in fertilization. PMID:24269904</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19900007273"><span id="translatedtitle">JSC document <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document <span class="hlt">index</span> is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The <span class="hlt">index</span> contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011IJMES..42..272J"><span id="translatedtitle">Exploring volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cups</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Jones, Dustin L.</p> <p>2011-03-01</p> <p>This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span>; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically <span class="hlt">indexed</span> cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22382517','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22382517"><span id="translatedtitle">Role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on mitomycin C induced clastogenesis: analysis of chromosome aberrations, micronucleus, mitotic <span class="hlt">index</span> and adenosine deaminase <span class="hlt">activity</span> in vivo.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>The aim of the present investigation is to determine whether the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in combination with mitomycine-C (MMC) can ameliorate MMC-induced clastogenesis in the bone marrow cells of mice. The scoring of chromosomal aberrations, mitotic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and micronuclei were undertaken in the current study as markers of clastogenicity. The action of CAPE in adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA) <span class="hlt">activities</span> of serum, thymus and spleen were also investigated. The animals were orally administered CAPE alone at the doses 5 or 10 mg kg b.wt.(-1) for 5 days then sacrificed 24 hours after the CAPE administration. MMC was administered to mice either alone at a single dose (2 mg kg b.wt.(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection, before or after CAPE treatment. Pre or post - treatment with two doses of CAPE significantly decreased the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and adapted the mitotic <span class="hlt">activity</span> reduction in the bone marrow cells of mice induced by MMC when compared with only MMC given group. In addition, combination treatment with MMC caused a significant decrease in the <span class="hlt">activities</span> of ADA in serum, thymus and spleen. The results of this study showed that ADA <span class="hlt">activity</span> probably related to high levels of reactive oxygen species. This study concluded that the protective effect of CAPE against MMC clastogenesis resides at least in part, in its antioxidant effects.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19960051331"><span id="translatedtitle">New generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Freeston, Michael</p> <p>1996-01-01</p> <p>There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database <span class="hlt">indexing</span> has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional <span class="hlt">indexing</span> methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> technology for the next generation of database systems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215340','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=215340"><span id="translatedtitle">FECAL CALPROTECTIN AND GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) PERMEABILITY CORRELATE WITH DISEASE <span class="hlt">ACTIVITY</span> <span class="hlt">INDEX</span>, AND HISTOLOGIC, ENDOSCOPIC, AND RADIOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN DISEASE (CD)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/services/TekTran.htm">Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Fecal calprotectin and permeability are noninvasive measures of GI inflammation and damage, respectively. However, there are scant data as to the possible association between the tests and CD disease <span class="hlt">activity</span> in children. We hypothesized that levels of fecal calprotectin and permeability would corre...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED459171.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED459171.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">School Health <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Healthy Eating: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.</p> <p></p> <p>This self-assessment and planning guide is designed to help schools evaluate their physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and nutrition policies and programs based on national standards and guidelines. It assists schools in identifying strengths and weaknesses of their health promotion policies and practices, developing action plans for improving student health, and…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=issues+AND+layout+AND+design&pg=4&id=EJ491442','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=issues+AND+layout+AND+design&pg=4&id=EJ491442"><span id="translatedtitle">Needs for Research in <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Milstead, Jessica L.</p> <p>1994-01-01</p> <p>Uncovers issues in <span class="hlt">indexing</span> that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of <span class="hlt">indexers</span> and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human <span class="hlt">indexers</span>' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of <span class="hlt">indexes</span> on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of <span class="hlt">indexes</span>. (Contains 21…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315494','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4315494"><span id="translatedtitle">Light Intensity Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span> and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> and Grip Strength in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Bann, David; Hire, Don; Manini, Todd; Cooper, Rachel; Botoseneanu, Anda; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Glynn, Nancy W.; Fielding, Roger; King, Abby C.; Church, Timothy; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Gill, Thomas</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> and sedentary time—assessed both objectively and by self-report—with body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) and grip strength in a large sample of older adults. Methods We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years) at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span> were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3–7 days (Actigraph GT3X) and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression. Results Greater time spent in light intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span> and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span>. