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Sample records for activity index sledai

  1. Two systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) global disease activity indexes--the SLE Disease Activity Index and the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure--demonstrate different correlations with activation of peripheral blood CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Daca, Agnieszka; Czuszyńska, Zenobia; Smoleńska, Zaneta; Zdrojewski, Zbigniew; Witkowski, Jacek M; Bryl, Ewa

    2011-12-01

    Global disease activity measurement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients is important for the clinical estimation and adjustment of therapy. By contrast, immune system activation plays a significant role in disease pathogenesis, with CD4+ lymphocytes acting as central cells in the immune response. We investigated which scale better correlates with immunologic changes in the blood of SLE patients, the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) or the Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) scale. Samples of peripheral blood were obtained from 45 SLE patients with different disease activity as assessed by the SLEDAI and the SLAM scales on the same day. We assessed the percentage of CD4+ T cells with activation-associated receptors: CD69, CD25int, CD95, HLA-DR, and CD4+ T cells with killing properties containing perforin and granzyme B. Our results indicated that the percentage of CD4+CD69+ and CD4+CD25(int) cells did not correlate with either the SLEDAI or the SLAM scale. Significant and positive correlations were observed between percentages of CD4+CD95+ and CD4+HLA-DR+ lymphocytes and SLE activity, but only when activity was measured using the SLAM scale, not with the SLEDAI scale. The percentage of CD4+perforin+ and CD4+granzyme B+ cells also strongly correlated with disease activity measured only with the SLAM scale. We conclude that the SLAM scale better reflects changes of immune system activity in SLE patients compared with the SLEDAI scale.

  2. Relationship Between Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index Scores and Subclinical Cardiac Problems

    PubMed Central

    Mirfeizi, Zahra; Poorzand, Hoorak; Javanbakht, Aida; Khajedaluee, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune connective-tissue disease involving multiple organs and systems. Some evidence has demonstrated that disease activity could be associated with increased risk of organ damage. Objectives The aim of this study was to determine the association between systemic lupus erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores and subclinical cardiac involvement. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 45 SLE patients (88% female; mean age: 31.2 ± 8.2 years) from 2011 to 2013 in Mashhad, Iran. The patients had no clinical signs and symptoms of cardiac problems or risk factors for cardiovascular disease and were selected consecutively. All patients underwent complete echocardiographic examinations (using two dimensional (2D) tissue Doppler and 2D speckle tracking). Disease activity was evaluated by using the SLEDAI. Results Patients with higher SLEDAI scores had higher pulmonary artery pressure rates (r = 0.34; P = 0.024; 95% CI (0.086 to 0.595)) and SLE durations (r = 0.43; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.165 to 0.664). The correlation between disease duration and left ventricular mass was also significant (r = 0.43; P = 0.009; 95% CI (0.172 to 0.681)), even after adjusting for age (r = 0.405; P = 0.016). There was no correlation between SLEDAI scores or disease duration and the left/right ventricle systolic function parameters. This was true while assessing the right ventricle’s diastolic function. A statistically significant correlation was found between mitral E/E’ as an index of left ventricle diastolic impairment and the SLEDAI scores (r = 0.33; P = 0.037; 95% CI (0.074 to 0.574)) along with disease duration (r = 0.45; P = 0.004; 95% CI (0.130 to 0.662); adjusted for age: r = 0.478; P = 0.002). Conclusions Echocardiography is a useful noninvasive technique for screening subclinical heart problems in SLE patients. Although disease activity in general should suggest a closer follow-up, regular scanning

  3. The Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index (SRI); a new SLE disease activity assessment.

    PubMed

    Luijten, K M A C; Tekstra, J; Bijlsma, J W J; Bijl, M

    2012-03-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE), because of its complex and multisystemic presentation, lacks a reliable and sensitive gold standard for measuring disease activity. In addition, there is no standardized method for defining response to therapy. Several disease activity indices have been developed over the years, each with their own positive and negative aspects. Growing insight in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases like SLE leads to the introduction of specific targeted biologic therapies. To investigate the efficacy of these new biologic agents, disease activity must be monitored regularly by a reliable and validated instrument. Recent studies on new biologics for treatment of SLE use a new composite measurement for disease activity and response in SLE. This new disease activity assessment, called SLE Responder Index (SRI), comprises criteria from three different internationally validated indices, SELENA-SLE Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI), Physician Global Assessment (PGA) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG) 2004. This review gives an overview of current available disease activity indices in relation to the newly developed composite SRI.

  4. Why and how should we measure disease activity and damage in lupus?

    PubMed

    Feld, Joy; Isenberg, David

    2014-06-01

    The assessment of disease activity and flare and differentiating them from permanent damage in patients with SLE is challenging. The SLEDAI, SLEDAI-2K and SELENA-SLEDAI measure global disease activity. The BILAG measures organ-specific activity. The BILAG better captures the change in the different organs at the expense of complexity. The SRI is a composite index incorporating both BILAG and SLEDAI indices and a physician's global assessment. It has been used in the most recent clinical trials. Damage correlates with prognosis; it is assessed by the SLICC/SDI index. This index scores damage whatever the cause, disease or treatment related, or the consequence of concomitant disease. The disease activity and damage indices do not correlate well with the patient's health related quality of life (HRQoL), the degree of disability or the impact of disease. The impact of the patients' joint disease on their HRQoL is assessed via the HAQ questionnaire and the global health status via the SF-36 index, or one of the more recently described lupus specific quality of life indices [Lupus QoL]. The global assessment instruments and the BILAG index can also be used in children and adolescents with SLE. However, a modified paediatric version of the SLICC/SDI damage index is advised. Many advances have been achieved in disease activity and damage measurement in the past 20 years but the problem of how best to capture flare accurately remains.

  5. The spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus and its association with the disease activity.

    PubMed

    Kusyairi, K A; Gendeh, B S; Sakthiswary, R; Shaharir, S S; Haizlene, A H; Yusof, K H

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the spectrum of nasal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and its association with the disease activity of SLE based on the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). This was a cross-sectional and observational study involving 73 stable SLE patients. All subjects were evaluated for the SLEDAI scores and had nasal endoscopic examination. The most commonly reported symptom was nasal congestion (31.5%) followed by nasal itchiness (26.0%), runny nose (20.5%) and nasal dryness (19.2%). Almost half (42.9%) of the subjects had nasal mucosal abnormalities, which included mucositis, crusting, ulceration, bifid middle turbinate, septal spur, Jacobson's organ, deviated nasal septum, bilateral inferior turbinate hypertrophy, everted uncinate process, nasopharynx cleft and torus palatinus. The median SLEDAI score for subjects with nasal symptoms was significantly higher than subjects without nasal symptoms (p < 0.05). Similarly, subjects with moderate to high activity (SLEDAI scores of 6-19) had a significantly higher frequency of both nasal symptoms and nasal mucosal abnormalities (p < 0.05) compared to subjects with no to mild activity (SLEDAI scores of 0-5).

  6. Sialyltransferase and Neuraminidase Levels/Ratios and Sialic Acid Levels in Peripheral Blood B Cells Correlate with Measures of Disease Activity in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liou, Lieh-bang; Huang, Che-ching

    2016-01-01

    Objective We attempted to determine whether the level of enzymes sialyltransferase (ST) and neuraminidase (Neu) and sialic acid (SIA) in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) correlates with the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) correlates with the Disease Activity Score28 (DAS28). Methods We examined cell-surface levels of ST6Gal-1, Neu1, ST3Gal-1, Neu3, α-2,6-SIA, and α-2,3-SIA by using fluorescent anti-enzyme antibodies, fluorescent-conjugated Sambucus nigra lectin, and fluorescent-conjugated Maackia amurensis lectin on blood cells in SLE and RA patients and assessed correlations of these levels with SLEDAI and with DAS28. Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for different variables against SLEDAI. Results The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio positively correlated with SLEDAI scores (ρ = 0.409 and P = 0.002, statistically significant after Bonferroni’ correction for multiple analyses.). It was supported by the inverse correlation of B-cell Neu3 levels with SLEDAI scores (ρ = −0.264, P = 0.048). The B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratio against SLEDAI yielded an AUC of 0.689, which was comparable to that of anti-dsDNA levels at 0.635. In contrast, both ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels of RA B cells (r = 0.376, P = 0.013; r = 0.425, P = 0.005, respectively) correlated positively with high disease-activity DAS28 scores. Conclusion B-cell ST3Gal-1/Neu3 ratios in SLE and B-cell ST3Gal-1 and Neu3 levels in RA with high disease-activity DAS28 scores correlated with disease activity measures and may be useful in monitoring disease activities. PMID:26981635

  7. A new activity index for comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipple, Fred L.

    1992-12-01

    An activity index, AI, is derived from observational data to measure the increase of activity in magnitudes for comets when brightest near perihelion as compared to their inactive reflective brightness at great solar distances. Because the observational data are still instrumentally limited in the latter case and because many comets carry particulate clouds about them at great solar distances, the application of the activity index is still limited. A tentative application is made for the comets observed by Max Beyer over a period of nearly 40 years, providing a uniform magnitude system for the near-perihelion observations. In all, 32 determinations are made for long-period (L-P) comets and 15 for short-period (S-P). Although the correlations are scarcely definitive, the data suggest that the faintest comets are just as active as the brightest and that the S-P comets are almost as active as those with periods (P) exceeding 104 years or those with orbital inclinations of i less than 120 deg. Comets in the range 102 less than P less than 104 yr. or with i greater than 120 deg appear to be somewhat more active than the others. There is no evidence to suggest aging among the L-P comets or to suggest other than a common nature for comets generally.

  8. A new activity index for comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, Fred L.

    1992-01-01

    An activity index, AI, is derived from observational data to measure the increase of activity in magnitudes for comets when brightest near perihelion as compared to their inactive reflective brightness at great solar distances. Because the observational data are still instrumentally limited in the latter case and because many comets carry particulate clouds about them at great solar distances, the application of the activity index is still limited. A tentative application is made for the comets observed by Max Beyer over a period of nearly 40 years, providing a uniform magnitude system for the near-perihelion observations. In all, 32 determinations are made for long-period (L-P) comets and 15 for short-period (S-P). Although the correlations are scarcely definitive, the data suggest that the faintest comets are just as active as the brightest and that the S-P comets are almost as active as those with periods (P) exceeding 10(exp 4) years or those with orbital inclinations of i less than 120 deg. Comets in the range 10(exp 2) less than P less than 10(exp 4) yr. or with i greater than 120 deg appear to be somewhat more active than the others. There is no evidence to suggest aging among the L-P comets or to suggest other than a common nature for comets generally.

  9. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described. PMID:8954230

  10. Active index for content-based medical image retrieval.

    PubMed

    Chang, S K

    1996-01-01

    This paper introduces the active index for content-based medical image retrieval. The dynamic nature of the active index is its most important characteristic. With an active index, we can effectively and efficiently handle smart images that respond to accessing, probing and other actions. The main applications of the active index are to prefetch image and multimedia data, and to facilitate similarity retrieval. The experimental active index system is described.

  11. 11 -year planetary index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okhlopkov, Victor

    In papers [1,2] introduced me parameter - the average difference between the heliocentric longitudes of planets ( ADL ) , which was used for comparison with solar activity. The best connection of solar activity ( Wolf numbers used ) was obtained for the three planets - Venus, Earth and Jupiter. In [1,2] has been allocated envelope curve of the minimum values ADL which has a main periodicity for 22 years and describes well the alternating series of solar activity , which also has a major periodicity of 22. It was shown that the minimum values of the envelope curve extremes ADL planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter are well matched with the 11- year solar activity cycle In these extremes observed linear configuration of the planets Venus, Earth and Jupiter both in their location on one side of the Sun ( conjunctions ) and at the location on the opposite side of the Sun ( three configurations ) This work is a continuation of the above-mentioned , and here for minimum ADL ( planets are in conjunction ) , as well as on the minimum deviation of the planets from a line drawn through them and Sun at the location of the planets on opposite sides of the Sun , compiled index (denoted for brevity as JEV ) that uniquely describes the 11- year solar cycle A comparison of the index JEV with solar activity during the time interval from 1000 to 2013 conducted. For the period from 1000 to 1699 used the Schove series of solar activity and the number of Wolf (1700 - 2013 ) During the time interval from 1000 to 2013 and the main periodicity of the solar activity and the index ADL is 11.07 years. 1. Okhlopkov V.P. Cycles of Solar Activity and the Configurations of Planets // Moscow University Physics Bulletin, 2012 , Vol. 67 , No. 4 , pp. 377-383 http://www.springerlink.com/openurl.asp?genre=article&id=doi:10.3103/S0027134912040108. 2 Okhlopkov VP, Relationship of Solar Activity Cycles to Planetary Configurations // Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 2013 , Vol. 77 , No. 5

  12. Activity based video indexing and search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Jiang, Qin; Medasani, Swarup; Allen, David; Lu, Tsai-ching

    2010-04-01

    We describe a method for searching videos in large video databases based on the activity contents present in the videos. Being able to search videos based on the contents (such as human activities) has many applications such as security, surveillance, and other commercial applications such as on-line video search. Conventional video content-based retrieval (CBR) systems are either feature based or semantics based, with the former trying to model the dynamics video contents using the statistics of image features, and the latter relying on automated scene understanding of the video contents. Neither approach has been successful. Our approach is inspired by the success of visual vocabulary of "Video Google" by Sivic and Zisserman, and the work of Nister and Stewenius who showed that building a visual vocabulary tree can improve the performance in both scalability and retrieval accuracy for 2-D images. We apply visual vocabulary and vocabulary tree approach to spatio-temporal video descriptors for video indexing, and take advantage of the discrimination power of these descriptors as well as the scalability of vocabulary tree for indexing. Furthermore, this approach does not rely on any model-based activity recognition. In fact, training of the vocabulary tree is done off-line using unlabeled data with unsupervised learning. Therefore the approach is widely applicable. Experimental results using standard human activity recognition videos will be presented that demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

  13. Forecasting geomagnetic activities from the Boyle Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, R.; Reiff, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Boyle Index (BI), Φ =10-4}( {v{2}/{km/sec) + 11.7({(B)/(nT)})sin 3}{(θ /2) kV, has been successful in predicting the geomagnetic activity since its inception in October 2003. It is available in near-real-time from http://space.rice.edu/ISTP/wind.html and provides space weather predictions of geomagnetic indices (Kp, Dst and the AE) in real time through neural network algorithms. In addition, it provides free email alerts to its 700+ subscribers whenever the magnetospheric activity levels exceed certain pre-defined thresholds. We are constantly improving our algorithms, in the interest of either including more data or improving the accuracy and lead-time of forecasts. For example, with the inclusion of two more years of data (2008 and 2009) in the training, we have the advantage of modeling one of the deepest solar minimums, which has been exceptionally low in terms of the activity level. Our algorithms have been successful in capturing the effects of ``preconditioning" and the non-linearity in the solar wind parameters (for example, see figure 1). This paper presents our new attempts to include the effects of solar turbulence by incorporating the standard deviations in the solar wind parameters along with the BI, for greater the turbulence the higher the energy input into the magnetosphere as some of the previous studies have shown. Furthermore, we will also present how 3-hour averaged 1-hour sliding window scheme have improved our predictions with lead times of 3 hours or longer. Our predictions from a recent activity, 03 August 2010.

  14. Validation of the Japanese version of the Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire that includes physician-based assessments in a large observational cohort.

    PubMed

    Okamoto, Y; Katsumata, Y; Baba, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Gono, T; Hanaoka, M; Kawasumi, H; Yamanaka, H

    2016-04-01

    The Systemic Lupus Activity Questionnaire (SLAQ) is a patient-reported outcome for systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). We aimed to translate it into Japanese and further investigate its validity and reliability. The English version of the SLAQ was translated into Japanese and administered to Japanese SLE patients at our university clinic. Physicians assessed disease activity using the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K). The patients were prospectively followed for repeat assessment a year later. Ultimately, 255 patients participated. The patients' 10-point ratings of disease activity and SLAQ scores were significantly correlated (Spearman's ρ = 0.53). The SLAQ score was weakly correlated with the SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K)-nolab (omitting laboratory items; ρ = 0.18) but not with the SLEDAI-2K (ρ = 0.02). These results suggested its convergent and discriminant validity. The SLAQ demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's α = 0.80), and good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.85). The effect sizes and the standardized response means of the SLAQ were as follows: clinical worsening, 0.26 and 0.31, and improvement, -0.39 and -0.41, respectively, which indicated a small but significant responsiveness. The Japanese version of the SLAQ demonstrated acceptable reliability and validity; its performance was comparable to that of the original version.

  15. Increased CD28 serum levels are not associated with specific clinical activity in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Brambila-Tapia, Aniel J L; Gámez-Nava, Jorge I; Salazar-Páramo, Mario; Munoz-Valle, José F; González-López, Laura; Llamas-Covarrubias, Mara A; Gutiérrez-Urena, Sergio R; Vázquez-Del Mercado, Mónica; Dávalos-Rodríguez, Ingrid P

    2011-10-01

    CD28 is one of the main activator receptors involved in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) pathogenesis, and its expression and serum levels are significantly higher in patients with SLE and other autoimmune diseases than in healthy controls (HC). However, it is unknown whether this increase is associated with specific organ damage. Therefore, our objective was to measure the CD28 levels in serum from SLE and HC groups to confirm the CD28 serum levels increase, as reported previously, and to determine whether this increase was associated with specific organ activity and the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Forty SLE patients and 40 matched HC were included, and the age, disease duration, SLEDAI and Mexican SLEDAI were recorded for the SLE group. CD28 serum levels were measured by ELISA. There was a statistically significant increase in the CD28 serum levels of SLE patients compared to controls (p = 0.039); however, we did not find any significant correlation with disease activity indices or organ involvement, although we found a significant but low correlation with C3. Our results and a review of the literature suggest that the increase in CD28 serum levels may be the result of CD28 gene overexpression, which could be related to the decrease in CD28+ T cells, T-cell hyporesponsiveness and immune impairment that occurs in SLE.

  16. Concurrent Validity For an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Anxiety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing 182 subjects, this study determined the concurrent validity between the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) index of anxiety and scores on the IPAT Anxiety Scale. The IPAT and the AVA index of anxiety seem essentially to measure the same construct of basic anxiety. (Author/PN)

  17. Platelet activation risk index as a prognostic thrombosis indicator

    PubMed Central

    Zlobina, K. E.; Guria, G. Th.

    2016-01-01

    Platelet activation in blood flow under high, overcritical shear rates is initiated by Von Willebrand factor. Despite the large amount of experimental data that have been obtained, the value of the critical shear rate, above which von Willebrand factor starts to activate platelets, is still controversial. Here, we recommend a theoretical approach to elucidate how the critical blood shear rate is dependent on von Willebrand factor size. We derived a diagram of platelet activation according to the shear rate and von Willebrand factor multimer size. We succeeded in deriving an explicit formula for the dependence of the critical shear rate on von Willebrand factor molecule size. The platelet activation risk index was introduced. This index is dependent on the flow conditions, number of monomers in von Willebrand factor, and platelet sensitivity. Probable medical applications of the platelet activation risk index as a universal prognostic index are discussed. PMID:27461235

  18. Low Latitude Aurora: Index of Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bekli, M. R.; Aissani, D.; Chadou, I.

    2010-10-01

    Observations of aurora borealis at low latitudes are rare, and are clearly associated with high solar activity. In this paper, we analyze some details of the solar activity during the years 1769-1792. Moreover, we describe in detail three low latitude auroras. The first event was reported by ash-Shalati and observed in North Africa (1770 AD). The second and third events were reported by l'Abbé Mann and observed in Europe (1770 and 1777 AD).

  19. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (p<0.01), even after adjusting for workplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  20. Initial Validation of the Activity Choice Index among Overweight Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Sean P.; Silva, Marlene N.; Sardinha, Luís B.; Teixeira, Pedro J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This prospective study was designed to evaluate psychometric properties of the Activity Choice Index (ACI), a measure for assessing one's choice to engage in more effortful, physically active behaviors in the course of daily routines over less-demanding, sedentary behaviors, in a sample of overweight women. Method: The sample included 192…

  1. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  2. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  3. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Sousa, N.; Froufe-Pérez, L. S.; Sáenz, J. J.; García-Martín, A.

    2016-08-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones.

  4. Magneto-Optical Activity in High Index Dielectric Nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, N; Froufe-Pérez, L S; Sáenz, J J; García-Martín, A

    2016-01-01

    The magneto-optical activity, namely the polarization conversion capabilities of high-index, non-absorbing, core-shell dielectric nanospheres is theoretically analyzed. We show that, in analogy with their plasmonic counterparts, the polarization conversion in resonant dielectric particles is linked to the amount of electromagnetic field probing the magneto-optical material in the system. However, in strong contrast with plasmon nanoparticles, due to the peculiar distribution of the internal fields in resonant dielectric spheres, the magneto-optical response is fully governed by the magnetic (dipolar and quadrupolar) resonances with little effect of the electric ones. PMID:27488903

  5. Bradykinin actively modulates pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index relationships.

    PubMed

    Nyhan, D P; Clougherty, P W; Goll, H M; Murray, P A

    1987-07-01

    Our objectives were to investigate the pulmonary vascular effects of exogenously administered bradykinin at normal and reduced levels of cardiac index in intact conscious dogs and to assess the extent to which the pulmonary vascular response to bradykinin is the result of either cyclooxygenase pathway activation or reflex activation of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptors. Multipoint pulmonary vascular pressure-cardiac index (P/Q) plots were constructed during normoxia in conscious dogs by step-wise constriction of the thoracic inferior vena cava to reduce Q. In intact dogs, bradykinin (2 micrograms X kg-1 X min-1 iv) caused systemic vasodilation, i.e., systemic arterial pressure was slightly decreased (P less than 0.05), Q was markedly increased (P less than 0.01), and mixed venous PO2 and oxygen saturation (SO2) were increased (P less than 0.01). Bradykinin decreased (P less than 0.01) the pulmonary vascular pressure gradient (pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure) over the entire range of Q studied (140-60 ml X min-1 X kg-1) in intact dogs. During cyclooxygenase pathway inhibition with indomethacin, bradykinin again decreased (P less than 0.05) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure at every level of Q, although the magnitude of the vasodilator response was diminished at lower levels of Q (60 ml X min-1 X kg-1). Following combined administration of sympathetic beta-adrenergic and -cholinergic receptor antagonists, bradykinin still decreased (P less than 0.01) pulmonary arterial pressure-pulmonary capillary wedge pressure over the range of Q from 160 to 60 ml X min-1 X kg-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3114215

  6. Urine Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 and Lupus Nephritis Disease Activity: Preliminary Report of a Prospective Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Alharazy, Sabah; Kong, Norella C. T.; Mohd, Marlyn; Shah, Shamsul A.; Ba'in, Arbaiyah; Abdul Gafor, Abdul Halim

    2015-01-01

    Objective. This longitudinal study aimed to determine the urine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (uMCP-1) levels in patients with biopsy-proven lupus nephritis (LN) at various stages of renal disease activity and to compare them to current standard markers. Methods. Patients with LN—active or inactive—had their uMCP-1 levels and standard disease activity markers measured at baseline and 2 and 4 months. Urinary parameters, renal function test, serological markers, and renal SLE disease activity index-2K (renal SLEDAI-2K) were analyzed to determine their associations with uMCP-1. Results. A hundred patients completed the study. At each visit, uMCP-1 levels (pg/mg creatinine) were significantly higher in the active group especially with relapses and were significantly associated with proteinuria and renal SLEDAI-2K. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves showed that uMCP-1 was a potential biomarker for LN. Whereas multiple logistic regression analysis showed that only proteinuria and serum albumin and not uMCP-1 were independent predictors of LN activity. Conclusion. uMCP-1 was increased in active LN. Although uMCP-1 was not an independent predictor for LN activity, it could serve as an adjunctive marker when the clinical diagnosis of LN especially early relapse remains uncertain. Larger and longer studies are indicated. PMID:26246906

  7. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line.

