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Sample records for activity index scores

  1. Toward Development of a Fibromyalgia Responder Index and Disease Activity Score: OMERACT Module Update

    PubMed Central

    Mease, PJ; Clauw, DJ; Christensen, R; Crofford, L; Gendreau, M; Martin, SA; Simon, L; Strand, V; Williams, DA; Arnold, LM

    2012-01-01

    Following development of the core domain set for fibromyalgia (FM) in OMERACT 7–9, the FM working group has progressed toward the development of an FM responder index and a disease activity score based on these domains, utilizing outcome indices of these domains from archived randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in FM. Possible clinical domains that could be included in a responder index and disease activity score include: pain, fatigue, sleep disturbance, cognitive dysfunction, mood disturbance, tenderness, stiffness, and functional impairment. Outcome measures for these domains demonstrate good to adequate psychometric properties, although measures of cognitive dysfunction need to be further developed. The approach used in the development of responder indices and disease activity scores for rheumatoid arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis represent heuristic models for our work, but FM is challenging in that there is no clear algorithm of treatment that defines disease activity based on treatment decisions, nor are there objective markers that define thresholds of severity or response to treatment. The process of developing candidate dichotomous responder definitions and continuous quantitative disease activity measures is described, as is participant discussion that transpired at OMERACT 10. Final results of this work will be published in a separate manuscript pending completion of analyses. PMID:21724721

  2. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  3. Oswestry Disability Index Scoring Made Easy

    PubMed Central

    Mehra, A; Baker, D; Disney, S; Pynsent, PB

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Low back pain effects up to 80% of the population at some time during their active life. Questionnaires are available to help measure pain and disability. The Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) is the most commonly used outcome measure for low back pain. The aim of this study was to see if training in completing the ODI forms improved the scoring accuracy. PATIENTS AND METHODS The last 100 ODI forms completed in a hospital's spinal clinic were reviewed retrospectively and errors in the scoring were identified. Staff members involved in scoring the questionnaire were made aware of the errors and the correct method of scoring explained. A chart was created with all possible scores to aid the staff with scoring. A prospective audit on 50 questionnaires was subsequently performed. RESULTS The retrospective study showed that 33 of the 100 forms had been incorrectly scored. All questionnaires where one or more sections were not completed by the patient were incorrectly scored. A scoring chart was developed and staff training was implemented. This reduced the error rate to 14% in the prospective audit. CONCLUSIONS Clinicians applying outcome measures should read the appropriate literature to ensure they understand the scoring system. Staff must then be given adequate training in the application of the questionnaires. PMID:18598595

  4. Analysis of WAIS-IV Index Score Scatter Using Significant Deviation from the Mean Index Score

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques; Coalson, Diane L.; Zhu, Jianjun

    2011-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) does not include verbal IQ and performance IQ scores, as provided in previous editions of the scale; rather, this edition provides comparisons among four index scores, allowing analysis of an individual's WAIS-IV performance in more discrete domains of cognitive ability. To supplement…

  5. Is the association of continuous metabolic syndrome risk score with body mass index independent of physical activity? The CASPIAN-III study

    PubMed Central

    Heshmat, Ramin; shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Babaki, Amir Eslami Shahr; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Ataie-Jafari, Asal; Asayesh, Hamid; Mohammadi, Rasool

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Although the association of body mass index (BMI) with metabolic syndrome (MetS) is well documented, there is little knowledge on the independent and joint associations of BMI and physical activity with MetS risk based on a continuous scoring system. This study was designed to explore the effect of physical activity on interactions between excess body weight and continuous metabolic syndrome (cMetS) in a nationwide survey of Iranian children and adolescents. SUBJECTS/METHODS Data on 5,625 school students between 10 and 18 years of age were analyzed. BMI percentiles, screen time activity (STA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) levels, and components of cMetS risk score were extracted. Standardized residuals (z-scores) were calculated for MetS components. Linear regression models were used to study the interactions between different combinations of cMetS, LTPA, and BMI percentiles. RESULTS Overall, 984 (17.5%) subjects were underweight, whereas 501 (8.9%) and 451 (8%) participants were overweight and obese, respectively. All standardized values for cMetS components, except fasting blood glucose level, were directly correlated with BMI percentiles in all models (P-trend < 0.001); these associations were independent of STA and LTPA levels. Linear associations were also observed among LTPA and standardized residuals for blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein, and waist circumference (P-trend < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our findings suggest that BMI percentiles are associated with cMetS risk score independent of LTPA and STA levels. PMID:26244080

  6. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  7. Severity index scores correlate with survival of AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Kinzbrunner, B; Pratt, M M

    1994-01-01

    A major concern of hospices treating AIDS patients is survival prognosis. Patients are eligible for government hospice benefits only if they are in the last six months of life, but for AIDS patients who present at different disease stages, it is often difficult to predict survival. We have tested an index of AIDS severity developed by Alemi et al. (1991, Interfaces, 21(3), 105) for its ability to predict survival in hospice-AIDS patients. Using retrospective analysis of medical records, a severity index (SI) score was determined for 26 AIDS patients who were admitted at different disease stages to a South Florida hospice. The length of stay for each patient was also recorded. The patients fell clearly into two groups, those with stays of six months or less and those with stays of more than six months. The mean SI scores of the two groups were .9188 and .7845, respectively. These scores were significantly different at the p = .005 level. In this preliminary study, the severity score correlated well with survival prognosis. Based on these results, it appears that the severity index may have great utility in predicting survival for AIDS patients seeking hospice admission. PMID:7893557

  8. Anti-inflammatory Dietary Inflammatory Index scores are associated with healthier scores on other dietary indices.

    PubMed

    Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R; Shivappa, Nitin; Hand, Gregory A; Hurley, Thomas G; Drenowatz, Clemens; McMahon, Daria; Shook, Robin P; Blair, Steven N

    2016-03-01

    Dietary components are important determinants of systemic inflammation, a risk factor for most chronic diseases. The Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) was developed to assess dietary inflammatory potential. It was hypothesized that anti-inflammatory DII scores would be associated with "healthier" scores on other dietary indices. The Energy Balance Study is an observational study focusing on energy intake and expenditure in young adults; only baseline data were used for this analysis (n=430). The DII, as well as the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the Alternative Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension Index (DASH) were calculated based on one to three 24-hour dietary recalls. General linear models were used to estimate least square means of the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH according to DII quartiles. Those with higher (ie, more proinflammatory) DII scores were more likely to be males, have less than a completed college education, and be younger. In addition, those with higher scores for cognitive restraint for eating or drive for thinness had lower (ie, anti-inflammatory) DII scores. Linear regression analyses indicated that as the DII increased, the AHEI, HEI-2010, and DASH dietary indices decreased (ie, became more unhealthy, all P<.01). The DII is a novel tool that characterizes the inflammatory potential of diet and is grounded in the peer-reviewed literature on diet and inflammation. Findings from the Energy Balance Study indicate that the DII is associated with other dietary indices, but has the added advantage of specifically measuring dietary inflammatory potential, a risk factor for chronic disease. PMID:26923507

  9. An Index to Objectively Score Supraglottic Abnormalities in Refractory Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Good, James T.; Rollins, Donald R.; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Lommatzsch, Steven E.; Carolan, Brendan J.; Stubenrauch, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with refractory asthma frequently have elements of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) with potential aspiration contributing to their poor control. We previously reported on a supraglottic index (SGI) scoring system that helps in the evaluation of LPR with potential aspiration. However, to further the usefulness of this SGI scoring system for bronchoscopists, a teaching system was developed that included both interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility. Methods: Five pulmonologists with expertise in fiber-optic bronchoscopy but novice to the SGI participated. A training system was developed that could be used via Internet interaction to make this learning technique widely available. Results: By the final testing, there was excellent interreader agreement (κ of at least 0.81), thus documenting reproducibility in scoring the SGI. For the measure of intrareader consistency, one reader was arbitrarily selected to rescore the final test 4 weeks later and had a κ value of 0.93, with a 95% CI of 0.79 to 1.00. Conclusions: In this study, we demonstrate that with an organized educational approach, bronchoscopists can develop skills to have highly reproducible assessment and scoring of supraglottic abnormalities. The SGI can be used to determine which patients need additional intervention to determine causes of LPR and gastroesophageal reflux. Identification of this problem in patients with refractory asthma allows for personal, individual directed therapy to improve asthma control. PMID:24202552

  10. Mapping health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI) score, pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) onto the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility score with the KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lin; Kim, Dam; Jang, Eun Jin; Lee, Min-Young; Song, Hyun Jin; Park, Sun-Young; Cho, Soo-Kyung; Sung, Yoon-Kyoung; Choi, Chan-Bum; Won, Soyoung; Bang, So-Young; Cha, Hoon-Suk; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Chung, Won Tae; Hong, Seung-Jae; Jun, Jae-Bum; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Seong-Kyu; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Tae-Jong; Koh, Eunmi; Lee, Hwajeong; Lee, Hye-Soon; Lee, Jisoo; Lee, Shin-Seok; Lee, Sung Won; Park, Sung-Hoon; Shim, Seung-Cheol; Yoo, Dae-Hyun; Yoon, Bo Young; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Lee, Eui-Kyung

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the mapping model for EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) utility values using the health assessment questionnaire disability index (HAQ-DI), pain visual analog scale (VAS), and disease activity score in 28 joints (DAS28) in a large, nationwide cohort of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in Korea. The KORean Observational study Network for Arthritis (KORONA) registry data on 3557 patients with RA were used. Data were randomly divided into a modeling set (80 % of the data) and a validation set (20 % of the data). The ordinary least squares (OLS), Tobit, and two-part model methods were employed to construct a model to map to the EQ-5D index. Using a combination of HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28, four model versions were examined. To evaluate the predictive accuracy of the models, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) and mean absolute error (MAE) were calculated using the validation dataset. A model that included HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 produced the highest adjusted R (2) as well as the lowest Akaike information criterion, RMSE, and MAE, regardless of the statistical methods used in modeling set. The mapping equation of the OLS method is given as EQ-5D = 0.95-0.21 × HAQ-DI-0.24 × pain VAS/100-0.01 × DAS28 (adjusted R (2) = 57.6 %, RMSE = 0.1654 and MAE = 0.1222). Also in the validation set, the RMSE and MAE were shown to be the smallest. The model with HAQ-DI, pain VAS, and DAS28 showed the best performance, and this mapping model enabled the estimation of an EQ-5D value for RA patients in whom utility values have not been measured. PMID:26849891

  11. Values for Comparison of WAIS-III Index Scores With Overall Means

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, R. Stewart

    2004-01-01

    The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition (WAIS-III; Wechsler, 1997b) provides factor-based index scores but allows only for pairwise comparison of these scores, producing inflated Type I error rates and reducing profile interpretability. This article provides tables for simultaneous comparison to the overall mean index score, thus…

  12. Body Mass Index Genetic Risk Score and Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Jennifer; Setiawan, Veronica W.; Wentzensen, Nicolas; Schumacher, Fredrick; Yu, Herbert; Delahanty, Ryan; Bernstein, Leslie; Chanock, Stephen J.; Chen, Chu; Cook, Linda S.; Friedenreich, Christine; Garcia-Closas, Monserrat; Haiman, Christopher A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liang, Xiaolin; Lissowska, Jolanta; Lu, Lingeng; Magliocco, Anthony M.; Olson, Sara H.; Risch, Harvey A.; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Ursin, Giske; Yang, Hannah P.; Kraft, Peter; De Vivo, Immaculata

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common variants that predispose individuals to a higher body mass index (BMI), an independent risk factor for endometrial cancer. Composite genotype risk scores (GRS) based on the joint effect of published BMI risk loci were used to explore whether endometrial cancer shares a genetic background with obesity. Genotype and risk factor data were available on 3,376 endometrial cancer case and 3,867 control participants of European ancestry from the Epidemiology of Endometrial Cancer Consortium GWAS. A BMI GRS was calculated by summing the number of BMI risk alleles at 97 independent loci. For exploratory analyses, additional GRSs were based on subsets of risk loci within putative etiologic BMI pathways. The BMI GRS was statistically significantly associated with endometrial cancer risk (P = 0.002). For every 10 BMI risk alleles a woman had a 13% increased endometrial cancer risk (95% CI: 4%, 22%). However, after adjusting for BMI, the BMI GRS was no longer associated with risk (per 10 BMI risk alleles OR = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.91, 1.07; P = 0.78). Heterogeneity by BMI did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.06), and no effect modification was noted by age, GWAS Stage, study design or between studies (P≥0.58). In exploratory analyses, the GRS defined by variants at loci containing monogenic obesity syndrome genes was associated with reduced endometrial cancer risk independent of BMI (per BMI risk allele OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.88, 0.96; P = 2.1 x 10−5). Possessing a large number of BMI risk alleles does not increase endometrial cancer risk above that conferred by excess body weight among women of European descent. Thus, the GRS based on all current established BMI loci does not provide added value independent of BMI. Future studies are required to validate the unexpected observed relation between monogenic obesity syndrome genetic variants and endometrial cancer risk. PMID:26606540

  13. ROCS: A reproducibility index and confidence score for interaction proteomics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Affinity-Purification Mass-Spectrometry (AP-MS) provides a powerful means of identifying protein complexes and interactions. Several important challenges exist in interpreting the results of AP-MS experiments. First, the reproducibility of AP-MS experimental replicates can be low, due both to technical variability and the dynamic nature of protein interactions in the cell. Second, the identification of true protein-protein interactions in AP-MS experiments is subject to inaccuracy due to high false negative and false positive rates. Several experimental approaches can be used to mitigate these drawbacks, including the use of replicated and control experiments and relative quantification to sensitively distinguish true interacting proteins from false ones. Results To address the issues of reproducibility and accuracy of protein-protein interactions, we introduce a two-step method, called ROCS, which makes use of Indicator Proteins to select reproducible AP-MS experiments, and of Confidence Scores to select specific protein-protein interactions. The Indicator Proteins account for measures of protein identification as well as protein reproducibility, effectively allowing removal of outlier experiments that contribute noise and affect downstream inferences. The filtered set of experiments is then used in the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) scoring step. Prey protein scoring is done by computing a Confidence Score, which accounts for the probability of occurrence of prey proteins in the bait experiments relative to the control experiment, where the significance cutoff parameter is estimated by simultaneously controlling false positives and false negatives against metrics of false discovery rate and biological coherence respectively. In summary, the ROCS method relies on automatic objective criterions for parameter estimation and error-controlled procedures. We illustrate the performance of our method by applying it to five previously published AP

  14. Assessment of ICU readmission risk with the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer score*

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Daiane Ferreira; Borges, Ingrid Nemitz Krás; Forgiarini, Luiz Alberto; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello

    2014-01-01

    Patient discharge from the ICU is indicated on the basis of clinical evidence and the result of strategies aimed at improving health care. Nevertheless, some patients might be discharged too early. We attempted to identify risk factors for unplanned ICU readmission, using a score for risk assessment, designated the Stability and Workload Index for Transfer (SWIFT) score. We evaluated 100 patients discharged from an ICU and found that the SWIFT score can be used as a tool for improving the assessment of ICU patients and the appropriateness of ICU discharge, thus preventing readmission. PMID:24626273

  15. WISC-III Index Score Profiles of 520 Swedish Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zander, Eric; Dahlgren, Sven Olof

    2010-01-01

    WISC-III (Wechsler, 1991) index score profiles and their characteristics were examined with traditional statistics in a large Swedish sample consisting of children with autistic disorder (n = 85), Asperger's disorder (n = 341), or pervasive developmental disorders not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS; n = 94). There was a clear and significant…

  16. Multiple Brain Abscesses due to Streptococcus anginosus: Prediction of Mortality by an Imaging Severity Index Score

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient with altered mental status, brain abscesses, ventriculitis, and empyemas died of septic shock and brain abscesses secondary to Streptococcus anginosus despite aggressive treatment. An imaging severity index score with a better prognostic value than the Glasgow coma scale predicted mortality in this patient. PMID:27034878

  17. Some Equations for Logically Scoring and Logically Indexing Bipolar Items and Variables.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James

    1992-01-01

    To solve an applied research problem with bipolar data, a set of equations was developed that combined all plus and minus data combinations into unique values and scale points. The equations were tested through computer simulations and empirical tests. Resulting index scores were approximately interval and linear and easy to use and interpret.…

  18. Mining the human phenome using allelic scores that index biological intermediates.

    PubMed

    Evans, David M; Brion, Marie Jo A; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; McMahon, George; Munafò, Marcus; Whitfield, John B; Medland, Sarah E; Montgomery, Grant W; Timpson, Nicholas J; St Pourcain, Beate; Lawlor, Debbie A; Martin, Nicholas G; Dehghan, Abbas; Hirschhorn, Joel; Smith, George Davey

    2013-10-01

    It is common practice in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to focus on the relationship between disease risk and genetic variants one marker at a time. When relevant genes are identified it is often possible to implicate biological intermediates and pathways likely to be involved in disease aetiology. However, single genetic variants typically explain small amounts of disease risk. Our idea is to construct allelic scores that explain greater proportions of the variance in biological intermediates, and subsequently use these scores to data mine GWAS. To investigate the approach's properties, we indexed three biological intermediates where the results of large GWAS meta-analyses were available: body mass index, C-reactive protein and low density lipoprotein levels. We generated allelic scores in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, and in publicly available data from the first Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. We compared the explanatory ability of allelic scores in terms of their capacity to proxy for the intermediate of interest, and the extent to which they associated with disease. We found that allelic scores derived from known variants and allelic scores derived from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers explained significant portions of the variance in biological intermediates of interest, and many of these scores showed expected correlations with disease. Genome-wide allelic scores however tended to lack specificity suggesting that they should be used with caution and perhaps only to proxy biological intermediates for which there are no known individual variants. Power calculations confirm the feasibility of extending our strategy to the analysis of tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes in large genome-wide meta-analyses. We conclude that our method represents a simple way in which potentially tens of thousands of molecular phenotypes could be screened for causal relationships with disease without having to expensively measure

  19. Utility of the Shock Index and Other Risk-Scoring Tools in Patients with Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Ratra, Atul; Rassameehiran, Supannee; Parupudi, Sreeram; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-03-01

    Patients with upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding frequently require hospitalization and have a mortality rate that ranges from 6% to 14%. These patients need rapid clinical assessment to determine the urgency of endoscopy and the need for endoscopic treatment. Risk-scoring tools, such as the Rockall score and the Glasgow-Blatchford score, are commonly used in this assessment. These tools clearly help identify high-risk patients but do not necessarily have good predictive value in identifying important outcomes. Their diagnostic accuracy in identifying rebleeding and mortality ranges from poor to fair. The shock index (heart rate divided by systolic blood pressure) provides an integrated assessment of the cardiovascular status. It can be easily calculated during the initial evaluation of patients and monitoring after treatment. The shock index has been used in a few studies in patients with acute GI bleeding, including studies to determine which patients need emergency endoscopy, to predict complications after corrosive ingestions, to identify delayed hemorrhage following pancreatic surgery, and to evaluate the utility of angiograms to identify sites of GI bleeding. Not all studies have found the shock index to be useful in patients with GI bleeding, however. This may reflect the unpredictable natural history of various etiologies of GI bleeding, comorbidity that may influence blood pressure and/or heart rate, and inadequate data acquisition. The shock index needs more formal study in patients with GI bleeding admitted to medical intensive care units. Important considerations include the initial response to resuscitation, persistent bleeding following initial treatment, and rebleeding following a period of stabilization. In addition, it needs correlation with other risk-scoring tools. PMID:26954657

  20. Comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the Practice of Otorhinolaryngology

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Heloisa Sobreira; Pinto, José Antonio; Zavanela, Adma Roberta; Cavallini, André Freitas; Freitas, Gabriel Santos; Garcia, Fabiola Esteves

    2016-01-01

    Introduction  The Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease has a prevalence of ∼12% of the urban population in Brazil. Koufman proposed the term to designate Laryngeal Pharyngeal Reflux (LPR) symptoms, signs or tissue damage resulting from aggression of the gastrointestinal contents in the upper aerodigestive tract. Belafsky et al proposed a score that points to inflammatory laryngeal signs through videolaryngoscopic findings, the Reflux Finding Score (RFS). Moreover, in 2002, they published the Reflux Symptom Index (RSI). Objective  The objective of this study is to provide a comparison between the Reflux Finding Score and the Reflux Symptom Index in the practice of Otorhinolaryngology. Methods  Our study involved a total of 135 patients who visited the Ear, Nose, and Throat (ENT) clinic Núcleo de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço de São Paulo between April 2014 and May 2015 with suspected LPR. We excluded nine patients and the study group was 126 patients. All patients were ranked by their RSI and RFS scores. Results  The study group consisted of 126 patients (88 women and 38 men). Their main complaints were cough (40.4%), globus (21.4%), dysphonia (19.8%), throat clearing (15.8%), postnasal drip (3.17%), snoring (1.5%), dysphagia (1.5%), cacosmia (0.7%), and regurgitation (1.5%). The RSI ranges from 13 to 42 with a mean of 20.7 (SD = 6.67). The RFS ranged from 3 to 19 with a mean of 9.53 (SD = 2.64). Conclusion  The RSI and RFS can easily be included in ENT routines as objective parameters, with low cost and high practicality. Based on the clinical index, the specialist can evaluate the need for further tests.

  1. A Combined Pulmonary Function and Emphysema Score Prognostic Index for Staging in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Boutou, Afroditi K.; Nair, Arjun; Douraghi-Zadeh, Dariush; Sandhu, Ranbir; Hansell, David M.; Wells, Athol U.; Polkey, Michael I.; Hopkinson, Nicholas S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is characterized by high morbidity and mortality. Lung computed tomography parameters, individually or as part of a composite index, may provide more prognostic information than pulmonary function tests alone. Aim To investigate the prognostic value of emphysema score and pulmonary artery measurements compared with lung function parameters in COPD and construct a prognostic index using a contingent staging approach. Material-Methods Predictors of mortality were assessed in COPD outpatients whose lung computed tomography, spirometry, lung volumes and gas transfer data were collected prospectively in a clinical database. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazard analysis models with bootstrap techniques were used. Results 169 patients were included (59.8% male, 61.1 years old; Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second % predicted: 40.5±19.2). 20.1% died; mean survival was 115.4 months. Age (HR = 1.098, 95% Cl = 1.04–1.252) and emphysema score (HR = 1.034, 95% CI = 1.007–1.07) were the only independent predictors of mortality. Pulmonary artery dimensions were not associated with survival. An emphysema score of 55% was chosen as the optimal threshold and 30% and 65% as suboptimals. Where emphysema score was between 30% and 65% (intermediate risk) the optimal lung volume threshold, a functional residual capacity of 210% predicted, was applied. This contingent staging approach separated patients with an intermediate risk based on emphysema score alone into high risk (Functional Residual Capacity ≥210% predicted) or low risk (Functional Residual Capacity <210% predicted). This approach was more discriminatory for survival (HR = 3.123; 95% CI = 1.094–10.412) than either individual component alone. Conclusion Although to an extent limited by the small sample size, this preliminary study indicates that the composite Emphysema score-Functional Residual Capacity index might provide

  2. The relationships between WAIS-IV factor index scores and educational level: A bifactor model approach.

    PubMed

    Abad, Francisco J; Sorrel, Miguel A; Román, Francisco J; Colom, Roberto

    2016-08-01

    IQ summary scores may not involve equivalent psychological meaning for different educational levels. Ultimately, this relates to the distinction between constructs and measurements. Here, we explore this issue studying the standardization of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition (WAIS-IV) for Spain. A representative sample of 743 individuals (374 females and 369 males) who completed the 15 subtests comprising this intelligence battery was considered. We analyzed (a) the best latent factor structure for modeling WAIS-IV subtest performance, (b) measurement invariance across educational levels, and (c) the relationships of educational level/attainment with latent factors, Full Scale IQ (FSIQ), and index factor scores. These were the main findings: (a) the bifactor model provides the best fit; (b) there is partial invariance, and therefore it is concluded that the battery is a proper measure of the constructs of interest for the educational levels analyzed (nevertheless, the relevance of g decreases at high educational levels); (c) at the latent level, g and, to a lesser extent, Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed, are positively related to educational level/attainment; (d) despite the previous finding, we find that Verbal Comprehension and Processing Speed factor index scores have reduced incremental validity beyond FSIQ; and (e) FSIQ is a slightly biased measure of g. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26322798

  3. Incremental criterion validity of WAIS-IV factor index scores: relationships with WIAT-II and WIAT-III subtest and composite scores.

    PubMed

    Canivez, Gary L

    2013-06-01

    The present study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-4th Edition (WAIS-IV; Wechsler, 2008a) factor index scores in predicting academic achievement on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-2nd Edition (WIAT-II; Psychological Corporation, 2002a) and on the Wechsler Individual Achievement Test-3rd Edition (WIAT-III; Wechsler, 2009a) beyond that predicted by the WAIS-IV Full Scale IQ (FSIQ). As with previous intelligence test incremental validity studies, the WAIS-IV FSIQ accounted for statistically significant and generally large portions of WIAT-II and WIAT-III subtest and composite score variance. WAIS-IV factor index scores combined to provide statistically significant increments in variance accounted for in most WIAT-II and WIAT-III subtest and composite scores over and above the FSIQ score; however, the effect sizes ranged from trivial to medium as observed in investigations with other intelligence tests (i.e., Glutting, Watkins, Konold, & McDermott, 2006; Youngstrom, Kogos, & Glutting, 1999). Individually, the WAIS-IV factor index scores provided trivial to small unique contributions to predicting WIAT-II and WIAT-III scores. This finding indicated that the FSIQ should retain primacy and greatest interpretive weight in WAIS-IV interpretation, as previously indicated by WAIS-IV subtest variance partitions form hierarchical exploratory factor analyses (Canivez & Watkins, 2010a, 2012b). PMID:23647042

  4. SEER*Educate: Use of Abstracting Quality Index Scores to Monitor Improvement of All Employees.

    PubMed

    Potts, Mary S; Scott, Tim; Hafterson, Jennifer L

    2016-01-01

    Integral parts of the Seattle-Puget Sound's Cancer Surveillance System registry's continuous improvement model include the incorporation of SEER*Educate into its training program for all staff and analyzing assessment results using the Abstracting Quality Index (AQI). The AQI offers a comprehensive measure of overall performance in SEER*Educate, which is a Web-based application used to personalize learning and diagnostically pinpoint each staff member's place on the AQI continuum. The assessment results are tallied from 6 abstracting standards within 2 domains: incidence reporting and coding accuracy. More than 100 data items are aligned to 1 or more of the 6 standards to build an aggregated score that is placed on a continuum for continuous improvement. The AQI score accurately identifies those individuals who have a good understanding of how to apply the 6 abstracting standards to reliably generate high quality abstracts. PMID:27556839

  5. Choosing the best index for the average score intraclass correlation coefficient.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2016-09-01

    The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC)(2) index from a one-way random effects model is widely used to describe the reliability of mean ratings in behavioral, educational, and psychological research. Despite its apparent utility, the essential property of ICC(2) as a point estimator of the average score intraclass correlation coefficient is seldom mentioned. This article considers several potential measures and compares their performance with ICC(2). Analytical derivations and numerical examinations are presented to assess the bias and mean square error of the alternative estimators. The results suggest that more advantageous indices can be recommended over ICC(2) for their theoretical implication and computational ease. PMID:26182855

  6. Job level risk assessment using task level strain index scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Bloswick, Donald S; Sesek, Richard; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores 2 methods of modifying the Strain Index (SI) to assess the ergonomic risk of multi-task jobs. Twenty-eight automotive jobs (15 cases and 13 controls) were studied. The first method is based on the maximum task SI score, and the second method is modeled on the NIOSH Composite Lifting Index (CLI) algorithm, named cumulative assessment of risk to the distal upper extremity (CARD). Significant odds ratios of 11 (CI 1.7-69) and 24 (CI 2.4-240) were obtained using the modified maximum task and CARD, respectively. This indicates that modification of the SI may be useful in determining the risk of distal upper extremity injury associated with a multi-task job. PMID:15938764

  7. Mortality of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Korea: Assessed with the Pneumonia Severity Index and the CURB-65 Score

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hye In; Chang, Hyun Ha; Cha, Seung Ick; Lee, Jae Hee; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Cheong, Hae Suk; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Byung Kee; Choo, Eun Ju; Kim, Do Jin; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae Hoon; Suh, Gee Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Moon, Chi Sook; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Jung, Sook In; Park, Kyung Hwa; Yun, Na Ra; Yoon, Sung Ho; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Ki Suck

    2013-01-01

    The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients. PMID:24015030

  8. Implementation of the Simple Endoscopic Activity Score in Crohn's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Koutroumpakis, Efstratios; Katsanos, Konstantinos H.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Endoscopic Score for Crohn's Disease (SES-CD) was developed as an attempt to simplify Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS). Since it was constructed from CDEIS, SES-CD performs comparably but also carries similar limitations. Several studies have utilized SES-CD scoring to describe disease severity or response to therapy. Some of them used SES-CD score as a continuous variable while others utilized certain cutoff values to define severity grades. All SES-CD cutoff values reported in published clinical trials were empirically selected by experts. Although in most of the studies that used SEC-CD scoring to define disease severity, a score <3 reflected inactive disease, no study is using score 0 to predefine inactivity. Studies applying SES-CD to define response to treatment used score 0. There is no optimal SES-CD cut-off for endoscopic remission. The quantification of mucosal healing using SES-CD scoring has not been standardized yet. As the definition of mucosal healing by SES-CD is unset, the concept of deep remission is also still evolving. Serum and fecal biomarkers as well as new radiologic imaging techniques are complementary to SES-CD. Current practice as well as important changes in endoscopy should be taken into consideration when defining SES-CD cutoffs. The optimal timing of SES-CD scoring to assess mucosal healing is not defined yet. To conclude, SES-CD represents a valuable tool. However, a consensus agreement on its optimal use is required. PMID:27184635

  9. Bispectral index score and observer's assessment of awareness/sedation score may manifest divergence during onset of sedation: Study with midazolam and propofol

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Dipanjan; Mandal, Mohan Chandra; Das, Sabyasachi; Basu, Sekhar Ranjan; Sarkar, Susanta; Das, Jyotirmoy

    2013-01-01

    Background: Correlation between the clinical and electroencephalogram-based monitoring has been documented sporadically during the onset of sedation. Propofol and midazolam have been studied individually using the observer's assessment of awareness/sedation (OAA/S) score and Bispectral index score (BIS). The present study was designed to compare the time to onset of sedation for propofol and midazolam using both BIS and OAA/S scores, and to find out any correlation. Methods: A total of 46 patients (18-60 years, either sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) I/II) posted for infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anaesthesia were randomly allocated to receive either injection propofol 1 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 3 mg/kg/h (Group P, n=23) or injection midazolam 0.05 mg/kg bolus followed by infusion 0.06 mg/kg/h (Group M, n=23). Spinal anaesthesia was given with 2.5 ml to 3.0 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine heavy. When sensory block reached T6 level, sedation was initiated. The time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 from the start of study drug were noted. OAA/S score at BIS score 70 was noted. Data from 43 patients were analyzed using SPSS 12 for Windows. Results: Time to reach BIS score 70 using propofol was significantly lower than using the midazolam (P<0.05). Time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using propofol was comparable with midazolam (P=0.358). Conclusion: A divergence exists between the time to reach BIS score 70 and time to achieve OAA/S score 3 using midazolam, compared with propofol, during the onset of sedation. PMID:24163448

  10. Concurrent Validity of Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition Index Score Short Forms in the Canadian Standardization Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Rael T.; Iverson, Grant L.

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the concurrent validity of estimated Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales-Third Edition (WAIS-III) index scores using various one- and two-subtest combinations. Participants were the Canadian WAIS-III standardization sample. Using all possible one- and two-subtest combinations, an estimated Verbal Comprehension Index (VCI), an…

  11. Peritoneal adhesion index (PAI): proposal of a score for the "ignored iceberg" of medicine and surgery.

    PubMed

    Coccolini, Federico; Ansaloni, Luca; Manfredi, Roberto; Campanati, Luca; Poiasina, Elia; Bertoli, Paolo; Capponi, Michela Giulii; Sartelli, Massimo; Di Saverio, Salomone; Cucchi, Michele; Lazzareschi, Daniel; Pisano, Michele; Catena, Fausto

    2013-01-01

    Peritoneal adhesions describe a condition in which pathological bonds form between the omentum, the small and large bowels, the abdominal wall, and other intra-abdominal organs. Different classification systems have been proposed, but they do not resolve the underlying problem of ambiguity in the quantification and definition of adhesions. We therefore propose a standardized classification system of adhesions to universalize their definition based on the macroscopic appearance of adhesions and their diffusion to different regions of the abdomen. By scoring with these criteria, the peritoneal adhesion index (PAI) can range from 0 to 30, unambiguously specifying precise adhesion scenarios. The standardized classification and quantification of adhesions would enable different studies to more meaningfully integrate their results, thereby facilitating a more comprehensive approach to the treatment and management of this pathology. PMID:23369320

  12. The Use of the Addiction Severity Index Psychiatric Composite Scores to Predict Psychiatric Inpatient Admissions.

    PubMed

    Drymalski, Walter M; Nunley, Michael R

    2016-01-01

    The high prevalence of co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders indicates a need for integrated behavioral health treatment that addresses both types of disorder simultaneously. One component of this integrated treatment is the use of an assessment process that can concurrently identify the presence of each class of disorder. The Addiction Severity Index (ASI) has been extensively used and researched in the field of substance use disorders for over 30 years. The ASI has seven sections, including a section on substance use disorders and a section on psychiatric symptoms, making it a potential candidate for a co-occurring screen during intake. The following study utilized a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis to determine an optimal cutoff score on the ASI psychiatric composite score to identify which individuals seeking substance use disorder treatment were admitted to the Milwaukee County Behavioral Health Division's psychiatric hospital in the year subsequent to their ASI administration. Of the 19,320 individuals who completed an initial ASI in our system, 343 had an inpatient admission. The receiver operating characteristic curve was statistically significant, with an area under the curve of 0.75. A cutoff of 0.27 had a sensitivity of 0.77 and a specificity of 0.61, such that over 60% (11,963/19,320) of the sample was excluded. These results suggest that the ASI psychiatric composite score may be a useful initial screen to identify those with potential mental health problems/needs in a behavioral health system attempting to integrate addiction and mental health services. PMID:27580192

  13. Validity of a PCI Bleeding Risk Score in patient subsets stratified for body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Dobies, David R; Barber, Kimberly R; Cohoon, Amanda L

    2015-01-01

    Objective An accurate tool with good discriminative for bleeding would be useful to clinicians for improved management of all their patients. Bleeding risk models have been published but not externally validated in independent clinical data set. We chose the National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) score to validate within a large, multisite community data set. The aim of the study was validation of this Bleeding Risk Score (BRS) tool among a subgroup of patients based on body mass index. Methods This is a large-scale retrospective analysis of a current registry utilising data from a 37-hospital health system. The central repository of patients with coronary heart disease undergoing PCI between 1 June 2009 and 30 June 2012 was utilised to validate the NCDR PCI BRS among 4693 patients. The primary end point was major bleeding. Validation analysis calculating the receiver operating characteristic curve was performed. Results There were 143 (3%) major bleeds. Mean BRS was 14.7 (range 3–42). Incidence of bleeding by risk category: low (0.5%), intermediate (1.7%) and high risk (7.6%). Tool accuracy was poor to fair (area-under-the curve (AUC) 0.78 heparin, 0.65 bivalirudin). Overall accuracy was 0.71 (CI 0.66 to 0.76). Accuracy did not improve when confined to just the intermediate risk group (AUC 0.58; CI 0.55 to 0.67). Tool accuracy was the lowest among the low BMI group (AUC 0.62) though they are at increased risk of bleeding following PCI. Conclusions Bleeding risk tools have low predictive value even among subgroups of patients at higher risk. Adjustment for anticoagulation use resulted in poor discrimination because bivalirudin differentially biases outcomes toward no bleeding. The current state of bleeding risk tools provide little support for diagnostic utility in regards to major bleeding and therefore have limited clinical applicability. PMID:25745565

  14. Diagnostic Utility of WISC-IV General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index Difference Scores among Children with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devena, Sarah E.; Watkins, Marley W.

    2012-01-01

    The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition General Abilities Index and Cognitive Proficiency Index have been advanced as possible diagnostic markers of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. This hypothesis was tested with a hospital sample with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (n = 78), a referred but nondiagnosed…

  15. Model for end-stage liver disease-Na score or Maddrey discrimination function index, which score is best?

    PubMed Central

    Amieva-Balmori, Mercedes; Mejia-Loza, Scherezada María Isabel; Ramos-González, Roberto; Zamarripa-Dorsey, Felipe; García-Ruiz, Eli; Pérez y López, Nuria; Juárez-Valdés, Eumir I; López-Luria, Adriana; Remes-Troche, José María

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the ability of model for end-stage liver disease (MELD)-Na and Maddrey discrimination function index (DFI) to predict mortality at 30 and 90 d in patients with alcoholic hepatitis (AH). METHODS: We prospectively assessed 52 patients with AH. Demographic, clinical and laboratory parameters were obtained. MELD-Na and Maddrey DFI were calculated on admission. Short-term mortality was assessed at 30 and 90 d. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-day and 90-d mortality was 44% and 58%, respectively. In the univariate analysis, sodium levels was associated with mortality at 30 and 90 d (P = 0.001 and P = 0.03). Child stage, encephalopathy, ascites, or types of treatment were not associated with mortality. MELD-Na was the only predictive factor for mortality at 90 d. For 30-d mortality area under the curve (AUC) was 0.763 (95%CI: 0.63-0.89) for Maddrey DFI and 0.784 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.65-0.91, P = 0.82). For 90-d mortality AUC was 0.685 (95%CI: 0.54-0.83) for Maddrey DFI and 0.8710 for MELD-Na (95%CI: 0.76-0.97, P = 0.041). CONCLUSION: AH is associated with high short-term mortality. Our results show that MELD-Na is a more valuable model than DFI to predict short-term mortality. PMID:26301054

  16. Scholarly Productivity of Social Work Faculty at Historically Black Colleges and Universities: Are h-Index Scores a Suitable Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Isiah, Jr.; Smith, Belinda Davis; Green, Makeba T.; Anderson, Brian; Harry, Sonja V.; Byrd, Yolanda M.; Pratt-Harris, Natasha C.; Bolden, Errol S.; Hill, Solomon

    2016-01-01

    Faculty scholarship at historically Black colleges and universities (HBCU) has in the past served as a blueprint for the Black masses. Even today, HBCU faculty scholarship continues to be an informative source to communicate accurate information regarding marginalized groups. This study examines h-index scores of 65 faculty members at five…

  17. The Relationship between Schools' Costs per Pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework Index Scores in Clark County School District

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, John; Huang, Min

    2015-01-01

    Clark County School District (CCSD) asked the Western Regional Education Laboratory (REL West) to examine the relationship between spending per pupil and Nevada School Performance Framework (NSPF) index scores in the district's schools. Data were examined from three school years (2011/12, 2012/13, 2013/14) and for three types of schools…

  18. Evaluation of Different Score Index for Predicting Prognosis in Gamma Knife Radiosurgical Treatment for Brain Metastasis

    SciTech Connect

    Franzin, Alberto Snider, Silvia; Picozzi, Piero; Bolognesi, Angelo; Serra, Carlo; Vimercati, Alberto; Passarin, Olga; Mortini, Pietro

    2009-07-01

    Purpose: To assess the utility of the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Recursive Partitioning Analysis (RPA) and Score Index for Radiosurgery (SIR) stratification systems in predicting survival in patients with brain metastasis treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 185 patients were included in the study. Patients were stratified according to RPA and SIR classes. The RPA and SIR classes, age, Karnofsky Performance Status (KPS), and systemic disease were correlated with survival. Results: Five patients were lost to follow-up. Median survival in patients in RPA Class 1 (30 patients) was 17 months; in Class 2 (140 patients), 10 months; and in Class 3 (10 patients), 3 months. Median survival in patients in SIR Class 1 (30 patients) was 3 months; in Class 2 (135 patients), 8 months; and in Class 3 (15 patients), 20 months. In univariate testing, age younger than 65 years (p = 0.0004), KPS higher than 70 (p = 0.0001), RPA class (p = 0.0078), SIR class (p = 0.0002), and control of the primary tumor (p = 0.02) were significantly associated with improved outcome. In multivariate analysis, KPS (p < 0.0001), SIR class (p = 0.0008), and RPA class (p = 0.03) had statistical value. Conclusions: This study supports the use of GKRS as a single-treatment modality in this selected group of patients. Stratification systems are useful in the estimation of patient eligibility for GKRS. A second-line treatment was necessary in 30% of patients to achieve distal or local brain control. This strategy is useful to control brain metastasis in long-surviving patients.

  19. Proposing Melasma Severity Index: A New, More Practical, Office-based Scoring System for Assessing the Severity of Melasma

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Imran; Haq, Inaamul; Imran, Saher; Keen, Abid; Aziz, Khalid; Arif, Tasleem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Melasma Area and Severity Index (MASI), the scoring system in melasma, needs to be refined. Aims and Objectives: To propose a more practical scoring system, named as Melasma Severity Index (MSI), for assessing the disease severity and treatment response in melasma. Materials and Methods: Four dermatologists were trained to calculate MASI and also the proposed MSI scores. For MSI, the formula used was 0.4 (a × p2) l + 0.4 (a × p2) r + 0.2 (a × p2) n where “a” stands for area, “p” for pigmentation, “l” for left face, “r” for right face, and “n” for nose. On a single day, 30 enrolled patients were randomly examined by each trained dermatologist and their MASI and MSI scores were calculated. Next, each rater re-examined every 6th patient for repeat MASI and MSI scoring to assess intra- and inter-rater reliability of MASI and MSI scores. Validity was assessed by comparing the individual scores of each rater with objective data from mexameter and ImageJ software. Results: Inter-rater reliability, as assessed by intraclass correlation coefficient, was significantly higher for MSI (0.955) as compared to MASI (0.816). Correlation of scores with objective data by Spearman's correlation revealed higher rho values for MSI than for MASI for all raters. Limitations: Sample population belonged to a single ethnic group. Conclusions: MSI is simpler and more practical scoring system for melasma. PMID:26955093

  20. The Predictive Value of Mitral Leaflet Motion and Thickness Index Scores on Early Restenosis after Mitral Balloon Valvuloplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akin, Mustafa; Sagcan, Abdi; Nalbantgil, Sanem; Ozerkan, Filiz; Akilli, Azem; Yavuzgil, Oguz; Zoghi, Mehdi

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether there is any association between mitral leaflet motion (LMI) and leaflet thickness index (LTI) scores and the rate of restenosis 3 months after successful mitral balloon valvuloplasty. The study population consisted of 46 patients with symptomatic rheumatic mitral stenosis who underwent balloon valvuloplasty (37 women, 9 men; mean age, 36 ± 9 years). Two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography were performed in all patients on the day before, immediately after, and 3 months after valvuloplasty. The severity of restriction of leaflet motion and the severity of leaflet thickening were classified into grades of mild (a score of 0), moderate (a score of 1), and severe (a score of 2). Subvalvular disease and commissural involvement were homogeneous in all patients. Before and immediately after mitral balloon valvuloplasty, there were no significant differences in mitral valve area among the groups with different LMI and LTI scores. However, at 3 months after valvuloplasty, reduction in mitral valve area was more significant in patients who had higher pre-procedural LMI and LTI scores (P < 0.05). The rates of early restenosis were 0 with a total score of 0, 14.2% with a total score of 1–2, and 32% with a total score of 3. In conclusion, quantitative assessment of LMI and LTI scores by 2-dimensional echocardiography may be helpful in predicting early restenosis after mitral balloon valvuloplasty. Early reduction in mitral valve area is significant in patients who have higher total LMI and LTI scores. PMID:15562845

  1. EULAR Sjogren's syndrome disease activity index: development of a consensus systemic disease activity index for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Raphaèle; Ravaud, Philippe; Bowman, Simon; Baron, Gabriel; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Theander, Elke; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Bootsma, Hendrika; Mariette, Xavier; Vitali, Claudio

    2010-01-01

    Objective To develop a disease activity index for patients with primary Sjögren’s syndrome (SS): the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) Sjögren’s Syndrome Disease Activity Index (ESSDAI). Methods Thirty-nine SS experts participated in an international collaboration, promoted by EULAR, to develop the ESSDAI. Experts identified 12 organ-specific “domains” contributing to disease activity. For each domain, features of disease activity were classified in 3 or 4 levels according to their severity. Data abstracted from 96 patients with systemic complications of primary SS were used to generate 702 realistic vignettes for which all possible systemic complications were represented. Using the 0–10 physician global assessment (PhGA) scale, each expert scored the disease activity of 5 patient profiles and 20 realistic vignettes. Multiple regression modelling, with PhGA used as the dependent variable, was used to estimate the weight of each domain. Results All 12 domains were significantly associated with disease activity in the multivariate model, domain weights ranged from 1 to 6. The ESSDAI scores varied from 2 to 47 and were significantly correlated with PhGA for both real patient profiles and realistic vignettes (r=0.61 and r=0.58, respectively, p<0.0001). Compared to 57 (59.4%) of the real patient profiles, 468 (66.7%) of the realistic vignettes were considered likely or very likely to be true. Conclusion The ESSDAI is a clinical index designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. Once validated, such a standardized evaluation of primary SS should facilitate clinical research and should be helpful as an outcome measure in clinical trials. PMID:19561361

  2. Modified Coronal Index of the Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukáč, B.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-05-01

    The original coronal index of the solar activity (CI) has been constructed on the basis of ground-based measurements of the intensities of the coronal line of 530.3 nm (Rybanský in Bull. Astron. Inst. Czechoslov., 28, 367, 1975; Rybanský et al. in J. Geophys. Res., 110, A08106, 2005). In this paper, CI is compared with the EUV measurements on the CELIAS/SEM equipment based on the same idea as the original idea of the coronal index. The correlation is very good for the period 1996 - 2005 ( r=0.94 for daily values). The principal result of this paper is the introduction of the modified coronal index (MCI) which in all uses and contexts can replace the existing CI index. Daily MCI values extend over a time period of six solar activity cycles. Future MCI measurements will be derived from more reliable measurements made by space-based observatories that are not influenced by the weather. MCI measurements are and will continue to be archived at the web site of the Slovak Central Observatory in Hurbanovo ( http://www.suh.sk/obs/vysl/MCI.htm ).

  3. Analysis of development levels in the cities of Tehran province regarding health infrastructural index: the strategy of standardized score and Morris’ inequality index

    PubMed Central

    Javani, Ali; Abolhallaje, Masoud; Raadabadi, Mehdi; Rezaee Dehaghi, Hanieh; Nazari, Aslan; Nazari, Hamed; Chatrouz, Azadeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: One of the main indexes of development is health index or the degree to which a society enjoys health and therapeutic services. The present study was done with the aim to analyze development levels in cities in Tehran regarding health infrastructural index using the standardized score and Morris’ model. Methods: This is a descriptive and pragmatic study which ranks 14 cities in Tehran province using the standardized score and Morris’ models based on 10 selected health indexes. The required data were gathered using a researcher-made information list and the information gathered from the Statistics Center and Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The data were analyzed using Excel software. Results: The development coefficient in the studied cities varies from 0.595 to -0.379 so that Rey city has the highest level of development and Pishva city has the lowest level of development among the studied cities. The more number of the cities (43%) was among the rather undeveloped group and none of the cities (0%) was in the rather developed group. Conclusion: Regarding the findings, there is a big gap and difference regarding enjoying health and therapeutic infrastructural indexes among the cities in Tehran province. Therefore, it is suggested that development-oriented plans consistentent with development levels should be implemented in these cities. PMID:26913267

  4. Characteristics of Youth Food Preparation in Low-Income, African American Homes: Associations with Healthy Eating Index Scores.