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light <span class="hlt">activity</span> (assessed objectively) was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity <span class="hlt">activity</span> and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary <span class="hlt">activities</span> with light intensity <span class="hlt">activities</span> could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4584567','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4584567"><span id="translatedtitle">The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic <span class="hlt">Index</span> Of Severity [UCEIS</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic <span class="hlt">Index</span> of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5072594','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5072594"><span id="translatedtitle">My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Modulates Brain <span class="hlt">Activity</span> during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different <span class="hlt">activation</span> between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed <span class="hlt">activations</span> of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger <span class="hlt">activations</span> in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger <span class="hlt">activations</span> in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/educational/lose_wt/BMI/bmicalc.htm"><span id="translatedtitle">Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span> Body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19720014426"><span id="translatedtitle">Quarantine document system <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedure</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1972-01-01</p> <p>The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> procedures and thesaurus of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, <span class="hlt">indexing</span>, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4173921','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4173921"><span id="translatedtitle">Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle <span class="hlt">Activity</span>, and REM Atonia <span class="hlt">Index</span> in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder with and without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>McCarter, Stuart J.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Timm, Paul C.; Sandness, David J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Silber, Michael H.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Objectives: We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. Design: We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, “any,” and tonic muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic <span class="hlt">activity</span> by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia <span class="hlt">index</span> (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. Setting: N/A. Participants: Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle <span class="hlt">activities</span> were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> (phasic, “any”) cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle <span class="hlt">activity</span> improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. Citation: McCarter SJ, St. Louis EK, Duwell EJ, Timm PC</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-CM/Volume_24/24-4-571.pdf','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://www.minersoc.org/pages/Archive-CM/Volume_24/24-4-571.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle">Beyond the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> or the illite "crystallinity' <span class="hlt">index</span>. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler <span class="hlt">index</span> method alone. -Authors</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6146266','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/6146266"><span id="translatedtitle">Biliary excretion of acetaminophen-glutathione as an <span class="hlt">index</span> of toxic <span class="hlt">activation</span> of acetaminophen: effect of chemicals that alter acetaminophen hepatotoxicity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Madhu, C.; Gregus, Z.; Klaassen, C.D.</p> <p>1989-03-01</p> <p>Acetaminophen (AA) is converted, presumably by cytochrome P-450, to an electrophile which is conjugated with glutathione (GS). AA-GS is excreted into bile, therefore the biliary excretion rate of AA-GS may reflect the rate of <span class="hlt">activation</span> of AA in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of agents capable of altering the <span class="hlt">activation</span> of AA including cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors, cobaltous chloride which decreases the amount of P-450, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and naproxen), antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid palmitate) and other chemicals known to decrease AA hepatotoxicity (dimethylsulfoxide and cysteamine), on the biliary excretion of AA-GS was studied in hamsters, the species most sensitive to AA-induced hepatotoxicity. The biliary excretion of AA-GS increased linearly up to 1 mmol/kg of AA i.v., but at higher dosages exhibited saturation kinetics. Dosages above 0.5 mmol/kg lowered hepatic GS concentration. Of the cytochrome P-450 inducers, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, increased the biliary excretion of AA-GS (2.