    PubMed

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  8. Serum and Urinary Interleukin-6 in Assessment of Renal Activity in Egyptian Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    EL-Shereef, Rawhya R.; Lotfi, Ahmed; Abdel-Naeam, Emad A.; Tawfik, Heba

    2016-01-01

    AIM OF THE WORK This study investigates whether serum and urinary interleukin-6 (IL-6) represent an early marker of kidney involvement and assesses the difference between them and renal biopsy in lupus nephritis (LN). PATIENTS AND METHODS A total of 60 systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients were compared to 20 healthy controls. Urinary and serum IL-6 were measured in both patients and controls. In addition, renal biopsy was done prior or shortly after urine and blood sampling; the results were classified according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society classification of LN by recording the activity score and chronicity score for each sample. RESULTS There was a significant higher level of urinary IL-6 in the SLE patients with biopsy-proven LN than in those without LN and those of the control group. However, no significant difference was reported between the three groups as regards serum IL-6. A strong positive correlation was found between urinary IL-6 and renal disease activity based on the renal SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score with no significant correlation regarding the extra renal SLEDAI. Urinary IL-6 was positively correlated with renal biopsy results and with its activity scores but weakly correlated with the chronicity scores. CONCLUSION Urinary IL-6 may provide a simple noninvasive potential marker of disease activity of renal involvement in adult patients with SLE. PMID:26966395

  9. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R; LaCroix, Andrea Z; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M; Buchner, David M

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10-100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60-91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI's largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  10. An Activity Index for Raw Accelerometry Data and Its Comparison with Other Activity Metrics

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiawei; Di, Chongzhi; Xiao, Luo; Evenson, Kelly R.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Crainiceanu, Ciprian M.; Buchner, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Accelerometers have been widely deployed in public health studies in recent years. While they collect high-resolution acceleration signals (e.g., 10–100 Hz), research has mainly focused on summarized metrics provided by accelerometers manufactures, such as the activity count (AC) by ActiGraph or Actical. Such measures do not have a publicly available formula, lack a straightforward interpretation, and can vary by software implementation or hardware type. To address these problems, we propose the physical activity index (AI), a new metric for summarizing raw tri-axial accelerometry data. We compared this metric with the AC and another recently proposed metric for raw data, Euclidean Norm Minus One (ENMO), against energy expenditure. The comparison was conducted using data from the Objective Physical Activity and Cardiovascular Health Study, in which 194 women 60–91 years performed 9 lifestyle activities in the laboratory, wearing a tri-axial accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X+) on the hip set to 30 Hz and an Oxycon portable calorimeter, to record both tri-axial acceleration time series (converted into AI, AC, and ENMO) and oxygen uptake during each activity (converted into metabolic equivalents (METs)) at the same time. Receiver operating characteristic analyses indicated that both AI and ENMO were more sensitive to moderate and vigorous physical activities than AC, while AI was more sensitive to sedentary and light activities than ENMO. AI had the highest coefficients of determination for METs (0.72) and was a better classifier of physical activity intensity than both AC (for all intensity levels) and ENMO (for sedentary and light intensity). The proposed AI provides a novel and transparent way to summarize densely sampled raw accelerometry data, and may serve as an alternative to AC. The AI’s largely improved sensitivity on sedentary and light activities over AC and ENMO further demonstrate its advantage in studies with older adults. PMID:27513333

  11. Image analysis to measure activity index of animals.

    PubMed

    Bloemen, H; Aerts, J M; Berckmans, D; Goedseels, V

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the study was to present a method to quantify the behavioural response of animals to their micro-environment by using a camera system and a digitiser board. An algorithm was developed for analysing images and calculating activity, occupied zone and boundary of the animals. The developed method was tested on 3 different applications and animals. In the first application, the behavioural responses of broiler chickens to their thermal environment was measured. In the second application behavioural responses of pigs to their thermal environment were measured. In the third application, the response of water fleas to a chromium pollution was measured using the developed technique. Based on the experimental results, it can be concluded that the developed image analysis technique can be employed to quantify the behavioural responses of the tested animals to their micro-environment, in an easy and accurate way.

  12. A New Polar Magnetic Index of Geomagnetic Activity and its Application to Monitoring Ionospheric Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyatsky, Wladislaw; Khazanov, George V.

    2008-01-01

    For improving the reliability of Space Weather prediction, we developed a new, Polar Magnetic (PM) index of geomagnetic activity, which shows high correlation with both upstream solar wind data and related events in the magnetosphere and ionosphere. Similarly to the existing polar cap PC index, the new, PM index was computed from data from two near-pole geomagnetic observatories; however, the method for computing the PM index is different. The high correlation of the PM index with both solar wind data and events in Geospace environment makes possible to improve significantly forecasting geomagnetic disturbances and such important parameters as the cross-polar-cap voltage and global Joule heating in high latitude ionosphere, which play an important role in the development of geomagnetic, ionospheric and thermospheric disturbances. We tested the PM index for 10-year period (1995-2004). The correlation between PM index and upstream solar wind data for these years is very high (the average correlation coefficient R approximately equal to 0.86). The PM index also shows the high correlation with the cross-polar-cap voltage and hemispheric Joule heating (the correlation coefficient between the actual and predicted values of these parameters is approximately 0.9), which results in significant increasing the prediction reliability of these parameters. Using the PM index of geomagnetic activity provides a significant increase in the forecasting reliability of geomagnetic disturbances and related events in Geospace environment. The PM index may be also used as an important input parameter in modeling ionospheric, magnetospheric, and thermospheric processes.

  13. The Dst index underestimates the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temerin, Michael; Li, Xinlin

    2015-07-01

    It is known that the correction of the Kyoto Dst index for the secular variation of the Earth's internal field produces a discontinuity in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year. We show that this secular correction also introduces a significant baseline error to the Kyoto Dst index that leads to an underestimate of the solar cycle variation of geomagnetic activity and of the strength of the ring current as measured by the Kyoto Dst index. Thus, the average value of the Kyoto Dst index would be approximately 13 nT more negative for the active year 2003 compared to quiet years 2006 and 2009 if the Kyoto Dst index properly measured the effects of the ring current and other currents that influence the Dst observatories. Discontinuities in the Kyoto Dst index at the end of each year have an average value of about 5 nT, but the discontinuity at the end of year 2002 was approximately 12 nT, and the discontinuity at the end of year 1982 may have been as large as 20 nT.

  14. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  15. Highly sensitive index of sympathetic activity based on time-frequency spectral analysis of electrodermal activity.

    PubMed

    Posada-Quintero, Hugo F; Florian, John P; Orjuela-Cañón, Álvaro D; Chon, Ki H

    2016-09-01

    Time-domain indices of electrodermal activity (EDA) have been used as a marker of sympathetic tone. However, they often show high variation between subjects and low consistency, which has precluded their general use as a marker of sympathetic tone. To examine whether power spectral density analysis of EDA can provide more consistent results, we recently performed a variety of sympathetic tone-evoking experiments (43). We found significant increase in the spectral power in the frequency range of 0.045 to 0.25 Hz when sympathetic tone-evoking stimuli were induced. The sympathetic tone assessed by the power spectral density of EDA was found to have lower variation and more sensitivity for certain, but not all, stimuli compared with the time-domain analysis of EDA. We surmise that this lack of sensitivity in certain sympathetic tone-inducing conditions with time-invariant spectral analysis of EDA may lie in its inability to characterize time-varying dynamics of the sympathetic tone. To overcome the disadvantages of time-domain and time-invariant power spectral indices of EDA, we developed a highly sensitive index of sympathetic tone, based on time-frequency analysis of EDA signals. Its efficacy was tested using experiments designed to elicit sympathetic dynamics. Twelve subjects underwent four tests known to elicit sympathetic tone arousal: cold pressor, tilt table, stand test, and the Stroop task. We hypothesize that a more sensitive measure of sympathetic control can be developed using time-varying spectral analysis. Variable frequency complex demodulation, a recently developed technique for time-frequency analysis, was used to obtain spectral amplitudes associated with EDA. We found that the time-varying spectral frequency band 0.08-0.24 Hz was most responsive to stimulation. Spectral power for frequencies higher than 0.24 Hz were determined to be not related to the sympathetic dynamics because they comprised less than 5% of the total power. The mean value of time

  16. Cerebral hypoperfusion detected by SPECT in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus is related to clinical activity and cumulative tissue damage.

    PubMed

    López-Longo, F J; Carol, N; Almoguera, M I; Olazarán, J; Alonso-Farto, J C; Ortega, A; Monteagudo, I; González, C Manuel; Carreño, L

    2003-01-01

    Cerebral single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) is a sensitive technique for the detection of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective was to determine whether a relationship exists between cerebral hypoperfusion as detected by cerebral SPECT, cumulative tissue damage and the clinical activity of SLE. Cerebral technetium-99m-L,L-ethyl cysteinate dimer (99mTc-ECD) SPECT was performed in two groups of patients: 10 women with SLE (Group A) who had no previous history of major neuropsychiatric (NPS) manifestations and no minor NPS symptoms in the last six months, and 57 unselected women with SLE (Group B). In the same week that SPECT was performed, the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), SLICC/ACR damage index, native anti-DNA antibodies (ELISA) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) were determined. In Group A, cerebral SPECT showed moderate or severe hypoperfusion (abnormal SPECT) in five patients without NPS symptoms, unrelated to age (mean 24.8 versus 27.8 years) or disease duration (mean 6.8 versus 9 years). Patients with significant cerebral hypoperfusion had greater clinical disease activity (mean SLEDAI 13.6 versus 7.6) (SLEDAI > 7 in 5/5 versus 1/5; Fisher: 0.023; OR: 33; 95% CI: 2.3-469.8) and ESR (mean 43.6 versus 9.8; P < 0.05). In Group B, the mean age of the 57 unselected women with SLE was 37 years (SD 6.3) and the mean duration of the disease was 9.7 years (SD 6.3). Cerebral SPECT revealed normal perfusion or mild hypoperfusion (normal SPECT) in 30 patients (52.6%), and moderate or severe hypoperfusion in 27 (47.4%). Hypoperfusion was unrelated to age, duration of SLE or concentrations of anti-DNA antibodies and C3 and C4 fractions. Patients with significant cerebral hypoperfusion had more active clinical disease (mean SLEDAI 13.92; SD 8.44 versus 4.56; SD 4.15) (Mann-Whitney, P < 0.005), more cumulative tissue damage (mean SLICC 2.66; SD 2.84 versus 1.03; SD 1.51) (Mann-Whitney, P = 0

  17. The associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI) and health and activity limitation index (HALEX) in the Geisinger Rural Aging Study (GRAS)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives To determine the associations between diet quality, body mass index (BMI), and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) as assessed by the health and activity limitation index (HALex) in older adults. Design Multivariate linear regression models were used to analyze associations between Di...

  18. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX FOR CHILDREN: A COMPARISON OF LITERATURE VALUES AND EPA'S CHAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The physical activity index (PAI) is a measure of an individual's energy expenditure level (and thus oxygen consumption) calculated as a time-weighted average of metabolic equivalents (METS) over the individual's activities. Many exposure models rely upon EPA's CHAD data base to ...

  19. University Students Meeting the Recommended Standards of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deng, Xiaofen; Castelli, Darla; Castro-Pinero, Jose; Guan, Hongwei

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated student physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in relation to the "Healthy Campus 2010" objectives set by the American College Health Association in 2002. Students (N = 1125) at a U.S. southern state university participated in the study. The percentages of students who were physically active and whose BMI were…

  20. New index of pain triggered by spinal activation of voltage-dependent sodium channels.

    PubMed

    Enomoto, Ryugo; Tsukamoto, Mina; Shimoshige, Yukinori; Aoki, Toshiaki; Matsuoka, Nobuya

    2013-12-01

    Voltage-dependent sodium channels (VDSCs) are crucial for pain generation. Here, to develop a new behavioral index of pain induced by spinal VDSC activation, we examined whether intrathecal veratridine injection produced nociceptive behavior. Intrathecal injection of the VDSC opener veratridine in mice dose-dependently induced nociceptive responses, with response times subsequently reduced by administration of morphine or pregabalin. Systemic administration of lidocaine and mexiletine, but not amitriptyline, also decreased this response time. Taken together, these results demonstrated that response time of nociceptive behavior induced by intrathecal veratridine injection is a quantitative index of pain triggered by spinal VDSC activation. PMID:23760511

  1. Elevated Salivary Alpha-Amylase Level, Association Between Depression and Disease Activity, and Stress as a Predictor of Disease Flare in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Ju-Yang; Nam, Jin-Young; Kim, Hyoun-Ah; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Psychological stress has been shown to trigger systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). However, objective evidence of symptom aggravation due to mental stress is difficult to identify. We aimed to investigate the relationship between SLE disease activity and mental stress, and the usefulness of saliva as an assessment index for stress in patients with SLE. We prospectively assessed the salivary stress hormone and disease-related biomarkers, and questionnaire data regarding stress and depression in 100 patients with SLE and 49 sex- and age-matched normal controls (NCs). Patients with SLE had higher mean salivary α-amylase levels (5.7 ± 4.6 U/mL vs 2.7 ± 2.5 U/mL, P < 0.001), anti-chromatin antibody levels (25.3 ± 22.9 U/mL vs 15.9 ± 10.9 U/mL, P < 0.001), and Beck Depression Index (BDI) scores (11.1 ± 9.2 vs 5.3 ± 5.1, P < 0.001) than NCs. However, salivary cortisol levels and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) scores did not differ between the groups. The BDI scores correlated with the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.253, P = 0.011) and erythrocyte sedimentation rates (r = 0.234, P = 0.019). SLE patients with the highest-quartile PSS scores had significantly increased SLEDAI scores compared to those with the lowest-quartile PSS scores after 4 to 5 months’ follow-up. Moreover, SLE patients with elevated SLEDAI scores had higher baseline PSS scores. Patients with SLE showed uncoupling of the sympathetic nervous system and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis; higher salivary α-amylase and no different cortisol levels compared with NCs. Also, patients with SLE were more depressed, which correlated with disease activity. Furthermore, perceived stress was not correlated with disease activity; however, disease activity worsened several months later with elevated perceived stress levels. PMID:26222848

  2. Reduction in erythrocyte-bound complement activation products and titres of anti-C1q antibodies associate with clinical improvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Buyon, Jill; Furie, Richard; Putterman, Chaim; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind; Kalunian, Kenneth; Barken, Derren; Conklin, John; Dervieux, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    Background The relationship between cell-bound complement activation products (CB-CAPs: EC4d, EC3d), anti-C1q, soluble complement C3/C4 and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was evaluated. Methods Per protocol, at baseline all SLE subjects enrolled in this longitudinal study presented with active disease and elevated CB-CAPs. At each monthly visit, the non-serological (ns) Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus: National Assessment (SELENA-SLEDAI) and the British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG)-2004 index scores were determined as was a random urinary protein to creatinine ratio (uPCR). Short-form 36 (SF-36) questionnaires were also collected. All soluble markers were determined using immunoassays, while EC4d and EC3d were determined using flow cytometry. Statistical analysis consisted of linear mixed models with random intercept and fixed slopes. Results A total of 36 SLE subjects (mean age 34 years; 94% female) were enrolled and evaluated monthly for an average 11 visits per subject. Clinical improvements were observed during the study, with significant decreases in ns-SELENA-SLEDAI scores, BILAG-2004 index scores and uPCR, and increases in all domains of SF-36 (p<0.01). The longitudinal decrease in ns-SELENA-SLEDAI and BILAG-2004 index scores was significantly associated with reduced EC4d and EC3d levels, reduced anti-C1q titres and increased serum complement C3/C4 (p<0.05). The changes in uPCR significantly correlated with C3, C4, anti-C1q and EC4d, with EC4d outperforming C3/C4 by a multivariate analysis. The reduced EC4d or EC3d was associated with improvements in at least six out of the eight domains of SF-36 and outperformed C3/C4. Anti-dsDNA titres did not correlate with changes in disease activity. Conclusions These data indicate that CB-CAPs and anti-C1q are helpful in monitoring patients with SLE. PMID:27752336

  3. Index to NASA tech briefs, 1973. [technology transfer of research and development activities chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Short announcements of technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission are issued to encourage commercial application. Emphasis is placed on information considered likely to be transferrable across industrial, regional, or disciplinary lines. Abstracts and indexes are given.

  4. Links between Adolescent Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Adolescent and Parent Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Susan Lee; Mummery, W. Kerry

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the relationships between adolescent overweight and obesity and physical activity and a range of intrapersonal and interpersonal factors is necessary to develop relevant interventions which target the health needs of adolescents. This study examined adolescent body mass index (BMI) and participation in moderate and vigorous…

  5. Circulating levels of soluble MER in lupus reflect M2c activation of monocytes/macrophages, autoantibody specificities and disease activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by impaired efferocytosis and aberrant activation of innate immunity. We asked if shedding of MER receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) and AXL into soluble (s) ectodomains was related to immunological and clinical aspects of SLE. Methods Levels of sMER and sAXL in the plasma of 107 SLE patients and 45 matched controls were measured by ELISA. In 40 consecutive SLE patients, we examined potential correlations between either sMER or sAXL and plasma levels of sCD163, a marker of M2 activation. All three soluble receptors were measured in supernatants of monocytes/macrophages cultured in various immunological conditions. Membrane expression of MerTK, AXL and CD163 was assessed by flow cytometry. Results Both sMER and sAXL were associated with anti-chromatin and anti-phospholipid autoantibodies, and with hematological and renal involvement. However, sMER and sAXL did not significantly correlate with each other; sAXL correlated with growth arrest-specific 6 (Gas6), whereas sMER correlated with reduced free protein S (PROS) levels. Only sMER showed significant associations with lupus-specific anti-dsDNA, anti-Sm, anti-ribonucleoprotein (anti-RNP) and anti-Ro60 autoantibodies. Strong correlations with disease activity indices (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), complement reduction, titer of circulating anti-dsDNA) were found for sMER, not for sAXL. Patients with active SLEDAI, nephritis, anti-dsDNA and anti-Ro60 positivity showed higher levels of sMER compared to controls. Levels of sMER, not sAXL, correlated with sCD163 levels, and these correlated with SLEDAI. Production of sMER and sCD163 occurred under “M2c” polarizing conditions, whereas sAXL was released upon type-I IFN exposure. Conclusions Alterations in homeostasis of anti-inflammatory and efferocytic “M2c” monocytes/macrophages may have a role in immunopathogenesis of SLE. PMID:24325951

  6. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets. PMID:25930122

  7. Synthesis of trapezohedral indium oxide nanoparticles with high-index {211} facets and high gas sensing activity.

    PubMed

    Han, Xiguang; Han, Xiao; Sun, Linqiang; Gao, Shengguang; Li, Liang; Kuang, Qin; Xie, Zhaoxiong; Wang, Chao

    2015-06-14

    Nanocrystals with high-index facets usually exhibit higher catalytic activities than those with only low-index facets. Trapezohedron-shaped (TS) In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets were successfully synthesized in an oleic acid (OA) and trioctylamine (TOA) system. It has been demonstrated that the gas sensing activity of TS In2O3 particles with exposed high-index {211} facets is higher than that of octahedron-shaped In2O3 particles with exposed low-index {111} facets.

  8. Forecasting the geomagnetic activity of the Dst index using multiscale radial basis function networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, H. L.; Zhu, D. Q.; Billings, S. A.; Balikhin, M. A.

    The Dst index is a key parameter which characterises the disturbance of the geomagnetic field in magnetic storms. Modelling of the Dst index is thus very important for the analysis of the geomagnetic field. A data-based modelling approach, aimed at obtaining efficient models from limited input-output observational data, provides a powerful tool for analysing and forecasting geomagnetic activities including the prediction of the Dst index. In this study, the process of the Dst index is treated to be a structure-unknown system, where the solar wind parameter ( VBs) and the solar wind dynamic pressure ( P) are the system inputs, and the Dst index is the system output. A novel multiscale RBF (MSRBF) network is introduced to represent such a two-input and single-output system, where the Dst index is related to the solar wind parameter and the dynamic pressure, via a hybrid network model consisting of two submodels: a linear part that reflects the linear relationship between the output and the inputs, and a nonlinear part that captures the effect of the interacting contribution of past observations of the inputs and the output, on the current output. The proposed MSRBF network can easily be converted into a linear-in-the-parameters form and the training of the linear network model can easily be implemented using a forward orthogonal regression (FOR) algorithm. One advantage of the new MSRBF network, compared with traditional single scale RBF networks, is that the new network is more flexible for describing complex nonlinear dynamical systems.

  9. Elevated Prostate Health Index (phi) and Biopsy Reclassification During Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Darian; Tosoian, Jeffrey J; Landis, Patricia; Wolf, Sacha; Glavaris, Stephanie; Lotan, Tamara L; Schaeffer, Edward M; Sokoll, Lori J; Ross, Ashley E

    2016-07-01

    The Prostate Health Index (phi) has been FDA approved for decision-making regarding prostate biopsy. Phi has additionally been shown to positively correlate with tumor volume, extraprostatic disease and higher Gleason grade tumors. Here we describe a case in which an elevated phi encouraged biopsy of a gentleman undergoing active surveillance leading to reclassification of his disease as high risk prostate cancer. PMID:27335798

  10. Accurate similarity index based on activity and connectivity of node for link prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Longjie; Qian, Lvjian; Wang, Xiaoping; Luo, Shishun; Chen, Xiaoyun

    2015-05-01

    Recent years have witnessed the increasing of available network data; however, much of those data is incomplete. Link prediction, which can find the missing links of a network, plays an important role in the research and analysis of complex networks. Based on the assumption that two unconnected nodes which are highly similar are very likely to have an interaction, most of the existing algorithms solve the link prediction problem by computing nodes' similarities. The fundamental requirement of those algorithms is accurate and effective similarity indices. In this paper, we propose a new similarity index, namely similarity based on activity and connectivity (SAC), which performs link prediction more accurately. To compute the similarity between two nodes, this index employs the average activity of these two nodes in their common neighborhood and the connectivities between them and their common neighbors. The higher the average activity is and the stronger the connectivities are, the more similar the two nodes are. The proposed index not only commendably distinguishes the contributions of paths but also incorporates the influence of endpoints. Therefore, it can achieve a better predicting result. To verify the performance of SAC, we conduct experiments on 10 real-world networks. Experimental results demonstrate that SAC outperforms the compared baselines.

  11. Reduced cortical activity during maximal bilateral contractions of the index finger.

    PubMed

    Post, Marijn; van Duinen, Hiske; Steens, Anneke; Renken, Remco; Kuipers, Bart; Maurits, Natasha; Zijdewind, Inge

    2007-03-01

    The bilateral deficit refers to the phenomenon in which homologous muscles produce per muscle less force when contracting simultaneously than when contracting individually. The mechanism underlying the bilateral deficit is still unknown, but the most likely cause is a decline in the activation of motor units during bilateral contractions. In the present study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure the degree of brain activity during unilateral and bilateral maximal contractions in combination with force and EMG measurements. Subjects performed, in a semi-randomized order, maximal isometric contractions (MVC) with the right index finger, the left index finger and with both fingers simultaneously. During the task, brain activation was measured with a 3 T MR scanner, in combination with force and EMG recordings. The most important activated areas in the brain during the contractions were the sensorimotor cortex (precentral and postcentral gyrus), cerebellum, premotor cortex and supplementary motor area. During bilateral contractions, a significant decline in force and EMG values was found and detailed analysis of the brain activation data showed that this decline was accompanied with a significant decline in the activation of the precentral gyrus. This result suggests that the bilateral decline is the resultant of a decline in input to the primary motor area and shows that the main source of the bilateral deficit lies upstream of the primary motor cortex.