    PubMed

    Sattler, Melissa; Hopkins, Laura; Anderson Steeves, Elizabeth; Cristello, Angelica; Mccloskey, Morgan; Gittelsohn, Joel; Hurley, Kristen

    2015-01-01

    This study explores food preparation behaviors, including types of food prepared, methods of preparation, and frequency of preparation of low-income urban African American youth ages 9-15 in Baltimore City (n = 289) and analyzes a potential association to diet quality as measured through Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI) scores. Overall, the youth prepared their own food 6.7 ± 0.33 times per week without significant differences between age groups or genders as measured through pairwise comparison of means. Cereal, noodles, and sandwiches were amongst the foods prepared most frequently. Linear regression analysis found youth food preparation frequency was not significantly associated with total HEI (p = 0.59), sodium (p = 0.58), empty calories (p = 0.96), or dairy scores (p = 0.12). Younger age was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.012) and higher dairy scores (p = 0.01) and female gender was associated with higher total HEI scores (p = 0.03), higher sodium scores (p = 0.03), and lower dairy scores (p = 0.008). PMID:25706350

  5. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  6. Impact of a modified data capture period on Liu comorbidity index scores in Medicare enrollees initiating chronic dialysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Liu Comorbidity Index uses the United States Renal Data System (USRDS) to quantify comorbidity in chronic dialysis patients, capturing baseline comorbidities from days 91 through 270 after dialysis initiation. The 270 day survival requirement results in sample size reductions and potential survivor bias. An earlier and shorter time-frame for data capture could be beneficial, if sufficiently similar comorbidity information could be ascertained. Methods USRDS data were used in a retrospective observational study of 70,114 Medicare- and Medicaid-eligible persons who initiated chronic dialysis during the years 2000–2005. The Liu index was modified by changing the baseline comorbidity capture period to days 1–90 after dialysis initiation for persons continuously enrolled in Medicare. The scores resulting from the original and the modified comorbidity indices were compared, and the impact on sample size was calculated. Results The original Liu comorbidity index could be calculated for 75% of the sample, but the remaining 25% did not survive to 270 days. Among 52,937 individuals for whom both scores could be calculated, the mean scores for the original and the modified index were 7.4 ± 4.0 and 6.4 ± 3.6 points, respectively, on a 24-point scale. The most commonly calculated difference between scores was zero, occurring in 44% of patients. Greater comorbidity was found in those who died before 270 days. Conclusions A modified version of the Liu comorbidity index captures the majority of comorbidity in persons who are Medicare-enrolled at the time of chronic dialysis initiation. This modification reduces sample size losses and facilitates inclusion of a sicker portion of the population in whom early mortality is common. PMID:23446357

  7. Elevated Biomarkers of Inflammation and Coagulation in Patients with HIV Are Associated with Higher Framingham and VACS Risk Index Scores

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Sarah; Tracy, Russell; Osler, Turner; Grace, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Background Biomarkers of inflammation and altered coagulation are of increasing interest as predictors of chronic disease and mortality in HIV patients, as well as the use of risk stratification scores such as the Framingham index and the Veterans Aging Cohort Study (VACS) score. Methods Demographic and laboratory data for 252 HIV patients were assessed for their relationship with 5 biomarkers: hsCRP, D-dimer, Cystatin C, IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Analysis of variance was used to model the association between the number of elevated biomarkers patients had and their Framingham 10 year cardiovascular risk and VACS scores. Results 87% of patients were male and 75.7% were virally suppressed (HIV RNA <48 copies/ml). The median and interquartile ranges for each biomarker were: hsCRP 1.65 ug/mL (0.73, 3.89), D-dimer 0.17 ug/mL (0.09, 0.31), Cystatin C 0.87 mg/L (0.78, 1.01), IL-6 2.13 pg/mL (1.3, 3.59), TNF-alpha 4.65 pg/mL (3.5, 5.97). 62.6% of patients had more than one biomarker >75th percentile, while 18.6% had three or more elevated biomarkers. Increased age, cigarette smoking, CD4 counts of <200 cells/mm3, Framingham scores and VACS scores were most strongly associated with elevations in biomarkers. When biomarkers were used to predict the Framingham and VACS scores, those with a higher number of elevated biomarkers had higher mean VACS scores, with a similar but less robust finding for Framingham scores. Conclusions Despite viral suppression and immunological stability, biomarkers of inflammation and coagulation remain elevated in a significant number of patients with HIV and are associated with higher scores on risk stratification indices. PMID:26641655

  8. Assessment of cardiovascular risk in rheumatoid arthritis: impact of the new EULAR recommendations on the score cardiovascular risk index.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Vaquero, Carmen; Robustillo, Montserrat; Narváez, Javier; Rodríguez-Moreno, Jesús; González-Juanatey, Carlos; Llorca, Javier; Nolla, Joan Miquel; González-Gay, Miguel Angel

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the application of the European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) task force recommendations in the cardiovascular (CV) risk of a series of Spanish patients diagnosed with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Two hundred consecutive RA patients seen at the rheumatology outpatient clinics of Bellvitge Hospital, Barcelona, were studied. Information on clinical features of the disease, classic CV risk factors, and history of CV events was assessed. Both the systematic coronary risk evaluation (SCORE) CV risk index and the modified SCORE (mSCORE) according to the last EULAR recommendations were calculated. Based on the classic CV risk factors, the mean ± standard deviation SCORE was 2.1 ± 2.3% (median, 2; interquartile range [IQR], 1-3). Twenty-three (11%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk for the Spanish population (≥5%). Following the EULAR recommendations, a change in the score was required in 119 (59%) patients. Therefore, the mean mSCORE was 2.7 ± 2.9% (median, 2; IQR, 1-3) and, due to this, 28 (14%) patients were above the threshold of high CV risk. Nine (5%) had at least one ischemic CV event. Patients with CV events were older and had more CV risk factors and higher SCORE and mSCORE than those without CV events. Although a large proportion of patients from this series fulfilled the criteria for the application of the EULAR recommendations, the final impact on the calculated CV risk was low and clinically significant in only a few patients. However, an association between the mSCORE and the presence of ischemic CV events was observed. PMID:21567119

  9. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  10. Clinical use of the ABO-Scoring Index: reliability and subtraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Lieber, William S; Carlson, Sean K; Baumrind, Sheldon; Poulton, Donald R

    2003-10-01

    This study tested the reliability and subtraction frequency of the study model-scoring system of the American Board of Orthodontists (ABO). We used a sample of 36 posttreatment study models that were selected randomly from six different orthodontic offices. Intrajudge and interjudge reliability was calculated using nonparametric statistics (Spearman rank coefficient, Wilcoxon, Kruskal-Wallis, and Mann-Whitney tests). We found differences ranging from 3 to 6 subtraction points (total score) for intrajudge scoring between two sessions. For overall total ABO score, the average correlation was .77. Intrajudge correlation was greatest for occlusal relationships and least for interproximal contacts. Interjudge correlation for ABO score averaged r = .85. Correlation was greatest for buccolingual inclination and least for overjet. The data show that some judges, on average, were much more lenient than others and that this resulted in a range of total scores between 19.7 and 27.5. Most of the deductions were found in the buccal segments and most were related to the second molars. We present these findings in the context of clinicians preparing for the ABO phase III examination and for orthodontists in their ongoing evaluation of clinical results. PMID:14580024

  11. Correlation between clinical and MRI disease activity scores in axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    MacKay, James W; Aboelmagd, Sharief; Gaffney, J Karl

    2015-09-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging-based disease activity scores (DAS) in axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) are rarely employed in the normal clinical setting, whereas clinical DAS are used routinely to monitor disease activity and set thresholds for biologic treatment. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the correlation between MR and clinical DAS in a general axSpA outpatient population and to assess the difference in MR DAS in individuals with high and low clinical DAS. This was a prospective, cross-sectional observational study. Forty participants with axSpA who presented for MR of the whole spine and sacroiliac joints as part of ongoing management were included. Completion of Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) was performed at the time of MR examination. MR images were scored by two independent observers using the Spondyloarthritis Research Consortium of Canada (SPARCC) MR DAS. There were weak, non-significant correlations between total SPARCC score and BASDAI (r = 0.18, p = 0.26), ASDAS using erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ASDAS-ESR) (r = 0.31, p = 0.07) and ASDAS using C-reactive protein level (ASDAS-CRP) (r = 0.31, p = 0.05). There was no significant difference in the SPARCC score of participants with high and low clinical DAS. MR DAS may provide information about disease activity not provided by the current standard of clinical DAS and may be considered as a useful adjunct in clinical practice. PMID:25894437

  12. Predicting SF-6D utility scores from the Neck Disability Index and Numeric Rating Scales for Neck and Arm Pain

    PubMed Central

    Carreon, Leah Y.; Anderson, Paul A.; McDonough, Christine M.; Djurasovic, Mladen; Glassman, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional cohort Objective This study aims to provide an algorithm estimate SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, neck pain and arm pain scores. Summary of Background Data Although cost-utility analysis is increasingly used to provide information about the relative value of alternative interventions, health state values or utilities are rarely available from clinical trial data. The Neck Disability Index (NDI) and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain, are widely used disease-specific measures of symptoms, function and disability in patients with cervical degenerative disorders. The purpose of this study is to provide an algorithm to allow estimation of SF-6D utilities using data from the NDI, and numeric rating scales for neck and arm pain. Methods SF-36, NDI, neck and arm pain rating scale scores were prospectively collected pre-operatively, at 12 and 24 months post-operatively in 2080 patients undergoing cervical fusion for degenerative disorders. SF-6D utilities were computed and Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated for paired observations from multiple time points between NDI, neck and arm pain scores and SF-6D utility scores. SF-6D scores were estimated from the NDI, neck and arm pain scores using a linear regression model. Using a separate, independent dataset of 396 patients in which and NDI scores were available SF-6D was estimated for each subject and compared to their actual SF-6D. Results The mean age for those in the development sample, was 50.4 ± 11.0 years and 33% were male. In the validation sample the mean age was 53.1 ± 9.9 years and 35% were male. Correlations between the SF-6D and the NDI, neck and arm pain scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001) with correlation coefficients of 0.82, 0.62, and 0.50 respectively. The regression equation using NDI alone to predict SF-6D had an R2 of 0.66 and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 0.056. In the validation analysis, there was no statistically

  13. Development of a body condition scoring index for female African elephants validated by ultrasound measurements of subcutaneous fat.

    PubMed

    Morfeld, Kari A; Lehnhardt, John; Alligood, Christina; Bolling, Jeff; Brown, Janine L

    2014-01-01

    Obesity-related health and reproductive problems may be contributing to non-sustainability of zoo African elephant (Loxodonta africana) populations. However, a major constraint in screening for obesity in elephants is lack of a practical method to accurately assess body fat. Body condition scoring (BCS) is the assessment of subcutaneous fat stores based on visual evaluation and provides an immediate appraisal of the degree of obesity of an individual. The objective of this study was to develop a visual BCS index for female African elephants and validate it using ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat. To develop the index, standardized photographs were collected from zoo (n = 50) and free-ranging (n = 57) female African elephants for identifying key body regions and skeletal features, which were then used to visually determine body fat deposition patterns. This information was used to develop a visual BCS method consisting of a list of body regions and the physical criteria for assigning an overall score on a 5-point scale, with 1 representing the lowest and 5 representing the highest levels of body fat. Results showed that as BCS increased, ultrasound measures of subcutaneous fat thickness also increased (P<0.01), indicating the scores closely coincide with physical measures of fat reserves. The BCS index proved to be reliable and repeatable based on high intra- and inter-assessor agreement across three assessors. In comparing photographs of wild vs. captive African elephants, the median BCS in the free-ranging individuals (BCS = 3, range 1-5) was lower (P<0.001) than that of the zoo population (BCS = 4, range 2-5). In sum, we have developed the first validated BCS index for African elephants. This tool can be used to examine which factors impact body condition in zoo and free-ranging elephants, providing valuable information on how it affects health and reproductive potential of individual elephants. PMID:24718304

  14. Hepatic Venous Waveform, Splenoportal and Damping Index in Liver Cirrhosis: Correlation with Child Pugh’s Score and Oesophageal Varices

    PubMed Central

    Antil, Neha; Mittal, Mahesh Kumar; Malik, Amita; Gupta, Bhupender; Thukral, Brij Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Clinical assessment of chronic liver disease is done by Modified Child Pugh’s and Model for end-stage liver disease scoring system. Measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) and Upper GI Endoscopy are considered the gold standards for measurement of portal hypertension in cirrhotics. There is a need for non-invasive evaluation of portal hypertension. Ultrasonography with colour and spectral Doppler evaluation may be an effective, rapid and inexpensive alternative. Aim To evaluate hepatic venous waveform, damping index, splenoportal index in patients of cirrhosis on Colour Doppler ultrasound, also predict severity of portal hypertension and presence of oesophageal varices. Materials and Methods Thirty patients of chronic liver disease were included in the study. Ultrasound and colour Doppler was done to look hepatic venous waveform pattern, Damping Index (DI), and Splenoportal Index (SPI). Contrast-enhanced Computed Tomography scan (CT) was done if renal function tests were normal, else endoscopy when the renal function tests were deranged to look for oesophageal varices. Results Twenty two (73.3%) patients had monophasic waveform. Biphasic and triphasic waveforms were seen in 4 (13.3%) cases. Twenty two patients (73.3%) had monophasic waveforms and majority of them were in class C. This distribution of hepatic vein waveform was statistically significantly with the Child Pugh’s class (p<0.05). Twenty patients (66.7%) had value of Damping index more than >0.6 where majority of patients (18) belonged to class C and 2 in class B. There was a positive correlation between Child Pugh’s total score and Damping index (r=0.614; p<0.05). There was weak positive correlation between splenoportal index and Child Pugh’s score (r=0.269; p=0.15). Conclusion Change in triphasic to monophasic waveform and DI >0.6 suggests severe liver dysfunction and is associated with severe portal hypertension. Hepatic venous waveform pressure changes, DI and SPI

  15. Direct and indirect costs associated with ankylosing spondylitis and related disease activity scores in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Akkoç, Nurullah; Direskeneli, Haner; Erdem, Hakan; Gül, Ahmet; Kabasakal, Yasemin; Kiraz, Sedat; Balkan Tezer, Dilara; Hacıbedel, Başak; Hamuryudan, Vedat

    2015-09-01

    This study assessed quality of life, direct and indirect healthcare costs related to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This study included 650 prevalent AS patients visiting seven centers at tertiary healthcare institutions in Turkey who were interviewed using a standard questionnaire to determine annual direct and indirect healthcare costs. Eligible patients were age ≥18 years with AS for at least 12 months. Direct costs were categorized as inpatient, outpatient and pharmacy, and AS-related consultation. Indirect costs were categorized as workday loss, additional AS-related costs, and caregiver costs. Clinical outcome measures were obtained, including Patients' Global Disease Activity (Pt-GDA); visual analog scale (Pain-VAS) for pain; Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Functional Index (BASFI), and Metrology Index (BASMI) scores, and EuroQoL 5 dimension (EQ-5D) health status survey scores. Mean (€,335.20) and median (€5,671.00) annual costs per patient were calculated. Pharmacy costs (€4,032.73) were highest among overall expenditures, followed by additional AS-related consultation (€2,480.38), outpatient (€225.02), and inpatient costs (€29.98). Over half of AS patients (54.8 %) experienced work loss. Related average annual costs were €414.16, based on income level. 10.3 % of AS patients incurred an additional €2,008.07 in 1 year. 6.8 % of patients required caregivers and incurred €778.70 in average annual patient paid costs. Mean Pt-GDA, Pain-VAS, EQ-5D, BASDAI, BASFI, and BASMI scores were 4.4, 40.5, 62.7, 3.6, 3.1, and 2.9, respectively. Direct and indirect AS-related costs are high and represent a considerable economic burden on Turkish AS patients. PMID:25749712

  16. Putting the pyramid into action: the Healthy Eating Index and Food Quality Score.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Eileen

    2008-01-01

    Consumption patterns are changing globally. As a result both researchers and policy makers require simple, easy to use measures of diet quality. The Healthy Eating Index (HEI) was developed as a single, summary measure of diet quality. The original HEI was a ten component index based on the US Dietary Guidelines and the Food Guide Pyramid. Research on the HEI indicates that the index correlates significantly with the RDA's for a range of nutrients and with an individual's self-rating of their diet. The revised HEI provides a more disaggregated version of the original index based on the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Within each of the five major food groups, some foods are more nutrient dense than others. Nutrient Density algorithms have been developed to rate foods within food groups. The selection of the most nutrient dense foods within food groups lead to a dietary pattern with a higher HEI. The implications of using the HEI and nutrient density to develop interventions are discussed in this presentation. PMID:18296305

  17. [The NAS system: Nursing Activities Score in mobile technology].

    PubMed

    Catalan, Vanessa Menezes; Silveira, Denise Tolfo; Neutzling, Agnes Ludwig; Martinato, Luísa Helena Machado; Borges, Gilberto Cabral de Mello

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to present the computerized structure that enables the use of the Nursing Activities Score (NAS) in mobile technology. It is a project for the development of technology production based on software engineering, founded on the theory of systems development life cycle. The NAS system was built in two modules: the search module, which is accessed using a personal computer (PC), and Data Collection module, which is accessed through a mobile device (Smartphone). The NAS system was constructed to allow other forms, in addition to the NAS tool, to be included in the future. Thus, it is understood that the development of the NAS will bring nurses closer to mobile technology and facilitate their accessibility to the data of the instrument relating to patients, thus assisting in decision-making and in staffing to provide nursing care. PMID:22241201

  18. Perimetric progression using the Visual Field Index and the Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study score and its clinical correlations

    PubMed Central

    Gros-Otero, Juan; Castejón, Miguel; Paz-Moreno, Javier; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios; Teus, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the association between clinical parameters and the diagnosis of progression using VFI (Visual Field Index) and AGIS (Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study) score in primary open angle glaucoma. Methods Retrospective study of 517 visual fields of 78 eyes with primary open angle glaucoma analyzed with VFI and AGIS score. Clinical data registered included: age, sphere, pachimetry, basal intraocular pressure (IOP), and IOP during the follow up. Results Only the AGIS score diagnosis of progression was associated with the clinical parameters registered. Among the analyzed data, the mean IOP during follow up (p = 0.0005) and IOP at the third month of follow up (p = 0.004) were statistically associated with progression using the AGIS criteria. Conclusion The diagnosis of perimetric progression using the AGIS score in the current study was closer to the real functional progression than the diagnosis using the VFI, as the former was associated with known risk factors for progression in glaucoma. PMID:25182851

  19. Prognostic Relevance of the Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score Compared to the Peritoneal Cancer Index for Colorectal Peritoneal Carcinomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Jia Lin; Ong, Whee Sze; Chia, Claramae Shulyn; Tan, Grace Hwei Ching; Soo, Khee-Chee; Teo, Melissa Ching Ching

    2016-01-01

    Background. Peritoneal Carcinomatosis Index (PCI) is a widely established scoring system that describes disease burden in isolated colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CPC). Its significance may be diminished with complete cytoreduction. We explore the utility of the recently described Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score (PSDSS) and compare its prognostic value against PCI. Methods. The endpoints were overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and survival less than 18 months (18 MS). Results. Fifty patients underwent cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) for CPC from 2003 to 2014, with 98% achieving complete cytoreduction. Median OS was 28.8 months (95% CI, 18.0–39.1); median PFS was 9.4 months (95% CI, 7.7–13.9). Univariate analysis showed that higher PCI was significantly associated with poorer OS (HR 1.11; 95% CI, 1.03–1.20) and PFS (HR 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03–1.14). Conversely, PSDSS was not associated with either endpoint. Multivariate analysis showed that PCI, but not PSDSS, was predictive of OS and PFS. PCI was also able to discriminate survival outcomes better than PSDSS for both OS and PFS. There was no association between 18 MS and either score. Conclusion. PCI is superior to PSDSS in predicting OS and PFS and remains the prognostic score of choice in CPC patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC. PMID:27006828

  20. The Comparative Validity and Reproducibility of a Diet Quality Index for Adults: The Australian Recommended Food Score

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E.; Burrows, Tracy L.; Rollo, Megan E.; Boggess, May M.; Watson, Jane F.; Guest, Maya; Duncanson, Kerith; Pezdirc, Kristine; Hutchesson, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Adult diet quality indices are shown to predict nutritional adequacy of dietary intake as well as all-cause morbidity and mortality. This study describes the reproducibility and validity of a food-based diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). ARFS was developed to reflect alignment with the Australian Dietary Guidelines and is modelled on the US Recommended Food Score. Dietary intakes of 96 adult participants (31 male, 65 female) age 30 to 75 years were assessed in two rounds, five months apart. Diet was assessed using a 120-question semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The ARFS diet quality index was derived using a subset of 70 items from the full FFQ. Reproducibility of the ARFS between round one and round two was confirmed by the overall intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.87 (95% CI 0.83, 0.90), which compared favourably to that for the FFQ at 0.85 (95% CI 0.80, 0.89). ARFS was correlated with FFQ nutrient intakes, particularly fiber, vitamin A, beta-carotene and vitamin C (0.53, 95% CI 0.37–0.67), and with mineral intakes, particularly calcium, magnesium and potassium (0.32, 95% CI 0.23–0.40). ARFS is a suitable brief tool to evaluate diet quality in adults and reliably estimates a range of nutrient intakes. PMID:25625814

  1. Use of drinking water treatment residuals as a potential best management practice to reduce phosphorus risk index scores.

    PubMed

    Dayton, E A; Basta, N T

    2005-01-01

    The P risk index system has been developed to identify agricultural fields vulnerable to P loss as a step toward protecting surface water. Because of their high Langmuir phosphorus adsorption maxima (P(max)), use of drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) should be considered as a best management practice (BMP) to lower P risk index scores. This work discusses three WTR application methods that can be used to reduce P risk scores: (i) enhanced buffer strip, (ii) incorporation into a high soil test phosphorus (STP) soil, and (iii) co-blending with manure or biosolids. The relationship between WTR P(max) and reduction in P extractability and runoff P was investigated. In a simulated rainfall experiment, using a buffer strip enhanced with 20 Mg WTR ha(-1), runoff P was reduced by from 66.8 to 86.2% and reductions were related to the WTR P(max). When 25 g kg(-1) WTR was incorporated into a high STP soil of 315 mg kg(-1) determined using Mehlich-3 extraction, 0.01 M calcium chloride-extractable phosphorus (CaCl(2)-P) reductions ranged from 60.9 to 96.0% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). At a 100 g kg(-1) WTR addition, Mehlich 3-extractable P reductions ranged from 41.1 to 86.7% and were strongly (P < 0.01) related to WTR P(max). Co-blending WTR at 250 g kg(-1) to manure or biosolids reduced CaCl(2)-P by >75%. The WTR P(max) normalized across WTR application rates (P(max) x WTR application) was significantly related to reductions in CaCl(2)-P or STP. Using WTR as a P risk index modifying factor will promote effective use of WTR as a BMP to reduce P loss from agricultural land. PMID:16275711

  2. Creating and Using Index Scores in the Analysis of School Policy Implementation and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Martha M.; Goodell, Melanie; Raczynski, James M.; Philyaw Perez, Amanda G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Epidemic increases in childhood obesity and associated health risks are resulting in efforts to implement school policies related to nutrition and physical activity (NPA). With multicomponent policy efforts, challenges exist in characterizing the extent of policy change across the breadth of NPA policies. Methods: Aggregated policy…

  3. Auditory Short-Term Memory Activation during Score Reading

    PubMed Central

    Simoens, Veerle L.; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  4. Auditory short-term memory activation during score reading.

    PubMed

    Simoens, Veerle L; Tervaniemi, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Performing music on the basis of reading a score requires reading ahead of what is being played in order to anticipate the necessary actions to produce the notes. Score reading thus not only involves the decoding of a visual score and the comparison to the auditory feedback, but also short-term storage of the musical information due to the delay of the auditory feedback during reading ahead. This study investigates the mechanisms of encoding of musical information in short-term memory during such a complicated procedure. There were three parts in this study. First, professional musicians participated in an electroencephalographic (EEG) experiment to study the slow wave potentials during a time interval of short-term memory storage in a situation that requires cross-modal translation and short-term storage of visual material to be compared with delayed auditory material, as it is the case in music score reading. This delayed visual-to-auditory matching task was compared with delayed visual-visual and auditory-auditory matching tasks in terms of EEG topography and voltage amplitudes. Second, an additional behavioural experiment was performed to determine which type of distractor would be the most interfering with the score reading-like task. Third, the self-reported strategies of the participants were also analyzed. All three parts of this study point towards the same conclusion according to which during music score reading, the musician most likely first translates the visual score into an auditory cue, probably starting around 700 or 1300 ms, ready for storage and delayed comparison with the auditory feedback. PMID:23326487

  5. ADHD Subtypes and Co-Occurring Anxiety, Depression, and Oppositional-Defiant Disorder: Differences in Gordon Diagnostic System and Wechsler Working Memory and Processing Speed Index Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayes, Susan Dickerson; Calhoun, Susan L.; Chase, Gary A.; Mink, Danielle M.; Stagg, Ryan E.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Freedom-from-Distractibility/Working Memory Index (FDI/WMI), Processing Speed Index (PSI), and Gordon Diagnostic System (GDS) scores in ADHD children were examined as a function of subtype and coexisting anxiety, depression, and oppositional-defiant disorder. Method: Participants were 587…

  6. A prospective comparison of echocardiographic wall motion score index and radionuclide ejection fraction in predicting outcome following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Galasko, G; Basu, S; Lahiri, A; Senior, R

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To characterise echocardiographic wall motion score index (WMSI) as a surrogate measure of left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) following acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to compare its prognostic value with that of EF measured by radionuclide ventriculography (RNV).
DESIGN—A prospective study to compare baseline echocardiographic WMSI with RNV EF in consecutive patients thrombolysed for AMI, both performed on the same day before discharge, and their relative prognostic values in predicting cardiac events.
SETTING—District general hospital coronary care unit and cardiology department.
PATIENTS—120 consecutive patients free of exclusion criteria thrombolysed for AMI and followed up for a mean (SD) of 13 (10) months.
INTERVENTIONS—None.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Correlation coefficients and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses plus cardiac event rates at follow up between RNV EF and echocardiographic WMSI.
RESULTS—WMSI correlated well with RNV EF. The best corresponding WMSIs for EFs 45%, 40%, and 35% were 0.6, 0.8, and 1.1, respectively. There were 42 cardiac events during follow up. Although both RNV EF and WMSI were strong univariate predictors of cardiac events, only WMSI independently predicted outcome in a multivariate model. All three WMSI cut offs significantly predicted events, while an RNV EF cut off of ⩽ 45% v > 45% failed to reach significance.
CONCLUSIONS—Although both RNV and echocardiographic WMSI strongly predicted cardiac outcome, WMSI, a cheaper and more readily available technique, is more discriminatory, especially in cases of mild left ventricular dysfunction following AMI.


Keywords: echocardiographic wall motion score index; radionuclide ventriculography; prognosis; acute myocardial infarction PMID:11514477

  7. Relation between diet cost and Healthy Eating Index 2010 scores among adults in the United States 2007-2010

    PubMed Central

    Rehm, Colin D.; Monsivais, Pablo; Drewnowski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background Food prices may be one reason for the growing socioeconomic disparities in diet quality. Objective To evaluate the association between diet costs and the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010). Methods Cross-sectional study based on 11,181 adults from the 2007-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, analyzed in spring 2014. Diet cost was estimated by linking dietary data with a national food price database. The HEI-2010, a measure of adherence to the Dietary Guidelines, was the outcome. The population ratio method was used to estimate the average HEI-2010 scores by quintile of energy-adjusted diet cost. Additional analyses evaluated the association between cost and HEI-2010 components. Results There was a strong positive association between lower energy-adjusted diet costs and lower HEI-2010 scores. The association was stronger among women (p-interaction=0.003). Lower diet costs were associated with lower consumption of vegetables, fruit, whole grains, and seafood, and higher consumption of refined grains and solid fat, alcohol and added sugars. Conclusions Lower energy-adjusted diet costs were associated with lower-quality diets. Future efforts to improve the nutritional status of the US public should take food prices and diet costs into account. PMID:25625693

  8. 77 FR 49839 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application August 13, 2012. AGENCY... an exemption from sections 12(d)(1)(A) and (B) of the Act. ] APPLICANTS: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``IndexIQ'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (the ``Trust''). SUMMARY OF APPLICATION: Applicants request...

  9. Temporal changes in bias of body mass index scores based on self-reported height and weight

    PubMed Central

    Stommel, M; Osier, N

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate temporal changes in the bias associated with self-reported (as opposed to measured) body mass index (BMI) and explore the relationship of such bias to changing social attitudes towards obesity. Methods: Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey covering two time periods, 1988–1994 and 2005–2008, discrepancy scores between self-reported vs measured BMI were generated. Changes in the sensitivity of BMI categories based on self-reports were examined for six weight groups, both for the US adult population as a whole and major demographic groups. Linear regression models were used to examine temporal changes in average bias, as well as attitudes about weight within each weight category and by demographic group. Results: Between 2005–2008 and 1988–1994, the bias towards underestimation of a person's BMI based on interview responses has declined among obese individuals, a trend evident in virtually all demographic subgroups explored. Conversely, most demographic groups showed little change in the extent of bias among underweight and normal-weight individuals. Although the 2005–2008 survey respondents underestimated their measured BMI more than the 1988–1994 respondents, this shift can be entirely explained by the increased prevalence of obesity in more recent years. In fact, obese individuals in 2005–2008 were less likely to overreport their height and underreport their weight than their counterparts in the 1988–1994. Evidence from responses to questions about ideal weight and desire to lose weight point in the direction of a shift in social attitudes, which may make it easier to ‘admit' to greater weight in surveys. Conclusion: Over the past 20 years, the bias in self-reported height and weight has declined leading to more accurate BMI categorizations based on self-report. This change is likely to affect efforts to find correction factors to adjust BMI scores based on self-reported height and weight

  10. Performance characteristics of the simplified version of ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (SASDAS).

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Dilek; Yildirim, Tulay; Avci, Okan; Tomas, Nazmiye; Akar, Servet

    2016-07-01

    Various types of disease activity measures are available for axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA), and there is no gold standard for all individual patients. The ankylosing spondylitis disease activity score (ASDAS) is highly discriminatory, sensitive to change, and associated with structural progression. A simplified version of the ASDAS (SASDAS) was proposed and found to be a simple and practical tool to assess disease activity. Our aim was to test the performance characteristics of the SASDAS and compare it with validated tools. In total, 97 consecutive ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients were included in the study. Disease activity was assessed by the ASDAS-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), ASDAS-C-reactive protein (CRP), bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), and SASDAS. The relationship among these activity indices and the level of agreement of various activity categories were tested. There was a strong correlation between the SASDAS and other activity indices, including the BASDAI (r = 0.916, p < 0.001), ASDAS-CRP (r = 0.847, p < 0.001), and ASDAS-ESR (r = 0.942, p < 0.001). Although the agreement between the ASDAS-ESR and SASDAS was good (weighted kappa of 0.744 and total agreement of 77 %), there was moderate agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS (weighted kappa of 0.579 and total agreement of 66 %). The disagreement was particularly striking in "moderate" and "high disease activity" states. Approximately 40 % of patients classified as moderate activity according to the ASDAS-ESR and 45 % according to the ASDAS-CRP were differentially categorized by the SASDAS. The results of the present analysis suggest that the simplified version of the ASDAS-ESR should be further validated in various settings and populations due to a questionable level of agreement between the ASDAS-CRP and SASDAS. PMID:26670454

  11. Treatment of Pulmonary Embolism With Rivaroxaban: Outcomes by Simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index Score from a Post Hoc Analysis of the EINSTEIN PE Study

    PubMed Central

    Fermann, Gregory J; Erkens, Petra M G; Prins, Martin H; Wells, Philip S; Pap, Ákos F; Lensing, Anthonie W A; Kline, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objective was to assess adverse outcomes in relation to the simplified Pulmonary Embolism Severity Index (PESI) score in patients treated with rivaroxaban or standard therapy in the phase III EINSTEIN PE study and to evaluate the utility of the simplified PESI score to identify low-risk pulmonary embolism (PE) patients. Methods A post hoc analysis of EINSTEIN PE data was performed to assess the efficacy and safety of rivaroxaban in patients with a range of simplified PESI scores. Recurrent venous thromboembolism, fatal PE, all-cause mortality, and major bleeding were stratified by simplified PESI scores of 0, 1, or ≥2 and according to treatment period at 7, 14, 30, and 90 days and at the end of the full intended treatment period. Results Simplified PESI scores could be calculated in 4,831 of the 4,832 randomized patients; of those, 53.6, 36.7, and 9.7% had PESI scores of 0, 1, and ≥2, respectively. Among patients with simplified PESI scores of 0 or 1, fatal PE, all-cause mortality, and other adverse outcomes were uncommon within the first 7, 14, and 30 days. Patients with simplified PESI scores of ≥2 had more frequent adverse outcomes. Major bleeding was lower in the rivaroxaban group, particularly in those with simplified PESI scores of 1 or ≥2. Conclusions The findings support using risk stratification with the simplified PESI score to identify low-risk patients with PE. PMID:25716463

  12. Prognostic index score and clinical prediction model of local regional recurrence after mastectomy in breast cancer patients

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Skye Hongiun . E-mail: skye@mail.kfcc.org.tw; Horng, C.-F.; Clarke, Jennifer L.; Tsou, M.-H.; Tsai, Stella Y.; Chen, C.-M.; Jian, James J.; Liu, M.-C.; West, Mike; Huang, Andrew T.; Prosnitz, Leonard R.

    2006-04-01

    Purpose: To develop clinical prediction models for local regional recurrence (Lr) of breast carcinoma after mastectomy that will be superior to the conventional measures of tumor size and nodal status. Methods and Materials: Clinical information from 1,010 invasive breast cancer patients who had primary modified radical mastectomy formed the database of the training and testing of clinical prognostic and prediction models of LRR. Cox proportional hazards analysis and Bayesian tree analysis were the core methodologies from which these models were built. To generate a prognostic index model, 15 clinical variables were examined for their impact on LRR. Patients were stratified by lymph node involvement (<4 vs. {>=}4) and local regional status (recurrent vs. control) and then, within strata, randomly split into training and test data sets of equal size. To establish prediction tree models, 255 patients were selected by the criteria of having had LRR (53 patients) or no evidence of LRR without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) (202 patients). Results: With these models, patients can be divided into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups on the basis of axillary nodal status, estrogen receptor status, lymphovascular invasion, and age at diagnosis. In the low-risk group, there is no influence of PMRT on either LRR or survival. For intermediate-risk patients, PMRT improves LR control but not metastases-free or overall survival. For the high-risk patients, however, PMRT improves both LR control and metastasis-free and overall survival. Conclusion: The prognostic score and predictive index are useful methods to estimate the risk of LRR in breast cancer patients after mastectomy and for estimating the potential benefits of PMRT. These models provide additional information criteria for selection of patients for PMRT, compared with the traditional selection criteria of nodal status and tumor size.

  13. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator.

    PubMed

    Zlobina, K E; Guria, G Th

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  14. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  15. 77 FR 41464 - IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ Advisors LLC and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust; Notice of Application July 9, 2012. AGENCY... grant relief from certain disclosure requirements. Applicants: IndexIQ Advisors LLC (``Manager'') and IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (``Trust''). Filing Dates: The application was filed on September 9, 2011,...

  16. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  17. Nursing Activities Score: nursing work load in a burns Intensive Care Unit1

    PubMed Central

    Camuci, Marcia Bernadete; Martins, Júlia Trevisan; Cardeli, Alexandrina Aparecida Maciel; Robazzi, Maria Lúcia do Carmo Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Objective to evaluate the nursing work load in a Burns Intensive Care Unit according to the Nursing Activities Score. Method an exploratory, descriptive cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. The Nursing Activities Score was used for data collection between October 2011 and May 2012, totalling 1,221 measurements, obtained from 50 patients' hospital records. Data for qualitative variables was described in tables; for the quantitative variables, calculations using statistical measurements were used. Results the mean score for the Nursing Activities Score was 70.4% and the median was 70.3%, corresponding to the percentage of the time spent on direct care to the patient in 24 hours. Conclusion the Nursing Activities Score provided information which involves the process of caring for patients hospitalized in a Burns Intensive Care Unit, and indicated that there is a high work load for the nursing team of the sector studied. PMID:26107842

  18. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  19. Health literacy is associated with healthy eating index scores and sugar-sweetened beverage intake: findings from the rural lower Mississippi delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for more than a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. This study, evaluates health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index (HEI) scores and sugar-sweetened bev...

  20. Cardiometabolic risk assessments by body mass index z-score or waist-to-height ratio in a multiethnic sample of sixth-graders

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Convention defines pediatric adiposity by the body mass index z-score (BMIz) referenced to normative growth charts. Waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) does not depend on sex-and-age references. In the HEALTHY Study enrollment sample, we compared BMIz with WHtR for ability to identify adverse cardiometabol...

  1. Genetic Parameter Estimates Among Scale Activity Score and Farrowing Disposition with Reproductive Traits in Swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scale activity score (SA) at 5 months of age ranged from 1 to 5. Farrowing disposition score (FD) ranged from 1 to 3. Reproductive traits included age at puberty (AP), number born alive (NBA), number born dead (NBD), litter birth weight (LBW), average birth weight (ABW), number weaned adjusted for c...

  2. SCORE/ACE Counselor Handbook. Service Corps of Retired Executives. Active Corps of Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsverk, Arvel; And Others

    This counselor handbook is intended to help Service Corps of Retired Executives/Active Corps of Executives (SCORE/ACE) counselors to plan and conduct counseling services more effectively. Included in the introductory section are an overview of the SCORE/ACE counseling program, a discussion of what the counselor does, directions for completing…

  3. Application of a body condition score index for targeted selective treatment in adult Merino sheep--A modelling study.

    PubMed

    Cornelius, M P; Jacobson, C; Besier, R B

    2015-11-30

    This study aimed to establish whether sheep flock production losses due to nematode (worm) infections are typically greater in mature sheep selected for anthelmintic treatment at random compared to sheep selected for treatment based on low (poorer) body condition score (BCS). The study also examined the proportion of sheep in flocks that could be left untreated before production losses became evident, and projected worm egg pasture contamination. Sheep were monitored at two experimental sites in Western Australia (Mediterranean climate). Sheep were stratified for BCS, liveweight and faecal worm egg count (WEC) and allocated into treatment groups (treated or untreated), with equal numbers for each. Liveweight, BCS and WEC measurements were taken on 6 occasions at Farm A and 10 occasions at Farm B. Comparisons of sheep production (liveweight and BCS change) and pasture contamination potential (WEC) were conducted by generating "virtual flocks" of varying proportions sheep untreated (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% untreated). For the comparison of the selection mode of sheep for treatment, the untreated sheep were either selected at random, or as the highest BCS animals at the commencement of observations. Univariate general linear models with least square difference post-hoc tests were used to examine differences between flocks for liveweight, BCS and WEC, and regression analysis was used to examine relationships between BCS and WEC, and liveweight and WEC. No difference in body weights was observed between flocks with varying proportions of ewes notionally left untreated at Farm B, and until more than 30% were left untreated at Farm A. There was no difference in BCS between flocks with varying proportions of ewes left untreated at either site. At no point were there differences in cumulative liveweight change or BCS between selection methods (BCS versus random) where the same proportion of sheep in virtual flocks were left untreated, suggesting that effort committed to

  4. Solar activity index for long-term ionospheric forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deminov, M. G.

    2016-01-01

    Based on the comparison of solar activity indices (annual average values of the relative number of sunspots Rz 12 and solar radio emission flux at a wavelength of 10.7 cm F 12) with the ionospheric index of solar activity IG 12 for 1954-2013, we have found that the index F 12 is a more accurate (than Rz 12) indicator of solar activity for the long-term forecast of foF2 (the critical frequency of the F2-layer). This advantage of the F 12 index becomes especially significant after 2000 if the specific features of extreme ultraviolet radiation of the Sun are additionally taken into account in the minima of solar cycles, using an appropriate correction to F 12. Qualitative arguments are given in favor of the use of F 12 for the long-term forecast of both foF2 and other ionospheric parameters.

  5. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) serum levels in rheumatoid arthritis: correlations with insulin resistance and disease activity scores.

    PubMed

    Dimitroulas, Theodoros; Hodson, James; Sandoo, Aamer; Smith, Jacqueline; Kitas, George D

    2015-09-01

    Vascular abnormalities predisposing to atherosclerosis are present in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and associate with excess cardiovascular risk. Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), an endogenous inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase activity, has been recognised as novel risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. We aimed to compare SDMA levels in RA patients and controls and to investigate whether they are influenced by demographic, inflammatory or metabolic factors. Serum SDMA levels were measured in 197 RA individuals [median age: 67 years (quartiles: 59-3), 153 (78 %) females] and 82 controls [median age: 44 years [quartiles: 33-55, 50 (61 %) females]. Routine biochemistry tests, lipid profile, glycemic profile [glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI)], as well as inflammatory markers were measured in all patients. Paired analysis was employed for the comparison of SDMA in two groups and multivariable regression models were performed to identify predictors of SDMA in the RA cohort. SDMA was significantly lower in RA than control patients in both unpaired and paired analyses (P < 0.001 and P = 0.005, respectively), with the magnitude of the difference being similar in both models. QUICKI (P = 0.005) and disease activity score-28 (P = 0.007) were positively related to SDMA in the RA cohort, whilst a negative correlation with renal function (eGFR) was detected (P = 0.005). The molecular explanation of lower serum SDMA is unclear, but the established relationships with indices of disease activity and insulin resistance, may underline the pathogenetic role of the L-arginine/NO pathway dysregulation in the development of atherosclerosis in RA. The biological and clinical importance of SDMA in RA remains to be evaluated in clinical and experimental studies. PMID:25772817

  6. [Development of index of social activities for the elderly].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, S; Aoki, R; Tamakoshi, A; Shibazaki, S; Nagai, M; Kawakami, N; Ikari, A; Ojima, T; Ohno, Y

    1997-10-01

    In order to develop indices of social activities for the elderly, two surveys with 2 year intervals were conducted on the same 5,201 elderly subjects in four areas in Japan using a self-administered questionnaire. Social activities were defined as "activities which required contact with society" and were measured by 4 major facets of social activities, which were based on 21 questions relating to job activity, socially-plated activities, learning activities, and personal activities. The results were as follows; 1. The Wilcoxon scores in indices for 4 facets were given in sex and age groups. 2. Means of scores of indices increased with the degree of social activities from a subjective judgment. 3. Rank correlation coefficients between indices in two surveys were 0.60-0.71 for the persons whose answers were "no" to the question "did degrees of your activities change over the two years?" 4. Differences between indices in two surveys were higher in the persons with answers of "increase" to the above question than those with answers of "no", and were lower in those with answers of "decrease". These findings suggest that indices are available for assessing social activities as indicated by the reproducibility, validity and responsiveness found in this study. PMID:9436384

  7. Evaluation of mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. (Chironomidae: Diptera) larvae using modified toxic score index (MTSI) to assess the environmental stress in Juru River Basin, Penang, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shami, Salman Abdo; Salmah, Mad Rawi Che; Hassan, Ahmad Abu; Azizah, Mohd Nor Siti

    2011-06-01

    Morphological mentum deformities which represent sublethal effect of exposure to different types of pollutants were evaluated in Chironomus spp. larvae inhabiting three polluted rivers of Juru River Basin in northwestern peninsular Malaysia. Using mentum deformity incidences, the modified toxic score index (MTSI) was developed based on Lenat's toxic score index (TSI). The suggested MTSI was compared with TSI in terms of its effectiveness to identify different pollutants including heavy metals. The MTSI showed stronger relationship to total deformity incidence expressed as percentage. Additionally, the multivariate RDA model showed higher capability of MTSI to explain the variations in heavy metal contents of the river sediments. The MTSI was recommended in bioassessment of water and sediment quality using the mentum deformities of Chironomus spp. larvae from aquatic ecosystems receiving anthropogenic, agricultural, or industrial discharges. PMID:20697808

  8. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  9. Why mental arithmetic counts: brain activation during single digit arithmetic predicts high school math scores.

    PubMed

    Price, Gavin R; Mazzocco, Michèle M M; Ansari, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Do individual differences in the brain mechanisms for arithmetic underlie variability in high school mathematical competence? Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we correlated brain responses to single digit calculation with standard scores on the Preliminary Scholastic Aptitude Test (PSAT) math subtest in high school seniors. PSAT math scores, while controlling for PSAT Critical Reading scores, correlated positively with calculation activation in the left supramarginal gyrus and bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, brain regions known to be engaged during arithmetic fact retrieval. At the same time, greater activation in the right intraparietal sulcus during calculation, a region established to be involved in numerical quantity processing, was related to lower PSAT math scores. These data reveal that the relative engagement of brain mechanisms associated with procedural versus memory-based calculation of single-digit arithmetic problems is related to high school level mathematical competence, highlighting the fundamental role that mental arithmetic fluency plays in the acquisition of higher-level mathematical competence. PMID:23283330

  10. DAS28 score vs. ultrasound examination for assessment of rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: comparison and discussion of pros and cons

    PubMed Central

    Dura, Marta; Blumfield, Einat; Węgierska, Małgorzata; Żuchowski, Pawel; Wilińska-Jankowska, Arnika; Jeka, Sławomir

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic connective tissue disease which is characterized by symetrical multiple joints involvement and extra-articular symptoms. Current EULAR diagnostic criteria for RA include disease activity parameters, such as erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP), which are used to calculate disease activity scores, including DAS and DAS28. Recently attempts have been made to assess disease activity using imaging diagnostic modalities, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). Due to significant progress in therapy effectiveness and early RA diagnosis possibility, imaging modalities become increasingly meaningful and many clinical trials confirm their usefulness. However, there are no consistent criteria for objective assessment of therapy effectiveness based on US. Moreover, it is not US availability that limits its common use, but rather significant variability between operators. This is why US remains only an additional tool to assess therapy efficacy with regard to DAS/DAS28 index.

  11. Feasibility and Validity of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Jennifer L.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Zhang, Peixin; Forrest, Christopher B; Bailey, L. Charles; Colletti, Richard B.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive disease activity index developed as a clinical trial endpoint. More recently, practice guidelines have recommended the use of PUCAI in routine clinical care. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of PUCAI in a large, diverse collection of pediatric gastroenterology practices. Methods We extracted data from the two most recent encounters for patients with ulcerative colitis in the ImproveCareNow registry. Feasibility was determined by the percent of patients for whom all PUCAI components were recorded, validity by correlation of PUCAI scores across Physician Global Assessment (PGA) categories, and responsiveness to change by the correlation between the change in PUCAI and PGA scores between visits. Results 2503 patients were included (49.5% male, age 15.2±4.1 years, disease duration 3.7±3.2 years). All items in the PUCAI were completed for 96% of visits. PUCAI demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability between remission, mild and moderate disease; discrimination between moderate and severe disease was less robust. There was good correlation with PGA [r=0.76 (p<0.001), weighted kappa k=0.73 (p<0.001)]. The PUCAI change scores correlated well with PGA change scores (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability of the PUCAI was good (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.72 [95% CI 0.70–0.75], p<0.001). Guyatt’s responsiveness statistic was 1.18 and the correlation of ΔPUCAI with ΔPGA was 0.69 (p<0.001). Conclusions The PUCAI is feasible to use in routine clinical settings. Evidence of its validity and responsiveness support its use as a clinical tool for monitoring disease activity for patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:25221935

  12. Predictive Value of Combining the Ankle-Brachial Index and SYNTAX Score for the Prediction of Outcome After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (from the SHINANO Registry).

    PubMed

    Ueki, Yasushi; Miura, Takashi; Miyashita, Yusuke; Motoki, Hirohiko; Shimada, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Masanori; Nakajima, Hiroyuki; Kimura, Hikaru; Akanuma, Hiroshi; Mawatari, Eiichiro; Sato, Toshio; Hotta, Shoji; Kamiyoshi, Yuichi; Maruyama, Takuya; Watanabe, Noboru; Eisawa, Takayuki; Aso, Shinichi; Uchikawa, Shinichiro; Hashizume, Naoto; Sekimura, Noriyuki; Morita, Takehiro; Ebisawa, Soichiro; Izawa, Atsushi; Koyama, Jun; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-01-15

    The Synergy Between PCI With TAXUS and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score is effective in predicting clinical outcome after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, its prediction ability is low because it reflects only the coronary characterization. We assessed the predictive value of combining the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and SYNTAX score to predict clinical outcomes after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated for 1,197 patients recruited from the Shinshu Prospective Multi-center Analysis for Elderly Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention (SHINANO) registry, a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort study in Japan. The primary end points were major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACE; all-cause death, myocardial infarction, and stroke) in the first year after PCI. The ABI-SYNTAX score was calculated by categorizing and summing up the ABI and SYNTAX scores. ABI ≤ 0.49 was defined as 4, 0.5 to 0.69 as 3, 0.7 to 0.89 as 2, 0.9 to 1.09 as 1, and 1.1 to 1.5 as 0; an SYNTAX score ≤ 22 was defined as 0, 23 to 32 as 1, and ≥ 33 as 2. Patients were divided into low (0), moderate (1 to 2), and high (3 to 6) groups. The MACE rate was significantly higher in the high ABI-SYNTAX score group than in the lower 2 groups (low: 4.6% vs moderate: 7.0% vs high: 13.9%, p = 0.002). Multivariate regression analysis found that ABI-SYNTAX score independently predicted MACE (hazards ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.02 to 1.52, p = 0.029). The respective C-statistic for the ABI-SYNTAX and SYNTAX score for 1-year MACE was 0.60 and 0.55, respectively. In conclusion, combining the ABI and SYNTAX scores improved the prediction of 1-year adverse ischemic events compared with the SYNTAX score alone. PMID:26684515

  13. Health Literacy is associated with Healthy Eating Index Scores and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake: Findings from the Rural Lower Mississippi Delta

    PubMed Central

    Zoellner, Jamie; You, Wen; Connell, Carol; Smith-Ray, Renae L.; Allen, Kacie; Tucker, Katherine L; Davy, Brenda M.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although health literacy has been a public health priority area for over a decade, the relationship between health literacy and dietary quality has not been thoroughly explored. Objective To evaluate health literacy skills in relation to Healthy Eating Index scores (HEI) and Sugar-Sweetened Beverage (SSB) consumption, while accounting for demographic variables. Design Cross-sectional survey. Participants/setting A community-based proportional sample of adults residing in the rural Lower Mississippi Delta. Methods Instruments included a validated 158-item regional food frequency questionnaire and the Newest Vital Sign (scores range 0–6) to assess health literacy. Statistical analyses performed Descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and multivariate linear regression. Results Of 376 participants, the majority were African American (67.6%), without a college degree (71.5%), and household income level <$20,000/year (55.0%). Most participants (73.9%) scored in the two lowest health literacy categories. The multivariate linear regression model to predict total HEI scores was significant (R2=0.24; F=18.8; p<0.01), such that every 1 point increase in health literacy was associated with a 1.21 point increase in healthy eating index scores, while controlling for all other variables. Other significant predictors of HEI scores included age, gender, and SNAP participation. Health literacy also significantly predicted sugar-sweetened beverages consumption (R2=0.15; F=6.3; p<0.01), while accounting for demographic variables. Every 1 point in health literacy scores was associated with 34 fewer SSB kilocalories/day. Age was the only significant covariate in the SSB model. Conclusion While health literacy has been linked to numerous poor health outcomes, to our knowledge this is the first investigation to establish a relationship between health literacy and HEI scores and SSB consumption. Our study suggests that understanding the causes and consequences of limited health

  14. Low Prognostic Nutritional Index (PNI) Predicts Unfavorable Distant Metastasis-Free Survival in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma: A Propensity Score-Matched Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Shaodong; Chen, Haiyang; Liang, Shaobo; Peng, Peijian; Chen, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Background Poor nutritional status is associated with progression and advanced disease in patients with cancer. The prognostic nutritional index (PNI) may represent a simple method of assessing host immunonutritional status. This study was designed to investigate the prognostic value of the PNI for distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods A training cohort of 1,168 patients with non-metastatic NPC from two institutions was retrospectively analyzed. The optimal PNI cutoff value for DMFS was identified using the online tool “Cutoff Finder”. DMFS was analyzed using stratified and adjusted analysis. Propensity score-matched analysis was performed to balance baseline characteristics between the high and low PNI groups. Subsequently, the prognostic value of the PNI for DMFS was validated in an external validation cohort of 756 patients with NPC. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) was calculated to compare the discriminatory ability of different prognostic scores. Results The optimal PNI cutoff value was determined to be 51. Low PNI was significantly associated with poorer DMFS than high PNI in univariate analysis (P<0.001) as well as multivariate analysis (P<0.001) before propensity score matching. In subgroup analyses, PNI could also stratify different risks of distant metastases. Propensity score-matched analyses confirmed the prognostic value of PNI, excluding other interpretations and selection bias. In the external validation cohort, patients with high PNI also had significantly lower risk of distant metastases than those with low PNI (Hazards Ratios, 0.487; P<0.001). The PNI consistently showed a higher AUC value at 1-year (0.780), 3-year (0.793) and 5-year (0.812) in comparison with other prognostic scores. Conclusion PNI, an inexpensive and easily assessable inflammatory index, could aid clinicians in developing individualized treatment and follow-up strategies for patients

  15. Determinants and Regression Equations for the Calculation of z Scores of Left Ventricular Tissue Doppler Longitudinal Indexes in a Healthy Italian Pediatric Population

    PubMed Central

    Fibbi, Veronica; Ballo, Piercarlo; Spaziani, Gaia; Calabri, Giovanni B.; Pollini, Iva; Zuppiroli, Alfredo; Chiappa, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Aim. We investigated the predictors of tissue Doppler left ventricular (LV) longitudinal indexes in a healthy Italian pediatric population and established normative data and regression equations for the calculation of z scores. Methods and Results. A total of 369 healthy subjects aged 1–17 years (age of 6.4 ± 1.1 years, 49.1% female) underwent echocardiography. LV peak longitudinal velocity at systole (s'), early diastole (e'), and late diastole (a') was determined by tissue Doppler. The ratio of peak early diastolic LV filling velocity to e' was calculated. Age was the only independent determinant of s' (β = 0.491, p < 0.0001) and the strongest determinant of e' (β = 0.334, p < 0.0001) and E/e' (β = −0.369, p < 0.0001). Heart rate was the main determinant of a' (β = 0.265, p < 0.0001). Male gender showed no effects except for a weak association with lateral s', suggesting no need of gender-specific reference ranges. Age-specific reference ranges, regression equations, and scatterplots for the calculation of z scores were determined for each index. Conclusion. In a pediatric Italian population, age was the strongest determinant of LV longitudinal dynamics. The availability of age-specific normality data for the calculation of z scores may allow for correctly detecting LV dysfunction in pediatric pathological populations. PMID:26759729

  16. Beverage Selections and Impact on Healthy Eating Index Scores in Elementary Children's Lunches from School and from Home

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergman, Ethan A.; Englund, Tim; Ogan, Dana; Watkins, Tracee; Barbee, Mary; Rushing, Keith

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: The purposes of this study were to: 1) analyze beverage selections of elementary students consuming National School Lunch Program meals (NSLP) and lunches brought from home (LBFH), 2) compare overall meal quality (MQ) of NSLP and LBFH by food components using Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010), and 3) investigate the impact…

  17. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Third Edition Short Form for Index and IQ Scores in a Psychiatric Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Bruce K.; Girard, Todd A.; Bagby, R. Michael

    2007-01-01

    An eight-subtest short form (SF8) of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition (WAIS-III), maintaining equal representation of each index factor, was developed for use with psychiatric populations. Data were collected from a mixed inpatient/outpatient sample (99 men and 101 women) referred for neuropsychological assessment. Psychometric…

  18. Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problem Scores: Cross-Ethnic and Longitudinal Measurement Invariance of the Behavior Problem Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmannova, Katarina; Szanyi, Jason M.; Cali, Philip W.