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively) whereas ethanol and isoniazid did not affect it, and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile tended to decrease it (43%). Phenobarbital tended to increase the biliary excretion of AA-GS, but not in a statistically significant manner. Several cytochrome P-450 inhibitors (metyrapone, 8-methoxypsoralen, 2-(4,6-dichloro-biphenyloxy) ethylamine, alpha-naphthoflavone and cimetidine) decreased the biliary excretion of AA-GS, although SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide did not. Cobaltous chloride decreased dramatically the biliary excretion of AA-GS.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204084','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25204084"><span id="translatedtitle">Rutin ameliorates glycemic <span class="hlt">index</span>, lipid profile and enzymatic <span class="hlt">activities</span> in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H</p> <p>2014-06-01</p> <p>Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum <span class="hlt">activities</span> of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK <span class="hlt">activities</span>. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/5596335"><span id="translatedtitle">Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines in <span class="hlt">CAIs</span> and chondrules in carbonaceous chondrites: Types, compositional profiles and constraints of their formation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Hua, X.; Adam, J.; Palme, H.; Goresy, A. E. )</p> <p>1988-06-01</p> <p>Fayalite-rich rims, veins, and halos around and in forsteritic olivines are a wide-spread phenomenon in chondrules, Ca, Al-rich inclusions (<span class="hlt">CAIs</span>), and single grains in carbonaceous chondrites. The presence of fayalite rod-like crystals and laths in rims, veins, in wall of pores, and as fluffy network bridging neighboring olivines, pyroxenes, feldspars, etc. is strongly suggestive that the fayalitic olivine was formed by condensation presumably from the solar nebula gas. The formation of the fayalitic olivine was probably caused by an increase in the H{sub 2}O/H{sub 2} ratio (to a ratio between 0.1-1) subsequent to condensation of forsterite. At that stage, FeNi inclusions in olivine were also oxidized and fayalitic halos around the metal were then formed Fe diffusion along with addition of SiO{sub 2} from the solar gas or loss of M{sub g}O to the solar gas. The Fa-rich olivine rims and veins display a narrow compositional variation between Fa{sup 34} and Fa{sup 46}. Subsequent to condensation of Fa-rich olivine and oxidation of FeNi metal, Fe diffused in forsterite. This diffusion was probable enhanced due to the presence of point defects in olivine or the formation of a nonstoichiometric phase analogous to laihunite enriched in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}. However, the presence of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3{minus}} rich discrete domains cannot by excluded. Cooling rates calculated by modeling of the diffusion profiles are indicative of rapid cooling subsequent to the condensation of fayalitic olivines. The authors obtain cooling rates ranging from 2000{degree}/day and 10{degree}C/day at an initial temperature of 1200C{degree} and 900C{degree}, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015LTP....41..760D"><span id="translatedtitle">Graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.</p> <p>2015-10-01</p> <p>The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (graded magnonic <span class="hlt">index</span>). By analogy to the fields of graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-<span class="hlt">index</span> magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.2041G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AIPC.1389.2041G"><span id="translatedtitle">A Social Capital <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica</p> <p>2011-09-01</p> <p>We define an <span class="hlt">index</span> of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19770013458"><span id="translatedtitle">Space Photography 1977 <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>1976-01-01</p> <p>An <span class="hlt">index</span> is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=REDD&pg=3&id=EJ749126','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=REDD&pg=3&id=EJ749126"><span id="translatedtitle">A Sociodemographic Risk <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia</p> <p>2006-01-01</p> <p>In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an <span class="hlt">index</span> of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=optic+AND+lenses&pg=4&id=EJ300392','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=optic+AND+lenses&pg=4&id=EJ300392"><span id="translatedtitle">Gradient Refractive <span class="hlt">Index</span> Lenses.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Morton, N.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Describes the nature of gradient refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=misery&pg=2&id=EJ603328','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=misery&pg=2&id=EJ603328"><span id="translatedtitle">The Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Bracey, Gerald W.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery <span class="hlt">Index</span> than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ914571.pdf"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Smith, Allister</p> <p>2005-01-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Index</span> for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690077','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4690077"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: Results from the Talking Health Trial</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Hedrick, Valisa E.; Davy, Brenda M.; Myers, Emily A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The recently developed Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating <span class="hlt">Index</span>-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690208"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: Results from the Talking Health Trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M</p> <p>2015-12-04</p> <p>The recently developed Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating <span class="hlt">Index</span>-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690208','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26690208"><span id="translatedtitle">Changes in the Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical <span class="hlt">Activity</span>: Results from the Talking Health Trial.