  12. Identification of Hematomas in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Using an Index of Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Naunheim, Rosanne; Bazarian, Jeffrey; Mould, W. Andrew; Hanley, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rapid identification of traumatic intracranial hematomas following closed head injury represents a significant health care need because of the potentially life-threatening risk they present. This study demonstrates the clinical utility of an index of brain electrical activity used to identify intracranial hematomas in traumatic brain injury (TBI) presenting to the emergency department (ED). Brain electrical activity was recorded from a limited montage located on the forehead of 394 closed head injured patients who were referred for CT scans as part of their standard ED assessment. A total of 116 of these patients were found to be CT positive (CT+), of which 46 patients with traumatic intracranial hematomas (CT+) were identified for study. A total of 278 patients were found to be CT negative (CT−) and were used as controls. CT scans were subjected to quanitative measurements of volume of blood and distance of bleed from recording electrodes by blinded independent experts, implementing a validated method for hematoma measurement. Using an algorithm based on brain electrical activity developed on a large independent cohort of TBI patients and controls (TBI-Index), patients were classified as either positive or negative for structural brain injury. Sensitivity to hematomas was found to be 95.7% (95% CI=85.2, 99.5), specificity was 43.9% (95% CI=38.0, 49.9). There was no significant relationship between the TBI-Index and distance of the bleed from recording sites (F=0.044, p=0.833), or volume of blood measured F=0.179, p=0.674). Results of this study are a validation and extension of previously published retrospective findings in an independent population, and provide evidence that a TBI-Index for structural brain injury is a highly sensitive measure for the detection of potentially life-threatening traumatic intracranial hematomas, and could contribute to the rapid, quantitative evaluation and treatment of such patients. PMID:25054838

  13. Lower vitamin D levels are associated with higher systemic lupus erythematosus activity, but not predictive of disease flare-up

    PubMed Central

    Schoindre, Yoland; Jallouli, Moez; Tanguy, Marie-Laure; Ghillani, Pascale; Galicier, Lionel; Aumaître, Olivier; Francès, Camille; Le Guern, Véronique; Lioté, Frédéric; Smail, Amar; Limal, Nicolas; Perard, Laurent; Desmurs-Clavel, Hélène; Thi Huong, Du Le; Asli, Bouchra; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Sailler, Laurent; Ackermann, Félix; Papo, Thomas; Sacré, Karim; Fain, Olivier; Stirnemann, Jérôme; Cacoub, Patrice; Leroux, Gaëlle; Cohen-Bittan, Judith; Hulot, Jean-Sébastien; Lechat, Philippe; Musset, Lucile; Piette, Jean-Charles; Amoura, Zahir; Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Costedoat-Chalumeau, Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Growing evidence suggests that vitamin D plays a key role in the pathogenesis and progression of autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Recent studies have found an association between lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and higher SLE activity. We studied the relationship between 25(OH)D levels and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score, and we assessed for the first time the role of vitamin D in predicting SLE flare-ups. Methods Serum 25(OH)D levels were measured in 170 patients with SLE who were prospectively followed up for 6 months (Plaquenil LUpus Systemic study, ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT00413361). Results The mean SLEDAI score was 2.03±2.43 and 12.3% patients had active disease (SLEDAI ≥6). The mean 25(OH)D level was 20.6±9.8 ng/mL. Deficiency (25(OH)D <10 ng/mL) was observed in 27 (15.9%), insufficiency (10≤25(OH)D<30) in 112 (65.9%) and optimal vitamin D status (25(OH)D≥30) in 31 (18.2%) patients. In multivariate analysis, female gender (p=0.018), absence of defined antiphospholipid syndrome (p=0.002) and higher creatinine clearance (p=0.004) were predictive of lower 25(OH)D levels. In multivariate analysis, lower 25(OH)D levels were associated with high SLE activity (p=0.02). Relapse-free survival rate was not statistically different according to the vitamin D status during the 6-month follow-up (p=0.22). Conclusions We found a low vitamin D status in the majority of patients with SLE, and a modest association between lower 25(OH)D levels and high disease activity. There was no association between baseline 25(OH)D levels and relapse-free survival rate. PMID:25379192

  14. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS. PMID:26509054

  15. EULAR Sjögren's syndrome disease activity index (ESSDAI): a user guide.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Bowman, Simon J; Brito-Zeron, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Bootsma, Hendrika; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Dörner, Thomas; Ravaud, Philippe; Vitali, Claudio; Mariette, Xavier; Asmussen, Karsten; Jacobsen, Soren; Bartoloni, Elena; Gerli, Roberto; Bijlsma, Johannes Wj; Kruize, Aike A; Bombardieri, Stefano; Bookman, Arthur; Kallenberg, Cees; Meiners, Petra; Brun, Johan G; Jonsson, Roland; Caporali, Roberto; Carsons, Steven; De Vita, Salvatore; Del Papa, Nicoletta; Devauchelle, Valerie; Saraux, Alain; Fauchais, Anne-Laure; Sibilia, Jean; Hachulla, Eric; Illei, Gabor; Isenberg, David; Jones, Adrian; Manoussakis, Menelaos; Mandl, Thomas; Jacobsson, Lennart; Demoulins, Frederic; Montecucco, Carlomaurizio; Ng, Wan-Fai; Nishiyama, Sumusu; Omdal, Roald; Parke, Ann; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matjia; Price, Elizabeth; Scofield, Hal; L Sivils, Kathy; Smolen, Josef; Laqué, Roser Solans; Steinfeld, Serge; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Sumida, Takayuki; Valesini, Guido; Valim, Valeria; Vivino, Frederick B; Vollenweider, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The EULAR Sjögren's syndrome (SS) disease activity index (ESSDAI) is a systemic disease activity index that was designed to measure disease activity in patients with primary SS. With the growing use of the ESSDAI, some domains appear to be more challenging to rate than others. The ESSDAI is now in use as a gold standard to measure disease activity in clinical studies, and as an outcome measure, even a primary outcome measure, in current randomised clinical trials. Therefore, ensuring an accurate and reproducible rating of each domain, by providing a more detailed definition of each domain, has emerged as an urgent need. The purpose of the present article is to provide a user guide for the ESSDAI. This guide provides definitions and precisions on the rating of each domain. It also includes some minor improvement of the score to integrate advance in knowledge of disease manifestations. This user guide may help clinicians to use the ESSDAI, and increase the reliability of rating and consequently of the ability to detect true changes over time. This better appraisal of ESSDAI items, along with the recent definition of disease activity levels and minimal clinically important change, will improve the assessment of patients with primary SS and facilitate the demonstration of effectiveness of treatment for patients with primary SS.

  16. Physiological investigation of automobile driver's activation index using simulated monotonous driving.

    PubMed

    Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K

    2004-01-01

    Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state.

  17. Forecasting geomagnetic activity indices using the Boyle index through artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Ramkumar

    2010-11-01

    Adverse space weather conditions affect various sectors making both human lives and technologies highly susceptible. This dissertation introduces a new set of algorithms suitable for short term space weather forecasts with an enhanced lead-time and better accuracy in predicting Kp, Dst and the AE index over some leading models. Kp is a 3-hour averaged global geomagnetic activity index good for midlatitude regions. The Dst index, an hourly index calculated using four ground based magnetic field measurements near the equator, measures the energy of the Earth's ring current. The Auroral Electrojet indices or AE indices are hourly indices used to characterize the global geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone. Our algorithms can predict these indices purely from the solar wind data with lead times up to 6 hours. We have trained and tested an ANN (Artificial Neural Network) over a complete solar cycle to serve this purpose. Over the last couple of decades, ANNs have been successful for temporal prediction problems amongst other advanced non-linear techniques. Our ANN-based algorithms receive near-real-time inputs either from ACE (Advanced Composition Explorer), located at L1, and a handful of ground-based magnetometers or only from ACE. The Boyle potential, phi = 10-4 (vkm/sec)2+ 11.7BnT sin3 (theta/2) kV, or the Boyle Index (BI) is an empirically-derived formula that approximates the Earth's polar cap potential and is easily derivable in real time using the solar wind data from ACE. The logarithms of both 3-hour and 1-hour averages of the Boyle Index correlate well with the subsequent Kp, Dst and AE: Kp = 8.93 log 10 - 12.55. Dst = 0.355 - 6.48, and AE = 5.87 - 83.46. Inputs to our ANN models have greatly benefitted from the BI and its proven record as a forecasting parameter since its initiation in October, 2003. A preconditioning event tunes the magnetosphere to a specific state before an impending geomagnetic storm. The neural net not only improves the

  18. [Indexes of integrative activity of motor system in norm and at neuromotor pathology].

    PubMed

    Aleksanian, Z A; Romanov, S P

    2012-11-01

    Characteristics of integrative activity of motor control system are received by the methods of the time series analysis. The methods allow to give an objective estimation of human brain pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems functional state. Authors consider the voluntary regulation of isometric effort as a model of movement and investigate this effort as the integrative motor output of a motor control system. Using of peculiar methodology of non-invasive research of parameters of isometric effort as indexes of CNS integrative activity, and application of modern methods of the time-series analysis has allowed to receive a new data concerning an estimation of activity of structures of motor control system in norm and in some neurodegenerative diseases of CNS (Parkinson's diseases, multiple sclerosis). These results represent the new knowledge in the field of movement physiology, and also expand opportunity of hardware diagnostics of neuromotor dysfunctions.

  19. Evaluating the biological activity of oil-polluted soils using a complex index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabirov, R. R.; Kireeva, N. A.; Kabirov, T. R.; Dubovik, I. Ye.; Yakupova, A. B.; Safiullina, L. M.

    2012-02-01

    A complex index characterizing the biological activity of soils (BAS) is suggested. It is based on an estimate of the level of activity of catalase; the number of heterotrophic and hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms, microscopic fungi, algae, and cyanobacteria; and the degree of development of higher plants and insects in the studied soil. The data on using the BAS coefficient for evaluating the efficiency of rehabilitation measures for oil-polluted soils are given. Such measures included introducing the following biological preparations: Lenoil based on a natural consortium of microorganisms Bacillus brevis and Arthrobacter sp.; the Azolen biofertilizer with complex action based on Azotobacter vinelandii; the Belvitamil biopreparation, which is the active silt of pulp and paper production; and a ready-mixed industrial association of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms that contains hydrocarbon oxidizing microorganisms of the Arthrobacter, Bacillus, Candida, Desulfovibrio, and Pseudomonas genera.

  20. Sorghum flour fractions: correlations among polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and glycemic index.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Érica Aguiar; Marineli, Rafaela da Silva; Lenquiste, Sabrina Alves; Steel, Caroline Joy; de Menezes, Cícero Beserra; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Maróstica Júnior, Mário Roberto

    2015-08-01

    Nutrients composition, phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and estimated glycemic index (EGI) were evaluated in sorghum bran (SB) and decorticated sorghum flour (DSF), obtained by a rice-polisher, as well as whole sorghum flour (WSF). Correlation between EGI and the studied parameters were determined. SB presented the highest protein, lipid, ash, β-glucan, total and insoluble dietary fiber contents; and the lowest non-resistant and total starch contents. The highest carbohydrate and resistant starch contents were in DSF and WSF, respectively. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant activities were concentrated in SB. The EGI values were: DSF 84.5 ± 0.41; WSF 77.2 ± 0.33; and SB 60.3 ± 0.78. Phenolic compounds, specific flavonoids and antioxidant activities, as well as total, insoluble and soluble dietary fiber and β-glucans of sorghum flour samples were all negatively correlated to EGI. RS content was not correlated to EGI.

  1. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  2. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study.

    PubMed

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-03-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs.

  3. Significant correlation between refractive index and activity of mitochondria: single mitochondrion study

    PubMed Central

    Haseda, Keisuke; Kanematsu, Keita; Noguchi, Keiichi; Saito, Hiromu; Umeda, Norihiro; Ohta, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of refractive indices (RIs) of intracellular components can provide useful information on the structure and function of cells. The present study reports, for the first time, determination of the RI of an isolated mitochondrion in isotonic solution using retardation-modulated differential interference contrast microscopy. The value was 1.41 ± 0.01, indicating that mitochondria are densely packed with molecules having high RIs. Further, the RIs of each mitochondrion were significantly correlated with the mitochondrial membrane potential, an index of mitochondrial activity. These results will provide useful information on the structures and functions of cells based on the intracellular distribution of RIs. PMID:25798310

  4. Relationships between plasma insulin triglyceride, body mass index, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1.

    PubMed

    Juhan-Vague, I; Vague, P; Alessi, M C; Badier, C; Valadier, J; Aillaud, M F; Atlan, C

    1987-07-01

    Low fibrinolytic activity, as measured by euglobulin (EFA), has been observed in obese subjects, and hypofibrinolysis may play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications. Blood fibrinolytic activity is regulated through a complex system of activators and inhibitors, especially plasminogen activator inhibitors (PA Inhibitors). In a group of 35 non-diabetic subjects with a wide range of body mass index (BMI), EFA was negatively correlated, and PA Inhibitor activity positively correlated, with BMI and plasma insulin levels. In a population of 49 non-diabetic obese women (differing from a control group of normal weight by lower EFA and higher level, of PA Inhibitor activity, plasma insulin and triglyceride), the PA Inhibitor activity was positively correlated with BMI, insulin and triglyceride. The increase in PA Inhibitor activity was associated with a high value of PA Inhibitor 1 antigen measured by an immuno-radiometric assay, indicating that the increased activity was due to a high level of circulating PA Inhibitor 1. Plasma insulin was lowered in obese non-diabetic subjects, without modification of the body weight, by a 24 hour fast or by treatment with Metformin. After 24 hours' fast, ten obese subjects had lower levels of insulin and PA Inhibitor activity and an increase in EFA. Treatment for 15 days by 1.75 g Metformin (or placebo), on a weight maintaining diet, induced, in the Metformin group, a decrease in plasma insulin, triglyceride and PA Inhibitor activity and an increase in EFA, while no change was observed in the placebo group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Suitability of Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and filamentous bacteria analysis for assessing activated sludge process performance: the case of piggery slaughterhouse wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pedrazzani, Roberta; Menoni, Laura; Nembrini, Stefano; Manili, Livia; Bertanza, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Piggery slaughterhouse wastewater poses serious issues in terms of disposal feasibility and environmental impact, due to its huge organic load and variability. It is commonly treated by means of activated sludge processes, whose performance, in case of municipal wastewater, can be monitored by means of specific analyses, such as Sludge Biotic Index (SBI), Sludge Index (SI) and floc and filamentous bacteria observation. Therefore, this paper was aimed at assessing the applicability of these techniques to piggery slaughterhouse sewage. A plant located in Northern Italy was monitored for 1 year. Physical, chemical and operation parameters were measured; the activated sludge community (ciliates, flagellates, amoebae and small metazoa) was analysed for calculating SBI and SI. Floc and filamentous bacteria were examined and described accordingly with internationally adopted criteria. The results showed the full applicability of the studied techniques for optimizing the operation of a piggery slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. PMID:27072565

  6. Disease activity and response assessment in psoriatic arthritis using the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA). A brief review.

    PubMed

    Smolen, Josef S; Schoels, Monika; Aletaha, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this review we provide reasons to use joint specific composite measures of disease activity for psoriatic arthritis (PsA) rather than composite scores that combine several manifestations of psoriatic disease, including skin involvement. Based on a principal component analysis, which, indeed, excluded skin involvement as a major factor in PsA, the Disease Activity index for PSoriatic Arthritis (DAPSA) was validated using clinical trial and observational data. Further, disease activity states and response criteria were recently defined. The DAPSA is simply calculated by summing swollen + tender joint counts + patient pain + patient global assessments + CRP, using 66/68 joint counts. DAPSA has meanwhile been validated in other studies and has shown to have a very high level of validity, also when compared with joint sonography. Thus, DAPSA is useful in clinical practice, clinical trials and observational studies.

  7. Calculation of an interaction index between extractive activity and groundwater resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, Louise; Hallet, Vincent; Barthélemy, Johan; Moriamé, Marie; Cartletti, Timotéo

    2015-04-01

    There are two underground resources intensively exploited in Wallonia (the southern Region of Belgium): groundwater and rock. Groundwater production rate is about 380*106 cubic meter per year from which 80 % is used for drinking water (SPW-DGO3, 2014). Annual rock extraction is about 73*106 tons per year and 80.6% of the materials are carbonate rocks (Collier and Hallet, 2013) corresponding to the most important aquifer formations. Given the high population density and environmental pressures, lateral quarry extensions are limited and the only solution for the operators is to excavate deeper. In this context, the aquifer level of the exploited formation is often reached and dewatering systems have to be installed to depress the water table below the quarry pit bottom. This affects the regional hydrogeology and, in some cases, the productivity of the water catchments is threatened. Using simple geological and hydrogeological parameters, an interaction index was developed to assess the interaction between extractive activity and groundwater resources and, in consequence, to define how far the feasibility study should go into detailed hydrogeological investigations. The interaction index is based on the equation used in the assessment of natural hazards (Dauphiné, 2003), which gives: Interaction = F (Quarry, Aquifer). The interaction is the risk, which is equal to a function where the hazard is defined from parameters corresponding to the quarry and vulnerability from parameters related to groundwater resources. Six parameters have been determined. The parameters chosen to represent the hazard of a quarry are: the geological, the hydrogeological and the piezometric contexts. The parameters chosen to represent the vulnerability of the water resources are: the relative position between the quarry and the water catchment (well, spring, gallery, etc.) sites, the productivity of the catchment and the quality of the groundwater. Each parameter was classified into four

  8. The Fidelity Index provides a systematic quantitation of star activity of DNA restriction endonucleases

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Hua; Therrien, Caitlin; Blanchard, Aine; Guan, Shengxi; Zhu, Zhenyu

    2008-01-01

    Restriction endonucleases are the basic tools of molecular biology. Many restriction endonucleases show relaxed sequence recognition, called star activity, as an inherent property under various digestion conditions including the optimal ones. To quantify this property we propose the concept of the Fidelity Index (FI), which is defined as the ratio of the maximum enzyme amount showing no star activity to the minimum amount needed for complete digestion at the cognate recognition site for any particular restriction endonuclease. Fidelity indices for a large number of restriction endonucleases are reported here. The effects of reaction vessel, reaction volume, incubation mode, substrate differences, reaction time, reaction temperature and additional glycerol, DMSO, ethanol and Mn2+ on the FI are also investigated. The FI provides a practical guideline for the use of restriction endonucleases and defines a fundamental property by which restriction endonucleases can be characterized. PMID:18413342

  9. Polyphenol oxidase activity as a potential intrinsic index of adequate thermal pasteurization of apple cider.

    PubMed

    Chen, L; Ingham, B H; Ingham, S C

    2004-05-01

    In response to increasing concerns about microbial safety of apple cider, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has mandated treatment of cider sufficient for a 5-log reduction of the target pathogen. Pasteurization has been suggested as the treatment most likely to achieve a 5-log reduction, with Escherichia coli O157:H7 as the target pathogen. Regulators and processors need a reliable method for verifying pasteurization, and apple cider polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was studied as a potential intrinsic index for thermal pasteurization. The effect of pasteurization conditions and apple cider properties on PPO activity and survival of three pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Listeria monocytogenes) was studied using a Box-Behnken response surface design. Factors considered in the design were pasteurization conditions, i.e., hold temperature (60, 68, and 76 degrees C), preheat time (10, 20, 30 s), and hold time (0, 15, 30 s), pH, and sugar content ((o)Brix) of apple cider. Response surface contour plots were constructed to illustrate the effect of these factors on PPO activity and pathogen survival. Reduction in PPO activity of at least 50% was equivalent to a 5-log reduction in E. coli O157:H7 or L. monocytogenes for cider at pH 3.7 and 12.5 (o)Brix. Further studies, however, are needed to verify the relationship between PPO activity and pathogen reduction in cider with various pH and (o)Brix values.

  10. Sedentary versus active leisure activities and their relationship with sleeping habits and body mass index in children of 9 and 10 years of age.

    PubMed

    Amigo, Isaac; Peña, Elsa; Errasti, José Manuel; Busto, Raquel

    2016-07-01

    A random sample of 291 9- and 10-year-old schoolchildren from Asturias (Spain) was taken. Using path analysis, a model was tested in which bedtime, the number of hours spent sleeping and leisure activities were the independent variables and the body mass index was the dependent variable. The results show that sedentary and active leisure time and hours spent sleeping are predictors of the body mass index in children. Those children who go to bed late and who use that extra time to watch the television or play with the computer tend to have a greater body mass index, while those children who go to bed earlier and have spent more time reading or playing in the park or at home have a lower body mass index. Encouraging active leisure activities can have an extremely positive effect on their body mass index.

  11. Posterior versus frontal theta activity indexes approach motivation during affective autobiographical memories.

    PubMed

    Walden, K; Pornpattananangkul, N; Curlee, A; McAdams, D P; Nusslock, R

    2015-03-01

    Research has recently identified a promising neurophysiological marker of approach motivation involving posterior versus frontal (Pz - Fz) electroencephalographic (EEG) theta activity PFTA; Wacker, Chavanon, & Stemmler (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 91:171-187, 2006). Preliminary evidence indicated that PFTA is modulated by dopaminergic activity, thought to underlie appetitive tendencies, and that it indexes self-reported behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity. To date, research has largely relied on resting indices of PFTA and has yet to examine the relationship between PFTA and specific approach-related affective states generated by emotionally salient laboratory tasks. Accordingly, the present study evaluated PFTA both at rest and during an ecologically valid autobiographical memory task in which participants recalled personal life experiences involving a goal-striving, an anxious apprehension, a low-point (i.e., difficult), and a neutral memory while EEG data were recorded. In line with prediction, elevated PFTA was observed during both goal-striving and anxious apprehension autobiographical memories. PFTA was particularly elevated during anxious apprehension memories coded as being high on approach-related tendencies. Elevated PFTA during anxious apprehension is consistent with a growing literature indicating that anxious apprehension is associated with elevated approach- and reward-related brain function. Lastly, elevated resting PFTA was positively correlated with self-reported trait anger, a negatively valenced emotion characterized by approach-related tendencies. These results have implications for (a) enhancing our understanding of the neurophysiology of approach-related emotions, (b) establishing PFTA as an index of appetitive motivational states, and (c) clarifying our understanding of the neurophysiology and approach-related tendencies associated with both anxious apprehension and anger. PMID:25245178

  12. A real-time framework for classifying, indexing and querying image database volcano activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliotta, M. A.; Cannata, A.; Cassisi, C.; Montalto, P.; Prestifilippo, M.

    2013-12-01

    INGV-OE monitors explosive activity at Stromboli Volcano in order to analyze its eruptive dynamics. Since strombolian activity can be monitored using thermal camera frames, an efficient system able to require information from a huge amount of frames is needed. Aim of this work is the development of a novel system capable of fast data retrieval, based on similarity concepts. In the light of it, an indexing algorithm was developed. The concept is finding elements of a set that are close respect to a query element, according to a similarity criterion. To accomplish this task each video frame is processed using morphological image processing techniques to extract the image area of the explosion. Each closed curve, representing the explosion contour, is processed in order to extract useful features that constitute the metric space in which similarity between objects can be evaluated calculating the distances using an appropriate distance function. This approach suffers from an intrinsic problem related to the number of distances to be computed on a huge amount of data. To overcome this drawback, an indexing algorithm was applied. The idea behind this concept is a tree data structure that minimizes the number of distances to be computed among objects. Proposed method allows us to perform a fast query execution. The proposed system is able to find similar objects using distance among their features. Thus, we can group together explosions related to different kinds of activities using reference items. For instance, if we have a known image sequence, showing a given explosion, we can easily and quickly find all sequences containing explosions similar to it. The developed framework is able to both classifying each new explosion and dynamically insert the corresponding object into the tree structure. Therefore, by our approach, we can cluster the entire data space grouping objects having similar characteristics and classify them.