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of behavioral functioning is a cornerstone of research on disparities in child development. This study used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (NLSY79) data to test measurement invariance of the Behavior Problem Index (BPI) during middle childhood across three ethnic groups. Using the internalizing and…

  19. Tunable plasmonic nanoparticles with catalytically active high-index facets.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hao; Zhang, Qingfeng; Large, Nicolas; Yu, Chunmei; Blom, Douglas A; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2014-06-11

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. PMID:24842375

  20. Tunable Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Catalytically Active High-Index Facets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Hao; Large, Nicolas; Zhang, Qinfeng; Nordlander, Peter; Wang, Hui

    2015-03-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles have been of tremendous interest due to their intriguing size- and shape-dependent plasmonic and catalytic properties. Combining tunable plasmon resonances with superior catalytic activities on the same metallic nanoparticle, however, has long been challenging because nanoplasmonics and nanocatalysis typically require nanoparticles in two drastically different size regimes. Here, we demonstrate that creation of high-index facets on subwavelength metallic nanoparticles provides a unique approach to the integration of desired plasmonic and catalytic properties on the same nanoparticle. Through site-selective surface etching of metallic nanocuboids whose surfaces are dominated by low-index facets, we have controllably fabricated nanorice and nanodumbbell shaped particles, which exhibit drastically enhanced catalytic activities arising from the catalytically active high-index facets abundant on the particle surfaces. The nanorice and nanodumbbell particles also possess appealing tunable plasmonic properties that allow us to gain quantitative insights into nanoparticle-catalyzed reactions with unprecedented sensitivity and detail through time-resolved plasmon-enhanced spectroscopic measurements. Past affiliation: Rice University.

  1. Correlation between Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) scores and Work Limitations Questionnaire (WLQ) allows the calculation of percent work productivity loss in patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Jochen; Küster, Denise

    2015-07-01

    Data on indirect costs are vital for cost-effectiveness studies from a societal perspective. In contrast to quality of life, information on productivity loss is rarely collected in psoriasis trials. We aimed to identify a model to deduce indirect costs (presenteeism and absenteeism) of psoriasis from the Dermatologic Life Quality Index (DLQI) of affected patients to facilitate health economic evaluations for psoriasis. We undertook a cross-sectional mapping study including 201 patients with physician-diagnosed psoriasis and investigated the relationship between quality of life (DLQI) and productivity loss (Work Limitations Questionnaire, WLQ--using the "output demands" subscale) using linear bootstrap regression analysis to set up an equation model allowing the calculation of percent work productivity loss per DLQI unit increase. DLQI and WLQ scores were significantly correlated (r = 0.47; p < 0.0001) The final equation model suggests a 0.545 and 0.560% decrease in productivity due to presenteeism and absenteeism per DLQI unit increase, with y-intercepts at 1.654 and 0.536, respectively. In the absence of data on indirect cost, work productivity loss due to psoriasis can be estimated from DLQI scores using the equations, Y = 0.545 × DLQI score + 1.654 for presenteeism (%) and Y = 0.560 × DLQI score + 0.536 for absenteeism (%). PMID:25940274

  2. Kamp K'aana, a 2-Week Residential Weight Management Summer Camp, Shows Long-Term Improvement in Body Mass Index z Scores.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Alicia Elena; Sharma, Shreela; Abrams, Stephanie H; Wong, William W; Barlow, Sarah E

    2016-03-01

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n = 38) or extracted from medical record (n = 33). Compared with baseline, BMI increased (P < 0.001), but both BMI percentile and BMI z score decreased (98.7 ± 1.0 to 97.3 ± 6.7 and 2.34 ± 0.30 to 2.23 ± 0.34, P < 0.001). A decrease in BMI z score of ≥0.2 units was seen in 27% of the participants (P < 0.001). The short program has sustained effect. PMID:26327212

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters among scale activity scores, growth, and fatness in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic parameters for scale activity score were estimated from generations 5, 6, and 7 of a randomly selected, composite population composed of Duroc, Large White, and two sources of Landrace (n = 2,186). At approximately 156 d of age, pigs were weighed (WT) and ultrasound backfat measurements (BF1...

  4. Randomization to plant-based dietary approaches leads to larger short-term improvements in Dietary Inflammatory Index scores and macronutrient intake compared with diets that contain meat.

    PubMed

    Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M; Wirth, Michael D; Shivappa, Nitin; Wingard, Ellen E; Fayad, Raja; Wilcox, Sara; Frongillo, Edward A; Hébert, James R

    2015-02-01

    Studies have examined nutrient differences among people following different plant-based diets. However, all of these studies have been observational. The aim of the present study was to examine differences in nutrient intake and Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) scores among overweight and obese (body mass index 25.0-49.9 kg/m(2)) adults randomized to receive dietary instruction on a vegan (n = 12), vegetarian (n = 13), pescovegetarian (n = 13), semivegetarian (n = 13), or omnivorous (n = 12) diet during a 6-month randomized controlled trial. Nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and DII score were assessed via two 24-hour dietary recalls (Automated Self-Administered 24-Hour Dietary Recall) at baseline and at 2 and 6 months. Differences in nutrient intake and the DII were examined using general linear models with follow-up tests at each time point. We hypothesized that individuals randomized to the vegan diet would have lower DII scores and greater improvements in fiber, carbohydrate, fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol at both 2 and 6 months as compared with the other 4 diets. Participants randomized to the vegan diet had significantly greater changes in most macronutrients at both time points, including fat and saturated fat, as well as cholesterol and, at 2 months, fiber, as compared with most of the other diet groups (Ps < .05). Vegan, vegetarian, and pescovegetarian participants all saw significant improvements in the DII score as compared with semivegetarian participants at 2 months (Ps < .05) with no differences at 6 months. Given the greater impact on macronutrients and the DII during the short term, finding ways to provide support for adoption and maintenance of plant-based dietary approaches, such as vegan and vegetarian diets, should be given consideration. PMID:25532675

  5. Gender differences between WOMAC index scores, health-related quality of life and physical performance in an elderly Taiwanese population with knee osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Hui; Huang, Guo-Shu; Chang, Hsien-Feng; Chen, Ching-Yang; Kang, Chi-Yu; Wang, Chih-Chien; Lin, Chin; Yang, Jia-Hwa; Su, Wen; Kao, SenYeong; Su, Sui-Lung

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the importance of the WOMAC index score, health-related quality of life and physical performance in each domain affected by knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to identify gender differences in the importance of these domains and physical performances. Material and methods We performed a population-based study for radiographic knee OA among participants aged more than 65 years. Demographic data were collected and anthropometric measurement, radiographic assessment, the WOMAC index score, the short-form 12 (SF-12), the Timed and Up to Go Test (TUGT) and the Five Times Sit to Stand Test (FTSST) were performed. Result There were 901 individuals (409 males and 492 females) aged 74.04±6.92 (male: 76.35±7.33; female: 72.12±5.92) years included in this study. The WOMAC scores of participants with OA were higher than those without OA in males and females (male: 11.97±15.79 vs 8.23±12.84, p<0.001; female: 10.61±14.97 vs 7.59±3.31, p=0.032). The physical component summary (PCS) score was only significant in females with knee OA (62.14±24.66 vs 66.59±23.85, p=0.043), while the mental component summary (MCS) score was only significant in males with knee OA (78.02±18.59 vs 81.98±15.46, p=0.02). The TUGT and FTSST were not significant in individuals with and without OA in males and females. Moreover, the multivariate results for the WOMAC score were significant for females (3.928 (95% CI 1.287 to 6.569), p=0.004). Conclusions The PCS domains of SF-12 and MCS domains of SF-12 are crucial in Taiwanese females and elderly males, respectively, with knee OA. Different evaluation and treatment strategies based on gender differences should be considered in elderly Taiwanese patients with knee OA to improve their quality of life. PMID:26373405

  6. Healthy Eating Index scores associated with symptoms of depression in Cuban-Americans with and without type 2 diabetes: a cross sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low diet quality and depression symptoms are independently associated with poor glycemic control in subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2D); however, the relationship between them is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the association between diet quality and symptoms of depression among Cuban-Americans with and without T2D living in South Florida. Methods Subjects (n = 356) were recruited from randomly selected mailing list. Diet quality was determined using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-05) score. Symptoms of depression were assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Both linear and logistic regression analyses were run to determine whether or not these two variables were related. Symptoms of depression was the dependent variable and independent variables included HEI-05, gender, age, marital status, BMI, education level, A1C, employment status, depression medication, duration of diabetes, and diabetes status. Analysis of covariance was used to test for interactions among variables. Results An interaction between diabetes status, gender and HEI-05 was found (P = 0.011). Among males with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, those with T2D had a higher mean BDI score than those without T2D (11.6 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.028). Among males and females with a HEI-05 score ≤ 55.6, females without T2D had a higher mean BDI score compared to males without T2D (11.0 vs. 6.6 respectively, P = 0.012) Conclusions Differences in symptoms of depression according to diabetes status and gender are found in Cuban-Americans with low diet quality. PMID:22152160

  7. The Improved Physical Activity Index for Measuring Physical Activity in EPIC Germany

    PubMed Central

    Wientzek, Angelika; Vigl, Matthäus; Steindorf, Karen; Brühmann, Boris; Bergmann, Manuela M.; Harttig, Ulrich; Katzke, Verena; Kaaks, Rudolf; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-01-01

    In the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study (EPIC), physical activity (PA) has been indexed as a cross-tabulation between PA at work and recreational activity. As the proportion of non-working participants increases, other categorization strategies are needed. Therefore, our aim was to develop a valid PA index for this population, which will also be able to express PA continuously. In the German EPIC centers Potsdam and Heidelberg, a clustered sample of 3,766 participants was re-invited to the study center. 1,615 participants agreed to participate and 1,344 participants were finally included in this study. PA was measured by questionnaires on defined activities and a 7-day combined heart rate and acceleration sensor. In a training sample of 433 participants, the Improved Physical Activity Index (IPAI) was developed. Its performance was evaluated in a validation sample of 911 participants and compared with the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index. The IPAI consists of items covering five areas including PA at work, sport, cycling, television viewing, and computer use. The correlations of the IPAI with accelerometer counts in the training and validation sample ranged r = 0.40–0.43 and with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) r = 0.33–0.40 and were higher than for the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index previously applied in EPIC. In non-working participants the IPAI showed higher correlations than the Cambridge Index and the Total PA Index, with r = 0.34 for accelerometer counts and r = 0.29 for PAEE. In conclusion, we developed a valid physical activity index which is able to express PA continuously as well as to categorize participants according to their PA level. In populations with increasing rates of non-working people the performance of the IPAI is better than the established indices used in EPIC. PMID:24642812

  8. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide

    PubMed Central

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  9. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  10. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  11. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  12. Examination of the Five Comparable Component Scores of the Diet Quality Indexes HEI-2005 and RC-DQI Using a Nationally Representative Sample of 2–18 Year Old Children: NHANES 2003–2006

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Sibylle; McCabe, George P.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with low diet quality and the suboptimal intake of food groups and nutrients. Two composite diet quality measurement tools are appropriate for Americans 2–18 years old: the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2005 and the Revised Children's Diet Quality Index (RC-DQI). The five components included in both indexes are fruits, vegetables, total grains, whole grains, and milk/dairy. Component scores ranged from 0 to 5 or 0 to 10 points with lower scores indicating suboptimal intake. To allow direct comparisons, one component was rescaled by dividing it by 2; then, all components ranged from 0 to 5 points. The aim of this study was to directly compare the scoring results of these five components using dietary data from a nationally representative sample of children (NHANES 2003–2006, N = 5,936). Correlation coefficients within and between indexes showed less internal consistency in the HEI; age- and ethnic-group stratified analyses indicated higher sensitivity of the RC-DQI. HEI scoring was likely to dichotomize the population into two groups (those with 0 and those with 5 points), while RC-DQI scores resulted in a larger distribution of scores. The scoring scheme of diet quality indexes for children results in great variation of the outcomes, and researchers must be aware of those effects. PMID:24163762

  13. Reliability of Accelerometer Scores for Measuring Sedentary and Physical Activity Behaviors in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Klaren, Rachel E; Hubbard, Elizabeth A; Zhu, Weimo; Motl, Robert W

    2016-04-01

    This brief research note examined the reliability of scores from an accelerometer as measures of sedentary and physical activity behaviors in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). The analysis was performed on a combined data set from 2 previous longitudinal investigations of physical activity in MS. We focused on the number of days required to reliably estimate sedentary behavior, based on time spent in sedentary behavior per day and number of sedentary breaks, number of long sedentary bouts, and average length of sedentary bouts per day. We further examined the number of days required to reliably estimate physical activity behavior, based on time spent in light and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and average length of activity bouts per day. Between 4-6 days of monitoring and 3-7 days of monitoring were necessary for good reliability of scores from all sedentary outcomes and physical activity outcomes, respectively. These results should guide research and practice examining sedentary and physical activity behaviors using accelerometry in persons with MS. PMID:27078272

  14. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  15. Early diagnosis of candidemia in intensive care unit patients with sepsis: a prospective comparison of (1→3)-β-D-glucan assay, Candida score, and colonization index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The culture-independent serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan (BG) detection test may allow early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease, but its clinical usefulness needs to be firmly established. A prospective single-center observational study was conducted to compare the diagnostic value of BG assay, Candida score (CS), and colonization index in intensive care unit (ICU) patients at risk for Candida sepsis. Methods Of 377 patients, consecutively admitted to ICU for sepsis, 95 patients having an ICU stay of more than five days were studied. Blood specimens for fungal culture and BG measurement were obtained at the onset of clinical sepsis. For CS and colonization index calculations, surveillance cultures for Candida growth, and/or clinical data were recorded. Results Sixteen (16.8%) patients were diagnosed with proven invasive fungal infection, 14 with candidiasis (13 candidemia and 1 mediastinitis) and 2 with pulmonary aspergillosis or fusariosis. Of 14 invasive Candida-infection patients, 13 had a serum sample positive for BG, 10 had a CS value ≥3, and 7 a colonization index ≥0.5. In the 12 candidemic patients, a positive BG result was obtained 24 to 72 hrs before a culture-documented diagnosis of invasive candidiasis. The positive and negative predictive values for the BG assay were higher than those of CS and colonization index (72.2% versus 57.1% and 27.3%; and 98.7% versus 97.2% and 91.7%, respectively). Conclusions A single-point BG assay based on a blood sample drawn at the sepsis onset, alone or in combination withCS, may guide the decision to start antifungal therapy early in patients at risk for Candida infection. PMID:22018278

  16. Using the EZ-Diffusion Model to Score a Single-Category Implicit Association Test of Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rebar, Amanda L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Single-Category Implicit Association Test (SC-IAT) has been used as a method for assessing automatic evaluations of physical activity, but measurement artifact or consciously-held attitudes could be confounding the outcome scores of these measures. The objective of these two studies was to address these measurement concerns by testing the validity of a novel SC-IAT scoring technique. Design Study 1 was a cross-sectional study, and study 2 was a prospective study. Method In study 1, undergraduate students (N = 104) completed SC-IATs for physical activity, flowers, and sedentary behavior. In study 2, undergraduate students (N = 91) completed a SC-IAT for physical activity, self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, physical activity intentions, and wore an accelerometer for two weeks. The EZ-diffusion model was used to decompose the SC-IAT into three process component scores including the information processing efficiency score. Results In study 1, a series of structural equation model comparisons revealed that the information processing score did not share variability across distinct SC-IATs, suggesting it does not represent systematic measurement artifact. In study 2, the information processing efficiency score was shown to be unrelated to self-reported affective and instrumental attitudes toward physical activity, and positively related to physical activity behavior, above and beyond the traditional D-score of the SC-IAT. Conclusions The information processing efficiency score is a valid measure of automatic evaluations of physical activity. PMID:25484621

  17. Development and Retrospective Validation of the Juvenile Spondyloarthritis Disease Activity (JSpADA) Index

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Pamela F.; Colbert, Robert A.; Xiao, Rui; Feudtner, Chris; Beukelman, Timothy; DeWitt, Esi Morgan; Pagnini, Ilaria; Wright, Tracey B.; Wallace, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To develop and validate a Juvenile Spondyloarthritis (JSpA) Disease Activity (JSpADA) index for use in clinical practice and research. Methods Using modified Delphi consensus techniques, ten items were selected by participants in the international pediatric rheumatology list-serve, the Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance, and the list-serve for the Pediatric Section of the American College of Rheumatology. Validation was performed in a retrospective multicenter cohort of 243 children. Results 106 physicians representing 14 countries completed the initial questionnaire. Completion rates for the subsequent questionnaires were 84%, 75%, and 77% of the original respondents. Ten items reached 80% consensus: arthritis, enthesitis, patient pain assessment, inflammatory markers, morning stiffness, clinical sacroiliitis, uveitis, back mobility, and patient and physician assessments of disease activity. Two items were eliminated after item analysis (patient and physician assessments of disease activity). Factor analysis identified 3 primary domains that explain 58% of variance: peripheral disease, axial disease, and uveitis. Cronbach α coefficient was 0.66. The JSpADA had high or moderate correlations with the Juvenile Arthritis disease activity score (r=0.80), patient and physician assessments of disease activity (r=0.70 and 0.66), and the Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire (r=0.56). The JSpADA discriminated well between subjects with active versus inactive disease (p<0.001) and was responsive to improvement or worsening in disease activity over time (p<0.001). Conclusion Using international input and consensus formation techniques, we developed and validated the first disease activity assessment for JSpA. Future studies should validate the JSpADA index in a prospective multi-center cohort. PMID:25047959

  18. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  19. American Society of Indexers: History, Activities and Relationship to ASIS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1993-01-01

    Provides a brief history of the American Society of Indexers (ASI) and assesses its position among other organizations, such as ASIS, involved with the organization of information. Topics discussed include the annual award for best monograph index; the ASI newsletter; and publicity to convey the importance of quality indexing. (LRW)

  20. A child feeding index is superior to WHO IYCF indicators in explaining length-for-age Z-scores of young children in rural Cambodia

    PubMed Central

    Reinbott, Anika; Kuchenbecker, Judith; Herrmann, Johannes; Jordan, Irmgard; Muehlhoff, Ellen; Kevanna, Ou; Krawinkel, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate young child feeding practices are influenced by a multitude of factors which affect growth and development. A combination of indicators is needed to explain the role of complementary feeding practices in growth retardation. Methods: A cross-sectional nutrition baseline survey was conducted in rural Cambodia in September 2012. Villages in pre-selected communes were randomly selected using stunting as a primary indicator. Data were collected from 803 randomly selected households with children aged 6–23 months, based on a standardised questionnaire and on length/height and weight measurements of mother and child. WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF) indicators [minimum dietary diversity (MDD), minimum meal frequency (MMF), minimum acceptable diet (MAD)] and a child feeding index (CFI) were created. The latter consisted of five components: breastfeeding, use of bottle, dietary diversity, food frequency and meal frequency which were adjusted for three age groups: 6–8, 9–11 and 12–23 months. The highest possible score was 10. Associations between length-for-age Z-scores (LAZ) and WHO indicators or CFI were explored. Results: Mean (SD) LAZ was −1.25 (1.14) (n  =  801). Mean (range) CFI was 6.7 (1–10) (n  =  797). Mean CFI was highest in the 9–11-months age group (7.93) and lowest for those aged 12–23 months (5.96). None of the WHO IYCF indicators was associated with LAZ, whereas CFI showed significant association with LAZ (P < 0.01). The association between higher CFI scores and LAZ became weaker as age increased. Conclusion: The results highlight the need to include a wide range of information in the analysis in order to understand the association between appropriate infant feeding practices and child growth. PMID:25226288

  1. Can fecal calprotectin better stratify Crohn’s disease activity index?

    PubMed Central

    Scaioli, Eleonora; Cardamone, Carla; Scagliarini, Michele; Zagari, Rocco Maurizio; Bazzoli, Franco; Belluzzi, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Background Crohn’s disease (CD) activity index (CDAI) is still widely used for monitoring clinical activity in CD patients, but is of little value as indicator of persistent inflammation in symptomless patients. Fecal calprotectin levels ≥150 µg/g are strongly indicative of endoscopically and/or histologically active disease. Our aim was to study, in a large cohort of CD patients, the relationship between CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels. Methods CDAI and fecal calprotectin levels were evaluated in consecutive patients from a CD outpatient clinic. Results We enrolled 193 CD patients, of whom 38% with CDAI <150 had a calprotectin value ≥150 µg/g, suggestive of active disease. A logistic regression model showed that for CDAI levels between 100 and 150, the estimated logistic probability of calprotectin ≥150 µg/g increased progressively to 76%, reaching 94% where disease activity was localized in the colon. With a CDAI cut-off >120, we found a high diagnostic accuracy of 72%, with 88% specificity and 50% sensitivity (positive predictive value: 76%, negative predictive value: 71%) to identify a calprotectin value ≥150 µg/g. Conclusion CDAI scores between 100 and 150 display an acceptable ability to quantify the risk of persistent inflammation as expressed by the high calprotectin level. PMID:25831217

  2. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    PubMed

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description. PMID:24359433

  3. Body mass index, physical activity, and risk of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Birmann, Brenda M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Rosner, Bernard; Anderson, Kenneth C.; Colditz, Graham A.

    2013-01-01

    Several studies have reported a positive relation of baseline body mass index (BMI) with multiple myeloma, but data on other correlates of energy balance are limited. We undertook the present analyses to further examine the role of energy balance in multiple myeloma etiology in two large prospective cohorts with biennially updated exposure data. We followed members of the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study cohorts from baseline until multiple myeloma diagnosis, death, or 2002. Adult height and current weight were reported at enrollment, and weight every 2 years thereafter. Physical activity was queried at baseline and updated every 2-4 years. We computed age-adjusted relative risks (RR) of multiple myeloma for categories of BMI and physical activity using Cox proportional hazards regression. We conducted analyses on each cohort separately and on both cohorts combined. We confirmed 215 incident cases of multiple myeloma in the combined cohort of 136,623 individuals (>2.1 million person-years at risk). BMI was positively associated with multiple myeloma in all analyses. The association was strongest in men with BMI ≥30 kg/m2 (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR=2.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.0-6.0) and modest in overweight (BMI 25-29.9 kg/m2) and obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) women (v. BMI <22.0 kg/m2; RR (95% CI)=1.6 (1.0-2.7) and 1.2 (0.7-2.2), respectively). Physical activity was not significantly related to multiple myeloma risk, although an inverse association was suggested in women. In conclusion, obesity appears to have an etiologic role in multiple myeloma, but the role of other correlates of energy balance remains uncertain. PMID:17627013

  4. Comparison of chiropractic student scores before and after utilizing active learning techniques in a classroom setting

    PubMed Central

    Guagliardo, Joseph G.; Hoiriis, Kathryn T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We report the differences in final examination scores achieved by students at the culmination of two different teaching strategies in an introductory skills course. Methods Multiple choice examination scores from six consecutive academic calendar sessions over 18 months (n = 503) were compared. Two groups were used: Cohort A (n = 290) represented students who were enrolled in the course 3 consecutive academic sessions before an instructional change and Cohort B (n = 213) included students who were enrolled in 3 consecutive academic sessions following the instructional change, which included a more active learning format. Statistical analyses used were 2-tailed independent t-test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's honestly significant difference (HSD), and effect size. Results The 2-tailed independent t-test revealed a significant difference between the two groups (t = −3.71, p < .001; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29–4.20). Significant difference was found in the highest performing subgroup compared to the lowest performing subgroup in Cohort A (F = 3.343, p = .037). For Cohort A subgroups 1 and 2, Tukey's HSD was p < .028. In Cohort B, no difference was found among subgroups (F = 1.912, p = .150, HSD p > .105). Conclusion Compared to previous versions of the same course taught by the same instructor, the students in the new course design performed better, suggesting that using active learning techniques helps improve student achievement. PMID:23964739

  5. Diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index, the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension score, and health outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-05-01

    Dietary patterns consider synergistic effects compared with isolated foods or nutrients on health outcomes. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to examine the associations of diet quality as assessed by the Healthy Eating Index (HEI), the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) score and the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or incidence, cancer mortality or incidence, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and neurodegenerative diseases. A literature search was performed using the electronic databases MEDLINE, SCOPUS, and EMBASE with an end date of May 10, 2014. Study-specific risk ratios were pooled using a random effect model by the Cochrane software package Review Manager 5.2. Fifteen cohort studies (34 reports), including 1,020,642 subjects, met the criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Diets of the highest quality, as assessed by the HEI, AHEI, and DASH score, resulted in a significant risk reduction (RR) for all-cause mortality (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.80; P<0.00001; I²=61%, 95% CI 20% to 81%), cardiovascular disease (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.75 to 0.81; P<0.00001; I²=45%, 95% CI 13% to 66%), cancer (incidence or mortality) (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.82 to 0.88; P<0.00001; I²=77%, 95% CI 68% to 84%), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.00001; I²=74%, 95% CI 52% to 86%). Differences observed for neurodegenerative diseases were not significant. Egger regression tests provided no evidence of publication bias. Diets that score highly on the HEI, AHEI, and DASH are associated with a significant reduction in the risk of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and type 2 diabetes mellitus by 22%, 22%, 15%, and 22%, respectively, and therefore is of high public health relevance. PMID:25680825

  6. Changes in Parent Motivation Predicts Changes in Body Mass Index z-Score (zBMI) and Dietary Intake Among Preschoolers Enrolled in a Family-Based Obesity Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Elizabeth S.; Filigno, Stephanie S.; Clifford, Lisa M.; Connor, Jared M.; Stark, Lori J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether changes in parent motivation over the course of a pediatric obesity intervention are significantly associated with long-term changes in treatment outcomes. Methods Study hypotheses were tested with a secondary data analysis of a randomized controlled trial (N = 42). Study analyses tested whether baseline to posttreatment change in total score for a self-report parent motivation measure (Parent Motivation Inventory [PMI]) was significantly associated with baseline to 6-month follow-up changes in body mass index z-score (zBMI), dietary variables, and physical activity. Results Increases in PMI were significantly associated with decreased zBMI, decreased consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and sweets, and increased consumption of artificially sweetened beverages. Conclusions Given that increases in parent motivation were associated with some treatment benefits, future research should evaluate the impact of directly assessing and targeting parent motivation on weight outcomes for preschoolers participating in a weight management program. PMID:25016604

  7. Reexamination of the coronal index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybanský, M.; Rušin, V.; Minarovjech, M.; Klocok, L.; Cliver, E. W.

    2005-08-01

    The coronal index (CI) of solar activity is the irradiance of the Sun as a star in the coronal green line (Fe XIV, 530.3 nm or 5303 Å). It is derived from ground-based observations of the green corona made by the network of coronal stations (currently Kislovodsk, Lomnický Štít, Norikura, and Sacramento Peak). The CI was introduced by Rybanský (1975) to facilitate comparison of ground-based green line measurements with satellite-based extreme ultraviolet and soft X-ray observations. The CI since 1965 is based on the Lomnický Štít photometric scale; the CI was extended to earlier years by Rybanský et al. (1994) based on cross-calibrations of Lomnický Štít data with measurements made at Pic du Midi and Arosa. The resultant 1939-1992 CI had the interesting property that its value at the peak of the 11-year cycle increased more or less monotonically from cycle 18 through cycle 22 even though the peak sunspot number of cycle 20 exhibited a significant local minimum between that of cycles 19 and 21. Rušin and Rybanský (2002) recently showed that the green line intensity and photospheric magnetic field strength were highly correlated from 1976 to 1999. Since the photospheric magnetic field strength is highly correlated with sunspot number, the lack of close correspondence between the sunspot number and the CI from 1939 to 2002 is puzzling. Here we show that the CI and sunspot number are highly correlated only after 1965, calling the previously-computed coronal index for earlier years (1939-1965) into question. We can use the correlation between the CI and sunspot number (also the 2800 MHz radio flux and the cosmic ray intensity) to recompute daily values of the CI for years before 1966. In fact, this method can be used to obtain CI values as far back as we have reliable sunspot observations (˜1850). The net result of this exercise is a CI that closely tracks the sunspot number at all times. We can use the sunspot-CI relationship (for 1966-2002) to identify

  8. Comparison of risk of local-regional recurrence after mastectomy or breast conservation therapy for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiation stratified according to a prognostic index score

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Eugene H.; Strom, Eric A.; Perkins, George H.; Oh, Julia L.; Chen, Allen M.; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Hunt, Kelly K.; Sahin, Aysegul A.; Hortobagyi, Gabriel N.; Buchholz, Thomas A. . E-mail: tbuchhol@mdanderson.org

    2006-10-01

    Purpose: We previously developed a prognostic index that stratified patients treated with breast conservation therapy (BCT) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy into groups with different risks for local-regional recurrence (LRR). The purpose of this study was to compare the rates of LRR as a function of prognostic index score for patients treated with BCT or mastectomy plus radiation after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 815 patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation. Patients were assigned an index score from 0 to 4 and given 1 point for the presence of each factor: clinical N2 to N3 disease, lymphovascular invasion, pathologic size >2 cm, and multifocal residual disease. Results: The 10-year LRR rates were very low and similar between the mastectomy and BCT groups for patients with an index score of 0 or 1. For patients with a score of 2, LRR trended lower for those treated with mastectomy vs. BCT (12% vs. 28%, p = 0.28). For patients with a score of 3 to 4, LRR was significantly lower for those treated with mastectomy vs. BCT (19% vs. 61%, p = 0.009). Conclusions: This analysis suggests that BCT can provide excellent local-regional treatment for the vast majority of patients after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. For the few patients with a score of 3 to 4, LRR was >60% after BCT and was <20% with mastectomy. If these findings are confirmed in larger randomized studies, the prognostic index may be useful in helping to select the type of surgical treatment for patients treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation.

  9. Correlation of Paraoxonase Status with Disease Activity Score and Systemic Inflammation in Rheumatoid Arthritic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bindal, Usha Dudeja; Siddiqui, Merajul Haque; Sharma, Dilutpal

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Despite, various preventive efforts on conventional cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, the incidence of CVD in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients increases continuously. To solve this conundrum one needs more investigations. Aim The present study was conducted to evaluate the plasma paraoxonase (PON) activity along with the markers of systemic inflammation, oxidative stress and disease activity score-28 (DAS28) in RA patients and clarify their role in determining the probability of RA patients to develop future CVD risk. Materials and Methods Plasma PON, total antioxidant activity (TAA), C-reactive protein (CRP), synovial interleukin-6 (IL-6) and erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in 40 RA patients aged 40-55 years aged and 40 age-matched healthy controls. The data obtained were compared statistically by using Student’s t-test and Pearson correlation test. Results Besides dyslipidaemia, marked reduction in plasma PON and TAA (p< 0.05) were observed in RA patients as compared with that of healthy controls. Erythrocyte MDA, plasma CRP and synovial IL-6 levels were increased significantly (p<0.05) in RA patients. PON was negatively correlated with MDA (r = - 0.672; p < 0.001), CRP (r = -0.458; p<0.05), IL-6 (r = -0.426; p<0.05) and DAS28 (r = -0.598; p < 0.001), and positively correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = 0.648; p<0.001) and TAA (r = 0.608; p< 0.001) levels in RA patients. Conclusion Alteration in PON activity might contribute to the progression of future CVD risk in RA patients, which may result from interplay of several confounding factors, such as inflammation, oxidative stress and dyslipidaemia. Furthermore, plasma PON activity, CRP and TAA levels could be considered as non-traditional factors to predict CVD risk. Thus, it is suggested that future drugs could be developed to target the non-traditional risk factors in RA patients. PMID:27134854

  10. Bispectoral index scores of pediatric patients under dental treatment and recovery conditions: Study of children assigned for general anesthesia under propofol and isofloran regimes

    PubMed Central

    Tahririan, Dana; Kaviani, Naser; Nourbakhsh, Nosrat

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to determine the relationship between bispectoral index (BIS) during dental treatment and recovery conditions in children undergoing two regimes of anesthesia of propofol and isoflurane. Materials and Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial study, 57 4-7-year-old healthy children who had been referred for dental treatment under general anesthesia between 60 and 90 min were selected by convenience sampling and assigned to two groups, after obtaining their parents’ written consent. The anesthesia was induced by inhalation. For the first group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and isoflurane (1%). For the second group, the anesthesia was preserved by a mixture of oxygen (50%), nitrous oxide (50%), and propofol was administered intravenously at a dose of 100 Ng/kg/min. The patients’ vital signs, BIS, and agitation scores were recorded every 10 min. The data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and t-tests at a significance level of α = 0.05 using SPSS version 20. Results: The results of independent t-test for anesthesia time showed no statistically significant difference between isoflurane and propofol (P = 0.87). Controlling age, the BIS difference between the two anesthetic agents was not significant (P > 0.05); however, it was negatively correlated with the duration of anesthesia and the discharge time (P = 0.001, r = -0.308) and (P < 0.001, r = -0.55). Conclusion: The same depth of anesthesia is produced by propofol and isoflurane, but lower recovery complications from anesthesia are observed with isoflurane. PMID:26962318

  11. Comparison of activity indexes for recognizing enzyme mutants of higher activity with uricase as model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    total proteins is a favorable index for recognizing an enzyme mutant with small improvement of activity. PMID:23594729

  12. Nutrient Density Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Annette; Thompson, William T.

    1979-01-01

    Announces a nutrient density food scoring system called the Index of Nutritional Quality (INQ). It expresses the ratio between the percent RDA of a nutrient and the percent daily allowance of calories in a food. (Author/SA)

  13. Predicting Disease-Related Subnetworks for Type 1 Diabetes Using a New Network Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shouguo; Jia, Shuang; Hessner, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In this study we investigated the advantage of including network information in prioritizing disease genes of type 1 diabetes (T1D). First, a naïve Bayesian network (NBN) model was developed to integrate information from multiple data sources and to define a T1D-involvement probability score (PS) for each individual gene. The algorithm was validated using known functional candidate genes as a benchmark. Genes with higher PS were found to be more likely to appear in T1D-related publications. Next a new network activity metric was proposed to evaluate the T1D relevance of protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetworks. The metric considered the contribution both from individual genes and from network topological characteristics. The predictions were confirmed by several independent datasets, including a genome wide association study (GWAS), and two large-scale human gene expression studies. We found that novel candidate genes in the T1D subnetworks showed more significant associations with T1D than genes predicted using PS alone. Interestingly, most novel candidates were not encoded within the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region, and their expression levels showed correlation with disease only in cohorts with low-risk HLA genotypes. The results suggested the importance of mapping disease gene networks in dissecting the genetics of complex diseases, and offered a general approach to network-based disease gene prioritization from multiple data sources. PMID:22917479

  14. Assessment of Disease Activity in Small Bowel Crohn's Disease: Comparison between Endoscopy and Magnetic Resonance Enterography Using MRIA and Modified MRIA Score

    PubMed Central

    Scardapane, Arnaldo; Ambrosi, Annalisa; Salinaro, Emanuela; Mancini, Maria Elisabetta; Principi, Mariabeatrice; Di Leo, Alfredo; Lorusso, Filomenamila; Stabile Ianora, Amato Antonio; Angelelli, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To retrospectively compare the results of the MRIA (magnetic resonance index of activity) with a modified MRIA (mMRIA), which was calculated excluding from MRIA formula the data of relative contrast enhancement (RCE). Materials and Methods. MR-E and corresponding endoscopic records of 100 patients were reviewed. MRIA, mMRIA, and SES endoscopic index were calculated for all the patients. Namely, MRIA was calculated as follows: (1.5 × wall thickening + 0.02 × RCE + 5 × intramural edema + 10 × ulcers), while mMRIA was calculated with the modified formula (1.5 × wall thickening + 5 × intramural edema + 10 × ulcers). Results. Mean MRIA and mMRIA values were 19.3 and 17.68, respectively (p < 0.0001). A significant correlation (p < 0.0001) was observed between MRIA and mMRIA scores and between both MR indexes and SES (p < 0.0001). Conclusions. mMRIA was comparable to MRIA in the evaluation of disease activity in Crohn's disease. PMID:26759554

  15. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  16. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056

  17. Is anterior cruciate ligament surgery technique important in rehabilitation and activity scores?

    PubMed Central

    Kilinc, Bekir Eray; Kara, Adnan; Celik, Haluk; Oc, Yunus; Camur, Savas

    2016-01-01

    To compare the two different anterior cruciate ligament surgery techniques’ effect in rehabilitation and activity performance. Fifty-five patients were evaluated. Twenty-seven patients with transtibial technique (TT), 28 with anatomic single-bundle technique (AT) included. Tegner Activity Scale (TAS) was performed at preoperation and follow-up. The returning time of the sport and work was evaluated at follow-up. Single-leg hop test was performed at follow-up. Outcomes were compared between the two groups. The determined length difference between the operated knee and the intact knee was compared between the two groups. Average age of TT and AT was 27.9±6.4 yr, 28.3±6 yr, respectively. There was a significant difference between the two groups in duration of returning to sport. TT group had higher duration to return to sport (P<0.01). No difference between the two groups in duration of returning to work (P>0.05). There was a significant difference between the two groups. TT group had significantly higher values than AT group (P<0.01). No difference in TAS between the two techniques at preoperation and at last follow-up (P>0.05). The increase of TAS in patients who had AT was higher than the patients who had TT (P>0.05). No difference in single-leg hop test at 55%–65%, 65%–75%, and 85%–95% level (P>0.05). In this test at 75%–85% TT group had higher values than AT group (P<0.05), AT group had higher values at 95%–105% level (P<0.05). Good short and long-term knee outcome scores depend on rehabilitation protocol after surgery. Surgery technique should provide the adequate stability in rehabilitation period. AT obtains better outcomes in rehabilitation. PMID:27419120

  18. Incremental Validity of WISC-IV[superscript UK] Factor Index Scores with a Referred Irish Sample: Predicting Performance on the WIAT-II[superscript UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canivez, Gary L.; Watkins, Marley W.; James, Trevor; Good, Rebecca; James, Kate

    2014-01-01

    Background: Subtest and factor scores have typically provided little incremental predictive validity beyond the omnibus IQ score. Aims: This study examined the incremental validity of Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK Edition (WISC-IV[superscript UK]; Wechsler, 2004a, "Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth UK…

  19. The effect of routine hoof trimming on locomotion score, ruminating time, activity, and milk yield of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Van Hertem, T; Parmet, Y; Steensels, M; Maltz, E; Antler, A; Schlageter-Tello, A A; Lokhorst, C; Romanini, C E B; Viazzi, S; Bahr, C; Berckmans, D; Halachmi, I

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of hoof trimming on cow behavior (ruminating time, activity, and locomotion score) and performance (milk yield) over time. Data were gathered from a commercial dairy farm in Israel where routine hoof trimming is done by a trained hoof trimmer twice per year on the entire herd. In total, 288 cows spread over 6 groups with varying production levels were used for the analysis. Cow behavior was measured continuously with a commercial neck activity logger and a ruminating time logger (HR-Tag, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel). Milk yield was recorded during each milking session with a commercial milk flow sensor (Free Flow, SCR Engineers Ltd.). A trained observer assigned on the spot 5-point locomotion scores during 19 nighttime milking occasions between 22 October 2012 and 4 February 2013. Behavioral and performance data were gathered from 1wk before hoof trimming until 1wk after hoof trimming. A generalized linear mixed model was used to statistically test all main and interactive effects of hoof trimming, parity, lactation stage, and hoof lesion presence on ruminating time, neck activity, milk yield, and locomotion score. The results on locomotion scores show that the proportional distribution of cows in the different locomotion score classes changes significantly after trimming. The proportion of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 increases from 14% before to 34% directly after the hoof trimming. Two months after the trimming, the number of cows with a locomotion score ≥3 reduced to 20%, which was still higher than the baseline values 2wk before the trimming. The neck activity level was significantly reduced 1d after trimming (380±6 bits/d) compared with before trimming (389±6 bits/d). Each one-unit increase in locomotion score reduced cow activity level by 4.488 bits/d. The effect of hoof trimming on ruminating time was affected by an interaction effect with parity. The effect of hoof trimming on

  20. Prediction of outcome in cancer patients with febrile neutropenia: comparison of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer risk-index score with procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, and interleukins-1beta, -6, -8 and -10.

    PubMed

    Uys, A; Rapoport, B L; Fickl, H; Meyer, P W A; Anderson, R

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective of the study was to compare the predictive potential of procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid A (SAA), and interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10, with that of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) risk-index score in cancer patients on presentation with chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN). Seventy-eight consecutive FN episodes in 63 patients were included, and MASCC scores, as well as concentrations of CRP, SAA, PCT, and IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, and haematological parameters were determined on presentation, 72 h later and at outcome. Multivariate analysis of data revealed the MASCC score, but none of the laboratory parameters, to be an accurate, independent variable (P < 0.0001) for prediction of resolution with or without complications and death. Of the various laboratory parameters, PCT had the strongest association with the MASCC score (r = -0.51; P < 0.0001). In cancer patients who present with FN, the MASCC risk-index score is a useful predictor of outcome, while measurement of PCT, CRP, SAA, or IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10, is of limited value. PMID:17944761

  1. Addiction Severity Index Composite Scores as Predictors for Sexual-Risk Behaviors and Drug-Use Behaviors in Drug-Dependent Pregnant Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhury, R.; Jones, H. E.; Wechsberg, W.; O’Grady, K.; Tuten, M.; Chisolm, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background HIV sexual-risk and drug-use behavior predictors have been studied in non-pregnant but not pregnant drug-dependent populations. Objective Examine the ability of the ASI composite scores to predict HIV sexual- and drug-risk scores as well as the individual items of a modified version of the Risk Assessment Battery in drug-using pregnant women. Methods Pregnant women (N=76) completing pretreatment ASI and HIV-risk questionnaires. Results The Legal composite score was the sole significant predictor of the sexual-risk score, with a 1 SD increase in the Legal composite score resulting in a 24% increase in sexual-risk, p<.001. The Medical, Drug, and Legal composite scores were each significant predictors of the drug-risk score, with a 1 SD increase resulting in a 31% decrease, and 121% and 73% increases, respectively, in drug-risk, all ps<.05. Conclusions and Scientific Significance Pregnant drug-dependent women and their fetuses are vulnerable to the consequences of both sexual-risk behaviors and drug-use. The ASI may help screen such patients for HIV sexual-risk and drug-use behaviors as a first step in tailoring treatment to address these issues. PMID:20141393

  2. Everyone Gains: Extracurricular Activities in High School and Higher SAT® Scores. Research Report No. 2005-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents evidence that links participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in high school with higher SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) scores. Using structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we analyzed data from a national sample of college-bound high school students. A series of structural equation models--isolating the…

  3. An Analysis of the Entropy Index Diversity Scores of Selected North Carolina Urban High Schools and the Impact on Teacher Quality, Student Achievement, and Graduation Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Robert Pernell

    2009-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine the differences in teacher quality, student achievement, and graduation rates among select North Carolina urban high schools based on their racial segregation when measured by the entropy index. The entropy index is a measure of evenness among racial groups used to determine the level of segregation…

  4. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Buchner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10–100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60–91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI’s largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  5. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Buchner, David M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10-100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60-91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI's largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  6. Objective Functional Assessment After a Head Injury Using Movement and Activity in Physical Space Scores: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Farnsworth, James L.; McElhiney, Danielle; David, Shannon; Sinha, Gaurav; Ragan, Brian G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To describe the potential benefit of using a global positioning system (GPS) and accelerometry as an objective functional-activity measure after concussion by creating Movement and Activity in Physical Space (MAPS) scores. Background: A 21-year-old female soccer player suffered a blow to the back of the head from an opponent's shoulder during an away match. No athletic trainer was present. She played the remainder of the match and reported to the athletic training facility the next day for evaluation. Differential Diagnosis: Concussion. Treatment: The athlete was removed from all athletic activities. Her symptoms were monitored based on the Zurich guidelines. She was also instructed to wear an accelerometer on her hip and to carry an on-person GPS receiver at all times for 10 days. Her total symptom scores for the 4 symptomatic days were 82, 39, 49, and 36. Her mean MAPS functional score for symptomatic days 3 through 5 was 900.9 and for asymptomatic days 6 through 11 was 2734.9. Uniqueness: We monitored the patient's function during the concussion-recovery process using an on-person GPS receiver and accelerometer to calculate personalized MAPS scores. This novel approach to measuring function after injury may provide a useful complementary tool to help with return-to-play decisions. Conclusions: An on-person GPS receiver and accelerometer were used to observe the patient's physical activity in a free-living environment, allowing for an objective measure of function during recovery. Her MAPS scores were low while she was symptomatic and increased as she became asymptomatic. We saw the expected inverse relationship between symptoms and function. In situations where accuracy of reported symptoms may be a concern, this measure may provide a way to verify the validity of, or raise doubts about, self-reported symptoms. PMID:24840582

  7. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Vance, Terrence M.; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pop, Elena A.; Lee, Sang Gil; Su, L. Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Mohler, James L.; Chen, Ming-Hui; Koo, Sung I.; Chun, Ock K.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher's exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P = 0.01) and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P = 0.03). In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P = 0.01). No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P = 0.04). Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. PMID:26357575

  8. Thioredoxin 1 in Prostate Tissue Is Associated with Gleason Score, Erythrocyte Antioxidant Enzyme Activity, and Dietary Antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Vance, Terrence M; Azabdaftari, Gissou; Pop, Elena A; Lee, Sang Gil; Su, L Joseph; Fontham, Elizabeth T H; Bensen, Jeannette T; Steck, Susan E; Arab, Lenore; Mohler, James L; Chen, Ming-Hui; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prostate cancer is the most common noncutaneous cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men in the US. Growing evidence suggests that oxidative stress is involved in prostate cancer. Methods. In this study, thioredoxin 1 (Trx 1), an enzyme and subcellular indicator of redox status, was measured in prostate biopsy tissue from 55 men from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project. A pathologist blindly scored levels of Trx 1. The association between Trx 1 and the Gleason score, erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, and dietary antioxidant intake was determined using Fisher's exact test. Results. Trx 1 levels in benign prostate tissue in men with incident prostate cancer were positively associated with the Gleason score (P = 0.01) and inversely associated with dietary antioxidant intake (P = 0.03). In prostate cancer tissue, Trx 1 levels were associated with erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity (P = 0.01). No association was found for other erythrocyte enzymes. Greater Gleason score of malignant tissue corresponds to a greater difference in Trx 1 levels between malignant and benign tissue (P = 0.04). Conclusion. These results suggest that the redox status of prostate tissue is associated with prostate cancer grade and both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants. PMID:26357575

  9. Saturated fat intake modulates the association between an obesity genetic risk score and body mass index in two U.S. populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Combining multiple genetic variants related to obesity into a genetic risk score (GRS) might improve identification of individuals at risk of developing obesity. Moreover, characterizing gene-diet interactions is a research challenge to establish dietary recommendations to individuals with higher pr...

  10. Composite Mg II solar activity index for solar cycles 21 and 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deland, Matthew T.; Cebula, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    On the basis of version 1.0 of the composite MG II solar activity index data set, it is shown that the change in the 27-day running average of the Mg II index from solar maximum to solar minimum is about 8 percent for solar cycle 21 and about 9 percent for solar cycle 22 through January 1992. Scaling factors based on the short-term variations in the Mg II index and solar irradiance data sets are developed for each instrument to estimate solar variability at mid-UV and near-UV wavelengths. A set of composite scale factors are derived for use with the present composite MG index. Near 205 cm, where solar irradiance variations are important for stratospheric chemistry, the estimated change in irradiance during solar cycle 22 is about 10 +/- 1 percent using the composite Mg II index (version 1.0) and scale factors.

  11. A New Polar Magnetic Index of Geomagnetic Activity and its Application to Monitoring Ionospheric Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new, PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating in high latitude ionosphere, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters is approximately 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  12. Apgar score

    MedlinePlus

    ... the baby's: Breathing effort Heart rate Muscle tone Reflexes Skin color Each category is scored with 0, ... scores 2 for muscle tone. Grimace response or reflex irritability is a term describing response to stimulation, ...

  13. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  14. Development and assessment of a modified Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index.

    PubMed

    Leach, Steven T; Nahidi, Lily; Tilakaratne, Samantha; Day, Andrew S; Lemberg, Daniel A

    2010-08-01

    The Pediatric Crohn Disease Activity Index (PCDAI) is an established and validated measure of disease activity in children with Crohn disease. However, its use in the research setting can be limited because of ambiguity of the subjective and anthropometric components of the index. Here we propose and evaluate a modified PCDAI (Mod PCDAI) consisting of the laboratory measures of the PCDAI plus C-reactive protein. This Mod PCDAI can provide an indication of disease activity because it correlates with the PCDAI, physicians' global assessment, and fecal calprotectin, and therefore may provide a suitable alternative to the PCDAI when required. PMID:20479686

  15. Kamp K’aana, a 2-week residential weight management summer camp, shows long-term improvement in body mass index z scores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effects of Kamp K'aana, a 2-week residential weight management camp, on body mass index (BMI) measures were evaluated on 71 of 108 (66%) obese youth 10 to 14 years of age. Measures were obtained at 11-month study follow-up (n=38) or extracted from medical record (n=33). Compared with basel...

  16. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  17. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  18. The Effects of Activating Prior Topic and Metacognitive Knowledge on Text Comprehension Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kostons, Danny; van der Werf, Greetje

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research on prior knowledge activation has consistently shown that activating learners' prior knowledge has beneficial effects on learning. If learners activate their prior knowledge, this activated knowledge serves as a framework for establishing relationships between the knowledge they already possess and new information provided to…

  19. Patient Acceptable Symptom State in Self-Report Questionnaires and Composite Clinical Disease Index for Assessing Rheumatoid Arthritis Activity: Identification of Cut-Off Points for Routine Care

    PubMed Central

    Salaffi, Fausto; Carotti, Marina; Gutierrez, Marwin; Di Carlo, Marco; De Angelis, Rossella

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To provide information on the value of Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by the identification of PASS thresholds for patient-reported outcomes (PROs) composite scores. Methods. The characteristics of RA patients with affirmative and negative assignment to PASS were compared. Contributors to physician response were estimated by logistic regression models and PASS thresholds by the 75th percentile and receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methods. Results. 303 RA patients completed the study. All PROs were different between the PASS (+) and PASS (−) groups (p < 0.0001). The thresholds with the 75th percentile approach were 2.0 for the RA Impact of Disease (RAID) score, 2.5 for the PRO-CLinical ARthritis Activity (PRO-CLARA) index, and 1.0 for the Recent-Onset Arthritis Disability (ROAD) questionnaire. The cut-off values for Clinical Disease Activity Index (CDAI) were in the moderate range of disease activity. Assessing the size of the logistic regression coefficients, the strongest predictors of PASS were the disease activity (p = 0.0007) and functional state level (0.006). Conclusion. PASS thresholds were relatively high and many patients in PASS had moderate disease activity states according to CDAI. Factors such as disease activity and physical function may influence a negative PASS. PMID:26167506

  20. Comparison of clinical symptoms scored according to the National Institutes of Health chronic prostatitis symptoms index and assessment of antimicrobial treatment in patients with chronic prostatitis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skerk, Visnja; Roglić, S; Cajić, V; Markotić, A; Radonić, A; Skerk, Vedrana; Granić, J; Zidovec-Lepej, S; Parazajder, J; Begovac, J

    2009-04-01

    We examined a total of 194 patients over 18 years of age with chronic prostatitis syndrome and no evidence of structural or functional lower genitourinary tract abnormalities. The following data were obtained for each patient: clinical history--the severity of chronic prostatitis symptoms scored by a Croatian translation of the NiH CPSI questionnaire, clinical status including digitorectal examination, urethral swab specimens, and selective samples of urine and expressed prostatic secretion, according to the 4-glass localization test (meares and Stamey localization technique). Patients were treated orally with antimicrobial agents in doses and duration according to clinical practice in Croatia. An infectious etiology was determined in 169 (87%) patients. Chlamydia trachomatis was the causative pathogen in 38 (20%), Trichomonas vaginalis in 35 (18%), Enterococcus in 36 (19%) and Escherichia coli in 35 (18%) patients. In the remaining 25 patients the following causative pathogens were found: Ureaplasma urealyticum, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus agalactiae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Comparison of symptoms scores and effect on quality of life has shown that the most severe clinical presentation of disease was recorded in patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by E. coli and Enterococcus (p<0.001). Clinical success was paralleled by bacteriological eradication in chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by C. trachomatis, Enterococcus and E. coli (kappa >0.2<0.5), but not in inflammatory chronic pelvic pain syndrome caused by T. vaginalis. PMID:19423471

  1. Real-time prediction of magnetospheric activity using the Boyle Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Ramkumar; Reiff, P. H.; Landivar, J. E.