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>The recently developed Healthy Beverage <span class="hlt">Index</span> (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical <span class="hlt">activity</span> group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating <span class="hlt">Index</span>-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stephen+AND+William&pg=3&id=EJ206779','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Stephen+AND+William&pg=3&id=EJ206779"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Theory and Retrieval Effectiveness.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Robertson, Stephen E.</p> <p>1978-01-01</p> <p>Describes recent attempts to make explicit connections between the <span class="hlt">indexing</span> process and the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span> or information retrieval system, particularly the utility-theoretic and automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> models of William Cooper and Stephen Harter. Theory and performance, information storage and retrieval, search stage feedback, and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> are also…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=3&id=EJ314051','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=semantic+AND+indexing&pg=3&id=EJ314051"><span id="translatedtitle">Automatic <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> of Full Texts.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Jonak, Zdenek</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span>. Results obtained are compared with automatic <span class="hlt">indexing</span> results performed by traditional methods and results of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> done by human <span class="hlt">indexers</span>. Sample terms and codes are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/874282"><span id="translatedtitle">Fiber optic refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> monitor</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Weiss, Jonathan David</p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>A sensor for measuring the change in refractive <span class="hlt">index</span> of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the liquid is significantly less than the <span class="hlt">index</span> of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its <span class="hlt">index</span> is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21435760"><span id="translatedtitle">The tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC <span class="hlt">index</span> based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the <span class="hlt">index</span> as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_24 --> <div id="page_25" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="481"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70039048"><span id="translatedtitle">Abstracting and <span class="hlt">indexing</span> guide</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research</p> <p>1974-01-01</p> <p>These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and <span class="hlt">index</span> scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected <span class="hlt">index</span> terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4937352"><span id="translatedtitle">Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting <span class="hlt">Index</span> (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift <span class="hlt">Index</span> (CLI) equation is used with lifting <span class="hlt">index</span> (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010LNCS.6124..180H"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Indexing</span> Similar DNA Sequences</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.</p> <p></p> <p>To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an <span class="hlt">indexing</span> data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to <span class="hlt">index</span> highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our <span class="hlt">index</span> requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64R.122.','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1983EOSTr..64R.122."><span id="translatedtitle">New weather <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span>. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the <span class="hlt">index</span> adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress <span class="hlt">index</span> estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9119E..0EA','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014SPIE.9119E..0EA"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> of cyber integrity</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Anderson, Gustave</p> <p>2014-05-01</p> <p>Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the <span class="hlt">index</span> of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the <span class="hlt">index</span> of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric <span class="hlt">index</span> may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3208603','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3208603"><span id="translatedtitle">Transport <span class="hlt">Activity</span> of the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter NBCe1 Is Enhanced by Different Isoforms of Carbonic Anhydrase</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Schueler, Christina; Becker, Holger M.; McKenna, Robert; Deitmer, Joachim W.