  13. Feasibility and Validity of the Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index in Routine Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Dotson, Jennifer L.; Crandall, Wallace V.; Zhang, Peixin; Forrest, Christopher B; Bailey, L. Charles; Colletti, Richard B.; Kappelman, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis Activity Index (PUCAI) is a non-invasive disease activity index developed as a clinical trial endpoint. More recently, practice guidelines have recommended the use of PUCAI in routine clinical care. We therefore sought to evaluate the feasibility, validity and responsiveness of PUCAI in a large, diverse collection of pediatric gastroenterology practices. Methods We extracted data from the two most recent encounters for patients with ulcerative colitis in the ImproveCareNow registry. Feasibility was determined by the percent of patients for whom all PUCAI components were recorded, validity by correlation of PUCAI scores across Physician Global Assessment (PGA) categories, and responsiveness to change by the correlation between the change in PUCAI and PGA scores between visits. Results 2503 patients were included (49.5% male, age 15.2±4.1 years, disease duration 3.7±3.2 years). All items in the PUCAI were completed for 96% of visits. PUCAI demonstrated excellent discriminatory ability between remission, mild and moderate disease; discrimination between moderate and severe disease was less robust. There was good correlation with PGA [r=0.76 (p<0.001), weighted kappa k=0.73 (p<0.001)]. The PUCAI change scores correlated well with PGA change scores (p<0.001). Test-retest reliability of the PUCAI was good (intra-class correlation coefficient=0.72 [95% CI 0.70–0.75], p<0.001). Guyatt’s responsiveness statistic was 1.18 and the correlation of ΔPUCAI with ΔPGA was 0.69 (p<0.001). Conclusions The PUCAI is feasible to use in routine clinical settings. Evidence of its validity and responsiveness support its use as a clinical tool for monitoring disease activity for patients with ulcerative colitis. PMID:25221935

  14. The Relationship between Physical Activity Level, Body Mass Index, and Body Fat Percentages in Urban and Rural Elementary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orhan, Özlem

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the physical activity levels, physical activity types, Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage (BF%) values of elementary school students living in rural and urban. Body height (BH), body weight (BW), BF% and BMI data were measured. Physical activity questionnaire was conducted to determine the…

  15. Clinical and financial burden of active lupus in Greece: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Bertsias, G; Karampli, E; Sidiropoulos, P; Gergianaki, I; Drosos, A; Sakkas, L; Garyfallos, A; Tzioufas, A; Vassilopoulos, D; Tsalapaki, C; Sfikakis, P; Panopoulos, S; Athanasakis, K; Perna, A; Psomali, D; Kyriopoulos, J; Boumpas, D

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of the medical and economic burden of chronic disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) are valuable for clinical and health policy decisions. We performed a chart-based review of 215 adult SLE patients with active autoantibody-positive disease at the predefined ratio of 30% severe (involvement of major organs requiring treatment) and 70% non-severe, followed at seven hospital centres in Greece. We reviewed 318 patients consecutively registered over three months (sub-study). Disease activity, organ damage, flares and healthcare resource utilization were recorded. Costs were assessed from the third-party payer perspective. Severe SLE patients had chronic active disease more frequently (22.4% vs 4.7%), higher average SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) (10.5 vs 6.1) and systemic lupus international collaborating clinics (SLICC) damage index (1.1 vs 0.6) than non-severe patients. The mean annual direct medical cost was €3741 for severe vs €1225 for non-severe patients. Severe flares, active renal disease and organ damage were independent cost predictors. In the sub-study, 19% of unselected patients were classified as severe SLE, and 30% of them had chronic active disease. In conclusion, this is the first study to demonstrate the significant clinical and financial burden of Greek SLE patients with active major organ disease. Among them, 30% display chronic activity, in spite of standard care, which represents a significant unmet medical need.

  16. Calibration correction of an active scattering spectrometer probe to account for refractive index of stratospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Overbeck, V. R.; Snetsinger, K. G.; Russell, P. B.; Ferry, G. V.

    1990-01-01

    The use of the active scattering spectrometer probe (ASAS-X) to measure sulfuric acid aerosols on U-2 and ER-2 research aircraft has yielded results that are at times ambiguous due to the dependence of particles' optical signatures on refractive index as well as physical dimensions. The calibration correction of the ASAS-X optical spectrometer probe for stratospheric aerosol studies is validated through an independent and simultaneous sampling of the particles with impactors; sizing and counting of particles on SEM images yields total particle areas and volumes. Upon correction of calibration in light of these data, spectrometer results averaged over four size distributions are found to agree with similarly averaged impactor results to within a few percent: indicating that the optical properties or chemical composition of the sample aerosol must be known in order to achieve accurate optical aerosol spectrometer size analysis.

  17. Acridine orange staining reaction as an index of physiological activity in Escherichia coli

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFeters, G. A.; Singh, A.; Byun, S.; Callis, P. R.; Williams, S.

    1991-01-01

    The assumption that the acridine orange (AO) color reaction may be used as an index of physiological activity was investigated in laboratory grown Escherichia coli. Spectrofluorometric observations of purified nucleic acids, ribosomes and the microscopic color of bacteriophage-infected cells stained with AO confirmed the theory that single-stranded nucleic acids emit orange to red fluorescence while those that are double-stranded fluoresce green in vivo. Bacteria growing actively in a rich medium could be distinguished from cells in stationary phase by the AO reaction. Cells from log phase appeared red, whereas those in stationary phase were green. However, this differentiation was not seen when the bacteria were grown in a minimal medium or when a variation of the staining method was used. Also, shifting bacteria in stationary phase to starvation conditions rapidly changed their AO staining reaction. Boiling and exposure to lethal concentrations of azide and formalin resulted in stationary-phase cells that appeared red after staining but bacteria killed with chlorine remained green. These findings indicate that the AO staining reaction may be suggestive of physiological activity under defined conditions. However, variables in staining and fixation procedures as well as uncertainties associated with mixed bacterial populations in environmental samples may produce results that are not consistent with the classical interpretation of this reaction. The importance of validating the putative physiological implications of this staining reaction is stressed.

  18. Tracking the will to attend: Cortical activity indexes self-generated, voluntary shifts of attention.

    PubMed

    Gmeindl, Leon; Chiu, Yu-Chin; Esterman, Michael S; Greenberg, Adam S; Courtney, Susan M; Yantis, Steven

    2016-10-01

    The neural substrates of volition have long tantalized philosophers and scientists. Over the past few decades, researchers have employed increasingly sophisticated technology to investigate this issue, but many studies have been limited considerably by their reliance on intrusive experimental procedures (e.g., abrupt instructional cues), measures of brain activity contaminated by overt behavior, or introspective self-report techniques of questionable validity. Here, we used multivoxel pattern time-course analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data to index voluntary, covert perceptual acts-shifts of visuospatial attention-in the absence of instructional cues, overt behavioral indices, and self-report. We found that these self-generated, voluntary attention shifts were time-locked to activity in the medial superior parietal lobule, supporting the hypothesis that this brain region is engaged in voluntary attentional reconfiguration. Self-generated attention shifts were also time-locked to activity in the basal ganglia, a novel finding that motivates further research into the role of the basal ganglia in acts of volition. Remarkably, prior to self-generated shifts of attention, we observed early and selective increases in the activation of medial frontal (dorsal anterior cingulate) and lateral prefrontal (right middle frontal gyrus) cortex-activity that likely reflects processing related to the intention or preparation to reorient attention. These findings, which extend recent evidence on freely chosen motor movements, suggest that dorsal anterior cingulate and lateral prefrontal cortices play key roles in both overt and covert acts of volition, and may constitute core components of a brain network underlying the will to attend. PMID:27301353

  19. Effect of Physically Active Academic Lessons on Body Mass Index and Physical Fitness in Primary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Greeff, Johannes W.; Hartman, Esther; Mullender-Wijnsma, Marijke J.; Bosker, Roel J.; Doolaard, Simone; Visscher, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventing overweight and improving physical fitness in primary school children is a worldwide challenge, and physically active intervention programs usually come with the cost of academic instruction time. This study aimed to investigate effects of physically active academic lessons on body mass index (BMI) and physical fitness in…

  20. Gender, body mass index and rheumatoid arthritis disease activity: results from the QUEST-RA study

    PubMed Central

    Jawaheer, Damini; Olsen, Jørn; Lahiff, Maureen; Forsberg, Sinikka; Lähteenmäki, Jukka; Silveira, Ines Guimaraes da; Rocha, Francisco Airton; Laurindo, Ieda Maria Magalhães; Mota, Licia Maria Henrique da; Drosos, Alexandros A.; Murphy, Eithne; Sheehy, Claire; Quirke, Edel; Cutolo, Maurizio; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Dadoniene, Jolanta; Verstappen, Suzan M.M.; Sokka, Tuulikki

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether body mass index (BMI), as a proxy for body fat, influences rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in a gender-specific manner. Methods Consecutive patients with RA were enrolled from 25 countries into the QUEST-RA program between 2005 and 2008. Clinical and demographic data were collected by treating rheumatologists and by patient self-report. Distributions of Disease Activity Scores (DAS28), BMI, age, and disease duration were assessed for each country and for the entire dataset; mean values between genders were compared using Student’s t-tests. An association between BMI and DAS28 was investigated using linear regression, adjusting for age, disease duration and country. Results A total of 5,161 RA patients (4,082 women and 1,079 men) were included in the analyses. Overall, women were younger, had longer disease duration, and higher DAS28 scores than men, but BMI was similar between genders. The mean DAS28 scores increased with increasing BMI from normal to overweight and obese, among women, whereas the opposite trend was observed among men. Regression results showed BMI (continuous or categorical) to be associated with DAS28. Compared to the normal BMI range, being obese was associated with a larger difference in mean DAS28 (0.23, 95% CI: 0.11, 0.34) than being overweight (0.12, 95% CI: 0.03, 0.21); being underweight was not associated with disease activity. These associations were more pronounced among women, and were not explained by any single component of the DAS28. Conclusion BMI appears to be associated with RA disease activity in women, but not in men. PMID:20810033

  1. Active roll control for rollover prevention of heavy articulated vehicles with multiple-rollover-index minimisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsun-Hsuan; Yedavalli, Rama K.; Guenther, Dennis A.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents the application of a nominal control design algorithm for rollover prevention of heavy articulated vehicles with active anti-roll-bar control. This proposed methodology is based on an extension of linear quadratic regulator control for 'state derivative-induced (control coupled) output regulation' problems. For heavy articulated vehicles with multiple axles, a performance index with multiple rollover indices is proposed. The proposed methodology allows us to compare the usefulness of various control configurations (i.e. actuators at different axles of the vehicle) based on the interaction of this control configuration with vehicle dynamics. Application of this methodology to a specific heavy articulated vehicle with a tractor semi-trailer shows that a single active anti-roll-bar system at the trailer unit gives better performance than multiple-axle actuators at tractor and trailer together with the single lane change manoeuvre as the external disturbance. Thus, the proposed methodology of this paper not only highlights the importance of the interactions between control and vehicle dynamics in rollover prevention problems but, in fact, proposes a novel technique to exploit the benefits of these interactions judiciously.

  2. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  3. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain.

  4. Effect of exhalation exercise on trunk muscle activity and oswestry disability index of patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jeong-Il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of exhalation exercises on trunk muscle activity and Oswestry Disability Index by inducing trunk muscle activity through increasing intra-abdominal pressure and activating muscles, contributing to spinal stability. [Subjects and Methods] This intervention program included 20 male patients with chronic low back pain. A total of 10 subjects each were randomly assigned to an exhalation exercise group as the experimental group and a spinal stabilization exercise group as the control group. [Results] There were significant differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, transverse abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles as well as in the Oswestry Disability Index within the experimental group. There were meaningful differences in the activities of the rectus abdominis, external oblique abdominal, and erector spinae muscles and in the Oswestry Disability Index within the control group. In addition, there was a meaningful intergroup difference in transverse abdominis muscle activity alone and in the Oswestry Disability Index. [Conclusion] The breathing exercise effectively increased muscle activity by training gross and fine motor muscles in the trunk. Moreover, it was verified as a very important element for strengthening body stability because it both released and prevented low back pain. PMID:27390406

  5. Post-Movement Beta Activity in Sensorimotor Cortex Indexes Confidence in the Estimations from Internal Models

    PubMed Central

    Wade, Cian; Brown, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Beta oscillations are a dominant feature of the sensorimotor system. A transient and prominent increase in beta oscillations is consistently observed across the sensorimotor cortical-basal ganglia network after cessation of voluntary movement: the post-movement beta synchronization (PMBS). Current theories about the function of the PMBS have been focused on either the closure of motor response or the processing of sensory afferance. Computational models of sensorimotor control have emphasized the importance of the integration between feedforward estimation and sensory feedback, and therefore the putative motor and sensory functions of beta oscillations may reciprocally interact with each other and in fact be indissociable. Here we show that the amplitude of sensorimotor PMBS is modulated by the history of visual feedback of task-relevant errors, and negatively correlated with the trial-to-trial exploratory adjustment in a sensorimotor adaptation task in young healthy human subjects. The PMBS also negatively correlated with the uncertainty associated with the feedforward estimation, which was recursively updated in light of new sensory feedback, as identified by a Bayesian learning model. These results reconcile the two opposing motor and sensory views of the function of PMBS, and suggest a unifying theory in which PMBS indexes the confidence in internal feedforward estimation in Bayesian sensorimotor integration. Its amplitude simultaneously reflects cortical sensory processing and signals the need for maintenance or adaptation of the motor output, and if necessary, exploration to identify an altered sensorimotor transformation. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT For optimal sensorimotor control, sensory feedback and feedforward estimation of a movement's sensory consequences should be weighted by the inverse of their corresponding uncertainties, which require recursive updating in a dynamic environment. We show that post-movement beta activity (13–30 Hz) over sensorimotor

  6. Does body mass index (BMI) influence the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score in axial spondyloarthritis?

    PubMed Central

    Rubio Vargas, Roxana; van den Berg, Rosaline; van Lunteren, Miranda; Ez-Zaitouni, Zineb; Bakker, Pauline A C; Dagfinrud, Hanne; Ramonda, Roberta; Landewé, Robert; Molenaar, Esmeralda; van Gaalen, Floris A; van der Heijde, Désirée

    2016-01-01

    Objective Obesity is associated with elevated C reactive protein (CRP) levels. The Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) combines patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and CRP. We evaluated the effect of body mass index (BMI) on CRP and on ASDAS, and studied if ASDAS can be used in obese axial spondyloarthritis (axSpA) patients to assess disease activity. Methods Baseline data of patients with chronic back pain of short duration included in the SPondyloArthritis Caught Early (SPACE) cohort were used. Collected data included BMI and ASDAS. Patients were classified according to the ASAS axSpA classification criteria and BMI (overweight ≥25 and obese ≥30). Correlation and linear regression analyses were performed to assess the relation between BMI and ASDAS. Linear regression models were performed to assess if age or gender were effect modifiers in the relation between BMI and CRP, and between BMI and ASDAS. Results In total, 428 patients were analysed (n=168 axSpA; n=260 no-axSpA). The mean age was 31.1 years, 36.9% were male, 26.4% were overweight and 13.3% obese, median CRP was 3 mg/L and the mean ASDAS was 2.6. Gender was the only factor modifying the relationship between BMI and CRP as BMI had an influence on CRP only in females (β=0.35; p<0.001). Correlations between BMI and CRP or PROs were generally weak, and only significant for CRP in female patients. BMI was not related to ASDAS in axSpA patients. Conclusions ASDAS is not affected by BMI in axSpA patients. Therefore, based on our data it is not necessary to take BMI in consideration when assessing disease activity using ASDAS in axSpA patients. PMID:27403336

  7. Solar Cycle Variations of the Occurrence of Coronal Type III Radio Bursts and a New Solar Activity Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, I. H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2011-12-01

    The results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts are presented. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System (ARBIS). Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24-hour radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  8. SOLAR CYCLE VARIATIONS OF THE OCCURRENCE OF CORONAL TYPE III RADIO BURSTS AND A NEW SOLAR ACTIVITY INDEX

    SciTech Connect

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, Peter A.

    2011-07-20

    This Letter presents the results of studies of solar cycle variations of the occurrence rate of coronal type III radio bursts. The radio spectra are provided by the Learmonth Solar Radio Observatory (Western Australia), part of the USAF Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN). It is found that the occurrence rate of type III bursts strongly correlates with solar activity. However, the profiles for the smoothed type III burst occurrence rate differ considerably from those for the sunspot number, 10.7 cm solar radio flux, and solar flare index. The type III burst occurrence rate (T3BOR) is proposed as a new index of solar activity. T3BOR provides complementary information about solar activity and should be useful in different studies including solar cycle predictions and searches for different periodicities in solar activity. This index can be estimated from daily results of the Automated Radio Burst Identification System. Access to data from other RSTN sites will allow processing 24 hr radio spectra in near-real time and estimating true daily values of this index. It is also shown that coronal type III bursts can even occur when there are no visible sunspots on the Sun. However, no evidence is found that the bursts are not associated with active regions. It is also concluded that the type III burst productivity of active regions exhibits solar cycle variations.

  9. Frailty Index Predicts All-Cause Mortality for Middle-Aged and Older Taiwanese: Implications for Active-Aging Programs

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shu-Yu; Lee, Wei-Ju; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Peng, Li-Ning; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung

    2016-01-01

    Background Frailty Index, defined as an individual’s accumulated proportion of listed health-related deficits, is a well-established metric used to assess the health status of old adults; however, it has not yet been developed in Taiwan, and its local related structure factors remain unclear. The objectives were to construct a Taiwan Frailty Index to predict mortality risk, and to explore the structure of its factors. Methods Analytic data on 1,284 participants aged 53 and older were excerpted from the Social Environment and Biomarkers of Aging Study (2006), in Taiwan. A consensus workgroup of geriatricians selected 159 items according to the standard procedure for creating a Frailty Index. Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to explore the association between the Taiwan Frailty Index and mortality. Exploratory factor analysis was used to identify structure factors and produce a shorter version–the Taiwan Frailty Index Short-Form. Results During an average follow-up of 4.3 ± 0.8 years, 140 (11%) subjects died. Compared to those in the lowest Taiwan Frailty Index tertile (< 0.18), those in the uppermost tertile (> 0.23) had significantly higher risk of death (Hazard ratio: 3.2; 95% CI 1.9–5.4). Thirty-five items of five structure factors identified by exploratory factor analysis, included: physical activities, life satisfaction and financial status, health status, cognitive function, and stresses. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (C-statistics) of the Taiwan Frailty Index and its Short-Form were 0.80 and 0.78, respectively, with no statistically significant difference between them. Conclusion Although both the Taiwan Frailty Index and Short-Form were associated with mortality, the Short-Form, which had similar accuracy in predicting mortality as the full Taiwan Frailty Index, would be more expedient in clinical practice and community settings to target frailty screening and intervention. PMID:27537684

  10. Body mass index changes during highly active antiretroviral therapy in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Denue, B A; Ikunaiye, P N Y; Denue, C B A

    2014-01-09

    Wasting remains an important condition in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In this study, 120 patients with newly diagnosed HIV infection were prospectively evaluated to determine the effect of HAART on body mass index (BMI). Eighty-nine (83.1%) patients gained weight, 5 (4.7%) had no weight change, and 13 (12.2%) lost weight. There was a significant increase in overweight and obese patients. On multivariate analysis, time-updated CD4 count and higher baseline BMI were associated with a greater increase in BMI. Anaemia at diagnosis was associated with a significant increase in BMI. There were no significant effects of age, sex, disease severity, viral load or educational status on BMI changes. About 27% of the HIV patients presented with weight loss, which emphasizes that weight loss and wasting remain important AIDS-defining conditions, despite the advent of HAART. A linear association was observed between time-updated CD4 count and increase in BMI. The association between time-updated CD4 count and greater increase in BMI suggests that BMI could be a surrogate for CD4 count in monitoring treatment response in resource-limited settings.

  11. Physical activity, body mass index, and brain atrophy in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Christina P; Raji, Cyrus A; Erickson, Kirk I; Lopez, Oscar L; Becker, James T; Gach, H Michael; Longstreth, W T; Teverovskiy, Leonid; Kuller, Lewis H; Carmichael, Owen T; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use a novel imaging biomarker to assess associations between physical activity (PA), body mass index (BMI), and brain structure in normal aging, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's dementia. We studied 963 participants (mean age: 74.1 ± 4.4 years) from the multisite Cardiovascular Health Study including healthy controls (n = 724), Alzheimer's dementia patients (n = 104), and people with mild cognitive impairment (n = 135). Volumetric brain images were processed using tensor-based morphometry to analyze regional brain volumes. We regressed the local brain tissue volume on reported PA and computed BMI, and performed conjunction analyses using both variables. Covariates included age, sex, and study site. PA was independently associated with greater whole brain and regional brain volumes and reduced ventricular dilation. People with higher BMI had lower whole brain and regional brain volumes. A PA-BMI conjunction analysis showed brain preservation with PA and volume loss with increased BMI in overlapping brain regions. In one of the largest voxel-based cross-sectional studies to date, PA and lower BMI may be beneficial to the brain across the spectrum of aging and neurodegeneration.

  12. Stress-induced alterations of left-right electrodermal activity coupling indexed by pointwise transinformation.

    PubMed

    Světlák, M; Bob, P; Roman, R; Ježek, S; Damborská, A; Chládek, J; Shaw, D J; Kukleta, M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we tested the hypothesis that experimental stress induces a specific change of left-right electrodermal activity (EDA) coupling pattern, as indexed by pointwise transinformation (PTI). Further, we hypothesized that this change is associated with scores on psychometric measures of the chronic stress-related psychopathology. Ninety-nine university students underwent bilateral measurement of EDA during rest and stress-inducing Stroop test and completed a battery of self-report measures of chronic stress-related psychopathology. A significant decrease in the mean PTI value was the prevalent response to the stress conditions. No association between chronic stress and PTI was found. Raw scores of psychometric measures of stress-related psychopathology had no effect on either the resting levels of PTI or the amount of stress-induced PTI change. In summary, acute stress alters the level of coupling pattern of cortico-autonomic influences on the left and right sympathetic pathways to the palmar sweat glands. Different results obtained using the PTI, EDA laterality coefficient, and skin conductance level also show that the PTI algorithm represents a new analytical approach to EDA asymmetry description. PMID:24359433

  13. Duke Activity Status Index for Cardiovascular Diseases: Validation of the Portuguese Translation

    PubMed Central

    Coutinho-Myrrha, Mariana A.; Dias, Rosângela C.; Fernandes, Aline A.; Araújo, Christiano G.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Pereira, Danielle G.; Britto, Raquel R.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Duke Activity Status Index (DASI) assesses the functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), but there is no Portuguese version validated for CVD. Objectives To translate and adapt cross-culturally the DASI for the Portuguese-Brazil language, and to verify its psychometric properties in the assessment of functional capacity of patients with CVD. Methods The DASI was translated into Portuguese, then checked by back-translation into English and evaluated by an expert committee. The pre-test version was first evaluated in 30 subjects. The psychometric properties and correlation with exercise testing was performed in a second group of 67 subjects. An exploratory factor analyses was performed in all 97 subjects to verify the construct validity of the DASI. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability was 0.87 and for the inter-rater reliability was 0.84. Cronbach's α for internal consistency was 0.93. The concurrent validity was verified by significant positive correlations of DASI scores with the VO2max (r = 0.51, p < 0.001). The factor analysis yielded two factors, which explained 54% of the total variance, with factor 1 accounting for 40% of the variance. Application of the DASI required between one and three and a half minutes per patient. Conclusions The Brazilian version of the DASI appears to be a valid, reliable, fast and easy to administer tool to assess functional capacity among patients with CVD. PMID:24652056

  14. Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Preschool Children

    PubMed Central

    Vale, Susana Maria Coelho Guimarães; Santos, Rute Marina Roberto; da Cruz Soares-Miranda, Luísa Maria; Moreira, Carla Marisa Maia; Ruiz, Jonatan R.; Mota, Jorge Augusto Silva

    2010-01-01

    Aim. To examine the association between objectively measured physical activity (PA) and body mass index (BMI) in preschool children. Methods. The study comprised 281 children (55.9% boys) aged from 4 to 6 years. PA was measured by accelerometer. Children were categorized as non-overweight (NOW) and overweight/obese (OW) according to the sex-adjusted BMI z-score (<1 and ≥1, resp.). Results. Total and moderate intensity PA were not associated with BMI. We observed that a higher proportion of OW children were classified as low-vigorous PA compared to their NOW peers (43.9 versus 32.1%, resp., P > .05). Logistic regression analysis showed that children with low-vigorous PA had higher odds ratio (OR) to be classified as OW compared to those with high-vigorous PA (OR = 4.4; 95% CI: 1.4–13.4; P = .008) after adjusting for BMI at first and second years of life and other potential confounders. Conclusion. The data suggests that vigorous PA may play a key role in the obesity development already at pre-school age. PMID:20706649

  15. [Evaluation of systemic lupus erythematosus activity during pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Olesińska, Marzena; Wiesik-Szewczyk, Ewa; Chwalińska-Sadowska, Hanna

    2007-07-01

    Pregnancy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is considered a high-risk pregnancy. It is complicated by preeclampsia, premature labour and miscarriage more frequently than in the general population. Improved prognosis depends on low disease activity during conception and on appropriate medical care (SLE activity monitoring, selection of therapy safe for the mother and the developing foetus, advances in neonatology). Because symptoms of physiological pregnancy and SLE exacerbation are similar, their correct interpretation is essential for skin lesions, arthralgias, arterial hypertension or results of laboratory tests: proteinuria, thrombocytopenia or leucopenia observed in the patient. In order to standardise the assessment of SLE activity during pregnancy, scores of this activity are used. In the past, scores validated on non-pregnant populations (including male patients) were used: Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM), European Consensus Lupus Activity Measurment (ECLAM). Only recently have SLE activity scores been introduced that are specific for pregnant women: Lupus Activity Index In Pregnancy (LAI-P), Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Pregnancy Disease Activity Index (SLEPDAI), modified--Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (m-SLAM) and a visual three-grade score modified--Physician Global Assessment (m-PGA). So far, only scores LAI-P and m-PGA have been validated. According to the LAI-P score, clinical data are divided into 4 groups. Group 1 includes mild clinical symptoms, group 2--symptoms of involvement of internal organs, group 3 pertains to modifications of treatment and group 4 to laboratory parameters. Point values are ascribed to individual parameters depending on their intensity.