    2009-04-01

    We present a new algorithm with an improvement in the accuracy and lead time in short-term space weather predictions by coupling the Boyle Index, Φ = 10-4ν2 + 11.7Bsin3(?/2) kV, to artificial neural networks. The algorithm takes inputs from ACE and a handful of ground-based magnetometers to predict the next upcoming Kp in real time. The model yields a correlation coefficient of over 86% when predicting Kp with a lead time of 1 hour and over 85% for a 2 hour ahead prediction, significantly larger than the Kp persistence of 0.80. The Boyle Index, available in near-real time from http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/wind.html, has been in use for over 5 years now to predict geomagnetic activity. The logarithm of both 3-hour and 1-hour averages of the Boyle Index correlates well with the following Kp: Kp = 8.93 log10 < Boyle Index> -12.55. Using the Boyle Index alone, the algorithm yields a correlation coefficient of 85% when predicting Kp with a lead time of 1 hour and over 84% for a 3 hour ahead prediction, nearly as good as when using Kp in the history but without any possibility of "persistence contamination." Although the Boyle Index generally overestimates the polar cap potential for severe events, it does predict that severe activity will occur. Also, 1-hour Index> value less than 100 kV is a good indicator that the magnetosphere will be quiet. However, some storm events with Kp > 6 occur when the Boyle Index is relatively low; the new algorithm is successful in predicting those events by capturing the influence of preconditioning.

  2. AADS--an automated active site identification, docking, and scoring protocol for protein targets based on physicochemical descriptors.

    PubMed

    Singh, Tanya; Biswas, D; Jayaram, B

    2011-10-24

    We report here a robust automated active site detection, docking, and scoring (AADS) protocol for proteins with known structures. The active site finder identifies all cavities in a protein and scores them based on the physicochemical properties of functional groups lining the cavities in the protein. The accuracy realized on 620 proteins with sizes ranging from 100 to 600 amino acids with known drug active sites is 100% when the top ten cavity points are considered. These top ten cavity points identified are then submitted for an automated docking of an input ligand/candidate molecule. The docking protocol uses an all atom energy based Monte Carlo method. Eight low energy docked structures corresponding to different locations and orientations of the candidate molecule are stored at each cavity point giving 80 docked structures overall which are then ranked using an effective free energy function and top five structures are selected. The predicted structure and energetics of the complexes agree quite well with experiment when tested on a data set of 170 protein-ligand complexes with known structures and binding affinities. The AADS methodology is implemented on an 80 processor cluster and presented as a freely accessible, easy to use tool at http://www.scfbio-iitd.res.in/dock/ActiveSite_new.jsp . PMID:21877713

  3. The relationship between the Bispectral Index (BIS) and the Observer Alertness of Sedation Scale (OASS) scores during propofol sedation with and without ketamine: a randomized, double blinded, placebo controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Gildasio S; Kendall, Mark C; Marcus, R-Jay; McCarthy, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    Prior studies have examined the static effect of intravenous ketamine on the BIS Index for sedation but it remains unknown if the BIS Index is a reliable method to track sedation levels in the presence of ketamine. The major objective of the current investigation was to compare the BIS Vista Index ability to track varying depths of sedation as determined by OASS scores in a standardized anesthetic regimen with and without ketamine. The study was a randomized, double blinded clinical trial. Patients undergoing breast surgery under sedation with propofol were randomized to receive ketamine (1.5 μg kg min(-1)) or saline. Infusion data was used to estimate propofol plasma concentrations (Cp). The main outcome of interest was the correlation between the BIS Vista Index with the OASS score. Twenty subjects were recruited and fifteen completed the study. Four hundred fifty-five paired data points were included in the analysis. Model performance (Nagelkerke R(2)) of the multinomial logistic regression model was 0.57 with the c-statistic of 0.87 (95 % CI 0.82-0.91). Compared to awake the odds ratio for BIS values predicting moderate sedation in the saline/propofol group 1.19 (95 % CI 1.12-1.25) but only 1.06 (95 % CI 1.02-1.1) in the ketamine/propofol group (P = 0.001). There was no difference in the odds for BIS values to predict deep sedation between groups (P = 0.14). The BIS monitor can be used to monitor sedation level even when ketamine is used with propofol as part of the sedation regimen. However, ketamine reduces the value of the BIS in predicting moderate sedation levels. PMID:26219614

  4. Aggregate entropy scoring for quantifying activity across endpoints with irregular correlation structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guozhu; Marvel, Skylar; Truong, Lisa; Tanguay, Robert L; Reif, David M

    2016-07-01

    Robust computational approaches are needed to characterize systems-level responses to chemical perturbations in environmental and clinical toxicology applications. Appropriate characterization of response presents a methodological challenge when dealing with diverse phenotypic endpoints measured using in vivo systems. In this article, we propose an information-theoretic method named Aggregate Entropy (AggE) and apply it to scoring multiplexed, phenotypic endpoints measured in developing zebrafish (Danio rerio) across a broad concentration-response profile for a diverse set of 1060 chemicals. AggE accurately identified chemicals with significant morphological effects, including single-endpoint effects and multi-endpoint responses that would have been missed by univariate methods, while avoiding putative false-positives that confound traditional methods due to irregular correlation structure. By testing AggE in a variety of high-dimensional real and simulated datasets, we have characterized its performance and suggested implementation parameters that can guide its application across a wide range of experimental scenarios. PMID:27132190

  5. Dissociation of Subjectively Reported and Behaviorally Indexed Mind Wandering by EEG Rhythmic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Jungang; Perdoni, Christopher; He, Bin

    2011-01-01

    Inattention to current activity is ubiquitous in everyday situations. Mind wandering is an example of such a state, and its related brain areas have been examined in the literature. However, there is no clear evidence regarding neural rhythmic activities linked to mind wandering. Using a vigilance task with thought sampling and electroencephalography recording, the current study simultaneously examined neural oscillatory activities related to subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering. By implementing time-frequency analysis, we found that subjectively reported mind wandering, relative to behaviorally indexed, showed increased gamma band activity at bilateral frontal-central areas. By means of beamformer source imaging, we found subjectively reported mind wandering within the gamma band to be characterized by increased activation in bilateral frontal cortices, supplemental motor area, paracentral cortex and right inferior temporal cortex in comparison to behaviorally indexed mind wandering. These findings dissociate subjectively reported and behaviorally indexed mind wandering and suggest that a higher degree of executive control processes are engaged in subjectively reported mind wandering. PMID:21915257

  6. An assessment study of the wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity (WISA) and its comparison to the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Zhu, Lie; Sojka, Jan; Kokoszka, Piotr; Jach, Agnieszka

    2008-08-01

    A wavelet-based index of storm activity (WISA) has been recently developed [Jach, A., Kokoszka, P., Sojka, L., Zhu, L., 2006. Wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity. Journal of Geophysical Research 111, A09215, doi:10.1029/2006JA011635] to complement the traditional Dst index. The new index can be computed automatically by using the wavelet-based statistical procedure without human intervention on the selection of quiet days and the removal of secular variations. In addition, the WISA is flexible on data stretch and has a higher temporal resolution (1 min), which can provide a better description of the dynamical variations of magnetic storms. In this work, we perform a systematic assessment study on the WISA index. First, we statistically compare the WISA to the Dst for various quiet and disturbed periods and analyze the differences of their spectral features. Then we quantitatively assess the flexibility of the WISA on data stretch and study the effects of varying number of stations on the index. In addition, the ability of the WISA for handling the missing data is also quantitatively assessed. The assessment results show that the hourly averaged WISA index can describe storm activities equally well as the Dst index, but its full automation, high flexibility on data stretch, easiness of using the data from varying number of stations, high temporal resolution, and high tolerance to missing data from individual station can be very valuable and essential for real-time monitoring of the dynamical variations of magnetic storm activities and space weather applications, thus significantly complementing the existing Dst index.

  7. An assessment study of the wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity (WISA) and its comparison to the Dst index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Zhu, L.; Sojka, J. J.; Kokoszka, P.; Jach, A.

    2006-12-01

    A wavelet-based index of storm activities (WISA) has been recently developed (Jach et al., 2006) to complement the traditional Dst index. The new index can be computed automatically using the wavelet-based statistical procedure without human intervention on the selection of quiet days and the removal of secular variations. In addition, the WISA is flexible on data stretch and has a higher temporal resolution (one minute), which can provide a better description of the dynamical variations of magnetic storms. In this work, we perform a systematic assessment study on the WISA index. First, we statistically compare the WISA to the Dst for various quiet and disturbing periods and analyze the differences of their spectrum features. Then we quantitatively assess the flexibility of the WISA on data stretch and study the effects of varying number of stations on the index. In addition, how well the WISA can handle the missing data is also quantitatively assessed. The assessment results show that the hourly-averaged WISA index can describe storm activities equally well as the Dst index, but its full automation, high flexibility on data stretch, easiness of using the data from varying number of stations, high temporal resolution, and high tolerance on missing data from individual station can be very valuable and essential for real-time monitoring of the dynamical variations of magnetic storm activities and space weather applications, thus significantly complementing the existing Dst index. Jach, A., P. Kokoszka, J. Sojka, and L. Zhu, Wavelet-based index of magnetic storm activity, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2006.

  8. Immunohistochemistry and scoring of Ki-67 proliferative index and p53 expression in gastric B cell lymphoma from Northern African population: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Zeggai, Soumia; Tou, Abdelnacer; Sellam, Feriel; Mrabent, Meriem N.; Salah, Rachida

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to clarify the Ki-67 distribution, p53 expression and their relationship with clinico-pathologic features of gastric B cell lymphoma from Northern African population. Methods Twenty paraffin blocks of gastric lymphoma were retrieved from the archival materials of Department of Pathology, Central University Hospital of Sidi Bel Abbes (Western Algeria) from 2007 to 2013. Four µm section specimens were stained by immunohistochemical (IHC) technique with Ki-67 and p53 tumor markers. P values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Expression of p53 proteins and the mean proliferative index (PI) were compared between high grade gastric B cell lymphomas (DLBCL) and low grade gastric B cell lymphomas (gastric MALTs). p53 overexpression (P=0.007) and a high proliferation index Ki-67 (P=0.001) were significantly associated with gastric DLBCL. We found also a statistically significant correlation between p53 and Ki-67 (P=0.007) but no obvious relationships were found between Ki-67 PI and p53 expression as well as clinico-pathological features (age, sex, location, macroscopic type). Conclusions The IHC studies of Ki-67 and p53 expression in gastric B cell lymphoma can help in monitoring of patients at risk, and to give suitable treatment and management of patients. PMID:27284480

  9. Clinical performance of two visual scoring systems in detecting and assessing activity status of occlusal caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Braga, M M; Ekstrand, K R; Martignon, S; Imparato, J C P; Ricketts, D N J; Mendes, F M

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the clinical performance of two sets of visual scoring criteria for detecting caries severity and assessing caries activity status in occlusal surfaces. Two visual scoring systems--the Nyvad criteria (NY) and the ICDAS-II including an adjunct system for lesion activity assessment (ICDAS-LAA)--were compared using 763 primary molars of 139 children aged 3-12 years. The examinations were performed by 2 calibrated examiners. A subsample (n = 50) was collected after extraction and histology with 0.1% red methyl dye was performed to validate lesion depth and activity. The reproducibility of the indices was calculated (kappa test) and ROC analysis was performed to assess their validity and related parameters were compared using McNemar's test. The association between the indices and with the histological examination was evaluated using Spearman's correlation coefficient (r(s)). Visual criteria showed excellent reproducibility both regarding severity (NY: 0.94; ICDAS-II: 0.91) and activity (NY: 0.90; LAA: 0.91). The NY and LAA showed good association in caries activity assessment (r(s) = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.86-0.89; p < 0.001). Nevertheless, considering only cavitated lesions, this association was not significant (p > 0.05). Concerning the severity, both indices presented similar validity parameters. At D2 threshold, the sensitivity was higher for NY (NY = 0.87; ICDAS = 0.61, p < 0.05). Regarding activity status, NY showed higher specificities and accuracies. In conclusion, NY and ICDAS-II criteria are comparable and present good reproducibility and validity to detect caries lesions and estimate their severities, but the LAA seems to overestimate the caries activity assessment of cavitated lesions compared to NY. PMID:20530964

  10. Scored Discussions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zola, John

    1992-01-01

    Suggests a classroom strategy to help students learn to analyze and discuss significant issues from history and current policy debates. Describes scored discussions in which small groups of students receive points for participation. Provides an example of a discussion on gold mining. Includes an agenda. Explores uses of scored discussions and…

  11. Scoring Package

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scoring Package (PC database for purchase)   The NIST Scoring Package (Special Database 1) is a reference implementation of the draft Standard Method for Evaluating the Performance of Systems Intended to Recognize Hand-printed Characters from Image Data Scanned from Forms.

  12. Synthesis of concave gold nanocuboids with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Yue, Yonghai; Hu, Ye; Liang, Xiu; Yin, Penggang; Guo, Lin

    2015-07-25

    Novel concave gold nanocuboids bounded by 24 high-index {611} facets are synthesized using the seed-mediated growth method via an overgrowth mechanism. The as-synthesized products demonstrated greatly enhanced catalytic activity for the electro-oxidation of glucose and the reduction of 4-nitrothiophenol (4-NTP) under a laser. PMID:26097908

  13. Index to NASA tech briefs, 1973. [technology transfer of research and development activities chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Short announcements of technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission are issued to encourage commercial application. Emphasis is placed on information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines. Abstracts and indexes are given.

  14. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  15. Effect of optical pumping on the refractive index and temperature in the core of active fibre

    SciTech Connect

    Gainov, V V; Ryabushkin, Oleg A

    2011-09-30

    This paper examines the refractive index change (RIC) induced in the core of Yb{sup 3+}-doped active silica fibres by pulsed pumping. RIC kinetic measurements with a Mach - Zehnder interferometer make it possible to separately assess the contributions of the electronic and thermal mechanisms to the RIC and evaluate temperature nonuniformities in the fibre.

  16. Lack of utility of risk score and gynecological examination for screening for sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Guimarães, Eleuse MB; Guimarães, Mark DC; Vieira, Maria Aparecida S; Bontempo, Nádia M; Seixas, Mirian SS; Garcia, Mônica SD; Daud, Lyana ES; Côrtes, Rejane LM; Alves, Maria de Fátima C

    2009-01-01

    Background Sexually transmitted infections constitute the main health risk among adolescents. In developing countries the diagnosis and treatment of cervical infections is based on the syndromic approach. In this study we estimated the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae among female adolescents from a Health Sector of the city of Goiânia, Brazil, and validated cervicitis diagnosis using World Health Organization/Ministry of Health risk score and gynecological examination. Methods A cross-sectional community-based sample of 914 15- to 19-year-old female teenagers was randomly selected and referred to the local Family Health Program. Of these, 472 (51.6%) were sexually active and gynecological examinations were carried out for 427. Endocervical samples were collected to perform the polymerase chain reaction for C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae. Performance of risk score, the presence of mucopurulent discharge, friability, ectopia and pain during cervical maneuver were compared with the presence of C. trachomatis or N. gonorrhoeae or both. Results The prevalence of C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was 14.5% and 2.1%, respectively. The risk score had a specificity of 31.9% (95% confidence interval, 21.2 to 44.2) and a positive predictive value of 20.8% (95% confidence interval, 13.5 to 29.7). Friability was the component of the gynecological examination that presented the best performance with a sensitivity of 43.5%, specificity of 81.0%, and 30.6% of positive predictive value. Conclusion The prevalence of infection by C. trachomatis and N. gonorrhoeae was high among these sexually active adolescents. The syndromic approach is clearly inadequate for screening and treating these infections in this population. Therefore, the implantation of other strategies to control these infections among adolescents is urgently required. PMID:19284575

  17. Expression of guanylate cyclase-C, guanylin, and uroguanylin is downregulated proportionally to the ulcerative colitis disease activity index

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Danfeng; Niu, Junkun; Miao, Jiarong; Dong, Xiangqian; Wang, Hong; Yang, Gang; Wang, Kunhua; Miao, Yinglei

    2016-01-01

    The transmembrane receptor guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) signaling pathway has been implicated in several gastrointestinal disorders. Activation of GC-C via guanylin (Gn) and uroguanylin (Ugn) regulates intestinal fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. However, how it regulates the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear. Here, we investigated the activation of GC-C signaling in ulcerative colitis (UC) of different clinical severities. A total of 60 UC patients and 20 normal controls were recruited. Evaluation of the UC disease activity index (DAI) was performed using a modified Mayo scoring system. The expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn in the colonic mucosa was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that the UC patients had significantly lower expression of GC-C, Gn and Ugn than the controls. Furthermore, there were significant differences for GC-C, Gn and Ugn expression for the UC groups of Grade 1, 2 and 3, and their expression levels were reduced with increases in their DAI. Taken together, our results demonstrate that GC-C, Gn and Ugn are downregulated in UC, and this downregulation is more significant with aggravation of the clinical condition. Therefore, the GC-C signaling pathway may be implicated in the progression of UC. PMID:27125248

  18. Modeling complexity in pathologist workload measurement: the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS).

    PubMed

    Cheung, Carol C; Torlakovic, Emina E; Chow, Hung; Snover, Dale C; Asa, Sylvia L

    2015-03-01

    Pathologists provide diagnoses relevant to the disease state of the patient and identify specific tissue characteristics relevant to response to therapy and prognosis. As personalized medicine evolves, there is a trend for increased demand of tissue-derived parameters. Pathologists perform increasingly complex analyses on the same 'cases'. Traditional methods of workload assessment and reimbursement, based on number of cases sometimes with a modifier (eg, the relative value unit (RVU) system used in the United States), often grossly underestimate the amount of work needed for complex cases and may overvalue simple, small biopsy cases. We describe a new approach to pathologist workload measurement that aligns with this new practice paradigm. Our multisite institution with geographically diverse partner institutions has developed the Automatable Activity-Based Approach to Complexity Unit Scoring (AABACUS) model that captures pathologists' clinical activities from parameters documented in departmental laboratory information systems (LISs). The model's algorithm includes: 'capture', 'export', 'identify', 'count', 'score', 'attribute', 'filter', and 'assess filtered results'. Captured data include specimen acquisition, handling, analysis, and reporting activities. Activities were counted and complexity units (CUs) generated using a complexity factor for each activity. CUs were compared between institutions, practice groups, and practice types and evaluated over a 5-year period (2008-2012). The annual load of a clinical service pathologist, irrespective of subspecialty, was ∼40,000 CUs using relative benchmarking. The model detected changing practice patterns and was appropriate for monitoring clinical workload for anatomical pathology, neuropathology, and hematopathology in academic and community settings, and encompassing subspecialty and generalist practices. AABACUS is objective, can be integrated with an LIS and automated, is reproducible, backwards compatible

  19. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules.

    PubMed

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  20. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    PubMed Central

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-01-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules. PMID:27385551

  1. Systems view of adipogenesis via novel omics-driven and tissue-specific activity scoring of network functional modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassiri, Isar; Lombardo, Rosario; Lauria, Mario; Morine, Melissa J.; Moyseos, Petros; Varma, Vijayalakshmi; Nolen, Greg T.; Knox, Bridgett; Sloper, Daniel; Kaput, Jim; Priami, Corrado

    2016-07-01

    The investigation of the complex processes involved in cellular differentiation must be based on unbiased, high throughput data processing methods to identify relevant biological pathways. A number of bioinformatics tools are available that can generate lists of pathways ranked by statistical significance (i.e. by p-value), while ideally it would be desirable to functionally score the pathways relative to each other or to other interacting parts of the system or process. We describe a new computational method (Network Activity Score Finder - NASFinder) to identify tissue-specific, omics-determined sub-networks and the connections with their upstream regulator receptors to obtain a systems view of the differentiation of human adipocytes. Adipogenesis of human SBGS pre-adipocyte cells in vitro was monitored with a transcriptomic data set comprising six time points (0, 6, 48, 96, 192, 384 hours). To elucidate the mechanisms of adipogenesis, NASFinder was used to perform time-point analysis by comparing each time point against the control (0 h) and time-lapse analysis by comparing each time point with the previous one. NASFinder identified the coordinated activity of seemingly unrelated processes between each comparison, providing the first systems view of adipogenesis in culture. NASFinder has been implemented into a web-based, freely available resource associated with novel, easy to read visualization of omics data sets and network modules.

  2. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  3. The fibrinotic index and evidence for a balanced regulation of coagulation activities.

    PubMed

    Grannis, G F; Kazal, L A

    1965-09-01

    The fibrinogen, plasma antithrombin, and thrombin activity curves of twenty-four normal individuals were determined under carefully controlled conditions of analysis. From these determinations plasma prothrombin and thromboplastic activities were calculated. These activities were defined in kinetic terminology and a theoretical rate of fibrination in plasma was calculated and used as a basis for comparing plasmas. Compensatory relationships were found among the various activities. Thus, low values of thromboplastic activity were associated with increased concentrations of prothrombin and fibrinogen; the effect of the latter activities in increasing the potential of plasma for fibrination was moderated by an increase in antithrombin activity. The fibrin-forming potential of each plasma was calculated relative to the mean value for all plasmas, to furnish a fibrinotic index. The latter was relatively constant in spite of wide variations in discrete activities, indicating that a physiological balance is maintained among those coagulation factors responsible for fibrination. PMID:16955965

  4. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45 % of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10 % of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment.

  5. Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability.

    PubMed

    Roshan, Gholamreza; Yousefi, Robabe; Fitchett, Jennifer M

    2016-01-01

    Tourism is a rapidly growing international sector and relies intrinsically on an amenable climate to attract visitors. Climate change is likely to influence the locations preferred by tourists and the time of year of peak travel. This study investigates the effect of climate change on the Tourism Climate Index (TCI) for Iran. The paper first calculates the monthly TCI for 40 cities across Iran for each year from 1961 to 2010. Changes in the TCI over the study period for each of the cities are then explored. Increases in TCI are observed for at least one station in each month, whilst for some months no decreases occurred. For October, the maximum of 45% of stations demonstrated significant changes in TCI, whilst for December only 10% of stations demonstrated change. The stations Kashan, Orumiyeh, Shahrekord, Tabriz, Torbat-e-Heidarieh and Zahedan experienced significant increases in TCI for over 6 months. The beginning of the change in TCI is calculated to have occurred from 1970 to 1980 for all stations. Given the economic dependence on oil exports, the development of sustainable tourism in Iran is of importance. This critically requires the identification of locations most suitable for tourism, now and in the future, to guide strategic investment. PMID:25956804

  6. Validity of PALMS GPS Scoring of Active and Passive Travel Compared to SenseCam

    PubMed Central

    Carlson, Jordan A.; Jankowska, Marta M.; Meseck, Kristin; Godbole, Suneeta; Natarajan, Loki; Raab, Fredric; Demchak, Barry; Patrick, Kevin; Kerr, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To assess validity of the Personal Activity Location Measurement System (PALMS) for deriving time spent walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle, using SenseCam as the comparison. Methods 40 adult cyclists wore a Qstarz BT-Q1000XT GPS data logger and SenseCam (camera worn around neck capturing multiple images every minute) for a mean of 4 days. PALMS used distance and speed between GPS points to classify whether each minute was part of a trip (yes/no), and if so, the trip mode (walking/running, bicycling, in vehicle). SenseCam images were annotated to create the same classifications (i.e., trip yes/no and mode). 2×2 contingency tables and confusion matrices were calculated at the minute-level for PALMS vs. SenseCam classifications. Mixed-effects linear regression models estimated agreement (mean differences and intraclass correlations [ICCs]) between PALMS and SenseCam with regards to minutes/day in each mode. Results Minute-level sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value were ≥88%, and positive predictive value was ≥75% for non mode-specific trip detection. 72–80% of outdoor walking/running minutes, 73% of bicycling minutes, and 74–76% of in-vehicle minutes were correctly classified by PALMS. For minutes/day, PALMS had a mean bias (i.e., amount of over or under estimation) of 2.4–3.1 minutes (11–15%) for walking/running, 2.3–2.9 minutes (7–9%) for bicycling, and 4.3–5 minutes (15–17%) for vehicle time. ICCs were ≥.80 for all modes. Conclusions PALMS has validity for processing GPS data to objectively measure time walking/running, bicycling, and in vehicle in population studies. Assessing travel patterns is one of many valuable applications of GPS in physical activity research that can improve our understanding of the determinants and health outcomes of active transportation as well as its impact on physical activity. PMID:25010407

  7. Job level risk assessment using task level ACGIH hand activity level TLV scores: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Drinkaus, Phillip; Sesek, Richard; Bloswick, Donald S; Mann, Clay; Bernard, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Existing upper extremity musculoskeletal disorder analytical tools are primarily intended for single or mono-task jobs. However, many jobs contain more than 1 task and some include job rotation. This case/control study investigates methods of modifying an existing tool, the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Hand Activity Level (HAL) Threshold Limit Value (TLV), to assess the upper extremity risk of multi-task jobs. Various methods of combining the task differences and ratios into a job level assessment were explored. Two methods returned significant odds ratios, (p < .05) of 18.0 (95% CI 1.8-172) and 12.0 (95% CI 1.2-120). These results indicate that a modified ACGIH HAL TLV may provide insight into the work-related risk of multi-task jobs. Further research is needed to optimize this process. PMID:16219155

  8. An affinity-based scoring scheme for predicting DNA-binding activities of modularly assembled zinc-finger proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sander, Jeffry D.; Zaback, Peter; Joung, J. Keith; Voytas, Daniel F.; Dobbs, Drena

    2009-01-01

    Zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) have long been recognized for their potential to manipulate genetic information because they can be engineered to bind novel DNA targets. Individual zinc-finger domains (ZFDs) bind specific DNA triplet sequences; their apparent modularity has led some groups to propose methods that allow virtually any desired DNA motif to be targeted in vitro. In practice, however, ZFPs engineered using this ‘modular assembly’ approach do not always function well in vivo. Here we report a modular assembly scoring strategy that both identifies combinations of modules least likely to function efficiently in vivo and provides accurate estimates of their relative binding affinities in vitro. Predicted binding affinities for 53 ‘three-finger’ ZFPs, computed based on energy contributions of the constituent modules, were highly correlated (r = 0.80) with activity levels measured in bacterial two-hybrid assays. Moreover, Kd values for seven modularly assembled ZFPs and their intended targets, measured using fluorescence anisotropy, were also highly correlated with predictions (r = 0.91). We propose that success rates for ZFP modular assembly can be significantly improved by exploiting the score-based strategy described here. PMID:19056825

  9. Association of a multibiomarker disease activity score at multiple time-points with radiographic progression in rheumatoid arthritis: results from the SWEFOT trial

    PubMed Central

    Hambardzumyan, Karen; Bolce, Rebecca J; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Forslind, Kristina; Wallman, Johan K; Cruickshank, Scott E; Sasso, Eric H; Chernoff, David; van Vollenhoven, Ronald F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), predictive biomarkers for subsequent radiographic progression (RP) could improve therapeutic choices for individual patients. We previously showed that the multibiomarker disease activity (MBDA) score in patients with newly diagnosed RA identified patients at risk for RP. We evaluated the MBDA score at multiple time-points as a predictor of RP during 2 years of follow-up. Methods A subset of patients with RA (N=220) from the Swedish Farmacotherapy (SWEFOT) trial were analysed for MBDA score, disease activity score of 28 joints (DAS28), C reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at baseline (BL), month 3 and year 1, for predicting RP based on modified Sharp/van der Heijde scores at BL, year 1 and year 2. Results Patients with persistently low MBDA (<30) scores or those with a decrease from moderate (30–44) to low MBDA scores, did not develop RP during 2 years of follow-up. The highest risk for RP during 2 years of follow-up (42%) was observed among patients with persistently high (>44) MBDA scores. Among methotrexate non-responders with a high MBDA score at BL or month 3, significantly more of those who received triple therapy had RP at year 2 compared with those who received antitumour necrosis factor therapy. Conclusions Measuring the MBDA score both before and during treatment in RA was useful for the assessment of individual patient risk for RP during 2 years of follow-up. In comparison with low CRP, ESR or DAS28, a low MBDA score at any time-point was associated with numerically lower proportions of RP. Trial registration number NCT00764725. PMID:26958364

  10. Significance of Plasma Dopamine β-Hydroxylase Activity as an Index of Sympathetic Neuronal Function

    PubMed Central

    Reid, John L.; Kopin, Irwin J.

    1974-01-01

    Plasma norepinephrine and dopamine β-hydroxylase (EC 1.14.17.1) activity were measured in rats. Adrenergic neuron blockade with bretylium for 4 hr and ganglion blockade with chlorisondamine for 72 hr lowered plasma norepinephrine. Neither treatment altered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Phenoxybenzamine for up to 48 hr markedly raised plasma norepinephrine and transiently lowered plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase at 24 hr. Prolonged pharmacological modification of sympathetic nervous activity and plasma norepinephrine were not attended by parallel changes in circulating dopamine β-hydroxylase activity. Plasma dopamine β-hydroxylase activity does not appear to be a sensitive index of prolonged alterations in sympathetic neural activity. Norepinephrine in plasma, however, appears to reflect sensitively and accurately the rate of release of the neurotransmitter. PMID:4530990

  11. Modelling Cost-Effectiveness of Biologic Treatments Based on Disease Activity Scores for the Management of Rheumatoid Arthritis in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Beresniak, Ariel; Ariza-Ariza, Rafael; Garcia-Llorente, Jose Francisco; Ramirez-Arellano, Antonio; Dupont, Danielle

    2011-01-01

    Background. The objective of this simulation model was to assess the cost-effectiveness of different biological treatment strategies based on levels of disease activity in Spain, in patients with moderate to severe active RA and an insufficient response to at least one anti-TNF agent. Methods. Clinically meaningful effectiveness criteria were defined using DAS28 scores: remission and Low Disease Activity State (LDAS) thresholds. Monte-Carlo simulations were conducted to assess cost-effectiveness over 2 years of four biological sequential strategies composed of anti-TNF agents (adalimumab, infliximab), abatacept or rituximab, in patients with moderate to severe active RA and an insufficient response to etanercept as first biological agent. Results. The sequential strategy including etanercept, abatacept and adalimumab appeared more efficacious over 2 years (102 days in LDAS) compared to the same sequence including rituximab as second biological option (82 days in LDAS). Cost-effectiveness ratios showed lower costs per day in LDAS with abatacept (427 €) compared to rituximab as second biological option (508 €). All comparisons were confirmed when using remission criteria. Conclusion. Model results suggest that in patients with an insufficient response to anti-TNF agents, the biological sequences including abatacept appear more efficacious and cost-effective than similar sequences including rituximab or cycled anti-TNF agents. PMID:21785694

  12. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  13. Urban Sprawl, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index: Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Troped, Philip J.; Hart, Jaime E.; Joshu, Corinne E.; Colditz, Graham A.; Brownson, Ross C.; Ewing, Reid; Laden, Francine

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the association between the county sprawl index, a measure of residential density and street accessibility, and physical activity and body mass index (BMI). Methods. We conducted a multilevel cross-sectional analysis in a sample of Nurses’ Health Study participants living throughout the United States in 2000 to 2001 (n = 136 592). Results. In analyses adjusted for age, smoking status, race, and husband’s education, a 1-SD (25.7) increase in the county sprawl index (indicating a denser, more compact county) was associated with a 0.13 kilograms per meters squared (95% confidence interval [CI] = −0.18, −0.07) lower BMI and 0.41 (95% CI = 0.17, 0.65) more metabolic equivalent (MET) hours per week of total physical activity, 0.26 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.33) more MET hours per week of walking, and 0.47 (95% CI = 0.34, 0.59) more MET hours per week of walking, bicycling, jogging, and running. We detected potential effect modification for age, previous disease status, husband’s education level (a proxy for socioeconomic status), and race. Conclusions. Our results suggest that living in a dense, compact county may be conducive to higher levels of physical activity and lower BMI in women. PMID:22698015

  14. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  15. Development and Validation of a Symptom-Based Activity Index for Adults with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Schoepfer, Alain M.; Straumann, Alex; Panczak, Radoslaw; Coslovsky, Michael; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Maurer, Elisabeth; Haas, Nadine A.; Romero, Yvonne; Hirano, Ikuo; Alexander, Jeffrey A.; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Furuta, Glenn T.; Dellon, Evan S.; Leung, John; Collins, Margaret H.; Bussmann, Christian; Netzer, Peter; Gupta, Sandeep K.; Aceves, Seema S.; Chehade, Mirna; Moawad, Fouad J.; Enders, Felicity T.; Yost, Kathleen J.; Taft, Tiffany H.; Kern, Emily; Zwahlen, Marcel; Safroneeva, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Standardized instruments are needed to assess the activity of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), to provide endpoints for clinical trials and observational studies. We aimed to develop and validate a patient-reported outcome (PRO) instrument and score, based on items that could account for variations in patients’ assessments of disease severity. We also evaluated relationships between patients’ assessment of disease severity and EoE-associated endoscopic, histologic, and laboratory findings. METHODS We collected information from 186 patients with EoE in Switzerland and the US (69.4% male; median age, 43 years) via surveys (n = 135), focus groups (n = 27), and semi-structured interviews (n = 24). Items were generated for the instruments to assess biologic activity based on physician input. Linear regression was used to quantify the extent to which variations in patient-reported disease characteristics could account for variations in patients’ assessment of EoE severity. The PRO instrument was prospectively used in 153 adult patients with EoE (72.5% male; median age, 38 years), and validated in an independent group of 120 patients with EoE (60.8% male; median age, 40.5 years). RESULTS Seven PRO factors that are used to assess characteristics of dysphagia, behavioral adaptations to living with dysphagia, and pain while swallowing accounted for 67% of the variation in patients’ assessment of disease severity. Based on statistical consideration and patient input, a 7-day recall period was selected. Highly active EoE, based on endoscopic and histologic findings, was associated with an increase in patient-assessed disease severity. In the validation study, the mean difference between patient assessment of EoE severity and PRO score was 0.13 (on a scale from 0 to 10). CONCLUSIONS We developed and validated an EoE scoring system based on 7 PRO items that assesses symptoms over a 7-day recall period. Clinicaltrials.gov number: NCT00939263. PMID

  16. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F.; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  17. Screening and Scoring of Antimicrobial and Biological Activities of Italian Vulnerary Plants against Major Oral Pathogenic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ferrazzano, Gianmaria F; Roberto, Lia; Catania, Maria Rosaria; Chiaviello, Angela; De Natale, Antonino; Roscetto, Emanuela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Ingenito, Aniello; Palumbo, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the activity of Italian vulnerary plants against the most important oral pathogenic bacteria. This estimate was accomplished through a fivefold process: (a) a review of ethnobotanical and microbiological data concerning the Italian vulnerary plants; (b) the development of a scoring system to rank the plants; (c) the comparative assessment of microbiological properties; (d) the assessment of potential cytotoxic effects on keratinocyte-like cells and gingival fibroblasts in culture by XTT cell viability assay; (e) clinical evaluation of the most suitable plant extract as antibacterial agent in a home-made mouthwash. The study assays hexane (H), ethanol (E), and water (W) extracts from 72 plants. The agar diffusion method was used to evaluate the activity against Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus casei, and Actinomyces viscosus. Twenty-two plants showed appreciable activity. The extracts showing the strongest antibacterial power were those from Cotinus coggygria Scop., Equisetum hyemale L., Helichrysum litoreum Guss, Juniperus communis L., and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L.) Newman subsp. scolopendrium. The potential cytotoxic effect of these extracts was assessed. On the basis of these observations, a mouth-rinse containing the ethanolic extract of H. litoreum has been tested in vivo, resulting in reduction of the salivary concentration of S. mutans. PMID:24302963

  18. The association of body mass index with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Mirpourian, Maryam; Salesi, Mansour; Abdolahi, Hadi; Farajzadegan, Ziba; Karimzadeh, Hadi

    2014-01-01

    Background: The role of obesity in clinical curse of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is not clear. We investigated the association of obesity and adiposity with disease activity and clinical response to combination therapy in RA patients. Materials and Methods: Active RA patients with the disease activity score using 28 joint counts (DAS28) > 2.6 were studied. Height, weight, and waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio were calculated. Patients were treated with methotrexate (7.5 to 10 mg/week) plus hydroxychloroquine (200 to 400 mg/day) and prednisolone (2.5 to 10 mg/day) and were followed by DAS28 for up to 24 weeks. Results: One hundred and six patients were studied; age = 48.5 ± 13.8 years, 87.7% female, disease duration = 4.4 years [SE = 0.48]. DAS28 was decreased from 4.5 ± 1.6 to 2.9 ± 1.4 (P < 0.001) after 24 weeks of treatment. Only in patients with disease duration of ≤2 years, BMI (r = –0.415, P = 0.005) and waist circumference (r = –0.296, P = 0.05) were correlated with baseline DAS28. Although BMI (r = –0.337, P = 0.025) and waist circumference (r = –0.315, P = 0.038) were correlated with change in DAS28 after therapy, these correlations were disappeared after controlling for baseline DAS28. Conclusion: Obesity and adiposity are associated with less severe disease activity in early stage of RA, but are not associated with response to combination therapy with methotrexate plus hydroxychloroquine in RA patients. PMID:25197291

  19. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state. PMID:17270774

  20. Computer keyswitch force-displacement characteristics affect muscle activity patterns during index finger tapping.

    PubMed

    Lee, David L; Kuo, Po-Ling; Jindrich, Devin L; Dennerlein, Jack T

    2009-10-01

    This study examined the effect of computer keyboard keyswitch design on muscle activity patterns during finger tapping. In a repeated-measures laboratory experiment, six participants tapped with their index fingers on five isolated keyswitch designs with varying force-displacement characteristics that provided pairwise comparisons for the design factors of (1) activation force (0.31 N vs. 0.59 N; 0.55 N vs. 0.93 N), (2) key travel (2.5mm vs. 3.5mm), and (3) shape of the force-displacement curve as realized through buckling-spring vs. rubber-dome switch designs. A load cell underneath the keyswitch measured vertical fingertip forces, and intramuscular fine wire EMG electrodes measured muscle activity patterns of two intrinsic (first lumbricalis, first dorsal interossei) and three extrinsic (flexor digitorum superficialis, flexor digitorum profundus, and extensor digitorum communis) index finger muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first dorsal interossei increased 25.9% with larger activation forces, but not for the extrinsic muscles. The amplitude of muscle activity for the first lumbricalis and the duration of muscle activities for the first dorsal interossei and both extrinsic flexor muscles decreased up to 40.4% with longer key travel. The amplitude of muscle activity in the first dorsal interossei increased 36.6% and the duration of muscle activity for all muscles, except flexor digitorum profundus, decreased up to 49.1% with the buckling-spring design relative to the rubber-dome design. These findings suggest that simply changing the force-displacement characteristics of a keyswitch changes the dynamic loading of the muscles, especially in the intrinsic muscles, during keyboard work. PMID:18515146

  1. Young Zanzibari Children with Iron Deficiency, Iron Deficiency Anemia, Stunting, or Malaria Have Lower Motor Activity Scores and Spend Less Time in Locomotion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Motor activity improves cognitive and social-emotional development through a child’s exploration of his or her physical and social environment. This study assessed anemia, iron deficiency, hemoglobin (Hb), length-for-age Z-score (LAZ), and malaria infection as predictors of motor activity in 771 chi...

  2. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  3. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI. PMID:25766808

  4. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  5. Suitability of Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and filamentous bacteria analysis for assessing activated sludge process performance: the case of piggery slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Menoni, Laura; Nembrini, Stefano; Manili, Livia; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Piggery slaughterhouse wastewater poses serious issues in terms of disposal feasibility and environmental impact, due to its huge organic load and variability. It is commonly treated by means of activated sludge processes, whose performance, in case of municipal wastewater, can be monitored by means of specific analyses, such as Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and floc and filamentous bacteria observation. Therefore, this paper was aimed at assessing the applicability of these techniques to piggery slaughterhouse sewage. A plant located in Northern Italy was monitored for 1 year. Physical, chemical and operation parameters were measured; the activated sludge community (ciliates, flagellates, amoebae and small metazoa) was analysed for calculating SBI and SI. Floc and filamentous bacteria were examined and described accordingly with internationally adopted criteria. The results showed the full applicability of the studied techniques for optimizing the operation of a piggery slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27072565

  6. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Davy, Brenda M.; Myers, Emily A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  7. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  8. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  9. Sedentary versus active leisure activities and their relationship with sleeping habits and body mass index in children of 9 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Peña, Elsa; Errasti, José Manuel; Busto, Raquel

    2014-11-18

    A random sample of 291 9- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and leisure activities were the independent variables and the body mass index was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary and active leisure time and hours spent sleeping are predictors of the body mass index in children. Those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer tend to have a greater body mass index, while those children who go to bed earlier and have spent more time reading or playing in the park or at home have a lower body mass index. Encouraging active leisure activities can have an extremely positive effect on their body mass index. PMID:25411196

  10. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  11. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  12. Organized Physical Activity in Young School Children Predicts Subsequent 4-Year Change in Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Dunton, Genevieve; McConnell, Rob; Jerrett, Michael; Wolch, Jennifer; Lam, Claudia; Gilliland, Frank; Berhane, Kiros

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether participation in organized outdoor team sports and structured indoor non-school activity programs in kindergarten and first grade predicted subsequent 4-year change in Body Mass Index (BMI) across the adiposity rebound period of childhood. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Forty-five schools in 13 communities across Southern California. Participants Largely Hispanic and non-Hispanic white children (N = 4,550; average age at study entry 6.60 years, standard deviation 0.65). Main Exposures Parents completed questionnaires assessing physical activity, demographic characteristics and other relevant covariates at baseline. Data on built and social environmental variables were linked to the neighborhood around children’s homes using geographical information systems (GIS). Main Outcome Measures Each child’s height and weight were measured annually during 4-years of follow-up. Results After adjusting for several confounders, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate for children who participated in outdoor organized team sports at least twice per week as compared to children who did not. For participation in each additional indoor non-school structured activity classes, lessons, and program, BMI increased at a 0.05 unit per year slower rate, and the attained BMI level at age 10 was 0.48 units lower. Conclusions Engagement in organized sports and activity programs as early as kindergarten and the first grade may result in smaller increases in BMI during the adiposity rebound period of childhood. PMID:22869403

  13. Nutritional Quality of Breakfast and Physical Activity Independently Predict the Literacy and Numeracy Scores of Children after Adjusting for Socioeconomic Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Mugridge, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Health-related behaviors [physical activity (PA), nutritional quality of breakfast and sleep]; personal variables (self-esteem, attitudes to PA and gender) and socioeconomic status (SES) (school SES and parental education), were examined in relation to literacy and numeracy scores of 824 grade 3-7 children. Participants completed a questionnaire,…

  14. The Impact of Four-Year Participation in Music and/or Athletic Activities in South Dakota Public High Schools on GPA and ACT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Patrick S.

    2010-01-01

    Finding the key to success for high school students has long been the goal for both school personnel and parents. This study examined the impact of four-year participation in music and/or athletics activities in South Dakota public high schools on student GPA and ACT scores. The data in this study were collected from five Class A high schools…

  15. Flexible chiral metamaterials with dynamically optical activity and high negative refractive index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dincer, Furkan; Karaaslan, Muharrem; Unal, Emin; Akgol, Oguzhan; Sabah, Cumali

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate numerically and experimentally chiral metamaterials (MTMs) based on gammadion-bilayer cross-wires that uniaxially create giant optical activity and tunable circular dichroism as a result of the dynamic design. In addition, the suggested structure gives high negative refractive index due to the large chirality in order to obtain an efficient polarization converter. We also present a numerical analysis in order to show the additional features of the proposed chiral MTM in detail. Therefore, a MTM sensor application of the proposed chiral MTM is introduced and discussed. The presented chiral designs offer a much simpler geometry and more efficient outlines. The experimental results are in a good agreement with the numerical simulation. It can be seen from the results that, the suggested chiral MTM can be used as a polarization converter, sensor, etc. for several frequency regimes.

  16. Calibration correction of an active scattering spectrometer probe to account for refractive index of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Overbeck, V. R.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Ferry, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the active scattering spectrometer probe (ASAS-X) to measure sulfuric acid aerosols on U-2 and ER-2 research aircraft has yielded results that are at times ambiguous due to the dependence of particles' optical signatures on refractive index as well as physical dimensions. The calibration correction of the ASAS-X optical spectrometer probe for stratospheric aerosol studies is validated through an independent and simultaneous sampling of the particles with impactors; sizing and counting of particles on SEM images yields total particle areas and volumes. Upon correction of calibration in light of these data, spectrometer results averaged over four size distributions are found to agree with similarly averaged impactor results to within a few percent: indicating that the optical properties or chemical composition of the sample aerosol must be known in order to achieve accurate optical aerosol spectrometer size analysis.

  17. Generation, Language, Body Mass Index, and Activity Patterns in Hispanic Children

    PubMed Central

    Taverno, Sharon E.; Rollins, Brandi Y.; Francis, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Background The acculturation hypothesis proposes an overall disadvantage in health outcomes for Hispanic immigrants with more time spent living in the U.S., but little is known about how generational status and language may influence Hispanic children’s relative weight and activity patterns. Purpose The association between generation and language was investigated with relative weight (BMI z-scores), physical activity, screen time, and participation in extracurricular activities (e.g., sports, clubs) in a U.S.-based, nationally representative sample of Hispanic children. Methods Participants included 2,012 Hispanic children aged 6–11 years from the cross-sectional, 2003 National Survey of Children’s Health. Children were grouped according to generational status (1st, 2nd or 3rd), and the primary language spoken in the home (English vs non-English). Primary analyses included adjusted logistic and multinomial logistic regression to examine the relationships among variables; all analyses were conducted between 2008 and 2009. Results Compared to 3rd generation, English speakers, 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were over two times more likely to be obese. Moreover, 1st generation, non-English speakers were half as likely to engage in regular physical activity and sports. Both 1st and 2nd generation, non-English speakers were less likely to participate in clubs compared to 2nd and 3rd generation, English speakers. Overall, all non–English speaking groups reported less screen time compared to 3rd generation, English speakers. Conclusions The hypothesis that Hispanics lose their health protection with more time spent in the U.S. was not supported in this sample of Hispanic children. PMID:20117570

  18. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  19. The photochemical reflectance index provides an optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation in evergreen conifers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Christopher Y S; Gamon, John A

    2015-04-01

    In evergreens, the seasonal down-regulation and reactivation of photosynthesis is largely invisible and difficult to assess with remote sensing. This invisible phenology may be changing as a result of climate change. To better understand the mechanism and timing of these hidden physiological transitions, we explored several assays and optical indicators of spring photosynthetic activation in conifers exposed to a boreal climate. The photochemical reflectance index (PRI), chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf pigments for evergreen conifer seedlings were monitored over 1 yr of a boreal climate with the addition of gas exchange during the spring. PRI, electron transport rate, pigment levels, light-use efficiency and photosynthesis all exhibited striking seasonal changes, with varying kinetics and strengths of correlation, which were used to evaluate the mechanisms and timing of spring activation. PRI and pigment pools were closely timed with photosynthetic reactivation measured by gas exchange. The PRI provided a clear optical indicator of spring photosynthetic activation that was detectable at leaf and stand scales in conifers. We propose that PRI might provide a useful metric of effective growing season length amenable to remote sensing and could improve remote-sensing-driven models of carbon uptake in evergreen ecosystems. PMID:25641209

  20. Handedness and behavioural inhibition system/behavioural activation system (BIS/BAS) scores: A replication and extension of Wright, Hardie, and Wilson (2009).

    PubMed

    Beaton, Alan A; Kaack, Imogen H; Corr, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    The Annett Hand Preference Questionnaire (AHPQ) as modified by Briggs and Nebes was administered along with Carver and White's behavioural inhibition system (BIS) and behavioural activation system (BAS) scale and a shortened form of the Big Five personality questionnaire to 92 university students. After eliminating the data from five respondents who reported having changed handedness and one outlier, there was a significant sex difference in mean BIS scores, with females (n = 43) scoring higher than males (n = 43). Replicating the results of Wright, Hardie and Wilson, non-right-handers (n = 36) had significantly higher mean BIS score than right-handers (n = 50). Controlling for sex of participant, neuroticism and BAS sub-scale scores in hierarchical regression analyses left this BIS effect substantially unaffected. There was no handedness or sex difference on any of the three BAS sub-scales. Further analyses revealed no association between strength, as distinct from direction, of handedness and BIS (or BAS) scores. The findings are discussed with reference to recent developments in reinforcement sensitivity theory on which BIS/BAS variables are based. PMID:25697855

  1. The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John M.; Stokes, Robert J.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Kofner, Aaron; Ridgeway, Greg K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The built environment can constrain or facilitate physical activity. Most studies of the health consequences of the built environment suffer from problems of selection bias associated with confounding effects of residential choice and transportation decisions. Purpose To examine the cross-sectional associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment, BMI, obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2), and meeting weekly recommended physical activity (RPA) levels through walking and vigorous exercise. To assess effect of using light rail transit system (LRT) on changes in BMI, obesity, and meeting weekly RPA levels. Methods Data were collected on individuals before (July 2006–February of 2007) and after (March 2008–July 2008) completion of a light rail system in Charlotte, NC. BMI, obesity, and physical activity levels were calculated for a comparison of these factors pre- and post-LRT construction. A propensity score weighting approach adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics among LRT and non-LRT users. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results More positive perceptions of one’s neighborhood at baseline were associated with a −0.36 (p<.05) lower BMI, 15% lower odds (95% CI=0.77, 0.94) of obesity, 9% higher odds (95% CI = 0.99, 1.20) of meeting weekly RPA through walking, and 11% higher odds (95% CI= 1.01, 1.22) of meeting RPA levels of vigorous exercise. The use of light rail transit to commute to work was associated with an average −1.18 reduction in BMI (p<0.05) and an 81% reduced odds (95% CI= 0.04, 0.92) of becoming obese over time. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that improving neighborhood environments and increasing the public’s use of LRT systems could provide improvements in health outcomes for millions of individuals. PMID:20621257

  2. Students Score!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Frederick, Cynthia

    2000-01-01

    Describes how one teacher used peer review to help students understand state content standards. Students held one another accountable for the basics, then she assessed the core content of their work. To get students thinking about standards-based learning, she used a pizza activity. Next, students created rubrics for assessing book reports and…

  3. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  4. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  5. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  6. Histopathological differences utilizing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score criteria in diabetic (type 2 diabetes mellitus) and non-diabetic patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Puchakayala, Bharat K; Verma, Siddharth; Kanwar, Pushpjeet; Hart, John; Sanivarapu, Raghavendra R; Mohanty, Smruti R

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To study clinical and histopathological features of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in patients with and without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using updated nonalcoholic steatohepatitis clinical research network (NASH-CRN) grading system. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 235 patients with biopsy proven NAFLD with and without T2DM. This database was utilized in the previously published study comparing ethnicity outcomes in NAFLD by the same corresponding author. The pathology database from University of Chicago was utilized for enrolling consecutive patients who met the criteria for NAFLD and their detailed clinical and histopathology findings were obtained for comparison. The relevant clinical profile of patients was collected from the Electronic Medical Records around the time of liver biopsy and the histology was read by a single well-trained histopathologist. The updated criteria for type 2 diabetes have been utilized for analysis. Background data of patients with NASH and NAFLD has been included. The mean differences were compared using χ2 and t-test along with regression analysis to evaluate the predictors of NASH and advanced fibrosis. RESULTS: Patients with NAFLD and T2DM were significantly older (49.9 vs 43.0, P < 0.01), predominantly female (71.4 vs 56.3, P < 0.02), had higher rate of metabolic syndrome (88.7 vs 36.4, P < 0.01), had significantly higher aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase (ALT) ratio (0.94 vs 0.78, P < 0.01) and Fib-4 index (1.65 vs 1.06, P < 0.01) as markers of NASH, showed higher mean NAFLD activity score (3.5 vs 3.0, P = 0.03) and higher mean fibrosis score (1.2 vs 0.52, P < 0.01) compared to patients with NAFLD without T2DM. Furthermore, advanced fibrosis (32.5 vs 12.0, P < 0.01) and ballooning (27.3 vs 13.3, P < 0.01) was significantly higher among patients with NAFLD and T2DM compared to patients with NAFLD without T2DM. On multivariate analysis, T2DM was independently associated with NASH

  7. Walk Score®

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Scott C.; Pantin, Hilda; Lombard, Joanna; Toro, Matthew; Huang, Shi; Plater-Zyberk, Elizabeth; Perrino, Tatiana; Perez-Gomez, Gianna; Barrera-Allen, Lloyd; Szapocznik, José

    2013-01-01

    Background Walk Score® is a nationally and publicly available metric of neighborhood walkability based on proximity to amenities (e.g., retail, food, schools). However, few studies have examined the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior. Purpose To examine the relationship of Walk Score to walking behavior in a sample of recent Cuban immigrants, who overwhelmingly report little choice in their selection of neighborhood built environments when they arrive in the U.S. Methods Participants were 391 recent healthy Cuban immigrants (M age=37.1 years) recruited within 90 days of arrival in the U.S., and assessed within 4 months of arrival (M=41.0 days in the U.S.), who resided throughout Miami-Dade County FL. Data on participants’ addresses, walking and sociodemographics were collected prospectively from 2008 to 2010. Analyses conducted in 2011 examined the relationship of Walk Score for each participant’s residential address in the U.S. to purposive walking, controlling for age, gender, education, BMI, days in the U.S., and habitual physical activity level in Cuba. Results For each 10-point increase in Walk Score, adjusting for covariates, there was a significant 19% increase in the likelihood of purposive walking, a 26% increase in the likelihood of meeting physical activity recommendations by walking, and 27% more minutes walked in the previous week. Conclusions Results suggest that Walk Score is associated with walking in a sample of recent immigrants who initially had little choice in where they lived in the U.S. These results support existing guidelines indicating that mixed land use (such as parks and restaurants near homes) should be included when designing walkable communities. PMID:23867028

  8. Post-Movement Beta Activity in Sensorimotor Cortex Indexes Confidence in the Estimations from Internal Models

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Cian; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Beta oscillations are a dominant feature of the sensorimotor system. A transient and prominent increase in beta oscillations is consistently observed across the sensorimotor cortical-basal ganglia network after cessation of voluntary movement: the post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS). Current theories about the function of the PMBS have been focused on either the closure of motor response or the processing of sensory afferance. Computational models of sensorimotor control have emphasized the importance of the integration between feedforward estimation and sensory feedback, and therefore the putative motor and sensory functions of beta oscillations may reciprocally interact with each other and in fact be indissociable. Here we show that the amplitude of sensorimotor PMBS is modulated by the history of visual feedback of task-relevant errors, and negatively correlated with the trial-to-trial exploratory adjustment in a sensorimotor adaptation task in young healthy human subjects. The PMBS also negatively correlated with the uncertainty associated with the feedforward estimation, which was recursively updated in light of new sensory feedback, as identified by a Bayesian learning model. These results reconcile the two opposing motor and sensory views of the function of PMBS, and suggest a unifying theory in which PMBS indexes the confidence in internal feedforward estimation in Bayesian sensorimotor integration. Its amplitude simultaneously reflects cortical sensory processing and signals the need for maintenance or adaptation of the motor output, and if necessary, exploration to identify an altered sensorimotor transformation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For optimal sensorimotor control, sensory feedback and feedforward estimation of a movement's sensory consequences should be weighted by the inverse of their corresponding uncertainties, which require recursive updating in a dynamic environment. We show that post-movement beta activity (13–30 Hz) over sensorimotor

  9. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  10. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  11. Correlation between the spermicidal activity and the haemolytic index of certain plant saponins.