</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>Transport metabolons have been discussed between carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) and several membrane transporters. We have now studied different CA isoforms, expressed in Xenopus oocytes alone and together with the electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 1 (NBCe1), to determine their catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and their ability to enhance NBCe1 transport <span class="hlt">activity</span>. pH measurements in intact oocytes indicated similar <span class="hlt">activity</span> of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, CAII and CAIII, while in vitro CAIII had no measurable <span class="hlt">activity</span> and <span class="hlt">CAI</span> only 30% of the <span class="hlt">activity</span> of CAII. All three CA isoforms increased transport <span class="hlt">activity</span> of NBCe1, as measured by the transport current and the rate of intracellular sodium rise in oocytes. Two CAII mutants, altered in their intramolecular proton pathway, CAII-H64A and CAII-Y7F, showed significant catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> and also enhanced NBCe1 transport <span class="hlt">activity</span>. The effect of <span class="hlt">CAI</span>, CAII, and CAII mutants on NBCe1 <span class="hlt">activity</span> could be reversed by blocking CA <span class="hlt">activity</span> with ethoxyzolamide (EZA, 10 µM), while the effect of the less EZA-sensitive CAIII was not reversed. Our results indicate that different CA isoforms and mutants, even if they show little enzymatic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in vitro, may display significant catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span> in intact cells, and that the ability of CA to enhance NBCe1 transport appears to depend primarily on its catalytic <span class="hlt">activity</span>. PMID:22076132</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/','SCIGOV-HHH'); return false;" href="//www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/item/wa0175.photos.168866p/"><span id="translatedtitle">29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, ...</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.loc.gov/pictures/collection/hh/">Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>29. TRACK LAYOUT, <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO DRAWINGS AND <span class="hlt">INDEX</span> TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=autism+AND+employment&pg=5&id=EJ984970','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=autism+AND+employment&pg=5&id=EJ984970"><span id="translatedtitle">Developing a Vocational <span class="hlt">Index</span> for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick</p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>Existing methods of <span class="hlt">indexing</span> the vocational <span class="hlt">activities</span> of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have made significant contributions to research. Nonetheless, they are limited by problems with sensitivity and reliability. We developed an <span class="hlt">index</span> of vocational and educational outcomes that captures the full range of <span class="hlt">activities</span> experienced by…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagieński, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4890841"><span id="translatedtitle">Body Mass <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Nuttall, Frank Q.</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>The body mass <span class="hlt">index</span> (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an <span class="hlt">index</span> of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1046799"><span id="translatedtitle"><span class="hlt">Index</span> Sets and Vectorization</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Keasler, J A</p> <p>2012-03-27</p> <p>Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid <span class="hlt">index</span> sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317663','PMC'); return false;" href="http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4317663"><span id="translatedtitle">A Major Controversy in Codon-Anticodon Adaptation Resolved by a New Codon Usage <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Xia, Xuhua</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Two alternative hypotheses attribute different benefits to codon-anticodon adaptation. The first assumes that protein production is rate limited by both initiation and elongation and that codon-anticodon adaptation would result in higher elongation efficiency and more efficient and accurate protein production, especially for highly expressed genes. The second claims that protein production is rate limited only by initiation efficiency but that improved codon adaptation and, consequently, increased elongation efficiency have the benefit of increasing ribosomal availability for global translation. To test these hypotheses, a recent study engineered a synthetic library of 154 genes, all encoding the same protein but differing in degrees of codon adaptation, to quantify the effect of differential codon adaptation on protein production in Escherichia coli. The surprising conclusion that “codon bias did not correlate with gene expression” and that “translation initiation, not elongation, is rate-limiting for gene expression” contradicts the conclusion reached by many other empirical studies. In this paper, I resolve the contradiction by reanalyzing the data from the 154 sequences. I demonstrate that translation elongation accounts for about 17% of total variation in protein production and that the previous conclusion is due to the use of a codon adaptation <span class="hlt">index</span> (<span class="hlt">CAI</span>) that does not account for the mutation bias in characterizing codon adaptation. The effect of translation elongation becomes undetectable only when translation initiation is unrealistically slow. A new <span class="hlt">index</span> of translation elongation ITE is formulated to facilitate studies on the efficiency and evolution of the translation machinery. PMID:25480780</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609317','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27609317"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by a deep intronic pseudoexon-<span class="hlt">activating</span> mutation in the androgen receptor gene.