  16. Increased alpha band activity indexes inhibitory competition across a border during figure assignment.

    PubMed

    Sanguinetti, Joseph L; Trujillo, Logan T; Schnyer, David M; Allen, John J B; Peterson, Mary A

    2016-09-01

    Figure-ground assignment is thought to entail inhibitory competition between potential objects on opposite sides of a shared border; the winner is perceived as the figure, and the loser as the shapeless ground. Computational models and response time measures support this understanding but to date no online measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment has been reported. The current study assays electroencephalogram (EEG) alpha power as a measure of inhibitory competition during figure-ground assignment. Activity in the EEG alpha band has been linked to functional inhibition in the brain, and it has been proposed that increased alpha power reflects increased inhibition. In 2 experiments participants viewed silhouettes designed so that the insides would be perceived as figures. Real-world silhouettes depicted namable objects. Novel silhouettes depicted novel objects on the insides of their borders, but varied in the amount of hypothesized cross-border competition for figural status: In "Low-Competition" silhouettes, the borders suggested novel objects on the outside as well as on the inside. In "High-Competition" silhouettes the borders suggested portions of real-world objects on the outside; these compete with the figural properties favoring the inside as figure. Participants accurately categorized both types of novel silhouettes as "novel" objects and were unaware of the real world objects suggested on the outside of the High-Competition silhouettes. In both experiments, we observed more alpha power while participants viewed High- rather than Low-Competition novel silhouettes. These are the first results to show via an online index of neural activity that figure assignment entails inhibitory competition.

  17. Interhemispheric synchrony in the neonatal EEG revisited: activation synchrony index as a promising classifier.

    PubMed

    Koolen, Ninah; Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Räsänen, Okko; Jansen, Katrien; Vervisch, Jan; Matic, Vladimir; De Vos, Maarten; Van Huffel, Sabine; Naulaers, Gunnar; Vanhatalo, Sampsa

    2014-01-01

    A key feature of normal neonatal EEG at term age is interhemispheric synchrony (IHS), which refers to the temporal co-incidence of bursting across hemispheres during trace alternant EEG activity. The assessment of IHS in both clinical and scientific work relies on visual, qualitative EEG assessment without clearly quantifiable definitions. A quantitative measure, activation synchrony index (ASI), was recently shown to perform well as compared to visual assessments. The present study was set out to test whether IHS is stable enough for clinical use, and whether it could be an objective feature of EEG normality. We analyzed 31 neonatal EEG recordings that had been clinically classified as normal (n = 14) or abnormal (n = 17) using holistic, conventional visual criteria including amplitude, focal differences, qualitative synchrony, and focal abnormalities. We selected 20-min epochs of discontinuous background pattern. ASI values were computed separately for different channel pair combinations and window lengths to define them for the optimal ASI intraindividual stability. Finally, ROC curves were computed to find trade-offs related to compromised data lengths, a common challenge in neonatal EEG studies. Using the average of four consecutive 2.5-min epochs in the centro-occipital bipolar derivations gave ASI estimates that very accurately distinguished babies clinically classified as normal vs. abnormal. It was even possible to draw a cut-off limit (ASI~3.6) which correctly classified the EEGs in 97% of all cases. Finally, we showed that compromising the length of EEG segments from 20 to 5 min leads to increased variability in ASI-based classification. Our findings support the prior literature that IHS is an important feature of normal neonatal brain function. We show that ASI may provide diagnostic value even at individual level, which strongly supports its use in prospective clinical studies on neonatal EEG as well as in the feature set of upcoming EEG classifiers

  18. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H.; Deveaux, Don D.; Quyyumi, Arshed A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (−7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by −5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by −4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  19. Tetrahydrobiopterin lowers muscle sympathetic nerve activity and improves augmentation index in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeanie; Liao, Peizhou; Sher, Salman; Lyles, Robert H; Deveaux, Don D; Quyyumi, Arshed A

    2015-02-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by overactivation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) that contributes to cardiovascular risk. Decreased nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability is a major factor contributing to SNS overactivity in CKD, since reduced neuronal NO leads to increased central SNS activity. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for nitric oxide synthase that increases NO bioavailability in experimental models of CKD. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial testing the benefits of oral sapropterin dihydrochloride (6R-BH4, a synthetic form of BH4) in CKD. 36 patients with CKD and hypertension were randomized to 12 wk of 1) 200 mg 6R-BH4 twice daily + 1 mg folic acid once daily; vs. 2) placebo + folic acid. The primary endpoint was a change in resting muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA). Secondary endpoints included arterial stiffness using pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx), endothelial function using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and endothelial progenitor cells, endothelium-independent vasodilatation (EID), microalbuminuria, and blood pressure. We observed a significant reduction in MSNA after 12 wk of 6R-BH4 (-7.5 ± 2.1 bursts/min vs. +3.2 ± 1.3 bursts/min; P = 0.003). We also observed a significant improvement in AIx (by -5.8 ± 2.0% vs. +1.8 ± 1.7 in the placebo group, P = 0.007). EID increased significantly (by +2.0 ± 0.59%; P = 0.004) in the 6R-BH4 group, but there was no change in endothelial function. There was a trend toward a reduction in diastolic blood pressure by -4 ± 3 mmHg at 12 wk with 6R-BH4 (P = 0.055). 6R-BH4 treatment may have beneficial effects on SNS activity and central pulse wave reflections in hypertensive patients with CKD. PMID:25477424

  20. The Role of Motor Competence and Body Mass Index in Children's Activity Levels in Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spessato, Barbara Coiro; Gabbard, Carl; Valentini, Nadia C.

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to investigate the role of body mass index (BMI) and motor competence (MC) in children's physical activity (PA) levels during physical education (PE) classes. We assessed PA levels of 5-to-10-year old children ("n" = 264) with pedometers in four PE classes. MC was assessed using the TGMD-2 and BMI values were classified according to…

  1. Rural Middle School Nutrition and Physical Activity Environments and the Change in Body Mass Index during Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demment, Margaret; Wells, Nancy; Olson, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background: For rural adolescents, schools are among the few places where environmental interventions can promote health outside of the home. The goal of this study was to assess the nutrition and physical activity (N&PA) environments of schools attended by a birth cohort and examine the association with change in body mass index (BMI) from…

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in young, overweight, and obese European adults and associations with physical activity and omega-3 index.

    PubMed

    Ramel, Alfons; Pumberger, Christina; Martinéz, Alfredo J; Kiely, Mairead; Bandarra, Narcisa M; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2009-05-01

    Excess body fat is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The hypothesis of the study was that physical activity and omega-3 index, a marker of past long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids consumption, counteract the negative associations between fatness and CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults. A total of 324 subjects (20-40 years, body mass index [BMI], 27.5-32.5 kg/m(2), from Iceland, Spain, and Ireland) were investigated cross-sectionally. Dietary intake, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, CVD risk factors, and fatty acids in erythrocyte membrane were analyzed. Information on physical activity was collected. Linear models were constructed to find out the associations of BMI, physical activity (quartiles), and omega-3 index with CVD risk factors. The most frequently increased risk factors were blood lipids (41.4%) and blood pressure (32.1%); fewer participants experienced disturbed glucose metabolism (11.8%). Body mass index was significantly associated with increased CVD risk factors (P = .001-.029), with the exception of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and high-density lipoprotein. The highest physical activity quartile had a lower fat mass (P = .005, at a given BMI), leptin (P = .008, in male participants only), and interleukin 6 (P = .021) but higher high-density lipoprotein (P = .020) than other quartiles; however, an approximate dose-response relationship could only be observed for leptin. The omega-3 index was not associated with lower low-density lipoprotein (P = .056), but docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocyte membrane was associated to it (P = .016). It is concluded that physical activity and docosahexaenoic acid diminish some of the negative health effects associated with overweight and obesity; however, body fatness remains the most important variable associated with increased CVD risk factors in young overweight and obese adults. PMID:19555811

  3. Active suppression of air refractive index fluctuation using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator

    SciTech Connect

    Banh, Tuan Quoc; Ohkubo, Yuria; Murai, Yoshinosuke; Aketagawa, Masato

    2011-01-01

    Air refractive index fluctuation ({Delta}n{sub air}) is one of the largest uncertainty sources in precision interferometry systems that require a resolution of nanometer order or less. We introduce a method for the active suppression of {Delta}n{sub air} inside a normal air-environment chamber using a Fabry-Perot cavity and a piezoelectric volume actuator. The temporal air refractive index (n{sub air}) at a local point is maintained constant with an expanded uncertainty of {approx}4.2x10{sup -9} (k=2), a sufficiently low uncertainty for precise measurements unaffected by {Delta}n{sub air} to be made inside a chamber.

  4. Assessment of disease activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Lights and shadows.

    PubMed

    Ceccarelli, Fulvia; Perricone, Carlo; Massaro, Laura; Cipriano, Enrica; Alessandri, Cristiano; Spinelli, Francesca Romana; Valesini, Guido; Conti, Fabrizio

    2015-07-01

    The assessment of disease activity in patients affected by Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) represents an important issue, as recommended by the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR). Two main types of disease activity measure have been proposed: the global score systems, providing an overall measure of activity, and the individual organ/system assessment scales, assessing disease activity in different organs. All the activity indices included both clinical and laboratory items, related to the disease manifestations. However, there is no gold standard to measure disease activity in patients affected by SLE. In this review, we will analyze the lights and shadows of the disease activity indices, by means of a critical approach. In particular, we will focus on SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) and British Isles Lupus Assessment Group (BILAG), the most frequently used in randomized controlled trials and observational studies. The evaluation of data from the literature underlined some limitations of these indices, making their application in clinical practice difficult and suggesting the possible use of specific tools in the different subset of SLE patients, in order to capture all the disease features.

  5. Vitamin D Deficiency in Egyptian Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: How Prevalent and Does It Impact Disease Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, Nouran M.; El-Mallah, Reem M.; Shaaban, Asmaa; Mobasher, Sameh A.; Al-hassanein, Khaled F.; Abdel Zaher, Amr A.; El-kabarity, Rania H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The emerging role of vitamin D in immunology and autoimmune disorders has been a worldwide interest in the last decade. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are particularly at a delicate position predisposing them to suffer from vitamin D deficiency due to the multiple risk factors accompanying the disease. Whether vitamin D deficiency is also involved as a risk factor for developing SLE and affecting its course is a considerable concern. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in SLE patients and its relation to disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS In our observational cross-sectional study, serum levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D] in 60 SLE patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were assessed and estimated for deficiency and insufficiency at 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Disease activity was evaluated by SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), irreversible organ damage by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR DI), and severity by Severity of Disease Index. Fatigue was measured by visual analog scale. RESULTS Significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D were found in SLE patients (17.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL) in comparison to controls (79.0 ± 28.7 ng/mL), with a statistically high significant difference (t = −11.2, P < 0.001). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was detected as 73.3% and 23.3%, respectively. Vitamin D had a highly significant negative correlation with SLEDAI (r = −0.495, P < 0.001), SLICC (r = −0.431, P < 0.05), and fatigue (r = −0.436, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were found to be prevalent in SLE patients in our study and related to disease activity and fatigue. If needed, routine screening and consequent repletion of vitamin D are recommended in SLE patients. Restoring adequate vitamin D levels in SLE patients should be more explored as a potential yet

  6. Vitamin D Deficiency in Egyptian Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Patients: How Prevalent and Does It Impact Disease Activity?

    PubMed Central

    Abaza, Nouran M.; El-Mallah, Reem M.; Shaaban, Asmaa; Mobasher, Sameh A.; Al-hassanein, Khaled F.; Abdel Zaher, Amr A.; El-kabarity, Rania H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The emerging role of vitamin D in immunology and autoimmune disorders has been a worldwide interest in the last decade. Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients are particularly at a delicate position predisposing them to suffer from vitamin D deficiency due to the multiple risk factors accompanying the disease. Whether vitamin D deficiency is also involved as a risk factor for developing SLE and affecting its course is a considerable concern. OBJECTIVES The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in SLE patients and its relation to disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS In our observational cross-sectional study, serum levels of vitamin D [25(OH)D] in 60 SLE patients and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were assessed and estimated for deficiency and insufficiency at 10 and 30 ng/mL, respectively. Disease activity was evaluated by SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), irreversible organ damage by Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/American College of Rheumatology Damage Index (SLICC/ACR DI), and severity by Severity of Disease Index. Fatigue was measured by visual analog scale. RESULTS Significantly lower levels of 25(OH)D were found in SLE patients (17.6 ± 6.9 ng/mL) in comparison to controls (79.0 ± 28.7 ng/mL), with a statistically high significant difference (t = −11.2, P < 0.001). High prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency was detected as 73.3% and 23.3%, respectively. Vitamin D had a highly significant negative correlation with SLEDAI (r = −0.495, P < 0.001), SLICC (r = −0.431, P < 0.05), and fatigue (r = −0.436, P < 0.05). CONCLUSION Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were found to be prevalent in SLE patients in our study and related to disease activity and fatigue. If needed, routine screening and consequent repletion of vitamin D are recommended in SLE patients. Restoring adequate vitamin D levels in SLE patients should be more explored as a potential yet

  7. Periodic variation in the geomagnetic activity - A study based on the Ap index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Gonzalez, Alicia L. C.; Gonzalez, Walter D.; Dutra, Severino L. G.; Tsurutani, Bruce T.

    1993-01-01

    The monthly and daily samples of the Ap index for the interval from 1932 through 1982 were studied using the power spectrum technique. Results obtained for Bartel's period (about 27 days), the semiannual period, the dual-peak solar cycle distribution of geomagnetic storms, and certain other medium-scale periodicities are examined in detail. In addition, results on the cumulative occurrence number of storms per decade as a function of the Ap and Dst indices for the storm are presented.

  8. Fluxes of low-energy particles in quiet periods of solar activity and the MgII index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeldovich, M. A.; Logachev, Yu. I.; Kecskemety, K.; Surova, G. M.

    2009-10-01

    Low fluxes of protons with energies 0.3-10 MeV were studied during 21-23 solar cycles as a function of the MgII index using the data of the instruments CPME, EIS ( IMP8), and EPHIN ( SOHO). It has been shown that a) during quiet time of solar activity the fluxes of protons (background protons) have a positive correlation with the MgII index value throughout the solar cycle, b) specific features of variations of the MgII index during the solar minima of 1986-1987 and 1996-1997 can be considered, as well as variations of background fluxes of low energy charged particles, to be manifestations of the 22-year magnetic cycle of the Sun, and c) periods of the lowest value of the MgII index are also characterized by the smaller values of the ratio of intensities of protons and helium nuclei than in other quiet periods. A hypothesis is put forward that acceleration in a multitude of weak solar flares is one of the sources of background fluxes of low energy particles in the interplanetary space.

  9. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency. PMID:27548184

  10. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-08-19

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts' efficiency.

  11. A Fuzzy Logic Prompting Mechanism Based on Pattern Recognition and Accumulated Activity Effective Index Using a Smartphone Embedded Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Tse; Chan, Chia-Tai

    2016-01-01

    Sufficient physical activity can reduce many adverse conditions and contribute to a healthy life. Nevertheless, inactivity is prevalent on an international scale. Improving physical activity is an essential concern for public health. Reminders that help people change their health behaviors are widely applied in health care services. However, timed-based reminders deliver periodic prompts suffer from flexibility and dependency issues which may decrease prompt effectiveness. We propose a fuzzy logic prompting mechanism, Accumulated Activity Effective Index Reminder (AAEIReminder), based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis to manage physical activity. AAEIReminder recognizes activity levels using a smartphone-embedded sensor for pattern recognition and analyzing the amount of physical activity in activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder can infer activity situations such as the amount of physical activity and days spent exercising through fuzzy logic, and decides whether a prompt should be delivered to a user. This prompting system was implemented in smartphones and was used in a short-term real-world trial by seventeenth participants for validation. The results demonstrated that the AAEIReminder is feasible. The fuzzy logic prompting mechanism can deliver prompts automatically based on pattern recognition and activity effective analysis. AAEIReminder provides flexibility which may increase the prompts’ efficiency. PMID:27548184

  12. [Effects of nitrogen application and winter green manure on soil active organic carbon and the soil carbon pool management index].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin-Juan; Huang, Guo-Qin; Lan, Yan; Chen, Hong-Jun; Wang, Shu-Bin

    2014-10-01

    Based on a cropping system of "winter green manure-double rice", the 4 x 4 two-factor test was used to study the effects of different nitrogen (N) application levels and winter green manure application on soil active organic carbon (AOC) and the C pool management index. The aim was to explore the ecological effects of winter green manure on soil improvement and determine the appropriate application levels of N fertilizer and winter green manure for improved rice yield. Results were as follows: 1) Compared with the control, the SOC and AOC contents increased by 22.2% and 26.7%, respectively, under the green manure only treatment, but the SOC contents decreased by 0.6%-3.4% under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with the control, the soil C pool management index increased by 24.55 and 15.17 under the green manure only and green manure plus N fertilizer treatments, respectively, and reduced by 2.59 under the single N fertilizer treatment. Compared with no fertilization, the average microbial biomass carbon (MBC) increased by 54.0%, 95.2% and 14.3% under the green manure, green manure plus N fertilizer and single N fertilizer treatments, respectively. 2) The soil AOC content was significantly positively correlated with the C pool management index (P < 0.01), and had a significant correlation with dis- solved organic C and MBC (P < 0.05). Rice yield was significantly positively correlated with AOC contents and the C pool management index, and the correlation coefficient was significantly greater than that with the total organic C. These results suggested that application of winter green manure at proper rates with inorganic fertilizer could increase SOC contents and the soil C pool management index, improve soil quality and fertility.

  13. The association of physical activity and cholesterol concentrations across different combinations of central adiposity and body mass index

    PubMed Central

    Loprinzi, Paul D.; Addoh, Ovuokerie

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate if those who are physically active,compared to physically inactive, have better cholesterol profiles across different combinations of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC). Methods: Data from the 1999-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were used (N = 16 095). Cholesterol parameters included total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), TC/HDL-C ratio, triglycerides and at herogenic index(Log10 [triglycerides/HDL-C]). Physical activity (PA) was assessed via self-report, with BMI and WC objectively measured. Cholesterol concentrations of 6 combinations of BMI and WC were evaluated among active and inactive participants. Multivariable linear regression analysis was utilized. Results: Findings were not consistent across sex. There was little evidence to suggest an association of PA on TC across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive participants did not have different TC level when compared to active participants (β = -1.2; 95% CI: -3.9-1.5, P = 0.38). There was evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on HDL-C, triglycerides and at herogenic index across varying BMI and WC combinations. For example, among those who had an obese BMI and high WC, inactive (vs. active) participants had a lower HDL-C (βadjusted = -1.6, P < 0.01). When considering either gender, there was sufficient evidence to suggest a favorable association of PA on at least one of the evaluated cholesterol parameters for each of the BMI/WC combinations with the exception of normal BMI and high WC. Conclusion: Except for those having normal weight central obesity, PA is favorably associated with cholesterol parameters across various combinations of BMI and WC. PMID:27579256

  14. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical.

  15. Leisure time physical activity of young women from the Carpathian Euroregion in relation to the Body Mass Index.

    PubMed

    Zadarko, Emilian; Barabasz, Zbigniew; Nizioł-Babiarz, Edyta; Zadarko Domaradzka, Maraia; Barabasz, Monika; Sobolewski, Marek; Palanska, Andrea; Bergier, Józef; Junger, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Carpathian Euroregion gathers the population of 5 countries, including Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania- the European Union members, as well as Ukraine. Young women are statistically less involved in high-intensity physical activity than young men. The objective of this work was to assess the relation between physical activity of young women aged 18-21 years old and BMI and conditioning factors. The study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 among 2339 women. The Minnesota Leisure Time Physical Activity Questionnarie (MLTPAQ) was applied. It results from the study that 74,2% of young women is considered to have the proper BMI rate (18,5-24,9). As many as 16,2% is considered underweight and almost 10% have higher BMI rate and are overweight. More than one third of respondents did not gain the level of physical activity of 1000 kcal/week, and that is the minimum recommended amount of leisure physical activity time per week. In case of women with low level of physical activity (<1000 kcal), as many as 52% of week activity considered low-intensity activity EEPAlight. The character of changes of the BMI index with reference to the level of physical activity is very similar in the women from towns/cities and the women from villages. An increase of BMI along with the total physical activity was related among all to the increase of free fat mass FFM despite of the level of physical. PMID:25292141

  16. Sex-specific effects of handling time on an index of immune activity in zebra finches.

    PubMed

    Berzins, Lisha L; Tilman-Schindel, Elinor; Burness, Gary

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been considerable interest in the role of the immune system in shaping life-history evolution, sexual selection strategies, and indexes of individual quality. The most frequently used assay of immune function, particularly in avian field studies, is the phytohemagglunitin (PHA) skin test. PHA is injected subcutaneously into the wing web, and the magnitude of the resultant swelling has traditionally been interpreted as an index of an individual's cell-mediated immunocompetence. The test follows one of two protocols: the traditional two-wing injection protocol, with one wing web injected with PHA and the other with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), or the simplified one-wing protocol that omits the PBS injection. In this technical comment, we alert researchers to the importance of considering handling time when performing the PHA test. We show that zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) subjected to the two-wing protocol had a lower wing-web swelling than individuals injected in one wing. In males, handling time explained over 50% of the variation in an individual's skin swelling response; females were relatively unaffected by handling time. We suggest that caution should be exercised when comparing the magnitude of wing-web swelling across studies in which the alternate protocol was followed. In addition, the recording of handling time, and its inclusion in subsequent statistical analyses, may aid in the detection of subtle differences across treatments.

  17. Increased serum levels of soluble l-selectin (CD62L) in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)

    PubMed Central

    Font, J; Pizcueta, P; Ramos-Casals, M; Cervera, R; García-Carrasco, M; Navarro, M; Ingelmo, M; Engel, P

    2000-01-01

    The adhesion molecule l-selectin (CD62L) mediates lymphocyte recirculation and leucocyte rolling on vascular endothelium at sites of inflammation. Serum levels of soluble l-selectin (sl-selectin) were measured in patients with SLE in order to relate these levels to clinical activity and immunological parameters. An ELISA was used to detect the soluble form of human l-selectin (CD62L) in 42 patients with SLE and in 33 healthy individuals. The mean ± s.e.m. values of sl-selectin were 1285 ± 121 ng/ml for patients with SLE and 986 ± 180 ng/ml for healthy blood donors, but there was no significant difference. When patients with active SLE were analysed, higher levels of circulating sl-selectin were found when compared with patients without activity (1497 ± 167 ng/ml versus 941 ± 150 ng/ml; P = 0.028). We found a significant correlation between the levels of sl-selectin and of dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.36, P = 0.044) and between levels of sl-selectin and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) score (r = 0.42, P = 0.003). Patients with active SLE studied cross-sectionally showed significant elevations of sl-selectin (CD62L) compared with controls. Thus, the levels of this soluble adhesion molecule correlated with active disease and levels of anti-dsDNA antibodies. PMID:10606979

  18. The Solar Ultraviolet Spectrum Estimated Using the Mg II K Index and Ca II K disk Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMullin, D. R.; Morrill, J. S.; Floyd, L. E.