    PubMed

    Elbary, A A; Nour, S A

    1979-01-01

    The haemolytic index, the spermicidal efficacy and the effect on the vaginal mucosa of some plant saponins were determined. It was proved that a certain correlation exists between the haemolytic index and the spermicidal efficacy of these saponins. Saponin of Gypsophila paniculata was proved to be relatively superior when used in aqueous solution or when formulated in polyethylene glycol ointment base. PMID:542490

  12. 75 FR 75481 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., respectively)). The final rule (72 FR 69108, December 6, 2007) implements section 572 of the FD&C Act, which... Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species AGENCY... technology. Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species--21 CFR Part 516...

  13. 75 FR 75475 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ..., respectively)). The final rule (72 FR 69108, December 6, 2007) implements section 572 of the FD&C Act, which... Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species AGENCY... technology. Index of Legally Marketed Unapproved New Animal Drugs for Minor Species--21 CFR Part 516...

  14. Surface polaritons in a negative-index metamaterial with active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2015-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize stable propagation of linear and nonlinear surface polaritons (SPs) by placing a N -type four-level quantum emitters at the interface between a dielectric and a negative-index metamaterial (NIMM). We show that in linear propagation regime SPs can acquire an active Raman gain (ARG) from a pump field and a gain doublet appears in the gain spectrum of a signal field induced by the quantum interference effect from a control field. The ARG can be used not only to completely compensate the Ohmic loss in the NIMM but also to acquire a superluminal group velocity for the SPs. We also show that in the nonlinear propagation regime a huge enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity of the SPs can be obtained. As a result, ARG-assisted (1 + 1 )- and (2 + 1 )- dimensional superluminal surface polaritonic solitons with extremely low generation power may be produced based on the strong confinement of the electric field at the dielectric-NIMM interface.

  15. Use of the Crohn’s disease activity index in clinical trials of biological agents

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Hugh James

    2008-01-01

    The Crohn’s disease activity index (CDAI) has been commonly used to assess the effects of treatment with different agents in Crohn’s disease (CD). However, these studies may be compromised, if the results compared to a placebo or standard therapy group (in the absence of a placebo) substantially differ from the expected response. In addition, significant concerns have been raised regarding the reliability and validity of the CDAI. Reproducibility of the CDAI may be limited as significant inter-observer error has been recorded, even if measurements are done by experienced clinicians with expertise in the diagnosis and treatment of CD. Finally, many CDAI endpoints are open to subjective interpretation and have the potential for manipulation. This is worrisome as there is the potential for significant financial gain, if the results of a clinical trial appear to provide a positive result. Physicians caring for patients should be concerned about the positive results in clinical trials that are sponsored by industry, even if the trials involve respected centers and the results appear in highly ranked medical journals. PMID:18636655

  16. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Brain Atrophy in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Lopez, Oscar L.; Becker, James T.; Gach, H. Michael; Longstreth, W. T.; Teverovskiy, Leonid; Kuller, Lewis H.; Carmichael, Owen T.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to utilize a novel imaging biomarker to assess the associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's dementia (AD). We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4) from the multi-site Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n=724), AD (n=104), and MCI (n=135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry for analyzing regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes, and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration. PMID:25248607

  17. Glycine-mediated syntheses of Pt concave nanocubes with high-index {hk0} facets and their enhanced electrocatalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhi-cheng; Hui, Jun-feng; Liu, Zhi-Chang; Zhang, Xin; Zhuang, Jing; Wang, Xun

    2012-10-23

    Metal nanocrystals with high-index facets (HIFs) have drawn significant attention for their superior catalysis activity compared to that of low-index faces. However, because of the high surface energy of HIFs, it is still challenging to preserve HIFs during the growth of nanocrystals. In this study, highly selective Pt concave nanocubes (CNCs) with high-index {hk0} facets have been successfully prepared in a simple aqueous solution. The vital role of glycine as the surface controller in the formation of CNCs was demonstrated. These Pt CNCs exhibited enhanced specific activities toward the electro-oxidation of methanol and formic acid in comparison to commercial Pt black and Pt/C catalysts. PMID:23046108

  18. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  19. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  20. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  1. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  2. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: A physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Many Australian children are insufficiently active to accrue health benefits and physical activity (PA) levels are consistently lower among youth of low socio-economic position. PA levels decline dramatically during adolescence and evidence suggests that competency in a range of fundamental movement skills (FMS) may serve as a protective factor against this trend. Methods/design The Supporting Children’s Outcomes Using Rewards Exercise and Skills (SCORES) intervention is a multi-component PA and FMS intervention for primary schools in low-income communities, which will be evaluated using a group randomized controlled trial. The socio-ecological model provided a framework for the 12-month intervention, which includes the following components: teacher professional learning, student leadership workshops (including leadership accreditation and rewards, e.g., stickers, water bottles), PA policy review, PA equipment packs, parental engagement via newsletters, FMS homework and a parent evening, and community partnerships with local sporting organizations. Outcomes will be assessed at baseline, 6- and 12-months. The primary outcomes are PA (accelerometers), FMS (Test of Gross Motor Development II) and cardiorespiratory fitness (multi-stage fitness test). Secondary outcomes include body mass index [using weight (kg)/height (m2)], perceived competence, physical self-esteem, and resilience. Individual and environmental mediators of behavior change (e.g. social support and enjoyment) will also be assessed. The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time will be used to assess the impact of the intervention on PA within physical education lessons. Statistical analyses will follow intention-to-treat principles and hypothesized mediators of PA behavior change will be explored. Discussion SCORES is an innovative primary school-based PA and FMS intervention designed to support students attending schools in low-income communities to be more skilled and active. The

  3. Litter Control Achievement - Ohio 4-H Club Score Sheet [and] Activity Guides 1 through 7. 4-H Pilot Program 918.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Seven activity guides, evaluation sheet, and club scoresheet have been prepared for Ohio 4-H clubs' litter education program. Topics of the seven activity guides include: (1) general guidelines and types of activities; (2) little known facts about waste/litter; (3) guidelines for a walking tour; (4) fact sheet (questionnaire) related to garbage;…

  4. Use of the liver activity index and other metabolic variables in the assessment of metabolic health in dairy herds.

    PubMed

    Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio

    2013-07-01

    The usefulness of the metabolic profile in dairy cows has been questioned because of poor standardization of procedures, high cost of analysis, and perceived inefficiency of the approach. Composite indices based on multiple variables, namely the Liver Activity Index and the Liver Functionality Index, which consider the pattern of changes of some negative acute-phase proteins in the first month of lactation, appear promising in the assessment of metabolic health status and the prediction of lactational and reproductive performance. The application of such indices depends on their reliability and on making them practical and economical regarding test cost and number of sampling points required. PMID:23809898

  5. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  6. Genetic scores of smoking behaviour in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shanshan; He, Yao; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Yiyan; Wu, Lei; Zeng, Jing; Liu, Miao; Zhang, Di; Jiang, Bin; Li, Xiaoying

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to structure a genetic score for smoking behaviour in a Chinese population. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) were evaluated in a community-representative sample (N = 3,553) of Beijing, China. The candidate SNPs were tested in four genetic models (dominance model, recessive model, heterogeneous codominant model and additive model), and 7 SNPs were selected to structure a genetic score. A total of 3,553 participants (1,477 males and 2,076 females) completed the survey. Using the unweighted score, we found that participants with a high genetic score had a 34% higher risk of trying smoking and a 43% higher risk of SI at ≤18 years of age after adjusting for age, gender, education, occupation, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI) and sports activity time. The unweighted genetic scores were chosen to best extrapolate and understand these results. Importantly, genetic score was significantly associated with smoking behaviour (smoking status and SI at ≤18 years of age). These results have the potential to guide relevant health education for individuals with high genetic scores and promote the process of smoking control to improve the health of the population. PMID:26948517

  7. Conditional Standard Errors of Measurement for Composite Scores Using IRT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolen, Michael J.; Wang, Tianyou; Lee, Won-Chan

    2012-01-01

    Composite scores are often formed from test scores on educational achievement test batteries to provide a single index of achievement over two or more content areas or two or more item types on that test. Composite scores are subject to measurement error, and as with scores on individual tests, the amount of error variability typically depends on…

  8. The Type III Radio Burst Occurrence Rate as a New Solar Activity Index: Rieger-Type periodicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.

    2012-12-01

    The type III radio burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) strongly correlates with solar activity and was recently proposed as a new index of solar activity. This index can provide complementary information and may be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. The first observations of a Rieger-type periodicity with the period of 156 days in the daily T3BOR are presented. This periodicity was detected during the time interval from 22 June 2000 to 31 December 2003. This interval partially contains maximum and the declining phase of solar cycle 23. The radio spectra were provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory in Western Australia, part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN).

  9. Inflammatory bowel disease activity assessed by fecal calprotectin and lactoferrin: correlation with laboratory parameters, clinical, endoscopic and histological indexes

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Research has shown that fecal biomarkers are useful to assess the activity of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the study is: to evaluate the efficacy of the fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin as indicators of inflammatory activity. Findings A total of 78 patients presenting inflammatory bowel disease were evaluated. Blood tests, the Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI), Mayo Disease Activity Index (MDAI), and Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Index of Severity (CDEIS) were used for the clinical and endoscopic evaluation. Two tests were performed on the fecal samples, to check the levels of calprotectin and lactoferrin. The performance of these fecal markers for detection of inflammation with reference to endoscopic and histological inflammatory activity was assessed and calculated sensitivity, specificity, accuracy. A total of 52 patient's samples whose histological evaluations showed inflammation, 49 were lactoferrin-positive, and 40 were calprotectin-positive (p = 0.000). Lactoferrin and calprotectin findings correlated with C-reactive protein in both the CD and UC groups (p = 0.006; p = 0.000), with CDAI values (p = 0.043; 0.010), CDEIS values in DC cases (p = 0,000; 0.000), and with MDAI values in UC cases (p = 0.000). Conclusion Fecal lactoferrin and calprotectin are highly sensitive and specific markers for detecting intestinal inflammation. Levels of fecal calprotectin have a proportional correlation to the degree of inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. PMID:19874614

  10. My Favorite American Monument. Kindergarten Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardes, Lupita

    For this kindergarten classroom activity, students are asked to pretend they have just won a trip to four historical sites: (1) Lincoln Memorial; (2) Mount Rushmore; (3) White House; and (4) Statue of Liberty. The activity instructs the students to keep a journal of the trip (taken via the Internet) so that a presentation can be given to the class…

  11. Rocks: A Concrete Activity That Introduces Normal Distribution, Sampling Error, Central Limit Theorem and True Score Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Duzer, Eric

    2011-01-01

    This report introduces a short, hands-on activity that addresses a key challenge in teaching quantitative methods to students who lack confidence or experience with statistical analysis. Used near the beginning of the course, this activity helps students develop an intuitive insight regarding a number of abstract concepts which are key to…

  12. A Propensity Score Matching Study of Participation in Community Activities: A Path to Positive Outcomes for Youth in New Zealand?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Seini; Jose, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    Extracurricular activities are important in many young people's lives and have been associated with positive academic, psychological, and social outcomes. However, most previous research has been limited to school-based activities in the North American context. This study expands existing literature by analyzing longitudinal data from more than…

  13. Growth of Islam. Seventh Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houson, Judy

    This seventh grade activity asks students to gather data that will help them understand and appreciate the Islamic way of life and to learn to feel comfortable living with a Muslim family in Syria during the second semester of the school year. The activity states each student will be interviewed by a Fulbright official, expected to keep a…

  14. How Much Structuring Is Beneficial with Regard to Examination Scores? A Prospective Study of Three Forms of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhardt, Claus H.; Rosen, Evelyne N.

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have demonstrated a superiority of active learning forms compared with traditional lecture. However, there is still debate as to what degree structuring is necessary with regard to high exam outcomes. Seventy-five students from a premedical school were randomly attributed to an active lecture group, a cooperative group, or a…

  15. Let's Go! Kindergarten Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiesner, Eileen

    In this colorfully illustrated kindergarten activity, students read (and re-read) "My Blue Suitcase" (Sharon Katz), as an introduction to traveling. The book uses all of the basic forms of transportation and forms the transportation lesson outline. The activity gives the students the task of learning about each mode of transportation: land, sea,…

  16. Visual scoring of non-cavitated caries lesions and clinical trial efficiency, testing xylitol in caries active adults

    PubMed Central

    Brown, JP; Amaechi, BT; Bader, JD; Gilbert, GH; Makhija, SK; Lozano-Pineda, J; Leo, MC; Chuhe, C; Vollmer, WM

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To better understand the effectiveness of xylitol in caries prevention in adults, and to attempt improved clinical trial efficiency. Methods As part of the Xylitol for Adult Caries Trial (X-ACT), non-cavitated and cavitated caries lesions were assessed in subjects who were experiencing the disease. The trial was a test of the effectiveness of 5 grams/day of xylitol, consumed by dissolving in the mouth five 1 gram lozenges spaced across each day, compared with a sucralose placebo. For this analysis, seeking trial efficiency, 538 subjects aged 21–80, with complete data for four dental examinations were selected from the 691 randomized into the three year trial, conducted at three sites. Acceptable inter and intra examiner reliability before and during the trial was quantified using the kappa statistic. Results The mean annualized non-cavitated plus cavitated lesion transition scores in coronal and root surfaces, from sound to carious favoured xylitol over placebo, during the three cumulative periods of 12, 24, and 33 months, but these clinically and statistically non-significant differences declined in magnitude over time. Restricting the present assessment to those subjects with a higher baseline lifetime caries experience showed possible but inconsistent benefit. Conclusions There was no clear and clinically relevant preventive effect of xylitol on caries in adults with adequate fluoride exposure when non-cavitated plus cavitated lesions were assessed. This conformed to the X-ACT trial result assessing cavitated lesions. Including non-cavitated lesion assessment in this full scale, placebo controlled, multi site, randomized, double blinded clinical trial in adults experiencing dental caries, did not achieve added trial efficiency or demonstrate practical benefit of xylitol. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT00393055 PMID:24205951

  17. Foaming Scum Index (FSI)--a new tool for the assessment and characterisation of biological mediated activated sludge foams.

    PubMed

    Fryer, Martin; Gray, N F

    2012-11-15

    The formation of thick stable brown foams within the activated sludge process has become a familiar operational problem. Despite much research having already been carried out into establishing the causes of activated sludge foaming there is still no general consensus on the mechanisms involved. Historically investigation into activated sludge foaming has involved either measuring, under aeration conditions, the propensity of mixed liquor samples to foam, or evaluating different physico-chemical properties of the sludge which have previously been linked to activated sludge foaming. Both approaches do not present a means to quantify the risk posed to the treatment plants once foams have started to develop on the surface of aeration basins and final clarifiers. The Foaming Scum Index (FSI) is designed to offer a means to quantify risk on the basis of different foam characteristics which can easily be measured. For example, foam stability, foam coverage, foam suspended solids content and biological composition. The FSI was developed by measuring foam samples taken from several different domestic and municipal wastewater treatment sites located in Greater Dublin area (South-East Ireland). Path analysis was used to predict co-dependencies among the different sets of variables following a number of separate hypotheses. The standardized beta coefficients (β) produced from the multivariate correlation analysis (providing a measure of the contribution of each variable in the structural equation model) was used to finalise the weighting of each parameter in the index accordingly. According to this principal, foam coverage exerted the greatest influence on the overall FSI (β = 0.33), whilst the filamentous bacterial composition in terms of the filament index of foam, provided the least (β = 0.03). From this work it is proposed that the index can be readily applied as a standard tool in the coordination of research into the phenomenon of activated sludge foaming. PMID

  18. Body Mass Index, Dieting, Romance, and Sexual Activity in Adolescent Girls: Relationships over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; King, Rosalind Berkowitz; Oslak, Selene G.; Udry, J. Richard

    2005-01-01

    Romantic relationships constitute an important, but understudied, developmental context for accommodation to pubertal change. Using a nationally representative sample of 5,487 black, white, and Hispanic adolescent females, this study examined associations among body mass index, current romantic involvement, and dieting. For each one point increase…

  19. A coronary heart disease risk score based on patient-reported information.

    PubMed

    Mainous, Arch G; Koopman, Richelle J; Diaz, Vanessa A; Everett, Charles J; Wilson, Peter W F; Tilley, Barbara C

    2007-05-01

    To develop a simple, patient self-report-based coronary heart disease (CHD) risk score for adults without previously diagnosed CHD (Personal Heart Early Assessment Risk Tool [HEART] score), the Atherosclerosis Risk In Communities (ARIC) Study, a prospective cohort of subjects aged 45 to 64 years at baseline, was used to develop a measure for 10-year risk of CHD (n = 14,343). Variables evaluated for inclusion were age, history of diabetes mellitus, history of hypercholesterolemia, history of hypertension, family history of CHD, smoking, physical activity, and body mass index. The 10-year risk of CHD events was defined as myocardial infarction, fatal CHD, or cardiac procedure. The new measure was compared with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and European Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The Personal HEART score for men included age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, physical activity, and family history. In men, the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve for predicting 10-year CHD for the Personal HEART score (0.65) was significantly different from that for the FRS (0.69, p = 0.03), but not for the European SCORE (0.62, p = 0.12). The Personal HEART score for women included age, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and body mass index. The area under the curve for the Personal HEART score (0.79) for women was not significantly different from that for the FRS (0.81, p = 0.42) and performed better than the European SCORE (0.69, p = 0.01). In conclusion, the Personal HEART score identifies 10-year risk for CHD based on self-report data, is similar in predictive ability to the FRS and European SCORE, and has the potential for easy self-assessment. PMID:17478150

  20. Physical activity assessed with three different methods and the Framingham Risk Score on 10-year coronary heart disease risk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity (PA) protects against coronary heart disease (CHD) by favorably altering several CHD risk factors. In order to best understand the true nature of the relationship between PA and CHD, the impact different PA assessment methods have on the relationships must first be clarified. The p...

  1. Elevated high-mobility group B1 levels in active adult-onset Still's disease associated with systemic score and skin rash.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee; Sohn, Seonghyang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah

    2016-08-01

    High-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein, and such prototypical damage-associated molecular patterns mediate the immune response in the noninfectious inflammatory response. Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a systemic inflammatory disorder involved in the dysregulation of innate immunity. We investigated the serum HMGB1 level in patients with AOSD and evaluated its clinical significance. Blood samples were collected from 40 patients with active AOSD and 40 healthy controls (HC). Of the patients with AOSD, follow-up samples were collected from 16 patients after a resolution of AOSD disease activity. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients with AOSD were higher than those of the HC (10.0 ± 5.85 vs. 5.15 ± 1.79 ng/mL, p < 0.001). Serum HMGB1 levels were found to be correlated with C-reactive protein (CRP) and the systemic score. The AOSD patient who had a sore throat showed a higher serum HMGB1 level than those patients who did not, and the patient with a skin rash had higher levels than the patients without. In addition, the serum HMGB1 levels were decreased after the resolution of disease activity in the AOSD patients who were followed up. The serum HMGB1 levels were elevated in AOSD patients compared to the HC and were correlated with both CRP and the systemic score. The HMGB1 levels were associated with skin rash and a sore throat in AOSD patients. After the resolution of disease activity, serum HMGB1 levels were found to have decreased. PMID:27225247

  2. In early returns scoring scores big.

    PubMed

    Butman, Samuel M

    2016-07-01

    A scoring or cutting balloon is always useful in preventing slippage during therapy of in-stent restenosis. A drug-coated scoring balloon for in-stent restenosis may be an alternative to a drug-coated balloon Definitive comparison trials are needed and likely to help define their exact role in patients with in-stent restenosis. PMID:27400636

  3. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency. PMID:27548184

  4. The association of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically active,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic index(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical activity (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among active and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to active participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic index across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. active) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256

  5. Active modulation of refractive index by stress in the terahertz frequency range: erratum.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Wang, Zhiyong

    2016-03-20

    A previous paper [Appl. Opt.52, 6364 (2013)APOPAI0003-693510.1364/AO.52.006364] presented experimental work on the stress-optical effect in the terahertz frequency range. Although the theoretical model of experimental measurement is correct, there are two errors in the original version. As a result, the presented experimentally measured value of the refractive index-stress coefficient A of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is erroneous. This erratum points out the errors in the original paper and reports the correct values. PMID:27140555

  6. Greater Independence in Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Higher Health-Related Quality of Life Scores in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Charice S.; Slaughter, Susan E.; Jones, C. Allyson; Wagg, Adrian S.

    2015-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQL) for nursing home residents is important, however, the concept of quality of life is broad, encompasses many domains and is difficult to assess in people with dementia. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) are measured routinely in nursing homes using the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set Version 2.0 (RAI-MDS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) instrument. We examined the relationship between HRQL and ADL to assess the future possibility of ADL dependency level serving as a surrogate measure of HRQL in residents with dementia. To assess ADL, measures derived from the RAI-MDS and FIM data were gathered for 111 residents at the beginning of our study and at 6-month follow-up. Higher scores for independence in ADL were correlated with higher scores for a disease-specific HRQL measure, the Quality of Life—Alzheimer’s Disease Scale. Preliminary evidence suggests that FIM-assessed ADL is associated with HRQL for these residents. The associations of the dressing and toileting items with HRQL were particularly strong. This finding suggests the importance of ADL function in HRQL. The RAI-MDS ADL scales should be used with caution to evaluate HRQL.

  7. The Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum Estimated Using the Mg II K Index and Ca II K disk Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a program to estimate the solar spectrum backward in time to the early twentieth century, we have generated fits to UV spectral irradiance measurements (150 - 410 nm) as a function of two solar activity proxies, the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, or Mg II index, and the total Ca II K disk activity derived from ground based observations. In addition, irradiance spectra at shorter wavelengths (1 - 150 nm) where used to generate fits to the Mg II core-to-wing ratio alone. Two sets of spectra were used in these fitting procedures. The fits at longer wavelengths (150 to 410 nm) were based on the high resolution spectra taken by the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Spectra measured by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite were used for the fits at wavelengths from 1 to 150 nm. To generate fits between solar irradiance and solar proxies, this study uses the above irradiance data, the NOAA composite Mg II index, and daily Ca II K disk activity determined from images measured by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among the results of this study is an estimated relationship between the fraction of the disk with enhanced Ca II K activity and the Mg II index, an upper bound of the average solar UV spectral irradiance during periods of pure quiet sun as was believed to be present during the Maunder Minimum, and results indicating that more than 60 % of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) variability occurs between 150 and 400nm. In this presentation we will discuss the results of this study and the implications for estimating UV spectra for use in long-term climate models.

  8. SPECTRAL INDEX STUDIES OF THE DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 2256: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERGER ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.i

    2010-08-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the merging rich cluster of galaxies, Abell 2256 (A2256). We have observed A2256 at 150 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and successfully detected the diffuse radio halo and the relic emission over a {approx}1.2 Mpc{sup 2} extent. Using this 150 MHz image and the images made using archival observations from the Very Large Array (VLA; 1369 MHz) and the Westerbrok Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 330 MHz), we have produced spectral index images of the diffuse radio emission in A2256. These spectral index images show a distribution of flat spectral index (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}, {alpha} in the range -0.7 to -0.9) plasma in the region NW of the cluster center. Regions showing steep spectral indices ({alpha} in the range -1.0 to -2.3) are toward the SE of the cluster center. These spectral indices indicate synchrotron lifetimes for the relativistic plasmas in the range 0.08-0.4 Gyr. We interpret this spectral behavior as resulting from a merger event along the direction SE to NW within the last 0.5 Gyr or so. A shock may be responsible for the NW relic in A2256 and the megaparsec scale radio halo toward the SE is likely to be generated by the turbulence injected by mergers. Furthermore, the diffuse radio emission shows spectral steepening toward lower frequencies. This low-frequency spectral steepening is consistent with a combination of spectra from two populations of relativistic electrons created at two epochs (two mergers) within the last {approx}0.5 Gyr. Earlier interpretations of the X-ray and the optical data also suggested that there were two mergers in Abell 2256 in the last 0.5 Gyr, consistent with the current findings. Also highlighted in this study is the futility of correlating the average temperatures of thermal gas and the average spectral indices of diffuse radio emission in the respective clusters.

  9. A higher score on the dermatology life quality index, being on systemic treatment and having a diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis is associated with increased costs in patients with plaque psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Ekelund, Mats; Mallbris, Lotus; Qvitzau, Susanne; Stenberg, Berndt

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between measures of disease severity and costs from a societal perspective in patients with plaque psoriasis. Dermatologists in Sweden recruited 443 consecutive patients who had had no biological treatment during the past 12 months. Following a Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) assessment, subjects completed self-assessments on health status/quality of life and a healthcare resource utilization/work status questionnaire. The costs of healthcare resources and sick-leave due to plaque psoriasis were estimated and related to the subject's health status. A patient's Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) and being on systemic therapy, or having diagnosis of psoriatic arthritis, appeared to be more strongly associated with direct and indirect costs than did their PASI. The cost of biological therapy should be considered from the perspective of the already high costs of patients with high DLQI undergoing traditional systemic treatment. PMID:23603935

  10. Development of a new outcome prediction model for Chinese patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma based on preoperative serum C-reactive protein, body mass index, and standard pathological risk factors: the TNCB score group system

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Mi, Qi-Wu; Chen, Xiao-Feng; Zhao, Qi; Li, Yong-Hong; Chen, Jie-Ping; Deng, Chuang-Zhong; Ye, Yun-Lin; Zhong, Ming-Zhu; Liu, Zhuo-Wei; Qin, Zi-Ke; Lin, Xiang-Tian; Liang, Wei-Cong; Han, Hui; Zhou, Fang-Jian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine the predictive value and feasibility of the new outcome prediction model for Chinese patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma. Results The 3-year disease-specific survival (DSS) was 92.3% in patients with < 8.70 mg/L CRP and 54.9% in those with elevated CRP (P < 0.001). The 3-year DSS was 86.5% in patients with a BMI < 22.6 Kg/m2 and 69.9% in those with a higher BMI (P = 0.025). In a multivariate analysis, pathological T stage (P < 0.001), pathological N stage (P = 0.002), BMI (P = 0.002), and CRP (P = 0.004) were independent predictors of DSS. A new scoring model was developed, consisting of BMI, CRP, and tumor T and N classification. In our study, we found that the addition of the above-mentioned parameters significantly increased the predictive accuracy of the system of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) anatomic stage group. The accuracy of the new prediction category was verified. Methods A total of 172 Chinese patients with penile squamous cell cancer were analyzed retrospectively between November 2005 and November 2014. Statistical data analysis was conducted using the nonparametric method. Survival analysis was performed with the log-rank test and the Cox proportional hazard model. Based on regression estimates of significant parameters in multivariate analysis, a new BMI-, CRP- and pathologic factors-based scoring model was developed to predict disease-specific outcomes. The predictive accuracy of the model was evaluated using the internal and external validation. Conclusion The present study demonstrated that the TNCB score group system maybe a precise and easy to use tool for predicting outcomes in Chinese penile squamous cell carcinoma patients. PMID:26980738

  11. High-index faceted Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays as highly active and ultrastable electrocatalysts for water splitting.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liang-Liang; Yu, Guangtao; Wu, Yuanyuan; Li, Guo-Dong; Li, Hui; Sun, Yuanhui; Asefa, Tewodros; Chen, Wei; Zou, Xiaoxin

    2015-11-11

    Elaborate design of highly active and stable catalysts from Earth-abundant elements has great potential to produce materials that can replace the noble-metal-based catalysts commonly used in a range of useful (electro)chemical processes. Here we report, for the first time, a synthetic method that leads to in situ growth of {2̅10} high-index faceted Ni3S2 nanosheet arrays on nickel foam (NF). We show that the resulting material, denoted Ni3S2/NF, can serve as a highly active, binder-free, bifunctional electrocatalyst for both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Ni3S2/NF is found to give ∼100% Faradaic yield toward both HER and OER and to show remarkable catalytic stability (for >200 h). Experimental results and theoretical calculations indicate that Ni3S2/NF's excellent catalytic activity is mainly due to the synergistic catalytic effects produced in it by its nanosheet arrays and exposed {2̅10} high-index facets. PMID:26352297

  12. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  13. Variations of solar EUV radiation and coronal index of solar activity. (Slovak Title: Variácie EUV žiarenia Slnka a koronálny index slnečnej aktivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc, M.; Pastorek, L.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-12-01

    This is a follow-up contribution of the work Lukáč and Rybanský "Modified coronal index of solar activity (MCI) - presented during the last workshop. While MCI has been derived from measurements of the CELIAS/SEM spectrometer onboard the SOHO satellite, in this paper we have focused on the application of the measurements from satellites SORCE and TIMED SEE to the same goal, i.e. for compiling the coronal index of solar activity replacing the ground based coronal measurements.

  14. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  15. Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M; Greco, M A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the proliferative activity of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative activity that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative activity was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative activity of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative activity in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875

  16. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  17. The 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments. [index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented on current and planned spacecraft activity for various disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, solar physics, and life sciences. For active orbiting spacecraft, the epoch date, orbit type, orbit period, apoasis, periapsis, and inclination are given along with the spacecraft weight, launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, and sponsoring agency. For each planned orbiting spacecraft, the orbit parameters, planned launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, spacecraft weight, and sponsoring agency are given.

  18. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  19. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  20. Fingerprinting of music scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irons, Jonathan; Schmucker, Martin

    2004-06-01

    Publishers of sheet music are generally reluctant in distributing their content via the Internet. Although online sheet music distribution's advantages are numerous the potential risk of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) infringement, e.g. illegal online distributions, disables any innovation propensity. While active protection techniques only deter external risk factors, additional technology is necessary to adequately treat further risk factors. For several media types including music scores watermarking technology has been developed, which ebeds information in data by suitable data modifications. Furthermore, fingerprinting or perceptual hasing methods have been developed and are being applied especially for audio. These methods allow the identification of content without prior modifications. In this article we motivate the development of watermarking and fingerprinting technologies for sheet music. Outgoing from potential limitations of watermarking methods we explain why fingerprinting methods are important for sheet music and address potential applications. Finally we introduce a condept for fingerprinting of sheet music.

  1. Translation, Validation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of a Simplified-Chinese Version of the Tegner Activity Score in Chinese Patients with Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongxia; Jiang, Yanfang; Yang, Jie; Feng, Tao; Gong, Xi; Wang, Jianquan; Ao, Yingfang

    2016-01-01

    Aims To translate the English version of Tegner Activity Score into a Simplified-Chinese version (Tegner-C) and evaluate its psychometric properties. Methods Tegner-C was cross-culturally adapted according to established guidelines. The validity and reliability of Tegner-C were assessed in 78 participants, with 19–20 participants in each of the four groups: before anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (pre-ACLR) group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, 3–12 months after ACLR group, and healthy control group. Each participant was asked to complete the Tegner-C and Chinese version of International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Form (IKDC-SKF-C) twice, with an interval of 5±2 days. Intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC2, 1) was used to assess the reliability and Spearman’s rank correlation was used for construct validity. Results The ICC2,1 was higher than 0.90 for all groups except in the pre-ACLR group, for which the ICC2,1 was 0.71 (0.41, 0.87) (All with p<0.001). The absolute reliability as evaluated by the smallest detectable change was 0.43, 2.12, 0.89, and 0.44 for the healthy control group, pre-ACLR group, 2–3 months after ACLR group, and 3–12 months after ACLR group, respectively. Neither a ceiling effect nor a floor effect was observed for any group. Significant difference was observed for both Tegner-C and IKDC-SKF-C scores between the control and the other three groups (all with p<0.001), and between pre-ACLR and the 2–3 months after ACLR group (p<0.001). Conclusions Tegner-C demonstrated comparable psychometric properties to the original English version and thus is reliable and valid for Chinese-speaking patients with ACL injury. PMID:27186880

  2. The Apgar Score.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. The Apgar score alone cannot be considered as evidence of, or a consequence of, asphyxia; does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome; and should not be used for that purpose. An Apgar score assigned during resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists encourage use of an expanded Apgar score reporting form that accounts for concurrent resuscitative interventions. PMID:26416932

  3. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    PubMed

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife. PMID:24628442

  4. Associations of Subjective Social Status with Physical Activity and Body Mass Index across Four Asian Countries

    PubMed Central

    Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry T.-K.; Chen, Duan-Rung

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aims of this study were to (1) assess physical activity and weight status differences and (2) explore the direction and shape of subjective social status (SSS) association with physical activity and weight status within four Asian countries. Methods. Cross section data of adult respondents from the nationally representative East Asian Social Survey were used for analyses. Logistic regression stratified by gender was conducted for the first aim, and simple and quadratic logistic regression models were used for the second. Results. SSS was significantly associated with odds of weekly or daily physical activity across all countries and genders, except for South Korean and Japanese females. Quadratic models provided significantly better fit for Chinese males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 6.51, P value <.05) and females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 7.36, P value <.01), South Korean males (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.40, P value <.05), and Taiwanese females (LR (d.f. = 1) = 4.87, P value <.05). Conclusions. This study provides a comparable cross Asian country measure of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and new findings that a connection exists between SSS and physical activity. Differences of class distinction help explain the different shaped SSS relationships. PMID:24971171

  5. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borker, Abraham L.; McKown, Matthew W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15–111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m2. We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife.

  6. Fecal calprotectin and ulcerative colitis endoscopic activity index as indicators of mucosal healing in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Taghvaei, Tarang; Maleki, Iradj; Nagshvar, Farshad; Fakheri, Hafez; Hosseini, Vahid; Valizadeh, Seyed Mohammad; Neishaboori, Hassan

    2015-04-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic, idiopathic, inflammatory large bowel disease with recurrent variable periods of exacerbation. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the correlation of UCEIS with fecal calprotectin (FC) level to assess disease activity in UC patients in order to determine whether FC can prognosticate clinical outcome and disease activity of UC instead of colonoscopic evaluation. Our endoscopic investigations revealed the extension of UC as the following: proctitis (11.6%), procto-sigmoiditis (18.5%), left-sided colitis (15.8%), extensive colitis (11.7%), and normal endoscopy (42.4%). Conclusively, we suggest that FC can be used as a reliable tool to evaluate disease activity in ulcerative colitis patients. Moreover, our findings indicate a significant correlation between FC level and mucosal healing. PMID:25366383

  7. Effect of Parental Migration Background on Childhood Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Matteo; Kull, Inger; Wickman, Magnus; Wolk, Alicja; Moradi, Tahereh

    2014-01-01

    Background. Poor nutrition, lack of physical activity, and obesity in children have important public health implications but, to date, their effects have not been studied in the growing population of children in Sweden with immigrant parents. Methods. We estimated the association between parental migration background and nutrition, physical activity, and weight in 8-year-old children born in Stockholm between 1994 and 1996 of immigrants and Swedish parents (n = 2589). Data were collected through clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by parents. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using multivariable logistic regression. Results. Children of immigrants complied more closely with Nordic Nutrition Recommendations compared with those of Swedes (OR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.11–1.64). They had higher intake of dietary fibre, vitamins C, B6, and E, folic acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3 and omega-6) reflecting higher consumption of foods of plant origin, but lower intake of vitamins A and D, calcium, and iron reflecting lower consumption of dairy products. Children of immigrants had higher intake of sucrose reflecting higher consumption of sugar and sweets. Furthermore, these children had a higher risk of having low physical activity (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.06–1.62) and being overweight (OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.06–1.65) compared with children of Swedish parents. The odds of having low physical activity and being overweight were even higher in children whose parents were both immigrants. A low level of parental education was associated with increased risk of low physical activity regardless of immigration background. Conclusions. Culturally appropriate tools to capture the diverse range of ethnic foods and other lifestyle habits are needed. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the low levels of physical activity, increased weight, and lack of consumption of some important vitamins among children of immigrants

  8. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  9. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  10. Development of Preparatory Activity Indexed by the Contingent Negative Variation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Angelica B.; Digiacomo, Marcia R.; Meneres, Susana; Trigo, Eva; Gomez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effect of age on task-specific preparatory activation induced by a spatial cue using the central cue Posner's paradigm. The behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) generated between S1 (the warning stimulus) and S2 (the imperative stimulus) were compared between 16 healthy…

  11. An Active Sensor Nitrogen Application Algorithm for Corn Using a Chlorophyll Meter Based Sufficiency Index Concept

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional N fertilizer management schemes for U.S. corn production systems have resulted in low N use efficiency, reduced water quality, and considerable public debate regarding N use in crop production. We have built a prototype high clearance N applicator configured with active sensors, controll...

  12. Middle School Students' Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Oh, Hyunju; Sheng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical public concerns in the United States is the rapid increase in childhood obesity, partly due to the social and environmental changes (e.g., excessive TV and computer use, pressures of standardized testing, etc.) in the past few decades, which has resulted in less physical activity in school children's daily routines.…

  13. Activation of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor Increases the Therapeutic Index of CHOP in Lymphoma Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hedrich, William D; Xiao, Jingwei; Heyward, Scott; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Junran; Baer, Maria R; Hassan, Hazem E; Wang, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR and NR1i3) is a key regulator of CYP2B6, the enzyme predominantly responsible for the biotransformation of cyclophosphamide (CPA) to its pharmacologically active metabolite, 4-hydroxycyclophosphamide (4-OH-CPA). Previous studies from our laboratory illustrated that CAR activation increases the formation of 4-OH-CPA; however, CPA is rarely used clinically outside of combination therapies. Here, we hypothesize that including a selective human CAR activator with the CHOP (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisone) regimen can improve the efficacy without exacerbating off-target toxicity of this regimen in non-Hodgkin lymphoma treatment. In this study, we have developed a novel multiorgan coculture system containing human primary hepatocytes for hepatic metabolism, lymphoma cells as a model target for CHOP, and cardiomyocytes as a major site of off-target toxicity associated with this regimen. We found that a selective human CAR activator, CITCO (6-(4-chlorophenyl)imidazo[2,1-b][1,3]thiazole-5-carbaldehyde-O-(3,4-dichlorobenzyl)oxime), altered expression of key drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters in human hepatocytes, which positively affects the metabolic profile of CHOP. Coadministration of CITCO and CHOP in the coculture model led to significantly enhanced cytotoxicity in lymphoma cells but not in cardiomyocytes. Moreover, the beneficial effects of CITCO were abrogated when CAR knockout HepaRG cells were used in the coculture model. Importantly, synergistic anticancer effects were observed between CITCO and CHOP, in that inclusion of CITCO alongside the CHOP regimen offers comparable antineoplastic activity toward lymphoma cells at significantly reduced drug concentrations, and the decreased CHOP load attenuates cardiotoxicity. Overall, these findings provide a potentially promising novel strategy for facilitating CHOP-based chemotherapy. PMID:26823489

  14. Active terahertz beam steering by photo-generated graded index gratings in thin semiconductor films.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, T P; Tyagi, H K; Schaafsma, M C; Georgiou, G; Gómez Rivas, J

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate active beam steering of terahertz radiation using a photo-excited thin layer of gallium arsenide. A constant gradient of phase discontinuity along the interface is introduced by an spatially inhomogeneous density of free charge carriers that are photo-generated in the GaAs with an optical pump. The optical pump has been spatially modulated to form the shape of a planar blazed grating. The phase gradient leads to an asymmetry between the +1 and -1 transmission diffracted orders of more than a factor two. Optimization of the grating structure can lead to an asymmetry of more than one order of magnitude. Similar to metasurfaces made of plasmonic antennas, the photo-generated grating is a planar structure that can achieve large beam steering efficiency. Moreover, the photo-generation of such structures provides a platform for active THz beam steering. PMID:25401807

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I inhibits chemotaxis, adhesion, activation of THP-1 cells and improves the plasma HDL inflammatory index.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Chen, Wei-Zhong; Wu, Man-Ping

    2010-02-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of high density lipoprotein (HDL) are well described, however, such effects of Apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) are less studied. Building on our previous study, we further explored the mechanism of anti-inflammatory effects of ApoA-I, and focused especially on the interaction between monocyte and endothelial cells and plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits. Our results show that ApoA-I significantly decreased LPS-induced MCP-1 release from THP-1 cells and ox-LDL-induced THP-1 migration ratio (P<0.01, respectively). ApoA-I significantly decreased sL-selectin, sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 release (P<0.01, P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively) from LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. Furthermore, ApoA-I significantly inhibited LPS-induced CD11b and VCAM-1 expression on THP-1 cells (P<0.01, P<0.05, respectively). ApoA-I diminished LPS-induced mCD14 expression (P<0.01) and NFkappaB nuclear translocation in THP-1 cells. After single dose treatment of ApoA-I, the value of plasma HDL inflammatory index in LPS-challenged rabbits was improved significantly (P<0.05). These results suggest that ApoA-I can inhibit chemotaxis, adhesion and activation of human monocytes and improve plasma HDL inflammatory index with presenting beneficial anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:19819722

  16. The Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI): A regulatory factor for dust activity over southwest Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Houssos, E. E.; Rashki, A.; Francois, P.; Legrand, M.; Goto, D.; Bartzokas, A.; Kambezidis, H. D.; Takemura, T.

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the modulation in dust activity over southwest (SW) Asia attributed to changes in the mean sea level pressure (MSLP) between the Caspian Sea (CS) and Hindu Kush (HK) during the summer months (June-July-August-September, JJAS) of the period 2000-2014. The MSLP anomalies obtained via NCEP/NCAR re-analysis are evaluated via a new climatology index, the Caspian Sea-Hindu Kush Index (CasHKI), which is defined as CasHKI = MSLPanom.CS - MSLPanom.HK, over specific domains taken over the CS and HK. The changes in CasHKI intensity are examined against dust activity and rainfall distributions over south Asia. The satellite remote sensing (Meteosat, OMI, MODIS) analyses show that high CasHKI values corresponding to enhanced pressure gradient between the CS and the HK, are associated with intensification of northerly winds, increased dust emissions and transportation over SW Asia and north Arabian Sea. In contrast, variations in CasHKI intensity do not seem to have a significant effect on the Indian summer monsoon. Only a slight decrease of precipitation over the southern Indian peninsula and the neighboring oceanic areas and an increase of precipitation along the Ganges Basin and Himalayan range are found to be related to high CasHKI values. Model (MIROC-SPRINTARS) simulations of dust concentration and dust AOD (Aerosol Optical Depth) over SW Asia are consistent with the satellite observations, highlighting for the first time the modulation of the SW Asian dust activity by CasHKI.

  17. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  18. Quasi-causal associations of physical activity and neighborhood walkability with body mass index: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Glen E.; Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) associations were tested using quasi-experimental twin methods. We hypothesized that physical activity and walkability were independently associated with BMI within twin pairs, controlling for genetic and environmental background shared between them. Methods Data were from 6,376 (64% female; 58% identical) same-sex pairs, University of Washington Twin Registry, 2008–2013. Neighborhood walking, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and BMI were self-reported. Residential address was used to calculate walkability. Phenotypic (non-genetically informed) and biometric (genetically informed) regression was employed, controlling for age, sex, and race. Results Walking and MVPA were associated with BMI in phenotypic analyses; associations were attenuated but significant in biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05). Walkability was not associated with BMI, however, was associated with walking (but not MVPA) in both phenotypic and biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05), with no attenuation accounting for shared genetic and environmental background. Conclusions The association between activity and BMI is largely due to shared genetic and environmental factors, but a significant causal relationship remains accounting for shared background. Although walkability is not associated with BMI, it is associated with neighborhood walking (but not MVPA) accounting for shared background, suggesting a causal relationship between them. PMID:25482422

  19. Psychometric analysis of the Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH).

    PubMed

    Poonnoose, P M; Thomas, R; Keshava, S N; Cherian, R S; Padankatti, S; Pazani, D; Kavitha, M L; Devadarasini, M; Bhattacharji, S; Viswabandya, A; John, J A; Macaden, A S; Mathews, V; Srivastava, A

    2007-09-01

    Joint morbidity in haemophilia has traditionally been measured using clinical and radiological scores. There have been no reliable, validated tools for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia till recently. The Functional Independence Score in Haemophilia (FISH) has been developed as a performance based assessment tool to address this need. The FISH is designed to measure the patient's independence in performing activities of daily living (grooming and eating, bathing and dressing), transfers (chair and floor), and mobility (walking, step climbing and running). On assessment of its psychometric properties in 63 patients with haemophilia (mean age 14 years), FISH was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.85). It had moderate correlation with the World Federation of Hemophilia clinical score (r = -0.61), and a correlation with the Pettersson score of -0.38. It had good correlation with other self-rated functional scores, such as the Stanford Health Assessment Questionnaire (r = -0.75); the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (r = -0.66) and the Haemophilia Activities List (HAL) (r = -0.66). It had good reliability with a pooled intra class correlation of 0.98. On assessing responsiveness following treatment of flexion deformities of the knee in 12 patients, the FISH showed significant changes in the score with a standardized responsiveness mean of -1.93. In conclusion, the FISH was found to be a reliable and valid tool with good internal consistency and responsiveness to therapy, for the assessment of functional independence in persons with haemophilia. PMID:17880453

  20. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  1. Lyman-alpha line as a solar activity index for calculations of solar spectrum in the EUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Katyushina, Valeria; Woods, Thomas

    It is investigated a possibility of retrieval of solar spectrum data using intensity observational data of the only solar spectral line L (Hydrogen Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm).Using as an example spectra obtained by SEE instruments on TIMED satellite, it was shown, that both for lines and for continuum in the spectral range 27-105 nm, which is essential for ionization processes in the ionosphere, a correlation between their intensities and L was high. Therefore it becomes possible to use L measurements data as a natural solar activity index for calculations of EUV solar emission spectrum for solving aeronomical problems. It is noticed, that EUV model, obtained with using SEE data, does not allow to calculate correctly critical frequencies of ionospheric E-layer owing to low intensities of lines 97.7 and 102.6 nm, which produce the main part of ionization in ionospheric E-region.

  2. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and

  3. Effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index in children: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kevin C.; Kuramoto, Lisa K.; Schulzer, Michael; Retallack, Jennifer E.

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of childhood obesity is increasing at an alarming rate. Many local governments have enacted policies to increase physical activity in schools as a way to combat childhood obesity. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of school-based physical activity interventions on body mass index (BMI) in children. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to September 2008. We also hand-searched relevant journals and article reference lists. We included randomized controlled trials and controlled clinical trials that had objective data for BMI from before and after the intervention, that involved school-based physical activity interventions and that lasted for a minimum of 6 months. Results Of 398 potentially relevant articles that we identified, 18 studies involving 18 141 children met the inclusion criteria. The participants were primarily elementary school children. The study duration ranged from 6 months to 3 years. In 15 of these 18 studies, there was some type of co-intervention. Meta-analysis showed that BMI did not improve with physical activity interventions (weighted mean difference –0.05 kg/m2, 95% confidence interval –0.19 to 0.10). We found no consistent changes in other measures of body composition. Interpretation School-based physical activity interventions did not improve BMI, although they had other beneficial health effects. Current population-based policies that mandate increased physical activity in schools are unlikely to have a significant effect on the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity. PMID:19332753

  4. COMPARISON OF FIVE HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY-OF-LIFE INDEXES USING ITEM RESPONSE THEORY ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Fryback, Dennis G.; Palta, Mari; Cherepanov, Dasha; Bolt, Daniel; Kim, Jee-Seon

    2009-01-01

    Background Five health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) indexes—EQ-5D, HUI2, HUI3, QWB-SA, and SF-6D—are each used to assign community-based utility scores to health states, although these scores differ. Objective The authors transform these indexes to a common scale to understand their interrelationships. Methods Data were from the National Health Measurement Study, a telephone survey of 3844 US adults. The 5 indexes were analyzed using item response theory analysis to estimate scores on an underlying construct of summary health, θ. Unidimensionality was evaluated using nonlinear principal components analysis. Index scores were plotted against the estimated scores on the common underlying construct. In addition, scores on the Health and Activities Limitation Index (HALex), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Healthy Days questions, and self-rated health on a 5-category scale ranging from excellent to poor were plotted. Results SF-6D and QWB-SA are nearly linear across the range of θ, but with a shallow slope; EQ-5D, HUI2, and HUI3 are linear with steep slope from low θ (poor health) into mid-range of θ, then approximately linear with a less steep slope for higher θ (health just below to well above average) although the inflection points differ by index. Conclusion Simple linear functions may serve as crosswalks among these indexes only for lower health states albeit with low precision. Ceiling effects make crosswalks among most of the indexes ill specified above a certain level of health. Although each index measures generic health on a utility scale, these indexes are not identical but are relatively simply, if imprecisely, related. PMID:19843961

  5. Home Energy Score

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-16

    The Home Energy Score allows a homeowner to compare her or his home's energy consumption to that of other homes, similar to a vehicle's mile-per-gallon rating. A home energy assessor will collect energy information during a brief home walk-through and then score that home on a scale of 1 to 10.