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Känsäkoski, Johanna; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Tommiska, Johanna; Saarinen, Lilli; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Frilander, Mikko J; Palvimo, Jorma J; Toppari, Jorma; Raivio, Taneli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) gene underlie complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), the most common cause of 46,XY sex reversal. Molecular genetic diagnosis of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>, however, remains uncertain in patients who show normal coding region of AR. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of AR disruption leading to <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> in two 46,XY sisters. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data of the patients for pathogenic variants outside the AR coding region. Patient fibroblasts from the genital area were used for AR cDNA analysis and protein quantification. Analysis of the cDNA revealed aberrant splicing of the mRNA caused by a deep intronic mutation (c.2450-118A>G) in the intron 6 of AR. The mutation creates a de novo 5' splice site and a putative exonic splicing enhancer motif, which leads to the preferential formation of two aberrantly spliced mRNAs (predicted to include a premature stop codon). Patient fibroblasts contained no detectable AR protein. Our results show that patients with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and normal AR coding region need to be examined for deep intronic mutations that can lead to pseudoexon <span class="hlt">activation</span>. PMID:27609317</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016895','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5016895"><span id="translatedtitle">Complete androgen insensitivity syndrome caused by a deep intronic pseudoexon-<span class="hlt">activating</span> mutation in the androgen receptor gene</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Känsäkoski, Johanna; Jääskeläinen, Jarmo; Jääskeläinen, Tiina; Tommiska, Johanna; Saarinen, Lilli; Lehtonen, Rainer; Hautaniemi, Sampsa; Frilander, Mikko J.; Palvimo, Jorma J.; Toppari, Jorma; Raivio, Taneli</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Mutations in the X-linked androgen receptor (AR) gene underlie complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (<span class="hlt">CAIS</span>), the most common cause of 46,XY sex reversal. Molecular genetic diagnosis of <span class="hlt">CAIS</span>, however, remains uncertain in patients who show normal coding region of AR. Here, we describe a novel mechanism of AR disruption leading to <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> in two 46,XY sisters. We analyzed whole-genome sequencing data of the patients for pathogenic variants outside the AR coding region. Patient fibroblasts from the genital area were used for AR cDNA analysis and protein quantification. Analysis of the cDNA revealed aberrant splicing of the mRNA caused by a deep intronic mutation (c.2450-118A>G) in the intron 6 of AR. The mutation creates a de novo 5′ splice site and a putative exonic splicing enhancer motif, which leads to the preferential formation of two aberrantly spliced mRNAs (predicted to include a premature stop codon). Patient fibroblasts contained no detectable AR protein. Our results show that patients with <span class="hlt">CAIS</span> and normal AR coding region need to be examined for deep intronic mutations that can lead to pseudoexon <span class="hlt">activation</span>. PMID:27609317</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lexicography&pg=5&id=EJ448968','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=lexicography&pg=5&id=EJ448968"><span id="translatedtitle">Quality <span class="hlt">Indexing</span> with Computer-Aided Lexicography.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Buchan, R. L.</p> <p>1992-01-01</p> <p>Discussion of computer-aided <span class="hlt">indexing</span> <span class="hlt">activity</span> focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=voice+AND+recorder&pg=2&id=EJ343915','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=voice+AND+recorder&pg=2&id=EJ343915"><span id="translatedtitle">An Introduction to Voice <span class="hlt">Indexing</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Chandler, James G.</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>Uses and sources of voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice <span class="hlt">indexing</span> on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4966218"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001445&hterms=Temperate+Grassland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTemperate%2BGrassland','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=GL-2002-001445&hterms=Temperate+Grassland&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D10%26Ntt%3DTemperate%2BGrassland"><span id="translatedtitle">Global Enhanced Vegetation <span class="hlt">Index</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p></p> <p>2002-01-01</p> <p>By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation <span class="hlt">Index</span> (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27512505"><span id="translatedtitle">Rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing <span class="hlt">index</span> (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063','PUBMED'); return false;" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25461063"><span id="translatedtitle">Traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Bagieński, Zbigniew</p> <p>2015-02-01</p> <p>Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality <span class="hlt">index</span> (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li class="active"><span>25</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_25 --> <center> <div class="footer-extlink text-muted"><small>Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. 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