    2010-12-01

    As part of a program to estimate the solar spectrum backward in time to the early twentieth century, we have generated fits to UV spectral irradiance measurements (150 - 410 nm) as a function of two solar activity proxies, the Mg II core-to-wing ratio, or Mg II index, and the total Ca II K disk activity derived from ground based observations. In addition, irradiance spectra at shorter wavelengths (1 - 150 nm) where used to generate fits to the Mg II core-to-wing ratio alone. Two sets of spectra were used in these fitting procedures. The fits at longer wavelengths (150 to 410 nm) were based on the high resolution spectra taken by the Solar Ultraviolet Spectral Irradiance Monitor (SUSIM) on the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS). Spectra measured by the Solar EUV Experiment (SEE) instrument on the Thermosphere Ionosphere Mesosphere Energetics and Dynamics (TIMED) satellite were used for the fits at wavelengths from 1 to 150 nm. To generate fits between solar irradiance and solar proxies, this study uses the above irradiance data, the NOAA composite Mg II index, and daily Ca II K disk activity determined from images measured by Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Among the results of this study is an estimated relationship between the fraction of the disk with enhanced Ca II K activity and the Mg II index, an upper bound of the average solar UV spectral irradiance during periods of pure quiet sun as was believed to be present during the Maunder Minimum, and results indicating that more than 60 % of the Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) variability occurs between 150 and 400nm. In this presentation we will discuss the results of this study and the implications for estimating UV spectra for use in long-term climate models.

  19. Mediating relationship between body mass index and the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour on physical activity intention.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina M; Duncan, Mitch J; Mummery, Kerry; Steele, Rebekah; Schofield, Grant

    2008-03-01

    This research examines (a) the interrelationships between body mass index (BMI), the direct measures of the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and physical activity intention and (b) the potential mediation effects of the direct measures of the TPB in the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention in a sample of Australian adults. A total sample of 1,062 respondents participated in a computer-assisted telephone-interview (CATI) survey comprised of a standardised introduction; questions regarding TPB and physical activity; and standard demographic questions. BMI for each participant was calculated from self-reported height and weight. Separate regression analyses were performed to examine the mediating effects of each of the direct measures of the TPB on the predictive relationship between the BMI and physical activity intention, as proposed by Baron and Kenny (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173 - 1182, 1986). Findings indicated that the direct measure of attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between BMI and physical activity intention. However, the direct measure of subjective norm failed to act as a mediating mechanism. To date there has been no research that has examined the mechanism by which body mass may affect physical activity behaviour. Given the current focus for health promotion specialists on promoting physical activity as a strategy for reducing overweight and obesity, a theoretical understanding of weight-related barriers to physical activity may aid in the development of future interventions and community physical activity programs, particularly those targeting overweight and obese populations.

  20. SPECTRAL INDEX STUDIES OF THE DIFFUSE RADIO EMISSION IN ABELL 2256: IMPLICATIONS FOR MERGER ACTIVITY

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, Ruta; Dwarakanath, K. S. E-mail: dwaraka@rri.res.i

    2010-08-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the merging rich cluster of galaxies, Abell 2256 (A2256). We have observed A2256 at 150 MHz using the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope and successfully detected the diffuse radio halo and the relic emission over a {approx}1.2 Mpc{sup 2} extent. Using this 150 MHz image and the images made using archival observations from the Very Large Array (VLA; 1369 MHz) and the Westerbrok Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT; 330 MHz), we have produced spectral index images of the diffuse radio emission in A2256. These spectral index images show a distribution of flat spectral index (S {proportional_to} {nu}{sup {alpha}}, {alpha} in the range -0.7 to -0.9) plasma in the region NW of the cluster center. Regions showing steep spectral indices ({alpha} in the range -1.0 to -2.3) are toward the SE of the cluster center. These spectral indices indicate synchrotron lifetimes for the relativistic plasmas in the range 0.08-0.4 Gyr. We interpret this spectral behavior as resulting from a merger event along the direction SE to NW within the last 0.5 Gyr or so. A shock may be responsible for the NW relic in A2256 and the megaparsec scale radio halo toward the SE is likely to be generated by the turbulence injected by mergers. Furthermore, the diffuse radio emission shows spectral steepening toward lower frequencies. This low-frequency spectral steepening is consistent with a combination of spectra from two populations of relativistic electrons created at two epochs (two mergers) within the last {approx}0.5 Gyr. Earlier interpretations of the X-ray and the optical data also suggested that there were two mergers in Abell 2256 in the last 0.5 Gyr, consistent with the current findings. Also highlighted in this study is the futility of correlating the average temperatures of thermal gas and the average spectral indices of diffuse radio emission in the respective clusters.

  1. Association between serum trace element concentrations and the disease activity of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Abrishami-Moghaddam, M; Moezzi, A; Ghayour-Mobarhan, M; Mirfeizi, Z; Esmaily, H; Ferns, G

    2014-07-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with a complex, incompletely understood, etiology. Several genetic and environmental factors are suspected to be involved in its aetiology. Oxidative stress may be implicated in the pathogenesis of SLE and may be affected by trace element status. Zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and selenium (Se) are essential components of several anti-oxidative enzymes and are also involved in several immune functions. The current study aimed to assess the relationship between serum concentrations of these trace elements and the clinical disease activity of SLE assessed using the SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI). Serum concentrations of albumin (Alb) (p = 0.001), Se (p = 0.001), Zn (p = 0.001) and the Zn to Cu ratio (Zn/Cu R) (p = 0.001) were lower in patients with SLE than the age- and sex-matched healthy controls. However, only Alb (p = 0.001) and Cu (p = 0.03) were negatively correlated with disease activity, which was supported by regression analysis. In summary, lower serum values of Alb, Zn, Se and Zn/Cu R were found in SLE patients compared with healthy controls; however, in addition to serum Alb concentrations, serum Cu concentrations were also negatively correlated with lupus disease activity.

  2. Physical activity and dietary fat as determinants of body mass index in a cross-sectional corelational design.

    PubMed

    Okeyo, Omondi D; Ayado, Othuon L O; Mbagaya, Grace M

    2009-04-01

    Overweight/obesity and related disease conditions will constitute a major threat to the economically productive adults and subsequently, will present a huge health-care burden on developing countries in the near future. Suspected determinants include physical activity and dietary fat. The main indicator of overweight/obesity is Body Mass Index (BMI . The purpose of this article is to present the prediction power of physical activity and dietary fat intake on BMI of lecturers within a higher learning institutionalized setting. The studyadopted a cross-sectional correlational design. Proportionate and simple random sampling techniques were used to select a sample of 120 lecturers who participated in the study. Data collection was conducted through questionnaires, which had sections including physical activity checklist, 24-hour food recall, anthropometrics measurements mainly weight and height. Analysis of data involved the use of bivariate correlation and linear regression. A significant inverse association occurred between BMI and minutes spent in moderate intense physical activity per day (r=-0322, p<0.01). Physical activity also predicted BMI (R2=0.096, F=13.616, beta=-3.22, t=-3.69, N=120, P<0.01). However, the association between Body Mass Index and dietary fat was not significant (r=0.038, p>0.05). In conclusion, physical activity was a significant predictor to BMI and on the contrary no significant impact was caused by dietary fat intake. Therefore, we still need further investigations on the effect of physical activity and dietary fat on BMI and risk factors associated poor diet should take priority.

  3. An Accumulated Activity Effective Index for Promoting Physical Activity: A Design and Development Study in a Mobile and Pervasive Health Context

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chung-Tse

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased physical activity has become a principal personal health goal worldwide because sufficient physical activity can reduce the risk of many adverse conditions. Motivating individuals to increase their levels of physical activity can increase life expectancy and contribute to a healthy life. Sharing and comparison of physical activity information by using the Internet, with fewer privacy concerns, might also help encourage people to promote and maintain sufficient physical activity. To promote and manage physical activity, an accumulated activity effective index (AAEI) is proposed in this paper. Objective The purpose of the AAEI design is to maintain and promote physical activity. The public can easily accept a clear indicator that reveals the current status of physical activity. The AAEI is not only an assessment and tracking tool for personal physical activity, but is also useful for goal setting and for sharing content with the Internet community. Methods The AAEI is derived from input in the form of accumulated physical activity, and evaluates the status of physical activities and days spent exercising. The term AAEI(t1,t2) is an index of the accumulated physical activity in the time interval (t1,t2), where the base unit of time is the day. The AAEI is determined according to accumulated physical activity and is adjusted using the previous status of physical activity. The previous status of physical activity is estimated according to the number of days spent exercising and the accumulated physical activity that has been performed. An analysis of the AAEI performance was conducted using a simulation model and a real-world trial with 2 participants. Results The AAEI increased as the physical activity and days spent exercising accumulated. Conversely, the AAEI decreased with lack of physical activity and increased resting days. In simulation, the shape of the AAEI line indicated different types of exercise. The moving average AAEI represented long

  4. Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, Alcohol Consumption and Cigarette Smoking among East Asian College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.; Chin, Ming-Kai; Lee, Chung Gun; Kim, Nayoung; Huang, Sen-Fang; Chen, Chee Keong; Mok, Magdalena Mo Ching; Wong, Patricia; Chia, Michael; Park, Bock-Hee

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify levels of moderate-intensity physical activity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in a representative sample of college students in six East Asian economies and examine their relationship with weight, alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: College students…

  5. Aspirin Use, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Plasma C-Peptide, and Colon Cancer Risk in US Health Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuehong; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Wu, Kana; Spiegelman, Donna; Fuchs, Charles S.; Willett, Walter C.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2011-01-01

    Aspirin use decreases colon cancer risk, but this association may vary among population subgroups. The aspirin-colon cancer association was evaluated according to body mass index and physical activity in 1,701 incident colon cancer cases diagnosed during follow-up of 139,310 participants for up to 26 years in 2 US prospective cohort studies that began in 1980 and 1992, respectively. Whether plasma C-peptide levels modified the association was examined by using a nested case-control design (n = 384 cases, 749 controls). Multiplicative and additive interactions were tested. Body mass index did not modify the association; pooled multivariable relative risks for regular aspirin use versus nonuse ranged from 0.74 to 0.75 in the normal weight and obese groups (test for multiplicative interaction, P = 0.75; test for additive interaction, P = 0.66). Pooled multivariable relative risks for regular aspirin use were 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.66, 1.11) in the low and 0.67 (95% CI: 0.58, 0.77) in the high physical activity groups with no interaction evident on either the multiplicative or additive scale (P > 0.10). Plasma C-peptide levels also did not modify the aspirin-colon cancer association, with multivariable relative risks of 0.74 (95% CI: 0.50, 1.10) for the low and 0.65 (95% CI: 0.46, 0.92) for the high group. Reductions in colon cancer risk associated with aspirin use were not significantly modified by body mass index, physical activity, or plasma C-peptide level in this study. PMID:21673123

  6. Proliferative activity of adrenal glands with adrenocortical cytomegaly measured by MIB-1 labeling index.

    PubMed

    Fasano, M; Greco, M A

    1996-01-01

    To investigate the proliferative activity of cytomegalic cells in the fetal adrenal cortex, we studied adrenal glands with cytomegaly by immunohistochemistry using the nuclear proliferation maker MIB-1. The percentage of positively stained nuclei was quantified using the SAMBA 4000 image analysis system. Only one case showed occasional positively stained cytomegalic cell nuclei. The permanent cortices showed proliferative activity that decreased with increasing gestational age. No proliferative activity was seen in normal fetal cortices except in one case that received corticosteroid therapy and had a maternal history of diabetes. The near absence of proliferative activity of the cytomegalic cells supports the previously proposed theory of cellular exhaustion following hyperactivity. The high proliferative activity in the fetal cortex of the infant receiving corticosteroid therapy may provide insight into the stimulus causing the hypermetabolic state. PMID:9025875

  7. Microzonality of luminescence of cave stalactites as a new indirect index of solar activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, I.; Dermendzhiev, V.

    Solar activity as registered in cave stalactites is discussed. Laser luminescence microzonal analysis was conducted on a polished section of a cave flowstone. The molecular admixture of the stone was excited by an ultraviolet laser and its luminescence was photographed using a microscope. The data were processed and correlated with solar activity data. It is suggested that solar wind and heliospheric changes could lead to an anticorrelation between the galactic cosmic ray flux and the solar activity and this effect could be used for interpolation of past solar activity by radioactive isotopes. Data on solar activity during periods of up to seven million years (which is the age of the oldest cave stalactites) can be obtained.

  8. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; Melo, Angelita Cristine de; Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva de; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs.

  9. Control measures to trace ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Cláudia Di Lorenzo; de Melo, Angelita Cristine; de Oliveira, Lílian Ruth Silva; Froede, Emerson Lopes; Camargos, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    This was descriptive study carried out in a medium-sized Brazilian city. In ≤ 15-year-old contacts of index cases of active pulmonary tuberculosis, we assessed compliance with the Brazilian national guidelines for tuberculosis control. We interviewed 43 contacts and their legal guardians. Approximately 80% of the contacts were not assessed by the municipal public health care system, and only 21% underwent tuberculin skin testing. The results obtained with the Chi-square Automatic Interaction Detector method suggest that health care teams have a biased attitude toward assessing such contacts and underscore the need for training health professionals regarding tuberculosis control programs. PMID:26578137

  10. Variations of solar EUV radiation and coronal index of solar activity. (Slovak Title: Variácie EUV žiarenia Slnka a koronálny index slnečnej aktivity)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenc, M.; Pastorek, L.; Rybanský, M.

    2010-12-01

    This is a follow-up contribution of the work Lukáč and Rybanský "Modified coronal index of solar activity (MCI) - presented during the last workshop. While MCI has been derived from measurements of the CELIAS/SEM spectrometer onboard the SOHO satellite, in this paper we have focused on the application of the measurements from satellites SORCE and TIMED SEE to the same goal, i.e. for compiling the coronal index of solar activity replacing the ground based coronal measurements.

  11. Concurrent Validity for an Activity Vector Analysis Index of Social Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plante, Thomas G.; Goldfarb, Lori A.

    1984-01-01

    Administered the Activity Vector Analysis (AVA) and the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) (N=144 adults) to examine the concurrent validity of the AVA. Results supported the validity of the AVA's social adjustment measure. (LLL)

  12. The 1975 report on active and planned spacecraft and experiments. [index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horowitz, R. (Editor); Davis, L. R. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    Information is presented on current and planned spacecraft activity for various disciplines: astronomy, earth sciences, meteorology, planetary sciences, aeronomy, solar physics, and life sciences. For active orbiting spacecraft, the epoch date, orbit type, orbit period, apoasis, periapsis, and inclination are given along with the spacecraft weight, launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, and sponsoring agency. For each planned orbiting spacecraft, the orbit parameters, planned launch date, launch site, launch vehicle, spacecraft weight, and sponsoring agency are given.

  13. Proliferative index activity in oral squamous cell carcinoma: indication for postoperative radiotherapy?

    PubMed

    Gontarz, M; Wyszyńska-Pawelec, G; Zapała, J; Czopek, J; Lazar, A; Tomaszewska, R

    2014-10-01

    The predictive value of the Ki-67 labelling index and its relationship with radiosensitivity in oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) remains controversial. We sought to evaluate whether the expression of Ki-67 antigen found in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth is an indication for postoperative radiotherapy (PORT). The first study group included 34 patients who were treated only with primary surgery, while the second group included 26 patients who underwent primary surgery combined with PORT. The correlation between Ki-67 expression and loco-regional recurrence, as well as the 5-year disease-specific survival, was assessed in the two groups. Cases of high-proliferative tumours showed a significantly higher risk of loco-regional recurrence (P=0.018) and a poorer prognosis (P=0.001) only in the 34 patients treated with surgery alone. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, high Ki-67 expression was an independent predictor of loco-regional recurrence (HR 5.42, P=0.029) and disease-specific survival (HR 9.02, P=0.004). The correlation between Ki-67 expression and the risk of loco-regional recurrence in SCC of the tongue and the floor of the mouth may be useful in the selection of patients at a higher risk of recurrence who would benefit from PORT, despite adequate margins of resection and early stage of the disease.

  14. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borker, Abraham L.; McKown, Matthew W.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Tershy, Bernie R.; Croll, Donald A.

    2014-01-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15–111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m2. We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife.

  15. Vocal activity as a low cost and scalable index of seabird colony size.

    PubMed

    Borker, Abraham L; McKown, Matthew W; Ackerman, Joshua T; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Tershy, Bernie R; Croll, Donald A

    2014-08-01

    Although wildlife conservation actions have increased globally in number and complexity, the lack of scalable, cost-effective monitoring methods limits adaptive management and the evaluation of conservation efficacy. Automated sensors and computer-aided analyses provide a scalable and increasingly cost-effective tool for conservation monitoring. A key assumption of automated acoustic monitoring of birds is that measures of acoustic activity at colony sites are correlated with the relative abundance of nesting birds. We tested this assumption for nesting Forster's terns (Sterna forsteri) in San Francisco Bay for 2 breeding seasons. Sensors recorded ambient sound at 7 colonies that had 15-111 nests in 2009 and 2010. Colonies were spaced at least 250 m apart and ranged from 36 to 2,571 m(2) . We used spectrogram cross-correlation to automate the detection of tern calls from recordings. We calculated mean seasonal call rate and compared it with mean active nest count at each colony. Acoustic activity explained 71% of the variation in nest abundance between breeding sites and 88% of the change in colony size between years. These results validate a primary assumption of acoustic indices; that is, for terns, acoustic activity is correlated to relative abundance, a fundamental step toward designing rigorous and scalable acoustic monitoring programs to measure the effectiveness of conservation actions for colonial birds and other acoustically active wildlife.

  16. The antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity and selectivity index of leaf extracts of thirteen South African tree species used in ethnoveterinary medicine to treat helminth infections

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diseases caused by bacteria remain a major challenge globally and particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. The plants used in this study have been used in South Africa to treat helminth infections in livestock and humans. In a previous study we found a correlation between antifungal and anthelmintic activity in some cases. In this study we examined other potential uses of these thirteen plant species by determining the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of the leaf acetone extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by using a serial microdilution method against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis. Bioautography was used to determine the number of antibacterial compounds. The antioxidant activity was determined using the ABTS and DPPH methods. Results Maesa lanceolata and Leucosidea sericea with an MIC of 0.02 mg/ml had excellent antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. There was a poor correlation between antioxidant activity and antibacterial activity with R2 = 0.143. This is because antibacterial activity is mainly related to non-polar compounds and antioxidant activity to polar compounds. Maesa lanceolata extracts had a low cytotoxicity with a selectivity index of 5.2, 2.6, 2.6 and 1.3 for P. aeruginosa, E. faecalis, E. coli and S. aureus respectively. Strychnos mitis extracts had a therapeutic index of 1.1 for E. coli. Conclusions This study shows that plant extracts of some species used in ethnoveterinary medicine as anthelmintic may also have excellent antibacterial activity. PMID:24589020

  17. Aerobic capacity correlates to self-assessed physical function but not to overall disease activity or organ damage in women with systemic lupus erythematosus with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage.

    PubMed

    Boström, C; Dupré, B; Tengvar, P; Jansson, E; Opava, C H; Lundberg, I E

    2008-02-01

    The present aim is to investigate the relationships between aerobic capacity and disease activity, organ damage, health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical activity in 34 women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with low-to-moderate disease activity and organ damage. Mean age was 51 (SD 10) years, disease duration 17 (SD 11) years. Aerobic capacity (maximal oxygen uptake/VO2 max) was measured with a bicycle ergometer exercise test. Overall disease activity was assessed with Systemic Lupus Activity Measure (SLAM) and the modified Systemic Lupus Erythematosus-Disease Activity Index (modified SLE-DAI), overall organ damage with the Systemic Lupus International Collaboration Clinics/American College of Rheumatology-Damage Index, [SLICC/(ACR)-DI], HRQL with the 36-item Short-form health-survey (SF-36) and physical activity with a self-assessed question. The women who were low-to-moderately physically active had 89-92% (P < or = 0.001) of VO2 max predicted for sedentary women. Maximal oxygen uptake (L/min, mL/min/kg) correlated to SF-36 physical function (rs = 0.49, rs = 0.72) (P < or = 0.01), but not (rs < or = 0.25) to other HRQL scales, overall disease activity or organ damage or physical activity. The correlation between aerobic capacity and physical function and the absence of correlation between aerobic capacity and physical activity, suggest a possible disease-related factor behind the low aerobic capacity. However, with no correlation between aerobic capacity and overall disease activity and organ damage, low physical activity may contribute to the low aerobic capacity in our sample.

  18. Development of Preparatory Activity Indexed by the Contingent Negative Variation in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Angelica B.; Digiacomo, Marcia R.; Meneres, Susana; Trigo, Eva; Gomez, Carlos M.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The present study investigated the effect of age on task-specific preparatory activation induced by a spatial cue using the central cue Posner's paradigm. The behavioral responses and the contingent negative variation (CNV) generated between S1 (the warning stimulus) and S2 (the imperative stimulus) were compared between 16 healthy…

  19. IDENTIFYING RECENT SURFACE MINING ACTIVITIES USING A NORMALIZED DIFFERENCE VEGETATION INDEX (NDVI) CHANGE DETECTION METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory



    Coal mining is a major resource extraction activity on the Appalachian Mountains. The increased size and frequency of a specific type of surface mining, known as mountain top removal-valley fill, has in recent years raised various environmental concerns. During mountainto...

  20. Middle School Students' Body Mass Index and Physical Activity Levels in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zan; Oh, Hyunju; Sheng, Huiping

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical public concerns in the United States is the rapid increase in childhood obesity, partly due to the social and environmental changes (e.g., excessive TV and computer use, pressures of standardized testing, etc.) in the past few decades, which has resulted in less physical activity in school children's daily routines.…

  1. Comparison of laterality index of upper and lower limb movement using brain activated fMRI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harirchian, Mohammad Hossein; Oghabian, Mohammad Ali; Rezvanizadeh, Alireza; Bolandzadeh, Niousha

    2008-03-01

    Asymmetry of bilateral cerebral function, i.e. laterality, is an important phenomenon in many brain actions such as motor functions. This asymmetry maybe altered in some clinical conditions such as Multiple Sclerosis (MS). The aim of this study was to delineate the laterality differences for upper and lower limbs in healthy subjects to compare this pattern with subjects suffering from MS in advance. Hence 9 Male healthy subjects underwent fMRI assessment, while they were asked to move their limbs in a predetermined pattern. The results showed that hands movement activates the brain with a significant lateralization in pre-motor cortex in comparison with lower limb. Also, dominant hands activate brain more lateralized than the non-dominant hand. In addition, Left basal ganglia were observed to be activated regardless of the hand used, While, These patterns of Brain activation was not detected in lower limbs. We hypothesize that this difference might be attributed to this point that hand is usually responsible for precise and fine voluntary movements, whereas lower limb joints are mainly responsible for locomotion, a function integrating voluntary and automatic bilateral movements.

  2. 75 FR 75475 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Control Number 0910-0620)--Extension The Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act of 2004 (MUMS...

  3. 75 FR 75481 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Index of Legally...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed... Control Number 0910-0620)--Extension The Minor Use and Minor Species Animal Health Act of 2004 (MUMS...

  4. CENDI Indexing Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The CENDI Indexing Workshop held at NASA Headquarters, Two Independence Square, 300 E Street, Washington, DC, on September 21-22, 1994 focused on the following topics: machine aided indexing, indexing quality, an indexing pilot project, the MedIndEx Prototype, Department of Energy/Office of Scientific and Technical Information indexing activities, high-tech coding structures, category indexing schemes, and the Government Information Locator Service. This publication consists mostly of viewgraphs related to the above noted topics. In an appendix is a description of the Government Information Locator Service.