  6. SCORE - A DESCRIPTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SLACK, CHARLES W.

    REINFORCEMENT AND ROLE-REVERSAL TECHNIQUES ARE USED IN THE SCORE PROJECT, A LOW-COST PROGRAM OF DELINQUENCY PREVENTION FOR HARD-CORE TEENAGE STREET CORNER BOYS. COMMITTED TO THE BELIEF THAT THE BOYS HAVE THE POTENTIAL FOR ETHICAL BEHAVIOR, THE SCORE WORKER FOLLOWS B.F. SKINNER'S THEORY OF OPERANT CONDITIONING AND REINFORCES THE DELINQUENT'S GOOD…

  7. Test Scores, Creativity, and Global Competitiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2002-01-01

    Examines correlation between national test scores in mathematics from the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) and the Current Competitiveness Index (CCI). Finds, for example, that while the United States ranks 29th in TIMSS mathematics, it ranks second in competitiveness on the CCI. Korea ranks 3rd in mathematics, but 27th in…

  8. Reporting Valid and Reliable Overall Scores and Domain Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yao, Lihua

    2010-01-01

    In educational assessment, overall scores obtained by simply averaging a number of domain scores are sometimes reported. However, simply averaging the domain scores ignores the fact that different domains have different score points, that scores from those domains are related, and that at different score points the relationship between overall…

  9. Effects of FADS and ELOVL polymorphisms on indexes of desaturase and elongase activities: results from a pre-post fish oil supplementation.

    PubMed

    Cormier, Hubert; Rudkowska, Iwona; Lemieux, Simone; Couture, Patrick; Julien, Pierre; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2014-11-01

    Polymorphisms (SNPs) within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family are believed to influence enzyme activities after an omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid (FA) supplementation. The objectives of the study are to test whether an n-3 supplementation is associated with indexes of desaturase and elongase activities in addition to verify whether SNPs in the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family modulate enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases. A total 208 subjects completed a 6-week supplementation period with 5 g/day of fish oil (1.9-2.2 g/day of EPA + 1.1 g/day of DHA). FA profiles of plasma phospholipids were obtained by gas chromatography (n = 210). Desaturase and elongase indexes were estimated using product-to-precursor ratios. Twenty-eight SNPs from FADS1, FADS2, FADS3, ELOVL2 and ELOVL5 were genotyped using TaqMan technology. Desaturase indexes were significantly different after the 6-week n-3 supplementation. The index of δ-5 desaturase activity increased by 25.7 ± 28.8 % (p < 0.0001), whereas the index of δ-6 desaturase activity decreased by 17.7 ± 18.2 % (p < 0.0001) post-supplementation. Index of elongase activity decreased by 39.5 ± 27.9 % (p < 0.0001). Some gene-diet interactions potentially modulating the enzyme activities of desaturases and elongases involved in the FA metabolism post-supplementation were found. SNPs within the FADS gene cluster and the ELOVL gene family may play an important role in the enzyme activity of desaturases and elongases, suggesting that an n-3 FAs supplementation may affect PUFA metabolism. PMID:25367143

  10. Clinical risk scores to guide perioperative management.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Sarah; Moonesinghe, Suneetha Ramani

    2011-08-01

    Perioperative morbidity is associated with reduced long term survival. Comorbid disease, cardiovascular illness, and functional capacity can predispose patients to adverse surgical outcomes. Accurate risk stratification would facilitate informed patient consent and identify those individuals who may benefit from specific perioperative interventions. The ideal clinical risk scoring system would be objective, accurate, economical, simple to perform, based entirely on information available preoperatively, and suitable for patients undergoing both elective and emergency surgery. The POSSUM (Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity) scoring systems are the most widely validated perioperative risk predictors currently utilised; however, their inclusion of intra- and postoperative variables precludes validation for preoperative risk prediction. The Charlson Index has the advantage of consisting exclusively of preoperative variables; however, its validity varies in different patient cohorts. Risk models predicting cardiac morbidity have been extensively studied, despite the relatively uncommon occurrence of postoperative cardiac events. Probably the most widely used cardiac risk score is the Lee Revised Cardiac Risk Index, although it has limited validity in some patient populations and for non-cardiac outcomes. Bespoke clinical scoring systems responding to dynamic changes in population characteristics over time, such as those developed by the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program, are more precise, but require considerable resources to implement. The combination of objective clinical variables with information from novel techniques such as cardiopulmonary exercise testing and biomarker assays, may improve the predictive precision of clinical risk scores used to guide perioperative management. PMID:21257993

  11. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online "study questions" leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Susan I

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  12. Promoting an active form of learning out-of-class via answering online “study questions” leads to higher than expected exam scores in General Biology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A rising need for workers in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields has fueled interest in improving teaching within STEM disciplines. Numerous studies have demonstrated the benefits of active learning approaches on student learning outcomes. However, many of these studies have been conducted in experimental, rather than real-life class, settings. In addition, most of these studies have focused on in-class active learning exercises. This study tested the effects of answering questions outside of class on exam performance for General Biology students at the University of Minnesota. An online database of 1,020 multiple-choice questions covering material from the first half of the course was generated. Students in seven course sections (with an average of ∼265 students per section) were given unlimited access to the online study questions. These students made extensive use of the online questions, with students answering an average of 1,323 questions covering material from the half of the semester for which the questions were available. After students answered a set of questions, they were shown the correct answers for those questions. More specific feedback describing how to arrive at the correct answer was provided for the 73% of the questions for which the correct answers were not deemed to be self-explanatory. The extent to which access to the online study questions improved student learning outcomes was assessed by comparing the performance on exam questions of students in the seven course sections with access to the online study questions with the performance of students in course sections without access to the online study questions. Student performance was analyzed for a total of 89 different exams questions that were not included in the study questions, but that covered the same material covered by the study questions. Each of these 89 questions was used on one to five exams given to students in course sections that had access to the

  13. Moderate-Vigorous Physical Activity across Body Mass Index in Females: Moderating Effect of Endocannabinoids and Temperament

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Sauchelli, Sarah; Pastor, Antoni; Gonzalez, Marcela L.; de la Torre, Rafael; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Baños, Rosa; Botella, Cristina; Fernández-Real, Jose M.; Fernández-García, Jose C.; Frühbeck, Gema; Gómez-Ambrosi, Javier; Rodríguez, Roser; Tinahones, Francisco J.; Arcelus, Jon; Fagundo, Ana B.; Agüera, Zaida; Miró, Jordi; Casanueva, Felipe F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Endocannabinoids and temperament traits have been linked to both physical activity and body mass index (BMI) however no study has explored how these factors interact in females. The aims of this cross-sectional study were to 1) examine differences among distinct BMI groups on daytime physical activity and time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), temperament traits and plasma endocannabinoid concentrations; and 2) explore the association and interaction between MVPA, temperament, endocannabinoids and BMI. Methods Physical activity was measured with the wrist-worn accelerometer Actiwatch AW7, in a sample of 189 female participants (43 morbid obese, 30 obese, and 116 healthy-weight controls). The Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised questionnaire was used to assess personality traits. BMI was calculated by bioelectrical impedance analysis via the TANITA digital scale. Blood analyses were conducted to measure levels of endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related compounds. Path-analysis was performed to examine the association between predictive variables and MVPA. Results Obese groups showed lower MVPA and dysfunctional temperament traits compared to healthy-weight controls. Plasma concentrations of 2-arachidonoylglyceryl (2-AG) were greater in obese groups. Path-analysis identified a direct effect between greater MVPA and low BMI (b = −0.13, p = .039) and high MVPA levels were associated with elevated anandamide (AEA) levels (b = 0.16, p = .049) and N-oleylethanolamide (OEA) levels (b = 0.22, p = .004), as well as high Novelty seeking (b = 0.18, p<.001) and low Harm avoidance (b = −0.16, p<.001). Conclusions Obese individuals showed a distinct temperament profile and circulating endocannabinoids compared to controls. Temperament and endocannabinoids may act as moderators of the low MVPA in obesity. PMID:25101961

  14. Brain Efflux Index To Investigate the Influence of Active Efflux on Brain Distribution of Pemetrexed and Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Agarwal, Sagar

    2013-01-01

    Antifolates, in particular methotrexate (MTX), have been widely used in the treatment of primary and secondary tumors of the central nervous system (CNS). Pemetrexed (PMX) is a novel antifolate that also exhibits potent antitumor activity against CNS malignancies. Studies have shown that brain distribution of both antifolates is significantly restricted, possible due to active efflux transport at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This study characterizes the brain-to-blood transport of PMX and MTX and examines the role of several efflux transporters in brain distribution of the antifolates by use of the intracerebral microinjection technique (brain efflux index). The results from this study show that both PMX and MTX undergo saturable efflux transport across the BBB, with elimination half-lives of approximately 39 minutes and 29 minutes, respectively. Of the various efflux transporters this study investigated, multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (Mrp2) does not play an important role in the brain distribution of the two antifolate drugs. Interestingly, breast-cancer resistance protein (Bcrp) makes a significant contribution to the brain elimination of MTX but not PMX. In addition, the brain-to-blood transport of both antifolates was inhibited by probenecid and benzylpenicillin, suggesting the involvement of organic anion transporters in the efflux of these compounds from the brain, with organic anion transporter 3 (Oat3) being a possibility. Our results suggest that one of the underlying mechanisms behind the limited brain distribution of PMX and MTX is active efflux transport processes at the BBB, including a benzylpenicillin-sensitive transport system and/or the active transporter Bcrp. PMID:23297298

  15. Reduced risk of Parkinson's disease associated with lower body mass index and heavy leisure-time physical activity.

    PubMed

    Sääksjärvi, Katri; Knekt, Paul; Männistö, Satu; Lyytinen, Jukka; Jääskeläinen, Tuija; Kanerva, Noora; Heliövaara, Markku

    2014-04-01

    The risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD) are not well established. We therefore examined the prediction of various lifestyle factors on the incidence of PD in a cohort drawn from the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey, conducted in 1973-1976. The study population comprised 6,715 men and women aged 50-79 years and free of PD at the baseline. All of the subjects completed a baseline health examination (including height and weight measurements) and a questionnaire providing information on leisure-time physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. During a 22-year follow-up, 101 incident cases of PD occurred. The statistical analyses were based on Cox's model including age, sex, education, community density, occupation, coffee consumption, body mass index (BMI), leisure-time physical activity, smoking and alcohol consumption as independent variables. At first, BMI was not associated with PD risk, but after exclusion of the first 15 years of follow-up, an elevated risk appeared at higher BMI levels (P for trend 0.02). Furthermore, subjects with heavy leisure-time physical activity had a lower PD risk than those with no activity [relative risk (RR) 0.27, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.08-0.90]. In variance with findings for other chronic diseases, current smokers had a lower PD risk than those who had never smoked (RR 0.23, 95 % CI 0.08-0.67), and individuals with moderate alcohol intake (at the level of <5 g/day) had an elevated PD risk compared to non-drinkers. The results support the hypothesis that lifestyle factors predict the occurrence of Parkinson's disease, but more research is needed. PMID:24633681

  16. The relation of autologous serum and plasma skin test results with urticarial activity score, sex and age in patients with chronic urticaria

    PubMed Central

    Aktar, Sirac; Akdeniz, Necmettin; Calka, Omer; Karadag, Ayse Serap

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Some previous studies reported autoimmunity as an etiologic factor in chronic urticaria (CU), but the results of some autoimmunity tests in these studies are conflicting. Aim To concretize whether there was any relation of autologous serum skin test (ASST) and autologous plasma skin test (APST) results with sex, age and urticarial activity score (UAS) in patients with CU. Material and methods Fifty patients with CU and twenty healthy subjects admitted to our dermatology clinic were included in the present study. The ASST and APST were applied to all individuals. Results The positiveness rates of ASST and APST were significantly higher in the patient group than controls (p = 0.027, p = 0.001, respectively). Among patients, the APST positiveness rate (72%) was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than ASST (46%). It was seen that 48% of patients with negative ASST results had positive APST. However, no patient with negative APST results had positive ASST. There were significant (p < 0.05) relations of the tests’ positiveness rates with sex and old age but with UAS. The diameter of the erythematous papule was remarkably (p < 0.05) larger in APST than ASST and also significantly (p < 0.05) larger in females compared to males in both tests (p < 0.05). It was positively increased with old age (p < 0.05). Conclusions We can suggest that APST is more sensitive than ASST in the assessment of autoimmunity in CU. A high positiveness rate of APST results may be attributed to high numbers of autoantibodies and coagulation factors present in plasma that might probably play a role in etiopathogenesis of CU. PMID:26161057

  17. Is There a Relationship between Body Mass Index, Fitness, and Academic Performance? Mixed Results from Students in a Southeastern United States Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Robert Joshua; Graziano, Paulo A.; McNamara, Joseph P. H., Janicke, David M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate relationships between body mass index (BMI), physical fitness, and academic performance in elementary school students. Specifically, BMI and scores on the President's Challenge Physical Activity and Fitness Awards Program, a physical fitness test, were compared to reading and mathematics scores on the…

  18. Genetic evaluation of elbow scores and the relationship with hip scores in UK Labrador retrievers.

    PubMed

    Lewis, T W; Ilska, J J; Blott, S C; Woolliams, J A

    2011-08-01

    A linear mixed model analysis of elbow and hip score data from UK Labrador retrievers was used to estimate the heritability of elbow score (0.16-0.19) and to determine a moderate and beneficial genetic correlation with hip score (0.40). A small improvement in the genetic trend of elbow score was observed during the years 2000-2008, equivalent to avoiding only the worst 3-4% of scored dogs for breeding, but close to what may have been anticipated if the current British Veterinary Association-approved guidelines were followed. Calculations suggested that a correlated response to indirect selection on hip score may elicit a greater response than direct selection on elbow score and that the genetic trend in elbow score may be explained as a consequence of the stronger selection pressure that has been placed on hip score. Increases in the accuracy of estimated breeding values for elbow score of 4-7% for dogs with elbow data only and 7-11% for dogs with both hip and elbow score were observed from bivariate analysis of elbow and hip data. A selection index confirmed the benefits of bivariate analysis of elbow and hip score data by identifying increases in accuracy (directly related to the response to selection) of 14% from the use of optimum coefficients compared to use of hip data only. The quantified genetic correlation means that hip score effectively acts as a 'secondary indicator' of elbow score in this breed and the preponderance of hip data means that it acts as a major source of information that may be used to improve the accuracy of estimates of genetic risk for elbow dysplasia. PMID:21737324

  19. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  20. Prediction of Large Joint Destruction in Patients With Rheumatoid Arthritis Using 18F-FDG PET/CT and Disease Activity Score

    PubMed Central

    Suto, Takahito; Okamura, Koichi; Yonemoto, Yukio; Okura, Chisa; Tsushima, Yoshito; Takagishi, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The assessments of joint damage in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are mainly restricted to small joints in the hands and feet. However, the development of arthritis in RA patients often involves the large joints, such as the shoulder, elbow, hip, knee, and ankle. Few studies have been reported regarding the degree of large joint destruction in RA patients. 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) visualizes the disease activity in large joints affected by RA. In this study, the associations between destruction of the large joints and the findings of FDG-PET/CT as well as laboratory parameters were investigated, and factors associated with large joint destruction after the administration of biological therapy were identified in RA patients. A total of 264 large joints in 23 RA patients (6 men and 17 women; mean age of 66.9 ± 7.9 years) were assessed in this study. FDG-PET/CT was performed at baseline and 6 months after the initiation of biological therapy. The extent of FDG uptake in large joints (shoulder, elbow, wrist, hip, knee, and ankle) was analyzed using the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax). Radiographs of the 12 large joints per patient obtained at baseline and after 2 years were assessed according to Larsen's method. A logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors most significantly contributing to the progression of joint destruction within 2 years. Radiographic progression of joint destruction was detected in 33 joints. The SUVmax at baseline and 6 months, and the disease activity score (DAS) 28-erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) at 6, 12, and 24 months were significantly higher in the group with progressive joint destruction. The SUVmax at baseline and DAS28-ESR at 6 months were found to be factors associated with joint destruction at 2 years (P < 0.05). The FDG uptake in the joints with destruction was higher than that observed in the

  1. The Youth Throwing Score

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Christopher S.; Padaki, Ajay S.; Noticewala, Manish Suresh; Makhni, Eric Chugh; Popkin, Charles Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Epidemic levels of shoulder and elbow injuries have been reported in youth and adolescent baseball players. Despite the concerning frequency of these injuries, no instrument has been validated to assess upper extremity injury in this patient population. The purpose of this study was to validate an upper extremity assessment tool specifically designed for youth baseball players. We hypothesize this tool will be reliable, responsive and valid. Methods: The Youth Throwing Score (YTS) was constructed by a multidisciplinary healthcare provider team in addition to baseball coaches as a tool to assess upper extremity injury in 10 to 18 year old baseball players. The instrument was comprised of a demographics section and a 14 item assessment of pain, fatigue and psychosocial health. The 14 items were scored from 1 to 5 and weighted equally, with higher scores reflecting fewer symptoms and less functional disability. The psychometric properties, including the test-retest reliability, internal consistency, and responsiveness were calculated. Additionally, the Pearson correlation coefficient to 4 validated outcomes was determined. Results: A pilot form of the instrument was administered to 25 players to assess comprehension and mean item importance. Pilot analysis resulted in none of the 14 items receiving less than a 3 out of 5 mean athlete importance rating and the final instrument read at a Flesch-Kincaid level of 4.1, appropriate for patients age 9 and older. A total of 223 players completed the Youth Throwing Score, with an average player age of 14.3 ± 2.7 years old. The players self-assigned injury status, resulting in an average survey score of 59.7 ± 8.4 for the 148 players ‘playing without pain,’ 42.0 ± 11.5 for the 60 players ‘playing with pain,’ and 40.4 ± 10.5 for the 15 players ‘not playing due to pain.’ Players playing without pain scored significantly higher than those playing with pain (p < .001). The scoring tiers of the Youth

  2. Volleyball Scoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, William; Dargahi-Noubary, G. R.; Shi, Yixun

    2002-01-01

    The widespread interest in sports in our culture provides an excellent opportunity to catch students' attention in mathematics and statistics classes. One mathematically interesting aspect of volleyball, which can be used to motivate students, is the scoring system. (MM)

  3. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  4. Bio-active engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic activity: therapeutic index, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ~50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic index we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition activity using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:24333519

  5. Fatty acid composition in serum correlates with that in the liver and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores in mice fed a high-fat diet.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-He; Li, Chun-Yan; Muhammad, Ishfaq; Zhang, Xiu-Ying

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the correlation between the serum fatty acid composition and hepatic steatosis, inflammation, hepatocellular ballooning scores, and liver fatty acids composition in mice fed a high-fat diet. Livers were collected for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease score analysis. Fatty acid compositions were analysed by gas chromatography. Correlations were determined by Pearson correlation coefficient. Exposed to a high-fat diet, mice developed fatty liver disease with varying severity without fibrosis. The serum fatty acid variation became more severe with prolonged exposure to a high-fat diet. This variation also correlated significantly with the variation in livers, with the types of fatty acids corresponding to liver steatosis, inflammation, and hepatocellular ballooning scores. Results of this study lead to the following hypothesis: the extent of serum fatty acid variation may be a preliminary biomarker of fatty liver disease caused by high-fat intake. PMID:27179602

  6. Validation of an algofunctional index for osteoarthritis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Dreiser, R L; Maheu, E; Guillou, G B; Caspard, H; Grouin, J M

    1995-06-01

    Although hand osteoarthritis is common, it has been the focus of few therapeutic trials. In addition to the problems raised by clinical trials in osteoarthritis in general and to the difficulties due to the unforeseeable course of osteoarthritis of the trapezometacarpal and finger joints, the lack of a clinical tool for assessing pain and function over time is an additional obstacle. We propose an algofunctional index designed for evaluation and symptomatic follow-up of patients with digital osteoarthritis. The index is based on a physician-administered questionnaire on 10 daily activities involving the hands. The patient is asked to answer each item using a 4-point verbal scale, from "possible without difficulty" (0) to "impossible" (3 points); thus, total scores range from 0 to 30. This index has been used in a few clinical placebo-controlled trials and was found sensitive to change. The aim of this study was to assess the metrological qualities of this index, including consistency (internal and external), sensitivity and specificity (by scoring the index in different groups of subjects), intra-observer reproducibility, and ease of use. Three hundred patients were recruited by 25 rheumatologists: 100 had a painful attack of digital and/or trapezometacarpal osteoarthritis (mean age: 64.9 years) with a score of more than 40 mm on a visual analog scale for overall pain severity (mean: 57.3 +/- 14 mm), 100 had "inactive" hand osteoarthritis (mean age 67.0 years), and 100 had no diseases of the upper limbs. Specificity/sensitivity: the mean index score was 12.41 +/- 5.41 in patients with painful OA, 4.28 +/- 3.87 in "inactive" cases, and 0.59 +/- 1.23 in controls. External consistency: the overall mean score was well correlated with pain severity: r = 0.49 (p < 0.001). Internal consistency: principal component analysis identified a primary axis responsible for 44.2% of the variance and two secondary axes each responsible for slightly more than 9% of the variance. None

  7. Renal tubular dysfunction measured by N-acetyl-beta glucosaminidase/Creatinine activity index in children receiving antiepileptic drugs: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mazaheri, Mojgan; Samaie, Afshin; Semnani, Vahid

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate renal side-effects of anti-epileptic medication by valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ), we performed a prospective study to assess renal tubular function by measuring N-acetyl-β glucosaminidase (NAG)/Cr activity index in epileptic children. The study was conducted on 112 children who were diagnosed with epilepsy (28 patients were observed before treatment with anti-epileptics, 28 children were administered VPA, 28 children were treated with CBZ, and 28 healthy children were selected age &sex matched for). An especial NAG assay kit was used for quantitative measuring of NAG in patient urine samples. The patients receiving VPA exhibited higher rate of NAG activity compared with the two groups which not receiving anti-epileptic drugs. Measurement of urinary NAG/Cr index in the children who received CBZ also, was significantly higher than those who were not administered anti-epileptic drugs. The measurement of NAG/Cr index in the VPA group was significantly higher than that in the CBZ group (NAG index: 2.75 versus 1.71). Children on anti-epileptic treatment with VPA or CBZ might demonstrate signs of renal tubular dysfunction, reflected by NAG/Cr activity index. This side effect can be potentially more occurred following VPA administration. PMID:21569539

  8. Renal tubular dysfunction measured by N-acetyl-beta glucosaminidase/Creatinine activity index in children receiving antiepileptic drugs: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate renal side-effects of anti-epileptic medication by valproate (VPA) and carbamazepine (CBZ), we performed a prospective study to assess renal tubular function by measuring N-acetyl-β glucosaminidase (NAG)/Cr activity index in epileptic children. The study was conducted on 112 children who were diagnosed with epilepsy (28 patients were observed before treatment with anti-epileptics, 28 children were administered VPA, 28 children were treated with CBZ, and 28 healthy children were selected age &sex matched for). An especial NAG assay kit was used for quantitative measuring of NAG in patient urine samples. The patients receiving VPA exhibited higher rate of NAG activity compared with the two groups which not receiving anti-epileptic drugs. Measurement of urinary NAG/Cr index in the children who received CBZ also, was significantly higher than those who were not administered anti-epileptic drugs. The measurement of NAG/Cr index in the VPA group was significantly higher than that in the CBZ group (NAG index: 2.75 versus 1.71). Children on anti-epileptic treatment with VPA or CBZ might demonstrate signs of renal tubular dysfunction, reflected by NAG/Cr activity index. This side effect can be potentially more occurred following VPA administration. PMID:21569539

  9. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  10. Association of High Blood Pressure with Body Mass Index, Smoking and Physical Activity in Healthy Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Papathanasiou, George; Zerva, Efthimia; Zacharis, Ioannis; Papandreou, Maria; Papageorgiou, Effie; Tzima, Christina; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Evangelou, Angelos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between resting blood pressure (BP), smoking, physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in Greek young adults. Materials and Methodology: A standardised questionnaire and the Greek version of IPAQ-short were given to 1500 randomly selected health science students, in order to record smoking behaviour, PA status, BMI and resting BP. All healthy young adults aged 19-30 years old were eligible. The final size of the study cohort was 1249 students (522 men). Results: Males’ BP was 129.2/77.0 mmHg, significantly higher than the females’ values of 119.9/73.4 mmHg. Approximately 17% of the total population were classified as overweight and 3% as obese. In the overall population, smoking prevalence was 35.2%, with 15.3% being heavy smokers (≥21 cigs/d). Smoking prevalence did not differ significantly between sexes. The prevalence of health-enhancing PA (high PAclass) was only 14.0%, while 42.8% of the study population were classified as insufficiently active (low PAclass). Of the three lifestyle risk factors examined, only BMI was significantly and directly associated with systolic and diastolic BP levels. The prevalence of hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) was significantly higher in men compared to women, and in obese and overweight participants compared to normal-weight subjects. Smoking and categorical PA (PAclass) were not correlated with BP. Continuous vigorous PAscore was significantly and directly associated with systolic BP, but only in males. Conclusion: BMI was significantly and directly associated with resting BP in both sexes. Smoking prevalence and PA status were not associated with BP in this sample of Greek young adults. PMID:25834651

  11. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  12. Increasing Active Student Responding in a University Applied Behavior Analysis Course: The Effect of Daily Assessment and Response Cards on End of Week Quiz Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malanga, Paul R.; Sweeney, William J.

    2008-01-01

    The study compared the effects of daily assessment and response cards on average weekly quiz scores in an introduction to applied behavior analysis course. An alternating treatments design (Kazdin 1982, "Single-case research designs." New York: Oxford University Press; Cooper et al. 2007, "Applied behavior analysis." Upper Saddle River:…

  13. Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse Score

    PubMed Central

    Rizzuto, Ivana; Stavraka, Chara; Chatterjee, Jayanta; Borley, Jane; Hopkins, Thomas Glass; Gabra, Hani; Ghaem-Maghami, Sadaf; Huson, Les; Blagden, Sarah P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to construct a prognostic index that predicts risk of relapse in women who have completed first-line treatment for ovarian cancer (OC). Methods A database of OC cases from 2000 to 2010 was interrogated for International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage, grade and histological subtype of cancer, preoperative and posttreatment CA-125 level, presence or absence of residual disease after cytoreductive surgery and on postchemotherapy computed tomography scan, and time to progression and death. The strongest predictors of relapse were included into an algorithm, the Risk of Ovarian Cancer Relapse (ROVAR) score. Results Three hundred fifty-four cases of OC were analyzed to generate the ROVAR score. Factors selected were preoperative serum CA-125, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage and grade of cancer, and presence of residual disease at posttreatment computed tomography scan. In the validation data set, the ROVAR score had a sensitivity and specificity of 94% and 61%, respectively. The concordance index for the validation data set was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.85-0.96). The score allows patient stratification into low (<0.33), intermediate (0.34–0.67), and high (>0.67) probability of relapse. Conclusions The ROVAR score stratifies patients according to their risk of relapse following first-line treatment for OC. This can broadly facilitate the appropriate tailoring of posttreatment care and support. PMID:25647256

  14. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  15. Modeling of decomposition activity and priming effect in soil using the versatile index of microbial physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskiy, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of microbial biomass in soil organic matter (SOM) models is still unresolved issue. The approaches using explicit description of microbial biomass (decomposer) interaction with SOM usually cannot be easily verified by means of experimental estimating of total microbial biomass dynamics. Standard experimental methods, such as fumigation extraction or direct microscopic count, does not represent microbial activity (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2013), which is essential for the control of decomposition rate. More advanced approaches, explicitly simulating intracellular metabolic activity (Resat et al., 2012) and e.g. production and turnover of extracellular enzymes (Lawrence et al., 2009) are prohibitively complex for the field and larger scales, which are most often under demand for SOM modelling. One possible parsimonious solution is an application of index of microbial physiological state (r), which describes the adaptive variation of the cell composition and metabolic activity by one variable (Panikov, 1995). This variable (r) can reflect the microbial response to the availability of carbon and nitrogen and shift of microbial biomass between active and dormant state (Blagodatsky and Richter, 1998), but also can be used for the description of the effect of external factors, such as temperature and moisture, on microbial activity. This approach is extremely useful for the description of priming effect (Blagodatsky et al., 2010) and the influence of substrate availability and external factors on the size and dynamics of priming. Distinguishing of these two types of driving forces for priming is crucial for modelling of SOM dynamics and steady-state stocks of different SOM pools. I will present the analysis of model response on combination of limiting factors presented as functions controlling the change of microbial physiological state and size of priming effect. Alternatively, the direct effect of the same factors on decomposition rate and priming

  16. Validation of an IGF-CTP scoring system for assessing hepatic reserve in egyptian patients with hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Wahab, Reham; Shehata, Samir; Hassan, Manal M.; Xiao, Lianchun; Lee, Ju-Seog; Cheung, Sheree; Essa, Hoda H.; Hassabo, Hesham M.; Shalaby, Ahmed S.; Mosad, Eman; Raghav, Kanwal; Rashid, Asif; Wolff, Robert A.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Amin, Hesham M.; Kaseb, Ahmed O.

    2015-01-01

    Background The Child-Turcotte-Pugh score (CTP) is the standard tool for hepatic reserve assessment in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, we reported that integrating plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) level into the CTP score was associated with better patient risk stratification in two U.S. independent cohorts. Our current study aimed to validate the IGF-CTP score in patients who have different demographics and risk factors. Patients and Methods We prospectively recruited 100 Egyptian patients and calculated their IGF-CTP score compared to CTP score. C-index was used to compare the prognostic significance of the two scoring systems. Finally, we compared our results with our U.S. cohorts published data. Results IGF-CTP score showed significant better patient stratification compared to CTP score in the international validation cohort. Among CTP class A patients, who usually considered for active treatment and clinical trial enrollment, 32.5% were reclassified as IGF-CTP class B with significantly shorter OS than patients reclassified as class A with hazard ratio [HR] = 6.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.18-17.37. Conclusion IGF-CTP score showed significantly better patient stratification and survival prediction not only in the U.S. population but also in international validation population, who had different demographics and HCC risk factors. PMID:26098859

  17. Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

    2014-11-01

    Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

  18. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-11

    Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-index facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:24084858

  19. High-Efficiency WOLEDs with High Color-Rendering Index based on a Chromaticity-Adjustable Yellow Thermally Activated Delayed Fluorescence Emitter.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Long; Xie, Gaozhan; Liu, Ming; Chen, Dongcheng; Cai, Xinyi; Peng, Junbiao; Cao, Yong; Su, Shi-Jian

    2016-06-01

    A chromaticity-adjustable yellow thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) material, PXZDSO2 as a triplet harvester provides a rational device concept, giving two-color and three-color pure organic white organic light-emitting diodes (WOLEDs) with unprecedented color-rendering index of 95 and external quantum efficiency of 19.2%. PMID:27062637

  20. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  1. Production and evaluation of children's dietary life safety index data on metropolitan cities and provinces in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young-Sun; Lee, Jung-Sug; Kim, Hye-Young; Kwak, Tong-Kyung; Chung, Hae Rang; Kwon, Sehyug; Choi, Youn-Ju; Lee, Soon-Kyu

    2012-01-01

    This pilot study was performed to produce data of the Children's Dietary Life Safety (CDLS) Index which is required by the Special Act on Safety Management of Children's Dietary Life and to evaluate the CDLS Index for 7 metropolitan cities and 9 provinces in Korea. To calculate the CDLS Index score, data regarding the evaluation indicators in the children's food safety domain and children's nutrition safety domain were collected from the local governments in 2009. For data regarding the indicators in the children's perception & practice domain, a survey was conducted on 2,400 5th grade children selected by stratified sampling in 16 local areas. Relative scores of indicators in each domain were calculated using the data provided by local governments and the survey, the weights are applied on relative scores, and then the CDLS Index scores of local governments were produced by adding scores of the 3 domains. The national average scores of the food safety domain, the nutrition safety domain and the perception and practice domain were 23.74 (14.67-26.50 on a 40-point scale), 16.65 (12.25-19.60 on a 40-point scale), and 14.88 (14.16-15.30 on a 20-point scale), respectively. The national average score of the CDLS Index which was produced by adding the scores of the three domains was 55.27 ranging 46.44-58.94 among local governments. The CDLS Index scores produced in this study may provide the motivation for comparing relative accomplishment and for actively achieving the goals through establishment of the target value by local governments. Also, it can be used as useful data for the establishment and improvement of children's dietary life safety policy at the national level. PMID:23346305

  2. Trainee Occupational Therapists Scoring the Barthel ADL.

    PubMed

    Martin, Elizabeth; Nugent, Chris; Bond, Raymond; Martin, Suzanne

    2015-09-01

    Within medical applications there are two main types of information design; paper-based and digital information [1]. As technology is constantly changing, information within healthcare management and delivery is continually being transitioned from traditional paper documents to digital and online resources. Activity of Daily Living (ADL) charts are still predominantly paper based and are therefore prone to "human error" [2]. In light of this, an investigation has taken place into the design for reducing the amount of human error, between a paper based ADL, specifically the Barthel Index, and the same ADL created digitally. The digital ADL was developed as an online platform as this offers the best method of data capture for a large group of participants all together [3]. The aim of the study was to evaluate the usability of the Barthel Index ADL in paper format and then reproduce the same ADL digitally. This paper presents the findings of a study involving 26 participants who were familiar with ADL charts, and used three scenarios requiring them to complete both a paper ADL and a digital ADL. An evaluation was undertaken to ascertain if there were any 'human errors' in completing the paper ADL and also to find similarities/differences through using the digital ADL. The results from the study indicated that 22/26 participants agreed that the digital ADL was better, if not the same as a paper based ADL. Further results indicated that participants rate highly the added benefit of the digital ADL being easy to use and also that calculation of assessment scores were performed automatically. Statistically the digital BI offered a 100 % correction rate in the total calculation, in comparison to the paper based BI where it is more common for users to make mathematical calculation errors. Therefore in order to minimise handwriting and calculation errors, the digital BI proved superior than the traditional paper based method. PMID:26250757

  3. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H⁺/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [³H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  4. Relationship between Body Mass Index, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme Activity Estimates in Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, C. Austin; Matsuo, Karen H.; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF- α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786

  5. Physical Activity Matters: Associations Among Body Mass Index, Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Trajectories Over 10 Years

    PubMed Central

    Feeny, David; Garner, Rochelle; Bernier, Julie; Thompson, Amanda; McFarland, Bentson H.; Huguet, Nathalie; Kaplan, Mark S.; Ross, Nancy A.; Blanchard, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults. Methods Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every two years between 1996/97 and 2006/07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females. Results Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared to individuals who were active in their leisure time. Conclusions The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL. PMID:24176861

  6. Scoring from Contests

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Elizabeth Maggie

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a new model for scoring alternatives from “contest” outcomes. The model is a generalization of the method of paired comparison to accommodate comparisons between arbitrarily sized sets of alternatives in which outcomes are any division of a fixed prize. Our approach is also applicable to contests between varying quantities of alternatives. We prove that under a reasonable condition on the comparability of alternatives, there exists a unique collection of scores that produces accurate estimates of the overall performance of each alternative and satisfies a well-known axiom regarding choice probabilities. We apply the method to several problems in which varying choice sets and continuous outcomes may create problems for standard scoring methods. These problems include measuring centrality in network data and the scoring of political candidates via a “feeling thermometer.” In the latter case, we also use the method to uncover and solve a potential difficulty with common methods of rescaling thermometer data to account for issues of interpersonal comparability. PMID:24748759

  7. Automated Essay Scoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dikli, Semire

    2006-01-01

    The impacts of computers on writing have been widely studied for three decades. Even basic computers functions, i.e. word processing, have been of great assistance to writers in modifying their essays. The research on Automated Essay Scoring (AES) has revealed that computers have the capacity to function as a more effective cognitive tool (Attali,…

  8. Developing Scoring Algorithms

    Cancer.gov

    We developed scoring procedures to convert screener responses to estimates of individual dietary intake for fruits and vegetables, dairy, added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium using the What We Eat in America 24-hour dietary recall data from the 2003-2006 NHANES.

  9. Syncopation and the Score

    PubMed Central

    Song, Chunyang; Simpson, Andrew J. R.; Harte, Christopher A.; Pearce, Marcus T.; Sandler, Mark B.

    2013-01-01

    The score is a symbolic encoding that describes a piece of music, written according to the conventions of music theory, which must be rendered as sound (e.g., by a performer) before it may be perceived as music by the listener. In this paper we provide a step towards unifying music theory with music perception in terms of the relationship between notated rhythm (i.e., the score) and perceived syncopation. In our experiments we evaluated this relationship by manipulating the score, rendering it as sound and eliciting subjective judgments of syncopation. We used a metronome to provide explicit cues to the prevailing rhythmic structure (as defined in the time signature). Three-bar scores with time signatures of 4/4 and 6/8 were constructed using repeated one-bar rhythm-patterns, with each pattern built from basic half-bar rhythm-components. Our manipulations gave rise to various rhythmic structures, including polyrhythms and rhythms with missing strong- and/or down-beats. Listeners (N = 10) were asked to rate the degree of syncopation they perceived in response to a rendering of each score. We observed higher degrees of syncopation in time signatures of 6/8, for polyrhythms, and for rhythms featuring a missing down-beat. We also found that the location of a rhythm-component within the bar has a significant effect on perceived syncopation. Our findings provide new insight into models of syncopation and point the way towards areas in which the models may be improved. PMID:24040323

  10. The Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus Disease Area and Severity Index

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla-Martinez, Zuleika L.; Albrecht, Joerg; Troxel, Andrea B.; Taylor, Lynne; Okawa, Joyce; Dulay, Sam; Werth, Victoria P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical responsiveness of the CLASI (Cutaneous Lupus Erythematosus [CLE] Disease Area and Severity Index). Design Validation cohort. Setting Tertiary referral center. Patients Eight patients with CLE. Intervention Assessment of patients with CLE from baseline until day 56 after starting a new standard of care therapy. Main Outcome Measures Correlation of the baseline to day-56 change in 2 CLASI scales (disease activity and damage), with baseline to day-56 change in the physicians’ and patients’ assessments of patient’s global skin health scores, and the patients’ assessments of pain and itch. Results The change in CLASI activity score highly correlated with the changes in 3 clinical validation measures: physicians’ assessment of skin health (r=0.97; P=.003; n=7), patients’ global skin health score (r=0.85; P=.007; n=8), and pain (r=0.98; P=.004; n=5). Using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test, paired baseline to day-56 changes in CLASI activity and damage scores were analyzed for the 2 subgroups (meaningful change vs nonmeaningful change) composing each validation variable. Change in CLASI activity was significantly different for patients who had a meaningful change in their global skin self-ratings (Z=1.07; P=.03) and approached statistical significance for patients who had a meaningful change in their level of itching (Z=1.83; P=.06) and their physicians’ global skin rating (Z=1.84; P=.06). The CLASI activity score decreases after successful therapeutic intervention, whereas the damage score may increase in scarring forms of CLE. Conclusion The activity score of the CLASI correlates with the improvement of global skin health, pain, and itch and is thus a useful tool to measure clinical response. PMID:18283174

  11. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538

  12. The Relation between Factor Score Estimates, Image Scores, and Principal Component Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velicer, Wayne F.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the relation between factor score estimates, principal component scores, and image scores. The three methods compared are maximum likelihood factor analysis, principal component analysis, and a variant of rescaled image analysis. (RC)

  13. One-pot synthesis of high-index faceted AgCl nanocrystals with trapezohedral, concave hexoctahedral structures and their photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Hong; Fang, Jingzhong

    2015-07-01

    AgCl semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with trapezohedral (TPH) and concave hexoctahedral (HOH) structures have been successfully synthesized for the first time in high yield by a direct one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared TPH, concave HOH AgCl NCs with unconventional polyhedral shapes and smooth surfaces were enclosed by 24 high-index {311} facets and 48 high-index {15 5 2} facets, respectively. A specific ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) acted as both a Cl- ion precursor and a morphology-controlled stabilizer, which was indispensable for the formation of these high-index faceted AgCl polyhedra and the derived uniform octahedral AgCl in an appropriate concentration of hot AgNO3 and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. With high-index facets exposed, both TPH and concave HOH AgCl NCs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than octahedral AgCl NCs that have mainly {111} faces exposed, with lower surface areas and surface energies, for the degradation of organics under sunlight. It is expected that the use of polyhedral AgCl NCs with high-index facets is an effective approach for the design of alternative semiconductor photocatalysts with a high performance, which may find potential applications such as in photochromics and environmental management.

  14. One-pot synthesis of high-index faceted AgCl nanocrystals with trapezohedral, concave hexoctahedral structures and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haibin; Lu, Yonggang; Liu, Hong; Fang, Jingzhong

    2015-07-21

    AgCl semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) with trapezohedral (TPH) and concave hexoctahedral (HOH) structures have been successfully synthesized for the first time in high yield by a direct one-pot solvothermal method. The as-prepared TPH, concave HOH AgCl NCs with unconventional polyhedral shapes and smooth surfaces were enclosed by 24 high-index {311} facets and 48 high-index {15 5 2} facets, respectively. A specific ionic liquid poly(diallyldimethylammonium) chloride (PDDA) acted as both a Cl(-) ion precursor and a morphology-controlled stabilizer, which was indispensable for the formation of these high-index faceted AgCl polyhedra and the derived uniform octahedral AgCl in an appropriate concentration of hot AgNO3 and ethylene glycol (EG) solution. With high-index facets exposed, both TPH and concave HOH AgCl NCs exhibit much higher photocatalytic activity than octahedral AgCl NCs that have mainly {111} faces exposed, with lower surface areas and surface energies, for the degradation of organics under sunlight. It is expected that the use of polyhedral AgCl NCs with high-index facets is an effective approach for the design of alternative semiconductor photocatalysts with a high performance, which may find potential applications such as in photochromics and environmental management. PMID:26088365

  15. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  17. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  18. Evaluation of Arterial Stiffness in Patients with Behçet's Disease by Using Noninvasive Radiological Methods such as Intima-Media Thickness of the Carotid, Ankle-Brachial Pressure Index, Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring, and Their Relation to Serum Fetuin-A Levels: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Solak, Aynur; Genç, Berhan; Akyıldız, Muhittin; Şahin, Neslin; Uyar, İhsan Sami; Saklamaz, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Background Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, recurrent inflammatory systemic vasculitis. Evidence for increased atherosclerosis in BD has been observed. The relation between cardiovascular risk factors and increased atherosclerosis in patients with BD is still controversial. Objective We performed this study to evaluate arterial stiffness in patients with BD by using noninvasive radiological methods such as carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABPI), coronary artery calcium score (CACaS), and their relation to serum fetuin-A levels, which was recently found to be important in vascular calcification. Methods This prospective study included 26 patients with BD and 25 control subjects. In all patients, the CIMT, ABPI, CACaS, and serum fetuin-A levels were examined. Results The CIMT and CACaS were statistically higher and the ABPI was statistically lower in BD patients than in the control group. All p-values were <0.001. Positive correlations were found between the CACaS and CIMT, and negative correlations were found between the CACaS and ABPI. Although the values of fetuin-A were higher in BD, the difference was not statistically significant (p=0.064). However, the correlations found between fetuin-A levels and CIMT and between fetuin-A levels and CACaS were significant. Conclusion The CIMT, CACaS, and ABPI are all useful in detecting structural and functional vascular damage in BD. PMID:26719639

  19. Association of dietary diversity score with anxiety in women.

    PubMed

    Poorrezaeian, Mina; Siassi, Fereydoun; Qorbani, Mostafa; Karimi, Javad; Koohdani, Fariba; Asayesh, Hamid; Sotoudeh, Gity

    2015-12-15

    Evidence suggests that diet plays an important role in the development of mental disorders, especially anxiety. Dietary diversity score is an indicator for assessing diet quality. However, its association with anxiety has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to examine the association of dietary diversity score with anxiety. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 360 women attending health centers in the south of Tehran in 2014. General information among others were collected. Weight, height and waist circumference were measured and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Dietary intake and anxiety score were assessed using a 24-h dietary recall and Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) questionnaires, respectively. Dietary diversity score was computed according to the guidelines of FAO. About 35% of the participants were found to exhibit anxiety. The dietary diversity score in 12.5% of the subjects were between 1 and 3 (low dietary diversity score) but 87.5% scored between 4 and 7 (high dietary diversity score). The adjusted mean of anxiety score in subjects with high dietary diversity score was significantly lower than those with low dietary diversity score. Dietary diversity score was found to be inversely associated with anxiety. However, the causality between anxiety and dietary diversity could not be determined. PMID:26506017

  20. Scoring Dawg Core Breakoff and Retention Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badescu, Mircea; Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Bao, Xiaoqi; Backes, Paul G.

    2011-01-01

    This novel core break-off and retention mechanism consists of a scoring dawg controlled by a set of two tubes (a drill tube and an inner tube). The drill tube and the inner tube have longitudinal concentric holes. The solution can be implemented in an eccentric tube configuration as well where the tubes have eccentric longitudinal holes. The inner tube presents at the bottom two control surfaces for controlling the orientation of the scoring dawg. The drill tube presents a sunk-in profile on the inside of the wall for housing the scoring dawg. The inner tube rotation relative to the drill tube actively controls the orientation of the scoring dawg and hence its penetration and retrieval from the core. The scoring dawg presents a shaft, two axially spaced arms, and a tooth. The two arms slide on the control surfaces of the inner tube. The tooth, when rotated, can penetrate or be extracted from the core. During drilling, the two tubes move together maintaining the scoring dawg completely outside the core. After the desired drilling depth has been reached the inner tube is rotated relative to the drill tube such that the tooth of the scoring dawg moves toward the central axis. By rotating the drill tube, the scoring dawg can score the core and so reduce its cross sectional area. The scoring dawg can also act as a stress concentrator for breaking the core in torsion or tension. After breaking the core, the scoring dawg can act as a core retention mechanism. For scoring, it requires the core to be attached to the rock. If the core is broken, the dawg can be used as a retention mechanism. The scoring dawg requires a hard-tip insert like tungsten carbide for scoring hard rocks. The relative rotation of the two tubes can be controlled manually or by an additional actuator. In the implemented design solution the bit rotation for scoring was in the same direction as the drilling. The device was tested for limestone cores and basalt cores. The torque required for breaking the

  1. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  2. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  3. Development of a bird integrity index: using bird assemblages as indicators of riparian condition.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Sandra A; Hughes, Robert M; Kaufmann, Philip R

    2002-08-01

    We describe the development of a bird integrity index (BII) that uses bird assemblage information to assess human impacts on 13 stream reaches in the Willamette Valley, Oregon, USA. We used bird survey data to test 62 candidate metrics representing aspects of bird taxonomic richness, tolerance or intolerance to human disturbance, dietary preferences, foraging techniques, and nesting strategies that were affected positively or negatively by human activities. We evaluated the metric responsiveness by plotting each one against a measure of site disturbance that included aspects of land use/land cover, road density, riparian cover, and stream channel and substrate conditions. In addition, we eliminated imprecise and highly correlated (redundant) metrics, leaving 13 metrics for the final index. Individual metric scores ranged continuously from 0 to 10, and index scores were weighted to range from 0 to 100. Scores were calibrated using historical species information to set expectations for the number of species expected under minimally disturbed conditions. Site scores varied from 82 for the least disturbed stream reach to 8.5 for an urban site. We compared the bird integrity index site scores with the performance of other measures of biotic response developed during this study: a fish index of biointegrity (IBI) and two benthic macroinvertebrate metrics. The three assemblages agreed on the general level of disturbance; however, individual sites scored differently depending on specific indicator response to in-stream or riparian conditions. The bird integrity index appears to be a useful management and monitoring tool for assessing riparian integrity and communicating the results to the public. Used together with aquatic indicator response and watershed data, bird assemblage information contributes to a more complete picture of stream condition. PMID:12105768

  4. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  5. Association between the ankle–brachial index, intermittent claudication, and physical activity level: what is the influence on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease?

    PubMed Central

    Nardi Gomes, Tiago José; Martins de Albuquerque, Isabella; de Moraes Costa, Patrícia; Cardoso, Dannuey Machado; de Moraes Costa, Gabriela; da Costa Vieira, José Luiz

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease have a poor functional capacity; however, the influence of association among intermittent claudication (IC), abnormal ankle–brachial index (ABI), and physical activity level on functional capacity of these patients has not been fully studied. Objective The primary objective of this study was to investigate the association between the ABI, IC, and physical activity level, and the influence of these variables on the functional capacity of patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease seen in a reference cardiology outpatient clinic in Southern Brazil. The secondary objective was to assess the prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in this sample of patients. Patients and methods This was a prospective cross-sectional study in which 162 consecutive patients were evaluated and classified into three groups according to their ABI: normal ABI (n=104, values between 1.00 and 1.40); borderline PAD (n=23, values between 0.91 and 1.00); and patients with PAD (n=35, ≤0.90). The presence of IC was assessed using the Edinburgh Claudication Questionnaire. The level of physical activity was assessed by the short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) and functional capacity was assessed by the 6-minute walk distance (6MWD). Results The prevalence of PAD was 21.6% in the total sample. The 6MWD showed strong correlation with the absence of IC (r=0.785; P<0.001), moderate correlation with age (r=−0.347; P<0.001), and weak correlations with IPAQ scores (r=0.164; P=0.038) and ABI (r=0.216; P=0.006). Age, ABI, and absence of IC were independently associated with the outcome (P=0.001, P=0.001, and P=0.028, respectively). Conclusion The current study demonstrates that 6MWD is associated with IPAQ scores, ABI, and absence of IC. Age, ABI and absence of IC were independently associated with functional capacity in patients with or at high risk of cardiovascular disease

  6. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2007-01-01

    The current research was conducted to investigate the validity of automated essay scoring (AES) by comparing group mean scores assigned by an AES tool, IntelliMetric [TM] and human raters. Data collection included administering the Texas version of the WriterPlacer "Plus" test and obtaining scores assigned by IntelliMetric [TM] and by human…

  7. Booker T. Washington. Kindergarten-Third Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahe, Amy

    This illustrated activity for primary students features the life and accomplishments of Booker T. Washington. This educator began his life as a plantation slave and later founded Tuskegee Institute, one of the first colleges that African Americans could attend. The activity tells how Booker T. Washington and his students built the Tuskegee…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test, the Modified Harris Hip Score, and the Hip Outcome Score

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Man; Hon, Shirley D.; Cheng, Christine; Franklin, Jeremy D.; Aoki, Stephen K.; Anderson, Mike B.; Kapron, Ashley L.; Peters, Christopher L.; Pelt, Christopher E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The applicability and validity of many patient-reported outcome measures in the high-functioning population are not well understood. Purpose: To compare the psychometric properties of the modified Harris Hip Score (mHHS), the Hip Outcome Score activities of daily living subscale (HOS-ADL) and sports (HOS-sports), and the Lower Extremity Computerized Adaptive Test (LE CAT). The hypotheses was that all instruments would perform well but that the LE CAT would show superiority psychometrically because a combination of CAT and a large item bank allows for a high degree of measurement precision. Study Design: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. Methods: Data were collected from 472 advanced-age, active participants from the Huntsman World Senior Games in 2012. Validity evidences were examined through item fit, dimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, differential item functioning, person raw score to measure correlation, and instrument coverage (ie, ceiling and floor effects), and reliability evidences were examined through Cronbach alpha and person separation index. Results: All instruments demonstrated good item fit, unidimensionality, monotonicity, local independence, and person raw score to measure correlations. The HOS-ADL had high ceiling effects of 36.02%, and the mHHS had ceiling effects of 27.54%. The LE CAT had ceiling effects of 8.47%, and the HOS-sports had no ceiling effects. None of the instruments had any floor effects. The mHHS had a very low Cronbach alpha of 0.41 and an extremely low person separation index of 0.08. Reliabilities for the LE CAT were excellent and for the HOS-ADL and HOS-sports were good. Conclusion: The LE CAT showed better psychometric properties overall than the HOS-ADL, HOS-sports, and mHHS for the senior population. The mHHS demonstrated pronounced ceiling effects and poor reliabilities that should be of concern. The high ceiling effects for the HOS-ADL were also of concern. The LE CAT was superior

  9. Maxillofacial trauma scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Sahni, Vaibhav

    2016-07-01

    The changing complexity of maxillofacial fractures in recent years has created a situation where classical systems of classification of maxillofacial injuries fall short of defining trauma particularly that observed with high-velocity collisions where more than one region of the maxillofacial skeleton is affected. Trauma scoring systems designed specifically for the maxillofacial region are aimed to provide a more accurate assessment of the injury, its prognosis, the possible treatment outcomes, economics, length of hospital stay, and triage. The evolution and logic of such systems along with their merits and demerits are discussed. The author also proposes a new system to aid users in quickly and methodically choosing the system best suited to their needs without having to study a plethora of literature available in order to isolate their choice. PMID:26971084

  10. Geomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Seppälä, A.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy is used to simulate polar surface air temperature effects of geomagnetic activity variations. A transient model simulation was performed for the years 1960-2004 and is shown to develop polar surface air temperature patterns that depend on geomagnetic activity strength, similar to previous studies. In order to eliminate influencing factors such as sea surface temperatures (SST) or UV variations, two nine-year long simulations were carried out, with strong and weak geomagnetic activity, respectively, while all other boundary conditions were held to year 2000 levels. Statistically significant temperature effects that were observed in previous reanalysis and model results are also obtained from this set of simulations, suggesting that such patterns are indeed related to geomagnetic activity. In the model, strong geomagnetic activity and the associated NOx enhancements lead to polar stratospheric ozone loss. Compared with the simulation with weak geomagnetic activity, the ozone loss causes a decrease in ozone radiative cooling and thus a temperature increase in the polar winter mesosphere. Similar to previous studies, a cooling is found below the stratopause, which other authors have attributed to a decrease in the mean meridional circulation. In the polar stratosphere this leads to a more stable vortex. A strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere vortex is known to be associated with a positive (negative) Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index; our simulations exhibit a positive NAM index for strong geomagnetic activity, and a negative NAM for weak geomagnetic activity. Such NAM anomalies have been shown to propagate to the surface, and this is also seen in the model simulations. NAM anomalies are known to lead to specific surface temperature anomalies: a positive NAM is associated with warmer than average northern Eurasia and colder than average eastern North Atlantic. This is also the case in our simulation. Our

  11. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  12. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-07-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. PMID:23719781

  13. [Anthropometric indexes of the state of nutrition and eating habits, and recreational physical activity of working physically men aged 20-60 of urban population].