  5. Active terahertz beam steering by photo-generated graded index gratings in thin semiconductor films.

    PubMed

    Steinbusch, T P; Tyagi, H K; Schaafsma, M C; Georgiou, G; Gómez Rivas, J

    2014-11-01

    We demonstrate active beam steering of terahertz radiation using a photo-excited thin layer of gallium arsenide. A constant gradient of phase discontinuity along the interface is introduced by an spatially inhomogeneous density of free charge carriers that are photo-generated in the GaAs with an optical pump. The optical pump has been spatially modulated to form the shape of a planar blazed grating. The phase gradient leads to an asymmetry between the +1 and -1 transmission diffracted orders of more than a factor two. Optimization of the grating structure can lead to an asymmetry of more than one order of magnitude. Similar to metasurfaces made of plasmonic antennas, the photo-generated grating is a planar structure that can achieve large beam steering efficiency. Moreover, the photo-generation of such structures provides a platform for active THz beam steering. PMID:25401807

  6. Physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness among school children in Taiwan: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Pei-Lin; Chen, Min-Li; Huang, Chiu-Mieh; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Li, Chun-Huei; Chang, Li-Chun

    2014-07-16

    There is evidence that cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity significantly reduce cardiovascular risks in adults. A better understanding of the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, physical activity, and childhood obesity is vital in assessing the benefits of interventions to prevent obesity. This study was to examine the relationship between physical activity, body mass index, and cardiorespiratory fitness levels in Taiwanese children. A cross-sectional study was designed. Study participants consisted of 2419 school children (1230 males and 1189 females) aged 12 years old living in a southern Taiwan county with one the highest countrywide rates of childhood obesity. The weight status of the participants was defined as underweight, normal, overweight, or obese according to specific criteria. Cardiorespiratory fitness was then assessed by an 800-m run. Participants were queried on their physical activity habits via a questionnaire survey. The overall prevalence of overweight/obesity was 29.6%. Normal, underweight and overweight boys and girls had an increased odds ratio of being categorized with higher cardiorespiratory fitness than obese one for both gender. A significantly higher level of cardiorespiratory fitness was found in children who engaged in regular physical activity than in children who engaged only in irregular physical activity. Obese children are more likely to lack cardiorespiratory fitness. Physically active children have significantly better cardiorespiratory fitness levels than inactive children. This study supports the conclusion that BMI and physical activity are significantly correlated with cardiorespiratory fitness levels. Findings may provide educational professionals with information to assist their developing effective health promotion programs to healthy weight and improving cardiorespiratory fitness for children.

  7. Impact of body mass index, physical activity, and other clinical factors on cardiorespiratory fitness (from the Cooper Center longitudinal study).

    PubMed

    Lakoski, Susan G; Barlow, Carolyn E; Farrell, Stephen W; Berry, Jarett D; Morrow, James R; Haskell, William L

    2011-07-01

    Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) is widely accepted as an important reversible cardiovascular risk factor. In the present study, we examined the nonmodifiable and modifiable determinants of CRF within a large healthy Caucasian population of men and women. The study included 20,239 patients presenting to Cooper Clinic (Dallas, Texas) for a comprehensive medical examination from 2000 through 2010. CRF was determined by maximal treadmill exercise testing. Physical activity categories were 0 metabolic equivalent tasks (METs)/min/week (no self-reported moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity), 1 to 449 METs/min/week (not meeting physical activity guideline), 450 to 749 METs/min/week (meeting guideline), and ≥750 METs/min/week (exceeding guideline). Linear regression modeling was used to determine the most robust clinical factors associated with achieved treadmill time. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI), and physical activity were the most important factors associated with CRF, explaining 56% of the variance (R(2) = 0.56). The addition of all other factors combined (current smoking, systolic blood pressure, blood glucose, high-density and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, health status) were associated with CRF (p <0.05) but additively only improved R(2) by 2%. There was a significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on CRF, such that normal-weight (BMI <25 kg/m(2)) subjects achieved higher CRF for a given level of physical activity compared to obese subjects (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)). Percent body fat, not lean body mass, was the key factor driving this interaction. In conclusion, BMI was the most important clinical risk factor associated with CRF other than nonmodifiable risk factors age and gender. For a similar amount of physical activity, normal-weight subjects achieved a higher CRF level compared to obese subjects. These data suggest that obesity may offset the benefits of physical activity on achieved CRF, even in a healthy population of men

  8. The Effect of Light Rail Transit on Body Mass Index and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, John M.; Stokes, Robert J.; Cohen, Deborah A.; Kofner, Aaron; Ridgeway, Greg K.

    2010-01-01

    Background The built environment can constrain or facilitate physical activity. Most studies of the health consequences of the built environment suffer from problems of selection bias associated with confounding effects of residential choice and transportation decisions. Purpose To examine the cross-sectional associations between objective and perceived measures of the built environment, BMI, obesity (BMI>30 kg/m2), and meeting weekly recommended physical activity (RPA) levels through walking and vigorous exercise. To assess effect of using light rail transit system (LRT) on changes in BMI, obesity, and meeting weekly RPA levels. Methods Data were collected on individuals before (July 2006–February of 2007) and after (March 2008–July 2008) completion of a light rail system in Charlotte, NC. BMI, obesity, and physical activity levels were calculated for a comparison of these factors pre- and post-LRT construction. A propensity score weighting approach adjusted for differences in baseline characteristics among LRT and non-LRT users. Data were analyzed in 2009. Results More positive perceptions of one’s neighborhood at baseline were associated with a −0.36 (p<.05) lower BMI, 15% lower odds (95% CI=0.77, 0.94) of obesity, 9% higher odds (95% CI = 0.99, 1.20) of meeting weekly RPA through walking, and 11% higher odds (95% CI= 1.01, 1.22) of meeting RPA levels of vigorous exercise. The use of light rail transit to commute to work was associated with an average −1.18 reduction in BMI (p<0.05) and an 81% reduced odds (95% CI= 0.04, 0.92) of becoming obese over time. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that improving neighborhood environments and increasing the public’s use of LRT systems could provide improvements in health outcomes for millions of individuals. PMID:20621257

  9. Evaluation of Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules and Anti-C1q Antibody in Discriminating between Active and Non-Active Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Mahayidin, Hasni; Yahya, Nurul Khaiza; Wan Ghazali, Wan Syamimee; Mohd Ismail, Asmahan; Wan Ab Hamid, Wan Zuraida

    2016-01-01

    Background Detecting the active state of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is important but challenging. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of serum endothelial cell adhesion molecules (ICAM-1 and VCAM-1) and anti-C1q antibody in discriminating between active and non-active SLE. Methods Using SELENA-SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), 95 SLE patients (45 active and 50 non-active) were assessed. A score above five was considered indicative of active SLE. The blood samples were tested for serum ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and anti-C1q antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The levels of serum VCAM-1 and anti-C1q antibody were significantly higher in active SLE patients. Both VCAM-1 and anti-C1q were able to discriminate between active and non-active SLE (p-value < 0.001 and 0.005, respectively). From the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs) constructed, the optimal cut-off values for VCAM-1 and anti-C1q antibody in discriminating between active and non-active SLE were 30.5 ng/mL (69.0% sensitivity, 60.0% specificity, PPV 58.5%, NPV 66.7%) and 7.86 U/mL (75.6% sensitivity, 80% specificity, PPV 77.3%, NPV 78.4%), respectively. However, serum ICAM-1 level was unable to discriminate between the two groups (p-value = 0.193). Conclusion Anti-C1q antibody demonstrated the best diagnostic accuracy in discriminating between active and non-active SLE patients. PMID:27418866

  10. Serum Thiols as a Biomarker of Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Lalwani, Pritesh; de Souza, Giselle Katiane Bonfim Bacelar; de Lima, Domingos Savio Nunes; Passos, Luiz Fernando Souza; Boechat, Antonio Luiz; Lima, Emerson Silva

    2015-01-01

    Lupus Nephritis (LN) develops in more than half of the Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) patients. However, lack of reliable, specific biomarkers for LN hampers clinical management of patients and impedes development of new therapeutics. The goal of this study was to investigate whether oxidative stress biomarkers in patients with SLE is predictive of renal pathology. Serum biochemical and oxidative stress markers were measured in patients with inactive lupus, active lupus with and without nephritis and compared to healthy control group. To assess the predictive performance of biomarkers, Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed and cut-offs were used to identify SLE patients with nephritis. We observed an increased oxidative stress response in all SLE patients compared to healthy controls. Among the several biomarkers tested, serum thiols had a significant inverse association with SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI). Interestingly, thiols were able too aptly differentiate between SLE patients with and without renal pathology, and serum thiol levels were not affected by immunosuppressive drug therapy. The decreased thiols in SLE correlated significantly with serum creatinine and serum C3 levels. Further retrospective evaluation using serum creatinine or C3 levels in combination with thiol’s cutoff values from ROC analysis, we could positively predict chronicity of renal pathology in SLE patients. In summary, serum thiols emerge as an inexpensive and reliable indicator of LN, which may not only help in early identification of renal pathology but also aid in the therapeutic management of the disease, in developing countries with resource poor settings. PMID:25799079

  11. Effect of copper on soil functional stability measured by relative soil stability index (RSSI) based on two enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Marylène; Bécaert, Valérie; François, Matthieu; Sauvé, Sébastien; Deschênes, Louise

    2008-06-01

    Copper can affect essential processes in soils, often for long periods. Enzyme activity is considered a sensitive indicator to evaluate soil health and the potential toxic impact of a soil contaminant. Nevertheless, there is heterogeneity in the responses from enzyme activity assays because of the influence of pH and other physicochemical parameters on both enzyme activity and metal speciation. This leads to complications when comparing soils and limits the validity of the results. To overcome these problems, this paper evaluates resistance and recovery, quantified by using a relative soil stability index (RSSI), of the beta-glucosidase and protease activities towards an additional heat disturbance (17 h at 60 degrees C) in soils where soil organic matter, pH and Cu content were modified in a factorial setup. Chemical analyses (dissolved Cu, pCu(2+), dissolved organic carbon, pH) were performed both before the heat-perturbation and after the enzyme activity monitoring period. Results show that soil pH did not interfere with the RSSI scores of both enzymes. beta-glucosidase RSSI scores were scarcely affected by copper, making it inappropriate for evaluating copper-induced stress to soils. Protease activity shows stimulations of up to 2.5 times the activity of the unperturbed control in uncontaminated samples only. Thus, the protease RSSI score seems a good indicator for soil health relative to copper contamination given that all samples were affected by the presence of copper and high correlations were observed between RSSI scores and the different copper forms.

  12. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: Local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Rachel L.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-01-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class. PMID:24727103

  13. Nouns, verbs, objects, actions, and abstractions: local fMRI activity indexes semantics, not lexical categories.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Rachel L; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2014-05-01

    Noun/verb dissociations in the literature defy interpretation due to the confound between lexical category and semantic meaning; nouns and verbs typically describe concrete objects and actions. Abstract words, pertaining to neither, are a critical test case: dissociations along lexical-grammatical lines would support models purporting lexical category as the principle governing brain organisation, whilst semantic models predict dissociation between concrete words but not abstract items. During fMRI scanning, participants read orthogonalised word categories of nouns and verbs, with or without concrete, sensorimotor meaning. Analysis of inferior frontal/insula, precentral and central areas revealed an interaction between lexical class and semantic factors with clear category differences between concrete nouns and verbs but not abstract ones. Though the brain stores the combinatorial and lexical-grammatical properties of words, our data show that topographical differences in brain activation, especially in the motor system and inferior frontal cortex, are driven by semantics and not by lexical class.

  14. Quasi-causal associations of physical activity and neighborhood walkability with body mass index: A twin study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Glen E.; Cash, Stephanie Whisnant; Horn, Erin E.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Physical activity, neighborhood walkability, and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) associations were tested using quasi-experimental twin methods. We hypothesized that physical activity and walkability were independently associated with BMI within twin pairs, controlling for genetic and environmental background shared between them. Methods Data were from 6,376 (64% female; 58% identical) same-sex pairs, University of Washington Twin Registry, 2008–2013. Neighborhood walking, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and BMI were self-reported. Residential address was used to calculate walkability. Phenotypic (non-genetically informed) and biometric (genetically informed) regression was employed, controlling for age, sex, and race. Results Walking and MVPA were associated with BMI in phenotypic analyses; associations were attenuated but significant in biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05). Walkability was not associated with BMI, however, was associated with walking (but not MVPA) in both phenotypic and biometric analyses (Ps < 0.05), with no attenuation accounting for shared genetic and environmental background. Conclusions The association between activity and BMI is largely due to shared genetic and environmental factors, but a significant causal relationship remains accounting for shared background. Although walkability is not associated with BMI, it is associated with neighborhood walking (but not MVPA) accounting for shared background, suggesting a causal relationship between them. PMID:25482422

  15. Indexing Images.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    1997-01-01

    Focuses on access to digital image collections by means of manual and automatic indexing. Contains six sections: (1) Studies of Image Systems and their Use; (2) Approaches to Indexing Images; (3) Image Attributes; (4) Concept-Based Indexing; (5) Content-Based Indexing; and (6) Browsing in Image Retrieval. Contains 105 references. (AEF)

  16. Future body mass index modelling based on macronutrient profiles and physical activity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background An accurate system of determining the relationship of macronutrient profiles of foods and beverages to the long-term weight impacts of foods is necessary for evidence-based, unbiased front-of-the-package food labels. Methods Data sets on diet, physical activity, and BMI came from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT), and Epidemiology Diabetes Intervention and Complications (EDIC). To predict future BMI of individuals, multiple regression derived FAO/WHO and DCCT/EDIC formulas related macronutrient profiles and physical activity (independent variables) to BMI change/year (dependent variable). Similar formulas without physical activity related macronutrient profiles of individual foods and beverages to four-year weight impacts of those items and compared those forecasts to published food group profiling estimates from three large prospective studies by Harvard nutritional epidemiologists. Results FAO/WHO food and beverage formula: four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.07710 alcohol g+11.95 (381.7+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–304.9 (30.38+dietary fiber g per serving)/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)+19.73 (84.44+total fat g)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving)–68.57 (20.45+PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,613+kilocalories per serving))*2.941–12.78 (n=334, R2=0.29, P < 0.0001). DCCT/EDIC formula for four-year weight impact (pounds)=(0.898 (102.2+protein g per serving)*4/(2,297+kilocalories per serving)+1.063 (264.2+carbohydrates g per serving)*4/(2,297+ kilocalories per serving)–13.19 (24.29+dietary fiber g per serving)/ (2,297+kilocalories per serving)+ 0.973 (74.59+(total fat g per serving–PUFA g per serving)*9/(2,297+kilocalories per serving))*85.82–68.11 (n=1,055, R2=0.03, P < 0.0001). (FAO/WHO+ DCCT/EDIC formula forecasts averaged correlated strongly with published food group profiling findings except for potatoes and

  17. Lyman-alpha line as a solar activity index for calculations of solar spectrum in the EUV region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Katyushina, Valeria; Woods, Thomas

    It is investigated a possibility of retrieval of solar spectrum data using intensity observational data of the only solar spectral line L (Hydrogen Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm).Using as an example spectra obtained by SEE instruments on TIMED satellite, it was shown, that both for lines and for continuum in the spectral range 27-105 nm, which is essential for ionization processes in the ionosphere, a correlation between their intensities and L was high. Therefore it becomes possible to use L measurements data as a natural solar activity index for calculations of EUV solar emission spectrum for solving aeronomical problems. It is noticed, that EUV model, obtained with using SEE data, does not allow to calculate correctly critical frequencies of ionospheric E-layer owing to low intensities of lines 97.7 and 102.6 nm, which produce the main part of ionization in ionospheric E-region.

  18. [RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BODY MASS INDEX, PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND MEAL TIMES IN MEXICAN ADOLESCENTS].

    PubMed

    Saucedo-Molina, Teresita de Jesùs; Rodríguez Jiménez, Juana; Oliva Macías, Luz Alejandra; Villarreal Castillo, Martín; León Hernández, Rodrigo César; Fernández Cortés, Trinidad Lorena

    2015-09-01

    Objetivos: los objetivos de este estudio son: 1) describir la distribución del IMC, los niveles de actividad física y la frecuencia de los tiempos de comida, y 2) examinar la relación de estas variables con el IMC en una muestra de adolescentes mexicanos estudiantes de preparatoria. Métodos: participaron 1.028 adolescentes (58,9% mujeres y 41,1% hombres) de 15 a 19 años de edad (M= 16,12; DE= 0,9). Se calculó el IMC y se utilizó la referencia del CDC-2000. Los tiempos de comida se midieron con uno de los factores del cuestionario Factores de Riesgo Asociados a Trastornos Alimentarios para Púberes (FRATAP). La actividad física se evaluó mediante el International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) en su versión corta. Se realizaron correlaciones de Pearson para ver la relación entre las variables. Resultados: la prevalencia combinada de sobrepeso y obesidad alcanzó el 29,2% para mujeres y el 29,3% en hombres. En el factor tiempos de comida, los sujetos con desnutrición y bajo peso fueron quienes siempre obtuvieron los valores más altos en la opción de respuesta. El 31,9% del total de la muestra reportó un nivel de actividad física bajo. Los tiempos de comida mostraron asociaciones significativas con el IMC (r= -0,142, p < 0,01) y los niveles de actividad física (r= 0,125, p < 0,01). Discusión: en la muestra se identificaron problemas importantes de malnutrición, frecuencia de comidas e inactividad física. De estos hallazgos surge la necesidad de diseñar e implantar programas para promover estilos de vida saludables en adolescentes.

  19. Prospective study of body mass index, height, physical activity and incidence of bladder cancer in US men and women.

    PubMed

    Holick, Crystal N; Giovannucci, Edward L; Stampfer, Meir J; Michaud, Dominique S

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated prospectively the association between body mass index (BMI), height, recreational physical activity and the risk of bladder cancer among US adults. Data were used from 2 ongoing cohorts, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study and the Nurses' Health Study, with 3,542,012 years of follow-up and 866 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 507; women = 359) for the anthropometric analysis and 1,890,476 years of follow-up and 706 incident bladder cancer cases (men = 502; women = 204) for the physical activity analysis. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between BMI, height, physical activity and bladder cancer risk adjusting for age, pack-years of cigarette smoking and current smoking. Estimates from each cohort were pooled using a random-effects model. We observed no association between baseline BMI and bladder cancer risk, even when we compared a BMI of > or =30 kg/m(2) to a BMI of 18-22.9 kg/m(2) [pooled multivariate (MV) RR, 1.16; 95% CI: 0.89-1.52]. A weak, but statistically significant, association was observed for the same comparison after excluding bladder cancer cases diagnosed within the first 4 years of follow-up (pooled MV RR, 1.33; 95% CI: 1.01-1.76). Height was not related to bladder cancer risk (pooled MV RR, 0.82; 95% CI: 0.65-1.03, top vs. bottom quintile). Total recreational physical activity also was not associated with the risk of bladder cancer (pooled MV RR, 0.97; 95% CI: 0.77-1.24, top vs. bottom quintile). Our findings do not support a role for BMI, height or physical activity in bladder carcinogenesis.

  20. Body mass index and physical activity in relation to the incidence of hip fracture in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Miranda E G; Spencer, Elizabeth A; Cairns, Benjamin J; Banks, Emily; Pirie, Kirstin; Green, Jane; Wright, F Lucy; Reeves, Gillian K; Beral, Valerie

    2011-06-01

    Hip fracture risk is known to increase with physical inactivity and decrease with obesity, but there is little information on their combined effects. We report on the separate and combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and physical activity on hospital admissions for hip fracture among postmenopausal women in a large prospective UK study. Baseline information on body size, physical activity, and other relevant factors was collected in 1996-2001, and participants were followed for incident hip fractures by record linkage to National Health Service (NHS) hospital admission data. Cox regression was used to calculate adjusted relative risks of hip fracture. Among 925,345 postmenopausal women followed for an average of 6.2 years, 2582 were admitted to hospital with an incident hip fracture. Hip fracture risk increased with decreasing BMI: Compared with obese women (BMI of 30+ kg/m(2) ), relative risks were 1.71 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.47-1.97)] for BMI of 25.0 to 29.9 kg/m(2) and 2.55 (95% CI 2.22-2.94) for BMI of 20.0 to 24.9 kg/m(2). The increase in fracture risk per unit decrease in BMI was significantly greater among lean women than among overweight women (p < .001). For women in every category of BMI, physical inactivity was associated with an increased risk of hip fracture. There was no significant interaction between the relative effects of BMI and physical activity. For women who reported that they took any exercise versus no exercise, the adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 0.68 (95% CI 0.62-0.75), with similar results for strenuous exercise. In this large cohort of postmenopausal women, BMI and physical activity had independent effects on hip fracture risk.

  1. Pain in long-term breast cancer survivors: the role of body mass index, physical activity, and sedentary behavior.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, Laura P; Alfano, Catherine M; George, Stephanie M; McTiernan, Anne; Baumgartner, Kathy B; Bernstein, Leslie; Ballard-Barbash, Rachel

    2013-01-01

    Although pain is common among post-treatment breast cancer survivors, studies that are longitudinal, identify a case definition of clinically meaningful pain, or examine factors contributing to pain in survivors are limited. This study describes longitudinal patterns of pain in long-term breast cancer survivors, evaluating associations of body mass index (BMI), physical activity, sedentary behavior with mean pain severity and above-average pain. Women newly diagnosed with stages 0-IIIA breast cancer (N = 1183) were assessed, on average, 6 months (demographic/clinical characteristics), 30 months (demographics), 40 months (demographics, pain), 5 years (BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior), and 10 years (demographics, pain, BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) post-diagnosis. This analysis includes survivors who completed pain assessments 40 months post-diagnosis (N = 801), 10 years post-diagnosis (N = 563), or both (N = 522). Above-average pain was defined by SF-36 bodily pain scores ≥1/2 standard deviation worse than age-specific population norms. We used multiple regression models to test unique associations of BMI, physical activity, and sedentary behavior with pain adjusting for demographic and clinical factors. The proportion of survivors reporting above-average pain was higher at 10 years than at 40 months (32.3 vs. 27.8 %, p < 0.05). Approximately one-quarter of survivors reported improved pain, while 9.0 % maintained above-average pain and 33.1 % reported worsened pain. Cross-sectionally at 10 years, overweight and obese survivors reported higher pain than normal-weight survivors and women meeting physical activity guidelines were less likely to report above-average pain than survivors not meeting these guidelines (p < 0.05). Longitudinally, weight gain (>5 %) was positively associated, while meeting physical activity guidelines was inversely associated, with above-average pain (OR, 95 % CI = 1.76, 1.03-3.01 and 0.40, 0

  2. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behaviour and ankle brachial index: Cross-sectional and longitudinal associations in older men

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Tessa J.; Sartini, Claudio; Ellins, Elizabeth A.; Halcox, Julian P.J.; Smith, Kirsten E.; Ash, Sarah; Lennon, Lucy T.; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Lee, I-Min; Whincup, Peter H.; Jefferis, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Associations between bouts of physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and cardiovascular disease, and their mutual independence are not well defined. A low ankle brachial index (ABI ≤0.9) indicates peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and is predictive of cardiovascular events and functional impairment. We investigated the independence of PA and SB and the importance of bout duration in relation to ABI using objective measures. Methods 945 men from the British Regional Heart Study, mean age 78.4 y, had concurrent measurements of ABI (Vicorder) and physical activity (Actigraph GT3X accelerometer); 427 men also had accelerometer measurements one year previously and contributed data to longitudinal analyses. Results and conclusion In cross-sectional analyses, after adjusting for covariates each extra 10 min of moderate and vigorous PA per day was associated with an OR of 0.81 (95% CI 0.72, 0.91) for a low ABI, a stronger association than for light PA (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75, 0.98). Each extra 30 min of SB was associated with an OR of 1.19 (95% CI 1.07, 1.33) for a low ABI. Associations between moderate and vigorous PA and ABI persisted after adjustment for light PA or SB. Bout lengths for PA and SB were not associated with a low ABI. One year changes in PA or SB were not associated with low ABI. All physical activity and lower levels of SB, regardless of bout duration were inversely associated with ABI; more intense PA showed a stronger association. No associations between changes in PA and ABI were observed, but power may have been limited. PMID:26854973

  3. Bio-active engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic activity: therapeutic index, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A.; Weitzmann, M. Neale; Beck, George R.