    PubMed

    Gacek, Maria; Chrzanowska, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this studies was the comparison of somatic indexes and eating habits of working physically men who prefer different ways (active vs. passive) of spending their free time. The studies has been carried out on a group of 1271 people who work in HTS (steelworks) in Nowa Huta (one of Cracow's districts), including 523 men aged 20-40 (181 active and 342 non-active) and 748 men aged 40-60 (194 active and 554 non-active). Men referred to as active declared active spending of their free time and taking up recreational physical activity at lest twice a week. The presented research has not revealed statistically important differentiation of somatic parameters depending on preferred way of spending free time, or a connection between the physical activity level during free time and some eating habits indicating more rational choices, connected with the control of energy value of the diet, larger consumption of vegetables and fruit and smaller consumption of sweet products, and less frequently appearance of 'canine appetite' in the case of active men. PMID:22171524

  14. An index of reservoir habitat impairment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miranda, L.E.; Hunt, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    Fish habitat impairment resulting from natural and anthropogenic watershed and in-lake processes has in many cases reduced the ability of reservoirs to sustain native fish assemblages and fisheries quality. Rehabilitation of impaired reservoirs is hindered by the lack of a method suitable for scoring impairment status. To address this limitation, an index of reservoir habitat impairment (IRHI) was developed by merging 14 metrics descriptive of common impairment sources, with each metric scored from 0 (no impairment) to 5 (high impairment) by fisheries scientists with local knowledge. With a plausible range of 5 to 25, distribution of the IRHI scores ranged from 5 to 23 over 482 randomly selected reservoirs dispersed throughout the USA. The IRHI reflected five impairment factors including siltation, structural habitat, eutrophication, water regime, and aquatic plants. The factors were weakly related to key reservoir characteristics including reservoir area, depth, age, and usetype, suggesting that common reservoir descriptors are poor predictors of fish habitat impairment. The IRHI is rapid and inexpensive to calculate, provides an easily understood measure of the overall habitat impairment, allows comparison of reservoirs and therefore prioritization of restoration activities, and may be used to track restoration progress. The major limitation of the IRHI is its reliance on unstandardized professional judgment rather than standardized empirical measurements. ?? 2010 US Government.

  15. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-06-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals.We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00695f

  16. Mechanisms of Enhanced Electrocatalytic Activity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction on High-Index Platinum n(111)-(111) Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jeffrey; Du, Zheng; Shao, Minhua

    2015-09-01

    Oxygen reduction reactions (ORRs) on high-index planes of Pt n(111)-(111) were studied by density functional theory (DFT). The stepped surfaces, where n = 2, 3, and 4, showed that O2, O, and OH exhibited higher binding energies along the step compared to the terrace plane. The Pt atoms along the step can become distorted through the binding of the O and OH, where the shift in position of the Pt atoms is the largest along the stepped sites, hence forming stronger bonds with O atoms. One of the two O atoms produced from the bond dissociation of O2 will push the other one down a step with lower binding energies, consequently reducing the energy required for the protonation reaction (O + H(+) → OH, and OH + H(+) → H2O). The quicker recovery back to the clean Pt surface would therefore improve the catalytic properties of Pt nanoparticles, especially those with exposure to high-indexed facets. PMID:26267316

  17. Line Lengths and Starch Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriarty, Sandra E.

    1986-01-01

    Investigates readability of different line lengths in advertising body copy, hypothesizing a normal curve with lower scores for shorter and longer lines, and scores above the mean for lines in the middle of the distribution. Finds support for lower scores for short lines and some evidence of two optimum line lengths rather than one. (SKC)

  18. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  19. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and ultrasonography scores in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Han; Yang, Shu-Ping; Shen, Hao-Lin; Lin, Li-Qing; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Rui-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate diagnostic value of ultrasonography scores (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. Methods: 39 patients with RA were included and the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, wrist, elbow and knee joints of them were examined by high frequency ultrasound. The severe joints and the related indexes (synovial thickness, synovial blood flow, joint effusion and bone erosion) were exposed. Then scores (0~3) were obtained and the sum was calculated. For 12 patients of the 39, 2.4 ml SonoVue was intravenously injected with observation of synovial enhancing. ROIs time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained and the parameters including area under curve (AUC), peak intensity (PI) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed. For 39 patients, the relationships among each parameters, ultrasonography scores, DAS28 scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP) were analyzed. Results: The US were significantly correlated with DAS28 Scores (r=0.823, P<0.01=. The correlation between US and CRP was better than that between DAS28 scores and CRP (rUS =0.692, rDAS28=0.526, P<0.01). The synovial thickness in US were correlated with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) (rDAS28=0.852, rESR=0.779, rCRP=0.587, P<0.01. The AUC and PI in CEUS were significantly correlated with US (rAUC=0.832, rPI=0.809, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and ESR were better than that between US and ESR (rAUC=0.907, rPI=0.851, rUS=0.836, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and CRP were better than that between US and CRP (rAUC=0.855, rPI=0.854, rUS=0.692, P<0.01. Conclusions: US was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) in diagnosis of RA activity, while CEUS was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP). In diagnosis of RA, US may be better than DAS28 Scores, while CEUS better than US. Both of them were useful for

  20. Validity and reliability of the SPORTS score for shoulder instability

    PubMed Central

    BLONNA, DAVIDE; BELLATO, ENRICO; CARANZANO, FRANCESCO; BONASIA, DAVIDE E.; MARMOTTI, ANTONGIULIO; ROSSI, ROBERTO; CASTOLDI, FILIPPO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose athletes affected by shoulder instability cannot be judged solely according to the criteria used for non-athletes. In order to improve the assessment of shoulder instability surgery outcomes, the SPORTS score was tested in a cohort of athletes. Methods ninety-eight athletes at an average follow-up of 4.6 years (range 1–9.2) after open or arthroscopic surgery for recurrent anterior shoulder instability were included in this study. The patients were asked to complete the SPORTS score questionnaire twice, with an interval of 2–3 weeks between the two assessments. The Bland-Altman method and the intra-class correlation coefficient were used to measure reliability. Criterion validity was assessed by calculating the Spearman correlation coefficient between the SPORTS score and the Western Ontario Shoulder Instability Index (WOSI) score, the Rowe score, the Oxford Shoulder Instability Score (OSIS), and the Subjective Shoulder Value (SSV). Results the SPORTS score showed excellent test-retest reliability. The systematic error between the first and the second assessment was 0.3 points (95% upper limit of agreement = 2.3 points). The criterion validity was found to be strong for the SPORTS score, which correlated best with the SSV and the “sport, recreation, and work” component of the WOSI score. The SPORTS score had an acceptable floor effect (8%). The ceiling effect was 46%, which was better than the ceiling effects seen with the Rowe, OSIS and WOSI scores. Conclusions this study suggests that the SPORTS score is a valid score in the assessment of athletes after surgery for shoulder instability and that it adds important information to the currently available scores. Level of evidence Level III, diagnostic study of nonconsecutive patients. PMID:25606544

  1. Empathic veterinarians score cattle pain higher.

    PubMed

    Norring, Marianna; Wikman, Ingela; Hokkanen, Ann-Helena; Kujala, Miiamaaria V; Hänninen, Laura

    2014-04-01

    The treatment of cattle pain often relies upon veterinarians. The aim of this study was to qualify the influence of veterinarians skills, attitudes, and empathy on cattle pain assesment and consequently disbudding pain management. A web-based questionnaire was sent to Finnish veterinary students in either the preclinical or clinical stage, and also to production-animal practice oriented veterinarians. The questionnaire recorded demographics, statements of opinions, pain scoring of cattle conditions and procedures. Empathy towards humans (Interpersonal Reactivity Index, IRI) and reworded IRI to measure empathy towards animals were also covered. The overall response rate was approximately 40%. The association between pain and empathy scores were analyzed by Pearsońs correlation, and the factors affecting pain scores and empathy towards animals analyzed using linear models. The need for pain medication of calves during disbudding was well recognized and the intention to treat such pain was very common. Higher mean scores for cattle pain were associated with greater empathy towards humans. On average, respondents' empathy towards animals was greater than towards humans, and was associated with respondents' empathy towards humans, family size and attachment to family pet. PMID:24685101

  2. Socio-Cognitive and Nutritional Factors Associated with Body Mass Index in Children and Adolescents: Possibilities for Childhood Obesity Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Dea, Jennifer A.; Wilson, Rachel

    2006-01-01

    A large national study of schoolchildren aged 6-18 years was conducted to assess nutritional and socio-cognitive factors associated with body mass index (BMI). A questionnaire was used to assess nutritional quality of breakfast, importance of physical activity and food variety score, among 4441 students from randomly selected schools in all states…

  3. You Score With Nutrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Ruth McNabb

    1976-01-01

    The leader's guide and student activity booklet contain learning activities, ideas, information, games, and resources for nutrition instruction designed to appeal to the interests of teens and pre-teens and to improve their knowledge of nutrition and their eating habits. (MS)

  4. Using Momentary Time Sampling to Estimate Minutes of Physical Activity in Physical Education: Validation of Scores for the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Edward M.; Coleman, Karen J.; Lensegrav, Tera L.; Fallon, Jennifer A.

    2006-01-01

    The System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time (SOFIT) is a direct observation system specifically developed for use during physical education (PE; McKenzie, 1991; McKenzie, Sallis, & Nader, 1991). The purpose of this study was to validate the estimates of time spent in various physical activity intensities obtained with the paper and pencil…

  5. An Adventure to the New World. Fifth Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boilon, Susan

    This activity plan for fifth graders posits that the student is an agent for the King and Queen and are authorized to make a journey to the New World on behalf of the kingdom. The mission is to claim all land for the monarchy, locate a new trading route across the ocean, look for the Northwest Passage, and bring back gold, silver, spices, new…

  6. The Ancient World Explorer: Space Invaders, Copycats or Independent Inventors? Sixth Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benoit, Ty

    When archaeologists dig up the artifacts of ancient civilizations, they make discoveries and attempt to find out what life was like for ancient people. Students in the classroom explore the civilizations of the ancient world attempting to answer questions about how people lived thousands of years ago. In this activity for grade 6, students, in…

  7. Orange Juice--From the Tree to the Glass! Second Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricchiuti, Linda M.

    The goal of this lesson plan is for second-grade students to understand the steps in how food is made and delivered to the grocery store. Students create a play where each person plays a part in the production and distribution of food. The lesson suggests that the class perform the play on parents' night. It provides five activities for students…

  8. Arctic Animals of Alaska. First Grade Activity. Schools of California Online Resources for Education (SCORE): Connecting California's Classrooms to the World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boe, Sandra

    The Arctic is covered with ice and snow for most of the year. Animals that live in Alaska's arctic region must be able to survive long winters and very cold temperatures. Surprisingly, many animals live in the harsh, cold climate. This first-grade activity plan helps students learn about the animals of the far north. The plan gives six steps for…

  9. Pharmacophore-Based Similarity Scoring for DOCK

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacophore modeling incorporates geometric and chemical features of known inhibitors and/or targeted binding sites to rationally identify and design new drug leads. In this study, we have encoded a three-dimensional pharmacophore matching similarity (FMS) scoring function into the structure-based design program DOCK. Validation and characterization of the method are presented through pose reproduction, crossdocking, and enrichment studies. When used alone, FMS scoring dramatically improves pose reproduction success to 93.5% (∼20% increase) and reduces sampling failures to 3.7% (∼6% drop) compared to the standard energy score (SGE) across 1043 protein–ligand complexes. The combined FMS+SGE function further improves success to 98.3%. Crossdocking experiments using FMS and FMS+SGE scoring, for six diverse protein families, similarly showed improvements in success, provided proper pharmacophore references are employed. For enrichment, incorporating pharmacophores during sampling and scoring, in most cases, also yield improved outcomes when docking and rank-ordering libraries of known actives and decoys to 15 systems. Retrospective analyses of virtual screenings to three clinical drug targets (EGFR, IGF-1R, and HIVgp41) using X-ray structures of known inhibitors as pharmacophore references are also reported, including a customized FMS scoring protocol to bias on selected regions in the reference. Overall, the results and fundamental insights gained from this study should benefit the docking community in general, particularly researchers using the new FMS method to guide computational drug discovery with DOCK. PMID:25229837

  10. Association of the interferon signature metric with serological disease manifestations but not global activity scores in multiple cohorts of patients with SLE

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, William P; Maciuca, Romeo; Wolslegel, Kristen; Tew, Wei; Abbas, Alexander R; Chaivorapol, Christina; Morimoto, Alyssa; McBride, Jacqueline M; Brunetta, Paul; Richardson, Bruce C; Davis, John C; Behrens, Timothy W; Townsend, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The interferon (IFN) signature (IS) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) includes over 100 genes induced by type I IFN pathway activation. We developed a method to quantify the IS using three genes—the IS metric (ISM)—and characterised the clinical characteristics of patients with SLE with different ISM status from multiple clinical trials. Methods Blood microarray expression data from a training cohort of patients with SLE confirmed the presence of the IS and identified surrogate genes. We assayed these genes in a quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay, yielding an ISM from the IS. The association of ISM status with clinical disease characteristics was assessed in patients with extrarenal lupus and lupus nephritis from four clinical trials. Results Three genes, HERC5, EPSTI and CMPK2, correlated well with the IS (p>0.96), and composed the ISM qPCR assay. Using the 95th centile for healthy control data, patients with SLE from different studies were classified into two ISM subsets—ISM-Low and ISM-High—that are longitudinally stable over 36 weeks. Significant associations were identified between ISM-High status and higher titres of anti-dsDNA antibodies, presence of anti extractable nuclear antigen autoantibodies, elevated serum B cell activating factor of the tumour necrosis factor family (BAFF) levels, and hypocomplementaemia. However, measures of overall clinical disease activity were similar for ISM-High and ISM-Low groups. Conclusions The ISM is an IS biomarker that divides patients with SLE into two subpopulations—ISM-High and ISM-Low—with differing serological manifestations. The ISM does not distinguish between high and low disease activity, but may have utility in identifying patients more likely to respond to treatment(s) targeting IFN-α. Clinicaltrials.gov registration number NCT00962832. PMID:25861459

  11. Scoring Systems for Outcome Prediction of Patients with Perforation Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Litake, Manjusha Madhusudhan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peritonitis continues to be one of the major infectious problems confronting a surgeon. Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI), Physiological and Operative Severity Score for en Umeration of Mortality (POSSUM) and Morbidity and sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute have been devised for risk assessment and for prediction of postoperative outcome. Aim The aim of this study was to find the accuracy of these scores in predicting outcome in terms of mortality in patients undergoing exploratory laprotomy for perforation peritonitis. Materials and Methods The prospective study was carried out in 100 diagnosed cases of perforation at our centre in a single unit over a period of 21 months from December 2012 to August 2014. Study was conducted on all cases of peritonitis albeit primary, tertiary, iatrogenic and those with age less than 12 years were excluded from the study. All the relevant data were collected and three scores were computed from one set of data from the patient. The main outcome measure was survival of the patient. The Receiver Operator Characteristics (ROC) curves were obtained for the three scores. Area Under the Curves (AUC) was calculated. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated at a cut off point obtained from the ROC curves. Results POSSUM had an AUC of 0.99, sepsis score had an AUC of 0.98 and MPI had an AUC of 0.95. The cut off point score of 51 for POSSUM had an accuracy of 93.8 and positive predictive value of 70.5, the score of 29 for MPI had an accuracy of 82.8 and positive predictive value of 46 and the score of 22 for sepsis score had an accuracy of 95.9 and positive predictive value of 86.67. Conclusion POSSUM score was found to be superior in prediction of mortality as compared to sepsis score of Stoner and Elebute and MPI. POSSUM and MPI over predicted mortality in some cases. None of these scores are strictly preoperative. PMID:27134924

  12. A Multimetric Benthic Macroinvertebrate Index for the Assessment of Stream Biotic Integrity in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Yung-Chul; Won, Doo-Hee; Lee, Soo-Hyung; Kong, Dong-Soo; Hwang, Soon-Jin

    2012-01-01

    At a time when anthropogenic activities are increasingly disturbing the overall ecological integrity of freshwater ecosystems, monitoring of biological communities is central to assessing the health and function of streams. This study aimed to use a large nation-wide database to develop a multimetric index (the Korean Benthic macroinvertebrate Index of Biological Integrity—KB-IBI) applicable to the biological assessment of Korean streams. Reference and impaired conditions were determined based on watershed, chemical and physical criteria. Eight of an initial 34 candidate metrics were selected using a stepwise procedure that evaluated metric variability, redundancy, sensitivity and responsiveness to environmental gradients. The selected metrics were number of taxa, percent Ephemeroptera-Plecoptera-Trichoptera (EPT) individuals, percent of a dominant taxon, percent taxa abundance without Chironomidae, Shannon’s diversity index, percent gatherer individuals, ratio of filterers and scrapers, and the Korean saprobic index. Our multimetric index successfully distinguished reference from impaired conditions. A scoring system was established for each core metric using its quartile range and response to anthropogenic disturbances. The multimetric index was classified by aggregating the individual metric ..scores and the value range was quadrisected to provide a narrative criterion (Poor, Fair, Good and Excellent) to describe the biological integrity of the streams in the study. A validation procedure showed that the index is an effective method for evaluating stream conditions, and thus is appropriate for use in future studies measuring the long-term status of streams, and the effectiveness of restoration methods. PMID:23202765

  13. The ORBIT bleeding score: a simple bedside score to assess bleeding risk in atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Emily C.; Simon, DaJuanicia N.; Thomas, Laine E.; Hylek, Elaine M.; Gersh, Bernard J.; Ansell, Jack E.; Kowey, Peter R.; Mahaffey, Kenneth W.; Chang, Paul; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Pencina, Michael J.; Piccini, Jonathan P.; Peterson, Eric D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Therapeutic decisions in atrial fibrillation (AF) are often influenced by assessment of bleeding risk. However, existing bleeding risk scores have limitations. Objectives We sought to develop and validate a novel bleeding risk score using routinely available clinical information to predict major bleeding in a large, community-based AF population. Methods We analysed data from Outcomes Registry for Better Informed Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation (ORBIT-AF), a prospective registry that enrolled incident and prevalent AF patients at 176 US sites. Using Cox proportional hazards regression, we identified factors independently associated with major bleeding among patients taking oral anticoagulation (OAC) over a median follow-up of 2 years (interquartile range = 1.6–2.5). We also created a numerical bedside risk score that included the five most predictive risk factors weighted according to their strength of association with major bleeding. The predictive performance of the full model, the simple five-item score, and two existing risk scores (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly, HAS-BLED, and anticoagulation and risk factors in atrial fibrillation, ATRIA) were then assessed in both the ORBIT-AF cohort and a separate clinical trial population, Rivaroxaban Once-daily oral direct factor Xa inhibition compared with vitamin K antagonism for prevention of stroke and embolism trial in atrial fibrillation (ROCKET-AF). Results Among 7411 ORBIT-AF patients taking OAC, the rate of major bleeding was 4.0/100 person-years. The full continuous model (12 variables) and five-factor ORBIT risk score (older age [75+ years], reduced haemoglobin/haematocrit/history of anaemia, bleeding history, insufficient kidney function, and treatment with antiplatelet) both had good ability to identify those who bled vs. not (C-index 0.69 and 0.67, respectively). These scores both had

  14. The association of reproductive and lifestyle factors with a score of multiple endogenous hormones

    PubMed Central

    Shafrir, Amy L.; Zhang, Xuehong; Poole, Elizabeth M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; Tworoger, Shelley S.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We recently reported that high levels of multiple sex and growth hormones were associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Limited research has explored the relationship between reproductive, anthropometric, and lifestyle factors and levels of multiple hormones simultaneously. Methods This cross-sectional analysis included 738 postmenopausal Nurses' Health Study participants who were controls in a breast cancer nested case-control study and had measured levels of estrone, estradiol, estrone sulfate, testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, prolactin and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). A score was created by summing the number of hormones a woman had above (below for SHBG) each hormone's age-adjusted geometric mean. The association between lifestyle, anthropometric, and reproductive exposures and the score was assessed using generalized linear models. Results The hormone score ranged from 0 to 8 with a mean of 4.0 (standard deviation=2.2). Body mass index (BMI) and alcohol consumption at blood draw were positively associated with the hormone score: a 5 unit increase in BMI was associated with a 0.79 (95%CI: 0.63, 0.95) unit increase in the score (p<0.0001) and each 15 grams/day increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a 0.41 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.63) unit increase in the score (p=0.0004). Family history of breast cancer, age at menarche, and physical activity were not associated with the score. Conclusions Reproductive breast cancer risk factors were not associated with elevated levels of multiple endogenous hormones, whereas anthropometric and lifestyle factors, particularly BMI and alcohol consumption, tended to be associated with higher levels of multiple hormones. PMID:25048255

  15. The use of the reverse shock index to identify high-risk trauma patients in addition to the criteria for trauma team activation: a cross-sectional study based on a trauma registry system

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Spencer C H; Kuo, Pao-Jen; Hsu, Shiun-Yuan; Rau, Cheng-Shyuan; Chen, Yi-Chun; Hsieh, Hsiao-Yun; Hsieh, Ching-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The presentation of decrease blood pressure with tachycardia is usually an indicator of significant blood loss. In this study, we used the reverse shock index (RSI), a ratio of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to heart rate (HR), to evaluate the haemodynamic status of trauma patients. As an SBP lower than the HR (RSI<1) may indicate haemodynamic instability, the objective of this study was to assess whether RSI<1 can help to identify high-risk patients with potential shock and poor outcome, even though these patients do not yet meet the criteria for multidisciplinary trauma team activation (TTA). Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Taiwan. Participants We retrospectively reviewed the data of 20 106 patients obtained from the trauma registry system of a level I trauma centre for trauma admissions from January 2009 through December 2014. Patients for whom a trauma team was not activated (regular patients) and who had RSI<1 were compared with regular patients with RSI≥1. The ORs of the associated conditions and injuries were calculated with 95% CIs. Main outcome measures In-hospital mortality. Results Among regular patients with RSI<1, significantly more patients had an Injury Severity Score (ISS) ≥25 (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.58 to 3.62; p<0.001) and the mortality rate was also higher (2.1% vs 0.5%; OR 3.9, 95% CI 2.10 to 7.08; p<0.001) than in regular patients with RSI≥1. The intensive care unit length of stay was longer in regular patients with RSI<1 than in regular patients with RSI≥1. Conclusions Among patients who did not reach the criteria for TTA, RSI<1 indicates a potentially worse outcome and a requirement for more attention and aggressive care in the emergency department. PMID:27329440

  16. Estimating Pan Arctic Net Ecosystem Exchange using Functional Relationships with Air temperature, Leaf Area Index and Photosynthetic Active Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbufong, H.; Kusbach, A.; Lund, M.; Persson, A.; Christensen, T. R.; Tamstorf, M. P.; Connolly, J.

    2015-12-01

    The high variability in Arctic tundra net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of carbon (C) is often attributed to the high spatial heterogeneity of Arctic tundra. Current models of carbon exchange thus handle the Arctic as either a single or few ecosystems, responding to environmental change in the same manner. In this study, we developed and tested a simple NEE model using the Misterlich light response curve (LRC) function with photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) as the main driving variable. Model calibration was carried out with eddy covariance carbon dioxide data from 12 Arctic tundra sites. The model input parameters (fcsat, Rd and α) were estimated as a function of air temperature and leaf area index (LAI) and represent specific characteristics of the NEE-PPFD relationship. They describe the saturation flux, dark respiration and initial light use efficiency, respectively. While remotely sensed LAI is readily available as a MODIS Terra product (MCD15A3), air temperature was estimated from a direct relationship with MODIS land surface temperature (MOD11A2, LST). Therefore, no specific knowledge of the vegetation type is required. Preliminary results show the model captures the spatial heterogeneity of the Arctic tundra but so far, overestimates NEE on all 17 test sites which include heaths, bogs, fens, and tussock tundra vegetation. The final updated results and error assessment will be presented at the conference in December.

  17. Influence of Physical Activity Participation on the Associations between Eating Behaviour Traits and Body Mass Index in Healthy Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Marie-Ève; Doucet, Éric; Provencher, Véronique; Weisnagel, S. John; Piché, Marie-Ève; Dubé, Marie-Christine; Bergeron, Jean; Lemieux, Simone

    2011-01-01

    Available data reveals inconsistent relationships between eating behaviour traits and markers of adiposity level. It is thus relevant to investigate whether other factors also need to be considered when interpreting the relationship between eating behaviour traits and adiposity. The objective of this cross-sectional study was thus to examine whether the associations between variables of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and adiposity are influenced by the level of physical activity participation. Information from the TFEQ and physical activity was obtained from 113 postmenopausal women (56.7 ± 4.2 years; 28.5 ± 5.9 kg/m2). BMI was compared between four groups formed on the basis of the physical activity participation and eating behaviour traits medians. In groups of women with higher physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women who presented higher dietary restraint when compared to women who had lower dietary restraint (25.5 ± 0.5 versus 30.3 ± 1.7 kg/m2, P < .05). In addition, among women with lower physical activity participation, BMI was significantly lower in women presenting a lower external hunger than in those with a higher external hunger (27.5 ± 0.8 versus 32.4 ± 1.1 kg/m2, P < .001). Our results suggest that physical activity participation should also be taken into account when interpreting the relationship between adiposity and eating behaviour traits. PMID:20871862

  18. SCORE, A Measurement of Reference Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeler, Richard J.

    The University of Denver Libraries employed SCORE (Service Components Reliability and Efficiency), a cost analysis technique, to measure effectiveness and cost of reference activity. This report examines the results and the problems encountered in application of this methodology. A reference model, designed as a flow chart, was developed by…

  19. FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    GACH, PENELOPE J.; AND OTHERS

    THE DEVELOPMENT OF ECONOMICAL FEEDBACK SCORING SYSTEMS FOR REUSABLE KINDERGARTEN WORKBOOKS IS DESCRIBED. THREE PROTOTYPE SYSTEMS WERE DEVELOPED--(1) A METAL FOIL ACTIVATING AN ELECTRICAL PROBE, (2) A METAL FOIL REACTING WITH A MAGNETIC PROBE, AND (3) INVISIBLE FLUORESCENT INK REVEALED BY THE APPLICATION OF LONGWAVE ULTRAVIOLET LIGHT. (MS)

  20. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  1. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  2. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  3. Identification of Changing Lower Limb Neuromuscular Activation in Parkinson's Disease during Treadmill Gait with and without Levodopa Using a Nonlinear Analysis Index

    PubMed Central

    O'Connor, Daniel P.; Paloski, William H.; Layne, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of electromyographic (EMG) data is a cornerstone of research related to motor control in Parkinson's disease. Nonlinear EMG analysis tools have shown to be valuable, but analysis is often complex and interpretation of the data may be difficult. A previously introduced algorithm (SYNERGOS) that provides a single index value based on simultaneous multiple muscle activations (MMA) has been shown to be effective in detecting changes in EMG activation due to modifications of walking speeds in healthy adults. In this study, we investigated if SYNERGOS detects MMA changes associated with both different walking speeds and levodopa intake. Nine male Parkinsonian patients walked on a treadmill with increasing speed while on or off medication. We collected EMG data and computed SYNERGOS indices and employed a restricted maximum likelihood linear mixed model to the values. SYNERGOS was sensitive to neuromuscular modifications due to both alterations of gait speed and intake of levodopa. We believe that the current experiment provides evidence for the potential value of SYNERGOS as a nonlinear tool in clinical settings, by providing a single value index of MMA. This could help clinicians to evaluate the efficacy of interventions and treatments in Parkinson's disease in a simple manner. PMID:25688326

  4. Assessment of prognostic scores in brain metastases from breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tabouret, Emeline; Metellus, Philippe; Gonçalves, Anthony; Esterni, Benjamin; Charaffe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Viens, Patrice; Tallet, Agnés

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast cancer (BC) is the second most common cause of brain metastases (BM). Optimal management of BM from BC is still debated. In an attempt to provide appropriate treatment and to assist with optimal patient selection, several specific prognostic classifications for BM from BC have been established. We evaluated the prognostic value and validity of the 6 proposed scoring systems in an independent population of BC patients with BM. Methods We retrospectively reviewed all consecutive BC patients referred to our institution for newly diagnosed BM between October 1995 and July 2011 (n = 149). Each of the 6 scores proposed for BM from BC (Sperduto, Niwinska, Park, Nieder, Le Scodan, and Claude) was applied to this population. The discriminative ability of each score was assessed using the Brier score and the C-index. Individual prognostic values of clinical and histological factors were analyzed using uni- and multivariate analyses. Results Median overall survival was 15.1 months (95% CI,11.5–18.7). Sperduto-GPA (P < .001), Nieder (P < .001), Park (P < .001), Claude (P < .001), Niwinska (P < .001), and Le Scodan (P = .034) scores all showed significant prognostic value. The Nieder score showed the best discriminative ability (C-index, 0.672; Brier score error reduction, 16.1%). Conclusion The majority of prognostic scores were relevant for patients with BM from BC in our independent population, and the Nieder score seems to present the best predictive value but showed a relatively low positive predictive value. Thus, these results remain insufficient and challenge the routine use of these scoring systems. PMID:24311640

  5. Automated Essay Scoring versus Human Scoring: A Correlational Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jinhao; Brown, Michelle Stallone

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to analyze the relationship between automated essay scoring (AES) and human scoring in order to determine the validity and usefulness of AES for large-scale placement tests. Specifically, a correlational research design was used to examine the correlations between AES performance and human raters' performance.…

  6. Geomagnetic activity related NOx enhancements and polar surface air temperature variability in a chemistry climate model: modulation of the NAM index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgaertner, A. J. G.; Seppälä, A.; Jöckel, P.; Clilverd, M. A.

    2011-05-01

    The atmospheric chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy is used to simulate polar surface air temperature effects of geomagnetic activity variations. A transient model simulation was performed for the years 1960-2004 and is shown to develop polar surface air temperature patterns that depend on geomagnetic activity strength, similar to previous studies. In order to eliminate influencing factors such as sea surface temperatures (SST) or UV variations, two nine-year long simulations were carried out, with strong and weak geomagnetic activity, respectively, while all other boundary conditions were held to year 2000 levels. Statistically significant temperature effects that were observed in previous reanalysis and model results are also obtained from this set of simulations, suggesting that such patterns are indeed related to geomagnetic activity. In the model, strong geomagnetic activity and the associated NOx (= NO + NO2) enhancements lead to polar stratospheric ozone loss. Compared with the simulation with weak geomagnetic activity, the ozone loss causes a decrease in ozone radiative cooling and thus a temperature increase in the polar winter mesosphere. Similar to previous studies, a cooling is found below the stratopause, which other authors have attributed to a decrease in the mean meridional circulation. In the polar stratosphere this leads to a more stable vortex. A strong (weak) Northern Hemisphere vortex is known to be associated with a positive (negative) Northern Annular Mode (NAM) index; our simulations exhibit a positive NAM index for strong geomagnetic activity, and a negative NAM for weak geomagnetic activity. Such NAM anomalies have been shown to propagate to the surface, and this is also seen in the model simulations. NAM anomalies are known to lead to specific surface temperature anomalies: a positive NAM is associated with warmer than average northern Eurasia and colder than average eastern North Atlantic. This is also the case in our

  7. A Revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and Its Association with Key Sociodemographic Factors, Health Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Peri-Retirement Aged Adults.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Maree G; Milte, Catherine M; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily intake recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, the DGI-2013 score was calculated using dietary data collected via an 111-item food frequency questionnaire and additional food-related behaviour questions. The DGI-2013 score was examined in Australian adults (aged 55-65 years; n = 1667 men; 1801 women) according to sociodemographics, health-related behaviours and BMI. Women scored higher than men on the total DGI-2013 and all components except for dairy. Those who were from a rural area (men only), working full-time (men only), with lower education, smoked, did not meet physical activity guidelines, and who had a higher BMI, scored lower on the DGI-2013, highlighting a group of older adults at risk of poor health. The DGI-2013 is a tool for assessing compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. We demonstrated associations between diet quality and a range of participant characteristics, consistent with previous literature. This suggests that the DGI-2013 continues to demonstrate convergent validity, consistent with the original Dietary Guideline Index. PMID:26978399

  8. A Revised Australian Dietary Guideline Index and Its Association with Key Sociodemographic Factors, Health Behaviors and Body Mass Index in Peri-Retirement Aged Adults

    PubMed Central

    Thorpe, Maree G.; Milte, Catherine M.; Crawford, David; McNaughton, Sarah A.

    2016-01-01

    The Dietary Guideline Index, a measure of diet quality, was updated to reflect the 2013 Australian Dietary Guidelines. This paper describes the revision of the index (DGI-2013) and examines its use in older adults. The DGI-2013 consists of 13 components reflecting food-based daily intake recommendations of the Australian Dietary Guidelines. In this cross-sectional study, the DGI-2013 score was calculated using dietary data collected via an 111-item food frequency questionnaire and additional food-related behaviour questions. The DGI-2013 score was examined in Australian adults (aged 55–65 years; n = 1667 men; 1801 women) according to sociodemographics, health-related behaviours and BMI. Women scored higher than men on the total DGI-2013 and all components except for dairy. Those who were from a rural area (men only), working full-time (men only), with lower education, smoked, did not meet physical activity guidelines, and who had a higher BMI, scored lower on the DGI-2013, highlighting a group of older adults at risk of poor health. The DGI-2013 is a tool for assessing compliance with the Australian Dietary Guidelines. We demonstrated associations between diet quality and a range of participant characteristics, consistent with previous literature. This suggests that the DGI-2013 continues to demonstrate convergent validity, consistent with the original Dietary Guideline Index. PMID:26978399

  9. Can an active aging index (AAI) provide insight into reducing elder abuse? A case study in Rajshahi District, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Tareque, Md Ismail; Ahmed, Md Munsur; Tiedt, Andrew D; Hoque, Nazrul

    2014-01-01

    We use data from respondents aged 60 years and above, collected during April 2009 in the Rajshahi district of Bangladesh, to examine whether high activeness, as captured by an AAI or in sub-domains, can help reduce the risk of elder abuse. The findings suggest that more than half of rural elderly and 14 percent of urban elderly were at some point abused. High activeness in health and security dimensions lowers the risk of being abused while those who are low active in community participation have the lowest risk of being abused in both rural and urban areas. Being literate (elderly with primary/secondary education) is revealed to be a significant factor that lowers the risk of abuse in both rural and urban areas. These results imply a need for educational programs that bolster positive and proper community interaction, in turn promoting a secure later life for elders, and reducing burden for families and society. High activeness in health and security dimensions should also be promoted to keep the elderly healthy and protect from abusive behavior. PMID:24331549

  10. Simple Scoring System and Artificial Neural Network for Knee Osteoarthritis Risk Prediction: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Tae Keun; Kim, Deok Won; Choi, Soo Beom; Oh, Ein; Park, Jee Soo

    2016-01-01

    Background Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common joint disease of adults worldwide. Since the treatments for advanced radiographic knee OA are limited, clinicians face a significant challenge of identifying patients who are at high risk of OA in a timely and appropriate way. Therefore, we developed a simple self-assessment scoring system and an improved artificial neural network (ANN) model for knee OA. Methods The Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES V-1) data were used to develop a scoring system and ANN for radiographic knee OA. A logistic regression analysis was used to determine the predictors of the scoring system. The ANN was constructed using 1777 participants and validated internally on 888 participants in the KNHANES V-1. The predictors of the scoring system were selected as the inputs of the ANN. External validation was performed using 4731 participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative (OAI). Area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic was calculated to compare the prediction models. Results The scoring system and ANN were built using the independent predictors including sex, age, body mass index, educational status, hypertension, moderate physical activity, and knee pain. In the internal validation, both scoring system and ANN predicted radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.73 versus 0.81, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.88 versus 0.94, p<0.001) with good discriminative ability. In the external validation, both scoring system and ANN showed lower discriminative ability in predicting radiographic knee OA (AUC 0.62 versus 0.67, p<0.001) and symptomatic knee OA (AUC 0.70 versus 0.76, p<0.001). Conclusions The self-assessment scoring system may be useful for identifying the adults at high risk for knee OA. The performance of the scoring system is improved significantly by the ANN. We provided an ANN calculator to simply predict the knee OA risk. PMID:26859664

  11. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children’s body mass index (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by

  12. Relationship of Bode Index to Functional Tests in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Regueiro, Eloisa Maria Gatti; Di Lorenzo, Valéria Amorim Pires; Basso, Renata Pedrolongo; Pessoa, Bruna Varanda; Jamami, Mauricio; Costa, Dirceu

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine if there is a correlation between the BODE Index and variables assessed during the Activities of Daily Living assessment, performance on lower limber tests, and peripheral muscle impairment of the upper limb in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS Ten men (aged 58 to 80 years old) with moderate to very severe obstruction were evaluated and classified by the BODE Index. They were evaluated by pulmonary ventilation (V̇E), oxygen consumption (V̇O2), and carbonic gas production (V̇CO2) on the ADL assessment; Distance Walking (DW) in the Six Minute Walking Test (6MWT) and the Six Minute Walking Test on Treadmill (6MWTT); number of repetitions in the Sit-to-Stand Test; and the Hand Grip Strength Test. Correlations were evaluated between the classification and the tests performed (Pearson and Spearman test, p<0.05). RESULTS The mean of the total score for the BODE Index was 2.80 (±1.03), with three patients scoring in the first quartile (Q1) and seven scoring in the second quartile (Q2). This Index showed a negative correlation with the 6MWTT (r=−0.86), the Sit-to-Stand Test (r=−0.66), and the Hand Grip Strength Test (r=−0.83). CONCLUSIONS Our results show that there is no correlation between the BODE Index and the ventilatory and metabolic responses in the Activities of Daily Living assessment. On the other hand, a correlation was observed between the BODE Index and the variables assessed in the 6MWTT, Sit-to-Stand Test, and Hand Grip Strength Test in moderate to very severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease patients. This suggests that these tests can be employed as predictors of physical exercise capacity, perhaps as complementary tests to the BODE Index. PMID:19841705

  13. Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Working Memory in a Sample of Children with Down Syndrome: Can Physical Activity Improve Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Geertina Houthuijzen

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested that in typical developing children a positive relationship exists between physical activity level and cognitive functioning. For some children, academic performance may increase when levels of physical activity are increased. Moreover, some studies have supported the idea that physical activity seems to improve attention.…

  14. More than Just Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, Henry M.

    2012-01-01

    Around the world we hear considerable talk about creating world-class schools. Usually the term refers to schools whose students get very high scores on the international comparisons of student achievement such as PISA or TIMSS. The practice of restricting the meaning of exemplary schools to the narrow criterion of achievement scores is usually…

  15. Trends in Classroom Observation Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casabianca, Jodi M.; Lockwood, J. R.; McCaffrey, Daniel F.

    2015-01-01

    Observations and ratings of classroom teaching and interactions collected over time are susceptible to trends in both the quality of instruction and rater behavior. These trends have potential implications for inferences about teaching and for study design. We use scores on the Classroom Assessment Scoring System-Secondary (CLASS-S) protocol from…

  16. Improving Test Scores. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2003-01-01

    What strategies can improve test scores? According to research done by Amrein and Berliner, who studied 18 states with high stakes testing, their conclusion was that students did not necessarily score higher and often remained at the same level prior to the introduction of the high stakes testing. In other research done by Carnoy and Loeb, their…

  17. Skyrocketing Scores: An Urban Legend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krashen, Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A new urban legend claims, "As a result of the state dropping bilingual education, test scores in California skyrocketed." Krashen disputes this theory, pointing out that other factors offer more logical explanations of California's recent improvements in SAT-9 scores. He discusses research on the effects of California's Proposition 227, which…

  18. Interpreting Linked Psychomotor Performance Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2013-01-01

    Given that equating/linking applications are now appearing in kinesiology literature, this article provides an overview of the different types of linked test scores: equated, concordant, and predicted. It also addresses the different types of evidence required to determine whether the scores from two different field tests (measuring the same…

  19. Classification of current scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Wang, Renxiao

    2015-03-23

    Scoring functions are a class of computational methods widely applied in structure-based drug design for evaluating protein-ligand interactions. Dozens of scoring functions have been published since the early 1990s. In literature, scoring functions are typically classified as force-field-based, empirical, and knowledge-based. This classification scheme has been quoted for more than a decade and is still repeatedly quoted by some recent publications. Unfortunately, it does not reflect the recent progress in this field. Besides, the naming convention used for describing different types of scoring functions has been somewhat jumbled in literature, which could be confusing for newcomers to this field. Here, we express our viewpoint on an up-to-date classification scheme and appropriate naming convention for current scoring functions. We propose that they can be classified into physics-based methods, empirical scoring functions, knowledge-based potentials, and descriptor-based scoring functions. We also outline the major difference and connections between different categories of scoring functions. PMID:25647463

  20. The Machine Scoring of Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCurry, Doug

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the kind of computer software that is used to score student writing in some high stakes testing programs, and that is being promoted as a teaching and learning tool to schools. It sketches the state of play with machines for the scoring of writing, and describes how these machines work and what they do.…

  1. High Scores but Low Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liqun; Neilson, William S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper college admissions are based on test scores and students can exert two types of effort: real learning and exam preparation. The former improves skills but the latter is more effective in raising test scores. In this setting the students with the lowest skills are no longer the ones with the lowest aptitude, but instead are the ones…

  2. Reliability of True Cutting Scores for Rasch Calibrated Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    This paper provides formulas for expected true-score measures and reliability of binary items as a function of their Rasch difficulty parameters when the trait distribution is normal or logistic. With the proposed formula, one can evaluate the theoretical values of classical reliability indexes for norm-referenced and criterion-referenced…

  3. Rurality Scores for U.S. Counties, 1994. Bulletin 689.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleland, Charles L.; And Others

    This map of the contiguous United States uses a seven-color scheme to display a rurality index score for counties. The measure of rurality is intended to represent degree of isolation from and inability to participate in the programs of the larger society. It is intended to reflect both physical isolation and the isolation that comes from a lack…

  4. Physical Activity of Malaysian Primary School Children: Comparison by Sociodemographic Variables and Activity Domains.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jyh Eiin; Parikh, Panam; Poh, Bee Koon; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the physical activity of primary school children according to sociodemographic characteristics and activity domains. Using the Malaysian South East Asian Nutrition Surveys data, 1702 children aged 7 to 12 years were included in the analysis. Physical activity was reported as a total score and categorized into low, medium, and high levels based on Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Higher overall activity scores were found in boys, younger age, non-Chinese ethnicity, and normal body mass index category. Sex, age, and ethnicity differences were found in structured or organized, physical education, and outside-of-school domain scores. Transport-related scores differed by age group, ethnicity, household income, and residential areas but not among the three physical activity levels. Participation of girls, Chinese, and older children were low in overall and almost all activity domains. Sociodemographic characteristics are important factors to consider in increasing the different domains of physical activity among Malaysian children. PMID:27257293

  5. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  6. Comparison of active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of active dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood indexes related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. PMID:26472702

  7. Incidence of Adult-onset Asthma After Hypothetical Interventions on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity: An Application of the Parametric G-Formula

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Danaei, Goodarz; Camargo,, Carlos A.; Hernán, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) (calculated as weight (kg)/height (m)2) is associated with increased asthma risk, but uncertainty persists about the role of physical activity. We estimated the independent and joint associations of hypothetical interventions on BMI and physical activity with the risk of adult-onset asthma in 76,470 asthma-free women from the Nurses’ Health Study who were followed between 1988 and 1998. Information about asthma, BMI, physical activity, and other factors was updated every 2 years. We used the parametric g-formula to estimate the 10-year asthma risk in the following 4 scenarios: no intervention, 5% BMI reduction in a 2-year period for those who were overweight or obese, at least 2.5 hours/week of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and both of the previous 2 interventions. At baseline, women had a mean age of 55 (standard deviation, 7) years and a mean BMI of 25.4 (standard deviation, 4.8). Median time spent in physical activity was 0.7 hours/week. During follow-up, 1,146 women developed asthma. The 10-year asthma risk under no intervention was 1.5%. Compared with no intervention, the population risk ratios were 0.96 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93, 0.99) under the BMI intervention, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.81, 1.10) under the physical activity intervention, and 0.92 (95% CI: 0.78, 1.06) under the joint intervention. Interventions on BMI and physical activity may have a modest impact on the risk of adult-onset asthma in this population of US women. PMID:24107616

  8. International Study of Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Time with Body Mass Index and Obesity: IPEN Adult Study

    PubMed Central

    Van Dyck, Delfien; Cerin, Ester; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Hinckson, Erica; Reis, Rodrigo S; Davey, Rachel; Sarmiento, Olga Lucia; Mitas, Josef; Troelsen, Jens; MacFarlane, Duncan; Salvo, Deborah; Aguinaga-Ontoso, Ines; Owen, Neville; Cain, Kelli L; Sallis, James F

    2014-01-01

    Background Physical activity (PA) has been consistently implicated in the etiology of obesity, while recent evidence on the importance of sedentary time remains inconsistent. Understanding of dose-response associations of PA and sedentary time with overweight and obesity in adults can be improved with large-scale studies using objective measures of PA and sedentary time. The purpose of this study was to examine the strength, direction and shape of dose-response associations of accelerometer-based PA and sedentary time with BMI and weight status in 10 countries, and the moderating effects of study site and gender. Methods Data from the International Physical activity and the Environment Network (IPEN) Adult study were used. IPEN Adult is an observational multi-country cross-sectional study, and 12 sites in 10 countries are included. Participants wore an accelerometer for seven consecutive days, completed a socio-demographic questionnaire and reported height and weight. In total, 5712 adults (18–65 years) were included in the analyses. Generalized additive mixed models, conducted in R, were used to estimate the strength and shape of the associations. Results A curvilinear relationship of accelerometer-based moderate-to-vigorous PA and total counts/minute with BMI and the probability of being overweight/obese was identified. The associations were negative, but weakened at higher levels of moderate-to-vigorous PA (>50 min/day) and higher counts/minute. No associations between sedentary time and weight outcomes were found. Complex site- and gender-specific findings were revealed for BMI, but not for weight status. Conclusions Based on these results, the current Institute of Medicine recommendation of 60 minutes/day of moderate-to-vigorous PA to prevent weight gain in normal-weight adults was supported. No relationship between sedentary time and the weight outcomes was present, calling for further examination. If moderator findings are confirmed, the relationship

  9. Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity by body mass index in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL☆

    PubMed Central

    Palta, P.; McMurray, R.G.; Gouskova, N.A.; Sotres-Alvarez, D.; Davis, S.M.; Carnethon, M.; Castañeda, S.F.; Gellman, M.D.; Hankinson, A.L.; Isasi, C.R.; Schneiderman, N.; Talavera, G.A.; Evenson, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Body mass index (BMI) was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively) compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively). The prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26835248

  10. Occupational Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational Activity (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996

  11. Atomic scale analysis of the enhanced electro- and photo-catalytic activity in high-index faceted porous NiO nanowires.

    PubMed

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  12. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale.

  13. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  14. Reading Ages and Standardized Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookbinder, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Discusses the advantages of and objections to testing children's reading ages and recommends that test results be given for both reading age and percentile levels (rather than standardized scores). (JM)

  15. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  16. WHO European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative: School Nutrition Environment and Body Mass Index in Primary Schools

    PubMed Central

    Wijnhoven, Trudy M.A.; van Raaij, Joop M.A.; Sjöberg, Agneta; Eldin, Nazih; Yngve, Agneta; Kunešová, Marie; Starc, Gregor; Rito, Ana I.; Duleva, Vesselka; Hassapidou, Maria; Martos, Éva; Pudule, Iveta; Petrauskiene, Ausra; Farrugia Sant’Angelo, Victoria; Hovengen, Ragnhild; Breda, João

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schools are important settings for the promotion of a healthy diet and sufficient physical activity and thus overweight prevention. Objective: To assess differences in school nutrition environment and body mass index (BMI) in primary schools between and within 12 European countries. Methods: Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) European Childhood Obesity Surveillance Initiative (COSI) were used (1831 and 2045 schools in 2007/2008 and 2009/2010, respectively). School personnel provided information on 18 school environmental characteristics on nutrition and physical activity. A school nutrition environment score was calculated using five nutrition-related characteristics whereby higher scores correspond to higher support for a healthy school nutrition environment. Trained field workers measured children’s weight and height; BMI-for-age (BMI/A) Z-scores were computed using the 2007 WHO growth reference and, for each school, the mean of the children’s BMI/A Z-scores was calculated. Results: Large between-country differences were found in the availability of food items on the premises (e.g., fresh fruit could be obtained in 12%−95% of schools) and school nutrition environment scores (range: 0.30−0.93). Low-score countries (Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania) graded less than three characteristics as supportive. High-score (≥0.70) countries were Ireland, Malta, Norway, Portugal, Slovenia and Sweden. The combined absence of cold drinks containing sugar, sweet snacks and salted snacks were more observed in high-score countries than in low-score countries. Largest within-country school nutrition environment scores were found in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. All country-level BMI/A Z-scores were positive (range: 0.20−1.02), indicating higher BMI values than the 2007 WHO growth reference. With the exception of Norway and Sweden, a country-specific association between the school

  17. Evaluation of Biological Activity of Cellulose Pulp by Means of the Static Respiration Index (At4)/ Ocena Aktywności Biologicznej Pulpy Celulozowej Testem Respiracyjnym At4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Krochmal, Agata

    2014-09-01

    In the countries of the European Union, work is presently being conducted on the standardisation of the limit values and test methods for the determination of the biological activity of waste. The aim of conducting the tests is to monitor the effectiveness of waste biodegradation during composting, the evaluate any decrease in the biological activity of the waste before its landfilling and control processes taking place at landfills. The evaluation of the waste's biological activity can be performed, among others, by testing respiration. One such method is AT4 (Static Respiration Index) determination. The results of respirometric tests depict the availability of substrates for microorganisms, that is, the biodegradability. The article describes the tests of the biological activity of the cellulose pulp, the impact of the degree of compost inoculation on the value of this parameter and the dependence on the content of organic mass and total organic carbon in the tested substrate. The measurements of the oxygen demand were made using the OxiTop® Control measuring system. W krajach UE prowadzone są obecnie prace nad ujednoliceniem wartości granicznych oraz metod testowych oznaczania aktywności biologicznej odpadów. Celem prowadzenia testów jest monitoring efektywności biologicznego rozkładu odpadów podczas kompostowania, ocena zmniejszenia aktywności biologicznej odpadów przed ich składowaniem, kontrola procesów zachodzących na składowiskach. Ocenę aktywności biologicznej odpadów można przeprowadzić m.in. poprzez badanie respiracji. Jedną z takich metod jest oznaczenie AT4 (Static Respiration Index). Wyniki badań respirometrycznych obrazują dostępność substratów dla mikroorganizmów, czyli podatność na biodegradację. W artykule opisano badania aktywności biologicznej pulpy celulozowej testem AT4, wpływ stopnia zaczepienia kompostem na wartość tego parametru oraz zależność od zawartości masy organicznej i OWO w badanym substracie

  18. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture. PMID:26035225

  19. The scoring of movements in sleep.

    PubMed

    Walters, Arthur S; Lavigne, Gilles; Hening, Wayne; Picchietti, Daniel L; Allen, Richard P; Chokroverty, Sudhansu; Kushida, Clete A; Bliwise, Donald L; Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia

    2007-03-15

    The International Classification of Sleep Disorders (ICSD-2) has separated sleep-related movement disorders into simple, repetitive movement disorders (such as periodic limb movements in sleep [PLMS], sleep bruxism, and rhythmic movement disorder) and parasomnias (such as REM sleep behavior disorder and disorders of partial arousal, e.g., sleep walking, confusional arousals, night terrors). Many of the parasomnias are characterized by complex behaviors in sleep that appear purposeful, goal directed and voluntary but are outside the conscious awareness of the individual and therefore inappropriate. All of the sleep-related movement disorders described here have specific polysomnographic findings. For the purposes of developing and/or revising specifications and polysomnographic scoring rules, the AASM Scoring Manual Task Force on Movements in Sleep reviewed background literature and executed evidence grading of 81 relevant articles obtained by a literature search of published articles between 1966 and 2004. Subsequent evidence grading identified limited evidence for reliability and/or validity for polysomnographic scoring criteria for periodic limb movements in sleep, REM sleep behavior disorder, and sleep bruxism. Published scoring criteria for rhythmic movement disorder, excessive fragmentary myoclonus, and hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation were empirical and based on descriptive studies. The literature review disclosed no published evidence defining clinical consequences of excessive fragmentary myoclonus or hypnagogic foot tremor/alternating leg muscle activation. Because of limited or absent evidence for reliability and/or validity, a standardized RAND/UCLA consensus process was employed for recommendation of specific rules for the scoring of sleep-associated movements. PMID:17557425

  20. Development and validation of the Essen Intracerebral Haemorrhage Score

    PubMed Central

    Weimar, C; Benemann, J; Diener, H‐C

    2006-01-01

    Background Spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) accounts for the highest in‐hospital mortality of all stroke types. Nevertheless, outcome is favourable in about 30% of patients. Only one model for the prediction of favourable outcome has been validated so far. Objective To describe the development and validation of the Essen ICH score. Methods Inception cohorts were assessed on the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIH‐SS) on admission and after follow up of 100 days. On the basis of previously validated clinical variables, a simple clinical score was developed to predict mortality and complete recovery (Barthel index after 100 days ⩾95) in 340 patients with acute ICH. Subscores for age (<60 = 0; 60–69 = 1; 70–79 = 2; ⩾80 = 3), NIH‐SS level of consciousness (alert = 0; drowsy = 1; stuporose = 2; comatose = 3), and NIH‐SS total score (0–5 = 0; 6–10 = 1; 11–15 = 2; 16–20 = 3; >20 or coma = 4) were combined into a prognostic scale with <3 predicting complete recovery and >7 predicting death. The score was subsequently validated in an external cohort of 371 patients. Results The Essen ICH score showed a high prognostic accuracy for complete recovery and death in both the development and validation cohort. For prediction of complete recovery on the Barthel index after 100 days, the Essen ICH score was superior to the physicians' prognosis and to two previous prognostic scores developed for a slightly modified outcome. Conclusions The Essen ICH score provides an easy to use scale for outcome prediction following ICH. Its high positive predictive values for adverse outcomes and easy applicability render it useful for individual prognostic indications or the design of clinical studies. In contrast, physicians tended to predict outcome too pessimistically. PMID:16354736

  1. Comparative Assessment of Fetal Malnutrition by Anthropometry and CAN Score

    PubMed Central

    Soundarya, Mahalingam; Basavaprabhu, Achappa; Raghuveera, Kamila; Baliga, BS; Shivanagaraja, BSV

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Fetal malnutrition (FM) implies soft tissue wasting at birth with significant postnatal consequences and morbidity, and is identified by clinical assessment (CAN score) and anthropometry. No previous studies have been done to study all these parameters and evolve a screening method. The aim of this study was identifying the incidence of FM using CAN score and compare the nutritional assessment with anthropometry and evolve a screening tool for rapid assessment of FM. Methods Prospective study in Government district maternity hospital. 300 term newborns were assessed by CAN score and anthropometry recorded. The newborns were classified as per weight for age. Ponderal index (PI), Body mass index (BMI) and midarm circumference/head circumference ratio (MAC/HC) calculated and compared to CAN Score for accuracy in identifying FM. Findings Incidence of FM was 24%. Newborns identified malnourished by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were evaluated by CAN score and significant number of them (31/78 in PI, 60/121 in BMI, 51/81 in MAC/HC) were found well nourished. Similarly those recognized as normal by PI, BMI, MAC/HC were malnourished by CAN score(25/222 in PI, 11/179 in BMI, 42/219 in MAC/HC) with statistical significance(0.0001). BMI had the highest sensitivity and 11 neonates with normal BMI had low CAN score ann 9 of them had normal PI also making a combination of BMI and PI a good indicator of normal nutrition. Conclusion FM is best identified by CAN Score. BMI is the best screening tool for malnutrition and when coupled with PI will identify most normally nourished newborns. PMID:23056862

  2. Neck pain patients’ preference scores for their current health

    PubMed Central

    Hogg-Johnson, Sheilah; Bayoumi, Ahmed M.; Côté, Pierre; Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary; Hurwitz, Eric L.; Krahn, Murray

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To elicit neck pain (NP) patients’ preference scores for their current health, and investigate the association between their scores and NP disability. Methods Rating scale scores (RSs) and standard gamble scores (SGs) for current health were elicited from chronic NP patients (n = 104) and patients with NP following a motor vehicle accident (n = 116). Patients were stratified into Von Korff Pain Grades: Grade I (low-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade II (high-intensity pain, few activity limitations); Grade III (pain with high disability levels, moderate activity limitations); and Grade IV (pain with high disability levels, several activity limitations). Multivariable regression quantified the association between preference scores and NP disability. Results Mean SGs and RSs were as follows: Grade I patients: 0.81, 0.76; Grade II: 0.70, 0.60; Grade III: 0.64, 0.44; Grade IV: 0.57, 0.39. The association between preference scores and NP disability depended on type of NP and preference-elicitation method. Chronic NP patients’ scores were more strongly associated with depressive symptoms than with NP disability. In both samples, NP disability explained little more than random variance in SGs, and up to 51% of variance in RSs. Conclusion Health-related quality-of-life is considerably diminished in NP patients. Depressive symptoms and preference-elicitation methods influence preference scores that NP patients assign to their health. PMID:20349212

  3. Clinical Implication of Inflammation-Based Prognostic Score in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Suguru; Fujii, Tsutomu; Yabusaki, Norimitsu; Murotani, Kenta; Iwata, Naoki; Kanda, Mitsuro; Tanaka, Chie; Nakayama, Goro; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Koike, Masahiko; Fujiwara, Michitaka; Kodera, Yasuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A variety of systemic inflammation-based prognostic scores have been explored; however, there has been no study to clarify which score could best reflect survival in resected pancreatic cancer patients. Between 2002 and 2014, 379 consecutive patients who underwent curative resection of pancreatic cancer were enrolled. The Glasgow Prognostic Score (GPS), modified GPS (mGPS), neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), prognostic index (PI), and prognostic nutritional index (PNI) scores for each patient were calculated. Survival of each score was evaluated, and correlations between the score selected on the basis of the prognostic significance and various clinicopathological factors were analyzed. In the analysis of the GPS, the median survival time (MST) was 28.1 months for score 0, 25.6 for score 1, and 17.0 for score 2. As for mGPS, the MST was 25.8 months for score 0, 27.7 for score 1, and 17.0 for score 2. Both scores were found to be significant. On the contrary, there were no statistical differences in MST between various scores obtained using the NLR, PLR, PI, or PNI. Multivariate analysis revealed that lymph node metastasis, positive peritoneal washing cytology, and a GPS score of 2 were significant prognostic factors. There was also statistically significant correlation between the GPS score and tumor location (head), tumor size (≥2.0 cm), bile duct invasion, and duodenal invasion. Our study demonstrated that the GPS could be an independent predictive marker and was superior to other inflammation-based prognostic scores in patients with resected pancreatic cancer. PMID:27149487

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  5. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  6. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  7. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare Department of Health and... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  8. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject...

  9. Assessment of Body Mass Index, Sugar Sweetened Beverage Intake and Time Spent in Physical Activity of American Indian Children in Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Dennison, Michelle E; Sisson, Susan B; Lora, Karina; Stephens, Lancer D; Copeland, Kenneth C; Caudillo, Cynthia

    2015-08-01

    American Indian (AI) children have a combined overweight and obesity prevalence of 53%. Behaviors that contribute to obesity, such as sugar sweetened beverage (SSB) intake and time spent in physical activity (PA), have been poorly explored in this population. The purpose of this study is to report body mass index (BMI), SSB intake, and time spent in PA of 7-to-13-year-old AI children who reside in rural and urban areas in Oklahoma. Cross-sectional survey study. Self-reported SSB intake in the last month, and time spent in PA were collected via questionnaires. Height and weight were professionally measured. The sample included 124 7-to-13-year-old AI children who attended a diabetes prevention summer camp in 2013. BMI percentile, overweight and obesity prevalence, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and number of participants meeting the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Descriptive characteristics for BMI percentile, overweight and obesity, SSB intake, time spent in PA, and meeting PA recommendations were calculated using means, standard deviations, and frequencies. Independent t test and Chi square analyses were used to test for gender differences. Participants were 10.2 ± 1.5 years old and 57% female. Sixty-three percent were overweight or obese. Children consumed 309 ± 309 kcal/day of SSB and spent 4.4 ± 3.8 h per week in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Approximately 32% met the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. No gender differences were observed. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was higher than previously reported in a similar population, and higher than that of US children in the general population. SSB intake and physical activity levels were also found to be higher in this group than in the general population. PMID:25750107

  10. Gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can predict functional recovery in patients with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bilgin, Sevil; Guclu-Gunduz, Arzu; Oruckaptan, Hakan; Kose, Nezire; Celik, Bülent

    2012-09-01

    Fifty-one patients with mild (n = 14), moderate (n = 10) and severe traumatic brain injury (n = 27) received early rehabilitation. Level of consciousness was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Score. Functional level was determined using the Glasgow Outcome Score, whilst mobility was evaluated using the Mobility Scale for Acute Stroke. Activities of daily living were assessed using the Barthel Index. Following Bobath neurodevelopmental therapy, the level of consciousness was significantly improved in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury, but was not greatly influenced in patients with mild traumatic brain injury. Mobility and functional level were significantly improved in patients with mild, moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Gait recovery was more obvious in patients with mild traumatic brain injury than in patients with moderate and severe traumatic brain injury. Activities of daily living showed an improvement but this was insignificant except for patients with severe traumatic brain injury. Nevertheless, complete recovery was not acquired at discharge. Multiple regression analysis showed that gait and Glasgow Coma Scale scores can be considered predictors of functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury. PMID:25624828

  11. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  12. Coefficient α as a Measure of Test Score Reliability: Review of 3 Popular Misconceptions.

    PubMed

    Morera, Osvaldo F; Stokes, Sonya M

    2016-03-01

    We discuss 3 popular misconceptions about Cronbach α or coefficient α, traditionally used in public health and the behavioral sciences as an index of test score reliability. We also review several other indices of test score reliability. We encourage researchers to thoughtfully consider the nature of their data and the options when choosing an index of reliability, and to clearly communicate this choice and its implications to their audiences. PMID:26885962

  13. Can Score Databanks Help Teaching?

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Alessandro; Barral-Netto, Manoel

    2011-01-01

    Background Basic courses in most medical schools assess students' performance by conferring scores. The objective of this work is to use a large score databank for the early identification of students with low performance and to identify course trends based on the mean of students' grades. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied scores from 2,398 medical students registered in courses over a period of 10 years. Students in the first semester were grouped into those whose ratings remained in the lower quartile in two or more courses (low-performance) and students who had up to one course in the lower quartile (high-performance). ROC curves were built, aimed at the identification of a cut-off average score in the first semesters that would be able to predict low performances in future semesters. Moreover, to follow the long-term pattern of each course, the mean of all scores conferred in a semester was compared to the overall course mean obtained by averaging 10 years of data. Individuals in the low-performance group had a higher risk of being in the lower quartile of at least one course in the second semester (relative risk 3.907; 95% CI: 3.378–4.519) and in the eighth semester (relative risk 2.873; 95% CI: 2.495–3.308). The prediction analysis revealed that an average score of 7.188 in the first semester could identify students that presented scores below the lower quartiles in both the second and eighth semesters (p<0.0001 for both AUC). When scores conferred by single courses were compared over time, three time-trend patterns emerged: low variation, upward trend and erratic pattern. Conclusion/Significance An early identification of students with low performance may be useful in promoting pedagogical strategies for these individuals. Evaluation of the time trend of scores conferred by courses may help departments monitoring changes in personnel and methodology that may affect a student's performance. PMID:21246033

  14. [Trauma scores: reproducibility and reliability].

    PubMed

    Waydhas, C; Nast-Kolb, D; Trupka, A; Kerim-Sade, C; Kanz, G; Zoller, J; Schweiberer, L

    1992-02-01

    The inter-rater reliability of the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Polytraumaschlüssel (PTS) [multiple trauma code] was studied using diagnosis sheets filled in for 107 multiple injured patients. The scoring was performed by eight physicians with different levels of qualification. The scores for individual patients varied widely depending on the scorer, with extremes differing from the mean by about 80% and 70% for the ISS and PTS, respectively. The mean ISS and PTS for the whole study population also varied significantly between the scorers (P less than 0.0001, one-way analysis of variance). Raters with experience in trauma scoring calculated significantly higher scores (P less than 0.01, t-test) Neither the ISS nor the PTS seem reliable enough to describe injury severity in an individual patient. Treatment decisions must not be based on such grounds. Even for larger groups, caution must be exercised in comparison of different populations of multiple traumatized patients. PMID:1570531

  15. Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm (LISA)

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Zheng; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-01-01

    A central problem in de novo drug design is determining the binding affinity of a ligand with a receptor. A new scoring algorithm is presented that estimates the binding affinity of a protein-ligand complex given a three-dimensional structure. The method, LISA (Ligand Identification Scoring Algorithm), uses an empirical scoring function to describe the binding free energy. Interaction terms have been designed to account for van der Waals (VDW) contacts, hydrogen bonding, desolvation effects and metal chelation to model the dissociation equilibrium constants using a linear model. Atom types have been introduced to differentiate the parameters for VDW, H-bonding interactions and metal chelation between different atom pairs. A training set of 492 protein-ligand complexes was selected for the fitting process. Different test sets have been examined to evaluate its ability to predict experimentally measured binding affinities. By comparing with other well known scoring functions, the results show that LISA has advantages over many existing scoring functions in simulating protein-ligand binding affinity, especially metalloprotein-ligand binding affinity. Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was also used in order to demonstrate that the energy terms in LISA are well designed and do not require extra cross terms. PMID:21561101

  16. Articulation index and hearing handicap.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, L M; Nerbonne, M A; Konkle, D F

    2000-04-01

    This investigation examined the relationship between perceived hearing handicap and the Articulation Index (AI) and the extent to which this relationship was influenced by the variables age, gender, degree of hearing loss, and audiometric slope. Subject age, gender, pure-tone thresholds, and scores for the Self-Assessment of Communication (SAC) and the Significant Other Assessment of Communication (SOAC) were extracted retrospectively from 373 patient files (194 males, 179 females). Correlation analysis revealed a significant (p < .01) negative relationship between AI values and both measures of hearing handicap, and also indicated that SAC/SOAC total scores correlated significantly (p < .01) with each other. Partial correlation analyses revealed that degree of hearing loss was the only variable under study that had substantial influence on the strength of AI/hearing handicap correlations. PMID:10783925

  17. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  18. Interpreting Force Concept Inventory Scores: Normalized Gain and SAT Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-01-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292), and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations (r=0.57 and r=0.46, respectively).…

  19. A Bootstrap Procedure of Propensity Score Estimation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bai, Haiyan

    2013-01-01

    Propensity score estimation plays a fundamental role in propensity score matching for reducing group selection bias in observational data. To increase the accuracy of propensity score estimation, the author developed a bootstrap propensity score. The commonly used propensity score matching methods: nearest neighbor matching, caliper matching, and…

  20. Estimating Decision Indices Based on Composite Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knupp, Tawnya Lee

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an IRT model that would enable the estimation of decision indices based on composite scores. The composite scores, defined as a combination of unidimensional test scores, were either a total raw score or an average scale score. Additionally, estimation methods for the normal and compound multinomial models…

  1. Electronic Scoring of Essays: Does Topic Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Cindy L.

    2008-01-01

    The scoring of student essays by computer has generated much debate and subsequent research. The majority of the research thus far has focused on validating the automated scoring tools by comparing the electronic scores to human scores of writing or other measures of writing skills, and exploring the predictive validity of the automated scores.…

  2. Cross-validation of Predicted Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axelrod, Bradley N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Equations for prorating the Wechsler Memory Scale--Revised General Memory (GM) and Delayed Recall (DR) index scores were confirmed in a clinical sample of 258 patients. These prediction equations for the GM and DR summary scores have validity for patient samples similar to those of the present study. (SLD)

  3. DIET QUALITY SCORES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF MARKERS OF INFLAMMATION AND ENDOTHELIAL DYSFUNCTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the mechanisms linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We assessed the association between several diet-quality scores and plasma concentrations of markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Diet-quality scores on the Healthy Eating Index (H...

  4. K-Ratio [Kernel Structure] Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Kenneith H.

    Designed to measure the syntactic maturity of oral speech, the K-Ratio Index was devised for use in an investigation of the relationships between certain measures of syntactic maturity of oral languages and silent reading comprehension scores. Preparation for computing the ratio was accomplished by transcribing oral speech samples, excluding…

  5. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  6. Dietary scores at midlife and healthy ageing in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Assmann, Karen E; Andreeva, Valentina A; Camilleri, Géraldine M; Verger, Eric O; Jeandel, Claude; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2016-08-01

    Although nutrition has been advocated as a major determinant of healthy ageing (HA), studies investigating the link between dietary quality and HA are scarce. We investigated the association between adherence to French food-based and nutrient-based guidelines at midlife, as assessed by three dietary scores, and HA. HA was assessed in 2007-2009, among 2329 participants of the SUpplémentation en Vitamines et Minéraux AntioXydants study aged 45-60 years at baseline (1994-1995) and initially free of diabetes, CVD and cancer. HA was defined as not developing any major chronic disease, good physical and cognitive functioning, no limitations in instrumental activities of daily living, no depressive symptoms, no health-related limitations in social life, good overall self-perceived health and no function-limiting pain. Data from repeated 24-h dietary records provided at baseline permitted the computation of the modified French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (mPNNS-GS), the Probability of Adequate Nutrient Intake Dietary Score (PANDiet) and the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I). Associations of these scores with HA were assessed by logistic regression. In 2007-2009, 42 % of men and 36 % of women met our criteria of HA. After adjustment for potential confounders, higher scores of the mPNNS-GS (ORquartile 4 v. quartile 1 1·44; 95 % CI 1·10, 1·87; P trend=0·006) and the PANDiet (1·28; 95 % CI 1·00, 1·64; P trend=0·03) were associated with higher odds of HA. We observed no association between DQI-I and HA. In conclusion, this study suggests a beneficial long-term role of high adherence to both food-based and nutrient-based French dietary guidelines for a HA process. PMID:27301412

  7. Biogenic amines as freshness index of meat wrapped in a new active packaging system formulated with essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    PubMed

    Sirocchi, Veronica; Caprioli, Giovanni; Cecchini, Cinzia; Coman, Maria Magdalena; Cresci, Alberto; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Ricciutelli, Massimo; Vittori, Sauro; Sagratini, Gianni

    2013-12-01

    Biogenic amines (BAs) are considered as an important indicator of freshness and quality of food. In this work, a new active packaging (AP) system for meat that, incorporating essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis at 4% (w/w), inhibits the increase of BAs and the bacteria involved into their production was developed. BAs were analyzed by a SPE-HPLC-DAD method during the storage time of meat (0-7 d, 4 °C). Results showed that, in each monitored day, Biogenic Amine Index (BAI) expressed in mg kg(-1) is lower in meat wrapped in AP with respect to that packed in polycoupled packaging (PP) (from 19% to 62%). A strong correlation was found between the inhibition of increase of putrescine, cadaverine, histamine and their bacteria producers such as Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas spp. and Brocothrix thermospacta. By exploiting antimicrobial and antioxidant action of essential oil of R. officinalis, the new APs contribute to increase the shelf life of fresh meat and to preserve its important nutrients. PMID:23815565

  8. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  9. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Argues that economics education provides many benefits to students, including preparation for law school. Examines the ranking of economics majors on the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). Finds that among the 14 majors having more than 2,000 students take the LSAT, economics students received the highest average score. (DSK)

  10. A Multilevel Analysis of Neighbourhood Built and Social Environments and Adult Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Ottawa, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Stephanie A.; Kristjansson, Elizabeth A.; Russell, Katherine; Billette, Jean-Michel; Sawada, Michael; Ali, Amira; Tremblay, Mark S.; Prud’homme, Denis

    2011-01-01

    Canadian research examining the combined effects of social and built environments on physical activity (PA) and obesity is limited. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationships among built and social environments and PA and overweight/obesity in 85 Ottawa neighbourhoods. Self-reported PA, height and weight were collected from 3,883 adults using the International PA Questionnaire from the 2003–2007 samples of the Rapid Risk Factor Surveillance System. Data on neighbourhood characteristics were obtained from the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study; a large study of neighbourhoods and health in Ottawa. Two-level binomial logistic regression models stratified by sex were used to examine the relationships of environmental and individual variables with PA and overweight/obesity while using survey weights. Results identified that approximately half of the adults were insufficiently active or overweight/obese. Multilevel models identified that for every additional convenience store, men were two times more likely to be physically active (OR = 2.08, 95% CI: 1.72, 2.43) and with every additional specialty food store women were almost two times more likely to be overweight or obese (OR = 1.77, 95% CI: 1.33, 2.20). Higher green space was associated with a reduced likelihood of PA (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.86, 0.99) and increased odds of overweight and obesity in men (OR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01, 1.19), and decreased odds of overweight/obesity in women (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89). In men, neighbourhood socioeconomic scores, voting rates and sense of community belonging were all significantly associated with overweight/obesity. Intraclass coefficients were low, but identified that the majority of neighbourhood variation in outcomes was explained by the models. Findings identified that green space, food landscapes and social cohesiveness may play different roles on PA and overweight/obesity in men and women and future prospective studies are needed. PMID:22073022

  11. Glucocorticoid-Related Changes in Body Mass Index among Children and Adolescents with Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shiff, Natalie J; Brant, Rollin; Guzman, Jaime; Cabral, David A; Huber, Adam M.; Miettunen, Paivi M.; Roth, Johannes; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Alos, Nathalie; Atkinson, Stephanie A.; Collet, Jean Paul; Couch, Robert; Cummings, Elizabeth A.; Dent, Peter B.; Ellsworth, Janet; Hay, John; Houghton, Kristin; Jurencak, Roman; Lang, Bianca; Larche, Maggie; LeBlanc, Claire; Rodd, Celia; Saint-Cyr, Claire; Stein, Robert; Stephure, David; Taback, Shayne; Rauch, Frank; Ward, Leanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the temporal and dose-related effect of glucocorticoids (GCs) on body mass index (BMI) in children with rheumatic diseases. Methods Children initiating GCs for a rheumatic disease (n=130) were assessed every 3 months for 18 months. BMI, weight and height Z-score trajectories were described according to GC starting dosage in prednisone equivalents: high (≥1.0 mg/kg/day), low (<0.2 mg/kg/day to a maximum of 7.5 mg/d), and moderate (between high and low) dosage. The impact of GC dosing, underlying diagnosis, pubertal status, physical and disease activity on BMI Z-scores and on percent body fat was assessed with longitudinal mixed effects growth curve models. Results The GC starting dose was high in 59% and moderate in 39% of patients. The peak BMI Z score was +1.29 at 4 months with high-dose GCs and +0.69 at 4.2 months with moderate-dose GCs (p<0.001). Overall, 50% (95% confidence interval 41–59%) of children returned to within +0.25 standard deviations (SD) of their baseline BMI Z score. Oral GC dose over the preceding 3 months was the most significant determinant of BMI Z-score and percent body fat. The proportion of days in receipt of GCs, disease activity, and a diagnosis of systemic-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis were also associated with BMI Z scores. The correlation between changes in BMI and changes in percent body fat was 0.09. Conclusions In children with rheumatic disease starting moderate and high doses of GCs, BMI Z score peaked at 4 months and only half returned to within +0.25 SD of their baseline BMI Z-score by 18 months. PMID:22826190

  12. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J.; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M.; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Beulens, Joline W. J.; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C.; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C.; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Katzke, Verena A.; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G. M.; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72–0.79) to 0.88 (0.84–0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69–0.83) to 0.84 (0.76–0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73–0.83) to 0.91 (0.85–0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  13. Diet Quality Scores and Prediction of All-Cause, Cardiovascular and Cancer Mortality in a Pan-European Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Lassale, Camille; Gunter, Marc J; Romaguera, Dora; Peelen, Linda M; Van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Beulens, Joline W J; Freisling, Heinz; Muller, David C; Ferrari, Pietro; Huybrechts, Inge; Fagherazzi, Guy; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Affret, Aurélie; Overvad, Kim; Dahm, Christina C; Olsen, Anja; Roswall, Nina; Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Katzke, Verena A; Kühn, Tilman; Buijsse, Brian; Quirós, José-Ramón; Sánchez-Cantalejo, Emilio; Etxezarreta, Nerea; Huerta, José María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Bonet, Catalina; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Key, Timothy J; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Bamia, Christina; Lagiou, Pagona; Palli, Domenico; Agnoli, Claudia; Tumino, Rosario; Fasanelli, Francesca; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Boer, Jolanda M A; Sonestedt, Emily; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Renström, Frida; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Lund, Eiliv; Moons, Karel G M; Riboli, Elio; Tzoulaki, Ioanna

    2016-01-01

    Scores of overall diet quality have received increasing attention in relation to disease aetiology; however, their value in risk prediction has been little examined. The objective was to assess and compare the association and predictive performance of 10 diet quality scores on 10-year risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality in 451,256 healthy participants to the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, followed-up for a median of 12.8y. All dietary scores studied showed significant inverse associations with all outcomes. The range of HRs (95% CI) in the top vs. lowest quartile of dietary scores in a composite model including non-invasive factors (age, sex, smoking, body mass index, education, physical activity and study centre) was 0.75 (0.72-0.79) to 0.88 (0.84-0.92) for all-cause, 0.76 (0.69-0.83) to 0.84 (0.76-0.92) for CVD and 0.78 (0.73-0.83) to 0.91 (0.85-0.97) for cancer mortality. Models with dietary scores alone showed low discrimination, but composite models also including age, sex and other non-invasive factors showed good discrimination and calibration, which varied little between different diet scores examined. Mean C-statistic of full models was 0.73, 0.80 and 0.71 for all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Dietary scores have poor predictive performance for 10-year mortality risk when used in isolation but display good predictive ability in combination with other non-invasive common risk factors. PMID:27409582

  14. THE PANC 3 SCORE PREDICTING SEVERITY OF ACUTE PANCREATITIS

    PubMed Central

    BEDUSCHI, Murilo Gamba; MELLO, André Luiz Parizi; VON-MÜHLEN, Bruno; FRANZON, Orli

    2016-01-01

    Background : About 20% of cases of acute pancreatitis progress to a severe form, leading to high mortality rates. Several studies suggested methods to identify patients that will progress more severely. However, most studies present problems when used on daily practice. Objective : To assess the efficacy of the PANC 3 score to predict acute pancreatitis severity and its relation to clinical outcome. Methods : Acute pancreatitis patients were assessed as to sex, age, body mass index (BMI), etiology of pancreatitis, intensive care need, length of stay, length of stay in intensive care unit and mortality. The PANC 3 score was determined within the first 24 hours after diagnosis and compared to acute pancreatitis grade of the Revised Atlanta classification. Results : Out of 64 patients diagnosed with acute pancreatitis, 58 met the inclusion criteria. The PANC 3 score was positive in five cases (8.6%), pancreatitis progressed to a severe form in 10 cases (17.2%) and five patients (8.6%) died. Patients with a positive score and severe pancreatitis required intensive care more often, and stayed for a longer period in intensive care units. The PANC 3 score showed sensitivity of 50%, specificity of 100%, accuracy of 91.4%, positive predictive value of 100% and negative predictive value of 90.6% in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. Conclusion : The PANC 3 score is useful to assess acute pancreatitis because it is easy and quick to use, has high specificity, high accuracy and high predictive value in prediction of severe acute pancreatitis. PMID:27120730

  15. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995–97 and in 2006–08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  16. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  17. A Genomic Score Prognostic of Outcome in Trauma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Warren, H Shaw; Elson, Constance M; Hayden, Douglas L; Schoenfeld, David A; Cobb, J Perren; Maier, Ronald V; Moldawer, Lyle L; Moore, Ernest E; Harbrecht, Brian G; Pelak, Kimberly; Cuschieri, Joseph; Herndon, David N; Jeschke, Marc G; Finnerty, Celeste C; Brownstein, Bernard H; Hennessy, Laura; Mason, Philip H; Tompkins, Ronald G

    2009-01-01

    Traumatic injuries frequently lead to infection, organ failure, and death. Health care providers rely on several injury scoring systems to quantify the extent of injury and to help predict clinical outcome. Physiological, anatomical, and clinical laboratory analytic scoring systems (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE], Injury Severity Score [ISS]) are utilized, with limited success, to predict outcome following injury. The recent development of techniques for measuring the expression level of all of a person’s genes simultaneously may make it possible to develop an injury scoring system based on the degree of gene activation. We hypothesized that a peripheral blood leukocyte gene expression score could predict outcome, including multiple organ failure, following severe blunt trauma. To test such a scoring system, we measured gene expression of peripheral blood leukocytes from patients within 12 h of traumatic injury. cRNA derived from whole blood leukocytes obtained within 12 h of injury provided gene expression data for the entire genome that were used to create a composite gene expression score for each patient. Total blood leukocytes were chosen because they are active during inflammation, which is reflective of poor outcome. The gene expression score combines the activation levels of all the genes into a single number which compares the patient’s gene expression to the average gene expression in uninjured volunteers. Expression profiles from healthy volunteers were averaged to create a reference gene expression profile which was used to compute a difference from reference (DFR) score for each patient. This score described the overall genomic response of patients within the first 12 h following severe blunt trauma. Regression models were used to compare the association of the DFR, APACHE, and ISS scores with outcome. We hypothesized that patients with a total gene response more different from uninjured volunteers would tend to have poorer

  18. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  19. Baseline Omega-3 Index Correlates with Aggressive and Attention Deficit Disorder Behaviours in Adult Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Barbara J.; Byrne, Mitchell K.; Collier, Carole; Parletta, Natalie; Crawford, Donna; Winberg, Pia C.; Webster, David; Chapman, Karen; Thomas, Gayle; Dally, Jean; Batterham, Marijka; Farquhar, Ian; Martin, Anne-Marie; Grant, Luke

    2015-01-01

    Background There is emerging evidence that the supplementation of omega-3 contributes to a decrease in aggressive behaviour in prison populations. A challenge of such research is achieving statistical power against effect sizes which may be affected by the baseline omega-3 index. There are no published data on the blood omega-3 index with studies of this kind to assess the variability of the blood omega-3 index in conjunction with aggression and attention deficit assessments. Objective To determine if the variance of the omega-3 index is correlated with aggressive and attention deficit behaviour in a prison population. Design 136 adult male prisoners were recruited from South Coast Correctional Centre (SCCC), NSW Australia. A 7 point categorisation was used to quantify levels of aggressive behaviour (4 weeks) from individual SCCC case notes, whereby higher scores correspond to increasingly aggressive behaviour. Study participants completed the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ) and the Brown’s Attention Deficit Disorder Scales (BADDS), provided a blood sample for erythrocyte fatty acid analysis using gas chromatography and the omega-3 index was calculated. Results The baseline omega-3 index ranged from 2.3% to 10.3%, indicating that some participants already had substantial omega-3 intake, however a median of 4.7% indicated a lower overall omega-3 intake than the general Australian population. Assessment of aggressive and attention deficit behaviour shows that there were negative correlations between baseline omega-3 index and baseline aggression categorisation scores (r = −0.21, P = 0.016); total AQ score (r = −0.234, P = 0.011); Anger (r = -0.222 p = 0.016); Hostility AQ (r = −0.239, P = 0.009); indirect aggression (r = −0.188 p = 0.042); total BADDS (r = −0.263, p = 0.005); Activation (r = −0.224, p = 0.016); Attention (r = −0.192, p = 0.043); Effort (r = −0.253, p = 0.007); Affect (r = −0.330, p = 0.000) and Memory (r = −0.240, p = 0

  20. Ability to learn inhaler technique in relation to cognitive scores and tests of praxis in old age

    PubMed Central

    Allen, S; Ragab, S

    2002-01-01

    Clinical observations have shown that some older patients are unable to learn to use a metered dose inhaler (MDI) despite having a normal abbreviated mental test (AMT) score, possibly because of dyspraxia or unrecognised cognitive impairment. Thirty inhaler-naive inpatients (age 76–94) with an AMT score of 8–10 (normal) were studied. Standard MDI training was given and the level of competence reached was scored (inhalation score). A separate observer performed the minimental test (MMT), Barthel index, geriatric depression score (GDS), ideational dyspraxia test (IDT), and ideomotor dyspraxia test (IMD). No correlative or threshold relationship was found between inhalation score and Barthel index, GDS, or IDT. However, a significant correlation was found between inhalation score and IMD (r = 0.45, p = 0.039) and MMT (r = 0.48, p = 0.032) and threshold effects emerged in that no subject with a MMT score of less than 23/30 had an inhalation score of 5/10 or more (adequate technique requires 6/10 or more), and all 17/18 with an inhalation score of 6/10 or more had an IMD of 14/20 or more. The three patients with a MMT >22 and inhalation score <6 had abnormal IMD scores. Inability to learn an adequate inhaler technique in subjects with a normal AMT score appears to be due to unrecognised cognitive impairment or dyspraxia. The MMT is probably a more useful screening test than the AMT score in this context. PMID:11796871

  1. Do Examinees Understand Score Reports for Alternate Methods of Scoring Computer Based Tests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Tiffany A.; Williams, Natasha J.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the interpretability of scaled scores based on either number correct (NC) scoring for a paper-and-pencil test or one of two methods of scoring computer-based tests: an item pattern (IP) scoring method and a method based on equated NC scoring. The equated NC scoring method for computer-based tests was proposed as an alternative…

  2. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  3. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  4. KSC Construction Cost Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Kennedy Space Center cost Index aids in conceptual design cost estimates. Report discusses development of KSC Cost Index since January 1974. Index since January 1974. Index provides management, design engineers, and estimators an up-to-data reference for local labor and material process. Also provides mount and rate of change in these costs used to predict future construction costs.

  5. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  6. The use of portable equipment for the activity concentration index determination of building materials: method validation and survey of building materials on the Belgian market.

    PubMed

    Stals, M; Verhoeven, S; Bruggeman, M; Pellens, V; Schroeyers, W; Schreurs, S

    2014-01-01

    The Euratom BSS requires that in the near future (2015) the building materials for application in dwellings or buildings such as offices or workshops are screened for NORM nuclides. The screening tool is the activity concentration index (ACI). Therefore it is expected that a large number of building materials will be screened for NORM and thus require ACI determination. Nowadays, the proposed standard for determination of building material ACI is a laboratory analyses technique with high purity germanium spectrometry and 21 days equilibrium delay. In this paper, the B-NORM method for determination of building material ACI is assessed as a faster method that can be performed on-site, alternative to the aforementioned standard method. The B-NORM method utilizes a LaBr3(Ce) scintillation probe to obtain the spectral data. Commercially available software was applied to comprehensively take into account the factors determining the counting efficiency. The ACI was determined by interpreting the gamma spectrum from (226)Ra and its progeny; (232)Th progeny and (40)K. In order to assess the accuracy of the B-NORM method, a large selection of samples was analyzed by a certified laboratory and the results were compared with the B-NORM results. The results obtained with the B-NORM method were in good correlation with the results obtained by the certified laboratory, indicating that the B-NORM method is an appropriate screening method to assess building material ACI. The B-NORM method was applied to analyze more than 120 building materials on the Belgian market. No building materials that exceed the proposed reference level of 1 mSv/year were encountered. PMID:24158046

  7. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.

    PubMed

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-10-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of "obesogenic" neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child's residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments' contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students' reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children's BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food

  8. Interpreting force concept inventory scores: Normalized gain and SAT scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletta, Vincent P.; Phillips, Jeffrey A.; Steinert, Jeffrey J.

    2007-06-01

    Preinstruction SAT scores and normalized gains (G) on the force concept inventory (FCI) were examined for individual students in interactive engagement (IE) courses in introductory mechanics at one high school (N=335) and one university (N=292) , and strong, positive correlations were found for both populations ( r=0.57 and r=0.46 , respectively). These correlations are likely due to the importance of cognitive skills and abstract reasoning in learning physics. The larger correlation coefficient for the high school population may be a result of the much shorter time interval between taking the SAT and studying mechanics, because the SAT may provide a more current measure of abilities when high school students begin the study of mechanics than it does for college students, who begin mechanics years after the test is taken. In prior research a strong correlation between FCI G and scores on Lawson’s Classroom Test of Scientific Reasoning for students from the same two schools was observed. Our results suggest that, when interpreting class average normalized FCI gains and comparing different classes, it is important to take into account the variation of students’ cognitive skills, as measured either by the SAT or by Lawson’s test. While Lawson’s test is not commonly given to students in most introductory mechanics courses, SAT scores provide a readily available alternative means of taking account of students’ reasoning abilities. Knowing the students’ cognitive level before instruction also allows one to alter instruction or to use an intervention designed to improve students’ cognitive level.

  9. A Global Gait Asymmetry Index.

    PubMed

    Cabral, Silvia; Resende, Renan A; Clansey, Adam C; Deluzio, Kevin J; Selbie, W Scott; Veloso, António P

    2016-04-01

    High levels of gait asymmetry are associated with many pathologies. Our long-term goal is to improve gait symmetry through real-time biofeedback of a symmetry index. Symmetry is often reported as a single metric or a collective signature of multiple discrete measures. While this is useful for assessment, incorporating multiple feedback metrics presents too much information for most subjects to use as visual feedback for gait retraining. The aim of this article was to develop a global gait asymmetry (GGA) score that could be used as a biofeedback metric for gait retraining and to test the effectiveness of the GGA for classifying artificially-induced asymmetry. Eighteen participants (11 males; age 26.9 y [SD = 7.7]; height 1.8 m [SD = 0.1]; body mass 72.7 kg [SD = 8.9]) walked on a treadmill in 3 symmetry conditions, induced by wearing custom-made sandals: a symmetric condition (identical sandals) and 2 asymmetric conditions (different sandals). The GGA score was calculated, based on several joint angles, and compared between conditions. Significant differences were found among all conditions (P < .001), meaning that the GGA score is sensitive to different levels of asymmetry, and may be useful for rehabilitation and assessment. PMID:26502455

  10. Development and Validation of the Vitiligo Extent Score (VES): an International Collaborative Initiative.

    PubMed

    van Geel, Nanja; Lommerts, Janny; Bekkenk, Marcel; Wolkerstorfer, Albert; Prinsen, Cecilia A C; Eleftheriadou, Viktoria; Taïeb, Alain; Picardo, Mauro; Ezzedine, Khaled; Speeckaert, Reinhart

    2016-05-01

    The clinical assessment of vitiligo involves an estimation of the affected body surface area. The most commonly used method is the "palm of hand 1% rule" as integrated in the Vitiligo Area Scoring Index. However, this method can be challenging and time consuming. In this study, we introduce a global Vitiligo Extent Score (VES). In the first part of the study, this measurement instrument was developed and subsequently optimized during a pilot scoring session. In a subsequent stage, the inter- and intrarater reliability of the instrument were tested. Live scoring showed an excellent interrater reliability for the VES (intraclass correlation VES: 0.924 vs. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index: 0.846). Subsequent scoring on pictures was comparable with the live evaluation and demonstrated an excellent intrarater reliability. A high intraclass correlation for the VES (intraclass correlation VES: 0.923 vs. Vitiligo Area Scoring Index: 0.757) was also found in an additional subgroup of patients with extensive vitiligo. Moreover, user-friendliness and timing were scored very favorably. In conclusion, this measurement instrument allows us to monitor accurately and easily the affected body surface area in a standardized way. Moreover, our results provide evidence that the VES can be proposed as a promising tool to measure the vitiligo extent in clinical trials and in daily practice. PMID:26827762

  11. An Optimizing Weight For Wrong Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlon, Thomas F.

    This study empirically determined the optimizing weight to be applied to the Wrongs Total Score in scoring rubrics of the general form = R - kW, where S is the Score, R the Rights Total, k the weight and W the Wrongs Total, if reliability is to be maximized. As is well known, the traditional formula score rests on a theoretical framework which is…

  12. Item Response Modeling with Sum Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    One of the distinctions between classical test theory and item response theory is that the former focuses on sum scores and their relationship to true scores, whereas the latter concerns item responses and their relationship to latent scores. Although item response theory is often viewed as the richer of the two theories, sum scores are still…

  13. DLQI and POSAS Scores in Keloid Patients.

    PubMed

    Poetschke, Julian; Reinholz, Markus; Schwaiger, Hannah; Epple, Andreas; Gauglitz, Gerd G

    2016-06-01

    The treatment of keloids remains complex and challenging. A multitude of different treatment options exists. While current guidelines frequently promote the combination of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide (TAC) and cryotherapy as a first-line therapy for keloids, its efficacy has mainly been proven clinically and objective evaluation is widely missing. Here, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of TAC and cryotherapy for the improvement of keloids by employing two well-recognized questionnaires for the evaluation of scar appearance and patient's quality of life. Twenty keloid patients from our outpatient scar clinic were treated with individual doses of TAC and cryotherapy in four consecutive sessions. Retrospectively, Patient and Observer Scar Assessment Scale (POSAS) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) questionnaire data from those patients were analyzed to evaluate changes over five visits (one baseline, four after treatment). Both overall patient and observer scores of the POSAS significantly decreased (41.10 ± 9.771 to 29.85 ± 11.42 [p < 0.001] and 33.75 ± 6.231 to 22.70 ± 5.992 [p < 0.001], respectively), while DLQI scores significantly declined over the time period studied, indicating significant improvements in scar appearance. Objective evaluation confirmed the clinically demonstrated improvements of scar appearance and symptoms after treatments with TAC and cryotherapy which was associated with significant improvements in quality of life as indicated by DLQI measures. Standardized questionnaires help in objectifying clinical improvements; however, more detailed options for scar documentation, such as objective imaging, may be additionally required for an in-depth analysis of treatment progress. PMID:27248027

  14. Relationship of Physical Activity and Healthy Eating with Mortality and Incident Heart Failure among Community-Dwelling Older Adults with Normal Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmawgoud, Ahmed; Brown, Cynthia J.; Sui, Xuemei; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Kokkinos, Peter F.; Bittner, Vera; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Fletcher, Ross D.; Blair, Steven N.; Ahmed, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Aims Normal body mass index (BMI) is associated with lower mortality and may be achieved by physical activity (PA), healthy eating (HE), or both. We examined the association of PA and HE with mortality and incident heart failure (HF) among 2040 community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years with baseline BMI 18.5 to 24.99 kg/m2 during 13 years of follow-up in Cardiovascular Health Study. Methods and results Baseline PA was defined as ≥500 weekly metabolic equivalent task-minutes (MET-minutes) and HE as ≥5 daily servings of vegetable and fruit intake. Participants were categorized into 4 groups: (1) PA−/HE− (n=384); (2) PA+/HE− (n=992); (3) PA−/HE+ (n=162); and (4) PA+/HE+ (n=502). Participants had a mean age of 74 (±6) years, mean BMI of 22.6 (±1.5) kg/m2, 61% were women, and 4% African American. Compared with PA−/HE−, age-sex-race-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality for PA−/HE+, PA+/HE−, and PA+/HE+ groups were 0.96 (0.76–1.21), 0.61 (0.52–0.71) and 0.62 (0.52–0.75), respectively. These associations remained unchanged after multivariable adjustment and were similar for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular mortalities. Respective demographic-adjusted HRs (95% Cis) for incident HF among 1954 participants without baseline HF were 1.21 (0.81–1.81), 0.71 (0.54–0.94) and 0.71 (0.51–0.98). These later associations lost significance after multivariable-adjustment. Conclusion Among community-dwelling older adults with normal BMI, physical activity, regardless of healthy eating, was associated with lower risk of mortality and incident HF, but healthy eating had no similar protective association in this cohort.

  15. ILK Index and Regrowth in Alopecia Areata.

    PubMed

    Stallings, Alicia M; Velez, Mara Weinstein; Fiessinger, Lori A; Piliang, Melissa P; Mesinkovska, Natasha A; Kyei, Angela; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2015-11-01

    There is insufficient data in the literature concerning optimal intralesional kenalog (ILK) dosing for the treatment of alopecia areata (AA). The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the utility of using the ratio of ILK received to initial Severity of Alopecia Tool (SALT) score to guide ILK dosing in patients with AA. Using photographic data from patients at baseline and 4-months follow-up, hair loss in 15 patients treated with AA was retrospectively graded using the SALT scores. The ILK received/initial SALT score (ILK index) was calculated for each patient, and the mean ILK index for patients who experienced significant (≥50%) and suboptimal (<50%) hair regrowth at 4 months follow-up were compared. Patients who experienced suboptimal hair regrowth had a lower ILK index on average than patients who experienced significant improvement. Although the difference did not meet significance (<0.1), the trend suggests that the ILK index, a novel calculation, may be a useful tool for guiding ILK dosing in the treatment of AA. PMID:26551947

  16. The reliability and validity of a Korean translation of the ASAS Health Index and Environmental Factors in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jung-Ho; Kim, Tae-Jong; Shin, Kichul; Choi, Chan-Bum; Kim, Ji-Hyun; Kim, So-Hyun; Kim, Nah-Ihm; Ahn, Min-Joo; Jung, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Park, Dong-Jin; Park, Yong-Wook; Lee, Shin-Seok; Kim, Tae-Hwan

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a Korean version of the Assessment of Spondyloarthritis International Society-Health Index/Environmental Factor (ASAS HI/EF) and to evaluate its reliability and validity in Korean patients with axial spondyloarthritis (SpA). A total of 43 patients participated. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the ASAS HI/EF was performed according to international standardized guidelines. We also evaluated validity by calculating correlation coefficients between the ASAS-HI/EF score and the clinical parameters. Test-retest reliability was excellent. The correlations among the mean ASAS-HI score and all tools of assessment for SpA were significant. When it came to construct validity, the ASAS HI score was correlated with nocturnal back pain, spinal pain, patients's global assessment score, the Bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), Bath ankylosing spondylitis metrology index (BASMI) and EuroQoL visual analogue scale (EQ VAS) (r = 0.353, 0.585, 0.598, 0.637, 0.690, 0.430, and -0.534). The ASAS EF score was also correlated with the patient's global assessment's score, BASDAI, BASFI, BASMI, and EQ VAS score (r = 0.375, 0.490, 0.684, 0.485, and -0.554). The Korean version of the ASAS HI/EF can be used in the clinical field to assess and evaluate the state of health of Korean axial SpA patients. PMID:24616580

  17. Syncrude`s fire hazard index priorities risks

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, B.

    1997-05-01

    To quantify fire hazard risks within large production facilities and help establish priorities for additional fire controls, Syncrude Canada Ltd. created a fire hazard index, to identify high-priority risks. The fire hazard index scoring system assigns a number score to each facility or work area. The numerical score represents the composite fire risk associated with the area of concern. The resulting scores are used as a comparative tool to determine which fire risks receive top priority for additional controls and fire inspections/surveys. Unlike other fire hazard indices, the Syncrude index can be used for all facilities regardless of whether they handle flammable material. As a result, the potential fire hazard associated with vehicles, shops, offices, computer rooms, and mechanical equipment can be assessed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Comparison of gingival index and sulcus bleeding index as indicators of periodontal status

    PubMed Central

    Benamghar, L.; Penaud, J.; Kaminsky, P.; Abt, F.; Martin, J.

    1982-01-01

    Although the gingival index and sulcus bleeding index have been widely used as indicators of periodontal status, there is some disagreement among investigators as to their meaning and significance. A clinical study was undertaken to monitor the occurrence of gingival bleeding, oedema, and change in colour in subjects with and without periodontal disease, and it was found that the combinations of these clinical symptoms often did not correspond exactly with an index score. It is therefore suggested that any study of periodontal disease should be based on fundamental criteria, such as bleeding or oedema, rather than on composite indices. PMID:6979418

  19. Post-docking virtual screening of diverse binding pockets: comparative study using DOCK, AMMOS, X-Score and FRED scoring functions.

    PubMed

    Pencheva, Tania; Soumana, Oumarou Samna; Pajeva, Ilza; Miteva, Maria A

    2010-06-01

    Most of the benchmark studies on docking-scoring methods reported in the last decade conclude that no single scoring function performs well across different protein targets. In this study a comparison of thirteen commonly used force field and empirical scoring functions as implemented in DOCK, AMMOS, X-Score and FRED is carried out on five proteins with diverse binding pockets. The performance is analyzed in relation to the physicochemical properties of the binding sites. The solvation effects are considered via the Generalized Born/Surface Area (GBSA) solvation method for one of the assessed scoring functions. We examined the ability of these scoring functions to discriminate between active and inactive compounds over receptor-based focused libraries. Our results demonstrated that the employed here empirical scoring functions were more appropriate for the pocket of predominant hydrophobic nature while the force field scoring functions performed better on the mixed or polar pockets. PMID:20227800

  20. The Thoracolumbar AOSpine Injury Score

    PubMed Central

    Kepler, Christopher K.; Vaccaro, Alexander R.; Schroeder, Gregory D.; Koerner, John D.; Vialle, Luiz R.; Aarabi, Bizhan; Rajasekaran, Shanmuganathan; Bellabarba, Carlo; Chapman, Jens R.; Kandziora, Frank; Schnake, Klaus J.; Dvorak, Marcel F.; Reinhold, Max; Oner, F. Cumhur

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Survey of 100 worldwide spine surgeons. Objective To develop a spine injury score for the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Methods Each respondent was asked to numerically grade the severity of each variable of the AOSpine Thoracolumbar Spine Injury Classification System. Usi