    2014-01-01

    Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ~50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic index we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition activity using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:24333519

  4. Bio-active engineered 50 nm silica nanoparticles with bone anabolic activity: therapeutic index, effective concentration, and cytotoxicity profile in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ha, Shin-Woo; Sikorski, James A; Weitzmann, M Neale; Beck, George R

    2014-04-01

    Silica-based nanomaterials are generally considered to be excellent candidates for therapeutic applications particularly related to skeletal metabolism however the current data surrounding the safety of silica based nanomaterials is conflicting. This may be due to differences in size, shape, incorporation of composite materials, surface properties, as well as the presence of contaminants following synthesis. In this study we performed extensive in vitro safety profiling of ∼ 50 nm spherical silica nanoparticles with OH-terminated or Polyethylene Glycol decorated surface, with and without a magnetic core, and synthesized by the Stöber method. Nineteen different cell lines representing all major organ types were used to investigate an in vitro lethal concentration (LC) and results revealed little toxicity in any cell type analyzed. To calculate an in vitro therapeutic index we quantified the effective concentration at 50% response (EC50) for nanoparticle-stimulated mineral deposition activity using primary bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). The EC50 for BMSCs was not substantially altered by surface or magnetic core. The calculated Inhibitory concentration 50% (IC50) for pre-osteoclasts was similar to the osteoblastic cells. These results demonstrate the pharmacological potential of certain silica-based nanomaterial formulations for use in treating bone diseases based on a favorable in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:24333519

  5. The value of decreased plasma gelsolin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in diagnosis and disease activity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yl; Li, H; Li, W H; Meng, H X; Fan, Y Z; Li, W J; Ji, Y T; Zhao, H; Zhang, L; Jin, X M; Zhang, F M

    2013-12-01

    Plasma gelsolin, the extracellular gelsolin isoform, circulates in the blood of healthy individuals at a concentration of 200 ± 50 mg/l and plays important roles in the extracellular actin-scavenging system during tissue damage. Decreased plasma gelsolin levels have been observed in many inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the variation and potential clinical application of plasma gelsolin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were analysed. Plasma samples and clinical data were collected from informed and consenting participants: 47 SLE patients, 60 RA patients and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Semiquantitative western blotting was used for measuring plasma gelsolin levels. The plasma gelsolin levels in patients with SLE and RA were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls (145.3 ± 40.4 versus 182.7 ± 38.3 mg/l and 100.8 ± 36 versus 182.7 ± 38.3 mg/l, p < 0.001), and plasma gelsolin levels were especially lower in RA than in SLE patients (100.8 ± 36 versus 145.3 ± 40.4 mg/L, p < 0.001). An analysis of the clinical data showed a significant negative correlation between plasma gelsolin levels and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.659, p < 0.001) but no correlation between plasma gelsolin levels and RA disease activity score 28 (DAS28) (r = 0.076, p = 0.569). Different clinical characteristics were also observed in SLE and RA patients with normal and decreased plasma gelsolin levels.This study found significantly lower plasma gelsolin levels in patients with SLE and RA compared with healthy controls and documented a significant negative correlation between plasma gelsolin levels and SLEDAI, which suggested the potential clinical application of plasma gelsolin in SLE diagnosis and disease activity evaluation. The different clinical characteristics in SLE and RA patients with normal and decreased plasma gelsolin levels indicate differences in the basis of

  6. Effect of physical activity intervention on body composition in young children: influence of body mass index status and gender

    PubMed Central

    Lazaar, Nordine; Aucouturier, Julien; Ratel, Sébastien; Rance, Mélanie; Meyer, Martine; Duché, Pascale

    2007-01-01

    Aim To fight overweight and obesity in childhood, this study proposes an additional physical activity (PA) in young children aged 6–10 years. The objective was to evaluate the effect of school-based PA on the body composition according to body mass index (BMI) categories (nonobese vs. obese) and gender. Methods This 6-month study examined the effect of this intervention on body composition in 425 children in 14 primary schools (2 weekly PA sessions of 1 h each) compared to 5 control schools. Adiposity indices were evaluated or calculated: BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference, sum of skinfolds and fat-free mass. Results No difference in the prevalence of obesity and anthropometric characteristics was found between the intervention and control groups at baseline. In girls, PA intervention had significant effect on all anthropometric variables (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001), except on BMI. In contrast, in boys only BMI z-score (p < 0.001) and fat-free mass (p < 0.001) were affected. Conclusions Six months of preventive PA intervention offer an effective means to improve body composition in obese children. The pattern of response related to PA was similar between girls and boys. In contrast, the pattern was different according to BMI category, with a higher response in obese than nonobese children. PMID:17718785

  7. Active index model: a unique approach for regional quantitative morphometry in longitudinal and cross-sectional studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, P. K.; Zhang, H.; Sonka, M.; Christensen, G. E.; Rajapakse, C. S.

    2007-03-01

    Recent advancements in digital medical imaging have opened avenues for quantitative analyses of different volumetric and morphometric indices in response to a disease or a treatment. However, a major challenge in performing such an analysis is the lack of a technology of building a mean anatomic space (MAS) that allows mapping data of a given subject onto MAS. This approach leads to a tool for point-by-point regional analysis and comparison of quantitative indices for data coming from a longitudinal or transverse study. Toward this goal, we develop a new computation technique, called Active Index Model (AIM), which is a unique tool to solve the stated problem. AIM consists of three building blocks - (1) development of MAS for a particular anatomic site, (2) mapping a specific data onto MAS, (3) regional statistical analysis of data from different populations assessing regional response to a disease or treatment progression. The AIM presented here is built at the training phase from two known populations (e.g., normal and diseased) which will be immediately ready for diagnostic purpose in a subject whose clinical status is unknown. AIM will be useful for both cross sectional and longitudinal studies and for early diagnostic. This technique will be a vital tool for understanding regional response of a disease or treatment at various stages of its progression. This method has been applied for analyzing regional trabecular bone structural distribution in rabbit femur via micro-CT imaging and to localize the affected myocardial regions from cardiac MR data.

  8. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H+/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [3H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [3H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na+ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  9. Urban forms, physical activity and body mass index: a cross-city examination using ISS Earth Observation photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ge

    2005-01-01

    Johnson Space Center has archived thousands of astronauts acquired Earth images. Some spectacular images have been widely used in news media and in k-12 class room, but their potential utilizations in health promotion and disease prevention have relatively untapped. The project uses daytime ISS photographs to define city forms and links them to city or metropolitan level health data in a multicity context. Road connectivity, landuse mix and Shannon's information indices were used in the classification of photographs. In contrast to previous remote-sensing studies, which tend to focus on a single city or a portion of a city, this project utilized photographs of 39 U.S. cities. And in contrast to previous health-promotion studies on the built environment, which tend to rely on survey respondents' responses to evaluate road connectivity or mixed land use for a single study site, the project examined the built environments of multiple cities based on ISS photos. It was found that road connectivity and landuse mix were not statistically significant by themselves, but the composite measure of the Shannon index was significantly associated with physical activity, but not BMI. Consequently, leisure-time physical activity seems to be positively associated with the urban complexity scale. It was also concluded that unless they are planned or designed in advance, photographs taken by astronauts generally are not appropriate for a study of a single-site built environment nor are they appropriate for a study of infectious diseases at a local scale. To link urban built environment with city-wide health indicators, both the traditional nadir view and oblique views should be emphasized in future astronauts' earth observation photographs.

  10. Retrieval of the photochemical reflectance index for assessing xanthophyll cycle activity: a comparison of near-surface optical sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A.; Gamon, J. A.; Pastorello, G. Z.; Wong, C. Y. S.

    2014-11-01

    Unattended optical sensors are increasingly being deployed on eddy covariance flux towers and are often used to complement existing vegetation and micrometeorological measurements to enable assessment of biophysical states and biogeochemical processes over a range of spatial scales. Of particular interest are sensors that can measure the photochemical reflectance index (PRI), which can provide information pertaining to leaf pigments and photosynthetic activity. This interest has facilitated the production of a new range of lower-cost multispectral sensors specifically designed to measure temporal changes in the PRI signal. However, little is known about the characteristics (spectral, radiometric and temporal) of many of these PRI sensors, making it difficult to compare data obtained from these sensors across time, geographical locations and instruments. Furthermore, direct testing of the capability of these sensors to actually detect the conversion of the xanthophyll cycle, which is the original biological basis of the PRI diurnal signal, is largely absent, often resulting in an unclear interpretation of the signal, particularly given the wide range of factors now known to influence PRI. Through a series of experiments, we assess the sensitivity of one of the leading brands of PRI sensor (Skye SKR 1800) to changes in vegetation photosynthetic activity in response to changing irradiance. We compare the results with those obtained using a more expensive industry-standard visible to near-infrared hyperspectral spectrometer (PP Systems UniSpec) and determine the radiometric compatibility of measurements made by the different instruments. Results suggest that the SKR 1800 instrument is able to track rapid (seconds to minutes) and more gradual diurnal changes in photosynthetic activity associated with xanthophyll cycle pigment conversion. Measurements obtained from both the high and lower cost instrument were significantly linearly correlated but were subject to a large

  11. Modeling of decomposition activity and priming effect in soil using the versatile index of microbial physiological state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagodatskiy, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    The implementation of microbial biomass in soil organic matter (SOM) models is still unresolved issue. The approaches using explicit description of microbial biomass (decomposer) interaction with SOM usually cannot be easily verified by means of experimental estimating of total microbial biomass dynamics. Standard experimental methods, such as fumigation extraction or direct microscopic count, does not represent microbial activity (Blagodatskaya and Kuzyakov, 2013), which is essential for the control of decomposition rate. More advanced approaches, explicitly simulating intracellular metabolic activity (Resat et al., 2012) and e.g. production and turnover of extracellular enzymes (Lawrence et al., 2009) are prohibitively complex for the field and larger scales, which are most often under demand for SOM modelling. One possible parsimonious solution is an application of index of microbial physiological state (r), which describes the adaptive variation of the cell composition and metabolic activity by one variable (Panikov, 1995). This variable (r) can reflect the microbial response to the availability of carbon and nitrogen and shift of microbial biomass between active and dormant state (Blagodatsky and Richter, 1998), but also can be used for the description of the effect of external factors, such as temperature and moisture, on microbial activity. This approach is extremely useful for the description of priming effect (Blagodatsky et al., 2010) and the influence of substrate availability and external factors on the size and dynamics of priming. Distinguishing of these two types of driving forces for priming is crucial for modelling of SOM dynamics and steady-state stocks of different SOM pools. I will present the analysis of model response on combination of limiting factors presented as functions controlling the change of microbial physiological state and size of priming effect. Alternatively, the direct effect of the same factors on decomposition rate and priming

  12. Impact of wind erosion on detecting active tectonics from geomorphic indexes in extremely arid areas: a case study from the Hero Range, Qaidam Basin, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lei; Xiao, Ancheng; Yang, Shufeng

    2014-11-01

    Geomorphologic analysis has been used widely to detect active tectonics in regions where fluvial incision is the major erosional process. In this paper, however, we assess the feasibility of utilizing these frequently-used geomorphic indexes (e.g., hypsometric curves, longitudinal channel profiles, normalized stream length-gradient (SLK) index) to determine active tectonics in extremely arid areas where wind erosion also plays an important role. The case study is developed on the Hero Range in the western Qaidam Basin, one of the driest regions on Earth with severe wind erosion since late Pliocene. The result shows that in the west and south sectors, as well as the western part of the east sector, of the Hero Range where fluvial incision prevails, these geomorphic indexes are good indicators of active faulting and consistent with the geological result based on study of fault traces, scarps, faulted Holocene fans and historical seismicity within the past four decades. In contrast, along the northeastern margin (the NE and the SE parts of the east sector) of the range where wind erosion is also important, the results from the geomorphic indexes show quite active tectonics, contrary with the geological evidence favoring weakly active tectonics. Moreover, the positive SLK anomaly lies oblique to the fault trace and the anticline axis but parallel to the wind direction. To reconcile the contradiction, we propose that wind erosion caused by northwestern winds has a tendency to make geomorphic indexes exhibit anomalous values that indicate higher activities, by way of (1) lowering the base-level to generate knickpoints on the longitudinal channel profiles and therefore positive SLK anomalies, and (2) lateral erosion of the mountain front making the hypsometric curves and even the longitudinal channel profiles more convex, and producing obvious slope breaks.

  13. Does Concern Motivate Behavior Change?: Exploring the Relationship between Physical Activity and Body Mass Index among Low-Income Housing Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamers, Sara L.; Allen, Jennifer; Yang, May; Stoddard, Anne; Harley, Amy; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore relationships between concerns and physical activity and body mass index (BMI) among a racially/ethnically diverse low-income population. Method: A cross-sectional survey documented behavioral risks among racially/ethnically diverse low-income residents in the Boston area (2005-2009). Multivariable logistic regressions were…

  14. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-11

    Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-index facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst. PMID:24084858

  15. Electrochemically shape-controlled synthesis in deep eutectic solvents: triambic icosahedral platinum nanocrystals with high-index facets and their enhanced catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lu; Zhou, Zhi-You; Chen, Sheng-Pei; Xu, Chang-Deng; Su, Dangsheng; Schuster, Manfred Erwin; Sun, Shi-Gang

    2013-12-11

    Pt triambic icosahedral nanocrystals (TIH NCs) enclosed by {771} high-index facets were successfully synthesized electrochemically, for the first time, in ChCl-urea based deep eutectic solvents, and exhibited higher electrocatalytic activity and stability towards ethanol electrooxidation than a commercial Pt black catalyst.

  16. Evaluation of the Iranian versions of the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Bidad, Katayoon; Fallahi, Sasan; Mahmoudi, Mahdi; Jamshidi, Ahmadreza; Farhadi, Elham; Meysamie, Alipasha; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein

    2012-11-01

    The Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) and the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI) are widely used instruments in assessment of patients suffering from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The Patient Acceptable Symptom State (PASS) is regarded as a target for patients' well-being. The aim of this study was to translate and adapt BASDAI, BASFI and PASS into the Iranian official language, Farsi, and evaluate their reliability and validity. Ninety patients with AS were included in this study. The questionnaires were translated into Farsi and back translated into English, modified until the final versions were approved with minor adaptations and the VAS was changed to numerical rating scales from 0 to 10. Forty-eight-hour test-retest agreement showed good reliability: interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for BASDAI was 0.93 (CI at 95%, 0.90-0.95), for BASFI was 0.96 (CI at 95%, 0.94-0.97) and for PASS was 0.87 (CI at 95%, 0.79-0.92). Chronbach's alpha was 0.95, 0.96 and 0.87 for BASDAI, BASFI and PASS, respectively. BASDAI showed a significant correlation with patient global disease activity index, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, morning stiffness, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Score (BAS-G), BASFI and BASMI. A significant correlation was also found between BASFI and occiput-to-wall distance, mentum-to-sternum distance, chest expansion, finger-to-floor distance, number of swollen joints, number of enthesites, nocturnal back pain, total back pain, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASMI. Patients who answered "no" to PASS (found their condition unsatisfactory) reported significantly increased pain scores, patient global disease activity scores, BAS-G, BASDAI and BASFI scores. The results showed that the Iranian versions of BASDAI, BASFI and PASS are adequately reliable and valid in patients with AS.

  17. Relationship between Body Mass Index, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme Activity Estimates in Adult Males

    PubMed Central

    Pickens, C. Austin; Matsuo, Karen H.; Fenton, Jenifer I.

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF- α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF- α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786

  18. Urinary Dopamine as a Potential Index of the Transport Activity of Multidrug and Toxin Extrusion in the Kidney.

    PubMed

    Kajiwara, Moto; Ban, Tsuyoshi; Matsubara, Kazuo; Nakanishi, Yoichi; Masuda, Satohiro

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine is a cationic natriuretic catecholamine synthesized in proximal tubular cells (PTCs) of the kidney before secretion into the lumen, a key site of its action. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying dopamine secretion into the lumen remain unclear. Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE) is a H⁺/organic cation antiporter that is highly expressed in the brush border membrane of PTCs and mediates the efflux of organic cations, including metformin and cisplatin, from the epithelial cells into the urine. Therefore, we hypothesized that MATE mediates dopamine secretion, a cationic catecholamine, into the tubule lumen, thereby regulating natriuresis. Here, we show that [³H]dopamine uptake in human (h) MATE1-, hMATE-2K- and mouse (m) MATE-expressing cells exhibited saturable kinetics. Fluid retention and decreased urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ were observed in Mate1-knockout mice compared to that in wild-type mice. Imatinib, a MATE inhibitor, inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1-, hMATE2-K- and mMATE1-expressing cells in a concentration-dependent manner. At clinically-relevant concentrations, imatinib inhibited [³H]dopamine uptake by hMATE1- and hMATE2-K-expressing cells. The urinary excretion of dopamine and Na⁺ decreased and fluid retention occurred in imatinib-treated mice. In conclusion, MATE transporters secrete renally-synthesized dopamine, and therefore, urinary dopamine has the potential to be an index of the MATE transporter activity. PMID:27483254

  19. Relationship between Body Mass Index, C-Peptide, and Delta-5-Desaturase Enzyme Activity Estimates in Adult Males.

    PubMed

    Pickens, C Austin; Matsuo, Karen H; Fenton, Jenifer I

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, in particular abdominal obesity, alters the composition of plasma and tissue fatty acids (FAs), which contributes to inflammation and insulin resistance. FA metabolism is modulated by desaturases and may affect adipokine and insulin secretion. Therefore, we examined relationships between adipokines, a marker of insulin production, and plasma FA desaturase enzyme activity estimates (EAEs) in obesity. Plasma phospholipid (PPL) FAs were isolated from 126 males (ages 48 to 65 years), derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography. Delta-6 desaturase (D6D) and delta-5 desaturase (D5D) EAEs were calculated as the ratio of PPL 20:3/18:2 and 20:4/20:3, respectively. In body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) adjusted polytomous logistic regression analyses, PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs were associated with C-peptide and adiponectin. Individuals with elevated D6D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.33) to have serum adiponectin concentrations > 5.37 μg/mL, compared with adiponectin concentrations ≤ 3.62 μg/mL. Individuals with increased D5D EAEs were less likely (OR 0.8) to have C-peptide concentrations ≥ 3.32 ng/mL, and > 1.80 and ≤ 3.29 ng/mL, compared with those with C-peptide ≤ 1.76 ng/mL. The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was positively associated with C-peptide, but TNF-α was not associated with the D5D EAE. C-peptide and adiponectin concentrations are associated with specific PPL FAs and FA desaturase EAEs. The relationship between C-peptide concentrations and D5D EAEs remained significant after adjusting for BMI, WC, and TNF-α. Thus, future research should investigate whether D5D inhibition may occur through a C-peptide mediated pathway. PMID:27023786

  20. A description of the index of active Florida water data collection stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval using computer program Findex H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, M.L.

    1977-01-01

    A computerized index of water-data collection activities and retrieval software to generate publication list of this information was developed for Florida. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. Previously, needed data was very difficult to assemble for use in program planning or project implementation. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data-collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, information about data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. Updating the index is done routinely. (Woodard-USGS)

  1. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults

    PubMed Central

    Fong, Shirley S.M.; Ng, Shamay S.M.; Cheng, Yoyo T.Y.; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M.Y.; Chow, Gary C.C.; Chak, Yvonne T.C.; Chan, Ivy K.Y.; Macfarlane, Duncan J.

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants’ physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire–Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  2. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results.

  3. Comparison between smartphone pedometer applications and traditional pedometers for improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults.

    PubMed

    Fong, Shirley S M; Ng, Shamay S M; Cheng, Yoyo T Y; Zhang, Joni; Chung, Louisa M Y; Chow, Gary C C; Chak, Yvonne T C; Chan, Ivy K Y; Macfarlane, Duncan J

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The effectiveness of a smartphone pedometer application was compared with that of a traditional pedometer for improving the physical activity and weight status of community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects and Methods] This study had a nonequivalent pretest-posttest control group design. Ninety-seven older adults (mean age ± SD, 60.1 ± 5.5 years) joined the smartphone pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a smartphone pedometer application. Fifty-four older adults (mean age ± SD, 65.3 ± 8.7 years) joined the traditional pedometer group and underwent a 2-week walking intervention based on a traditional pedometer. The participants' physical activity was evaluated using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-Short Form, and their weight status was quantified by calculating the body mass index. The daily pedometer count was also documented. [Results] No significant time, group, or time-by-group interaction effects were found for any of the outcome variables. However, trends of improvement in physical activity and body mass index were seen only in the smartphone pedometer group. [Conclusion] A smartphone pedometer application might be more favorable than a traditional pedometer in improving physical activity and body mass index in community-dwelling older adults. However, further experimental studies are necessary to confirm the results. PMID:27313391

  4. Kinetics of the refractive index change in the core of active fibers, doped with Yb3+ and Er3+ ions, under pulsed optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gainov, V. V.; Ryabushkin, O. A.

    2012-03-01

    The kinetics of refractive index change (RIC) in the core of Yb3+/Er3+ fibers at a radiation wave-length lying beyond the range of resonant absorption of active ions under pulsed pumping of fiber laser has been analyzed. The measurement of RIC kinetics with a Mach-Zehnder interferometer makes it possible to separate the contributions of the electronic and thermal RIC mechanisms and determine quantitatively the temperature profile inhomogeneity in the fiber. The measured values are compared with the numerical estimates derived from the spectral properties of the active medium in order to check the modern models of RIC in active fibers.

  5. Comparison of variations between percentage of body fat, body mass index and daily physical activity among young Japanese and Thai female students

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In our series of investigations concerning the causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students, we could not find any contribution of seasonal variation in the ratio of carbohydrate and fat metabolism to that of body fat percentage in Japanese and Thai participants. After our previous study, we examined the effect of daily physical activity on body fat percentage to look for the major causes of seasonal change in fat accumulation in young university students. Findings In this study, we measured participants’ (young Japanese and Thai university students) daily physical activity by a uniaxial accelerometer in addition to the measurements of body fat percentage and body mass index by a bioelectrical impedance meter. We found that there was significant and moderate negative correlation between body fat percentage and daily step counts among Japanese but not Thai participants. We observed significant, moderate and positive correlations between the percentage of body fat and body mass index among Japanese and Thai participants. Conclusions Daily physical activity plays an important role in the seasonal variation of body fat percentage of Japanese female students. Our present study also confirmed the importance of daily physical activity for controlling body mass index and for the prevention of obesity. PMID:22894563

  6. Is there any correlation between high sensitive CRP and disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    PubMed

    Rezaieyazdi, Z; Sahebari, M; Hatef, M R; Abbasi, B; Rafatpanah, H; Afshari, J Tavakol; Esmaily, H

    2011-12-01

    The role of C-reactive protein (CRP) in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as an inflammatory marker is still controversial. Recently, more sensitive methods, such as high sensitive CRP (hs-CRP) have been used to detect micro-inflammation. The role of hs-CRP in lupus flare has not been documented well. We conducted this study to examine the correlation between hs-CRP serum concentrations and disease activity in lupus. Ninety-two SLE patients and 49 healthy controls contributed to our study. Most confounding factors influencing the hs-CRP values were excluded. Disease activity was estimated using the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI-2K). hs-CRP values were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Serum values of hs-CRP were significantly higher (p < 0.001, z = 3.29) in patients compared with healthy controls. The cutoff point for hs-CRP between patients and controls was 0.93 mg/L (Youden's Index = 0.39). There was no correlation between hs-CRP serum levels and disease activity. Furthermore, hs-CRP values did not correlate with any of the laboratory parameters, except for C3 (p = 0.003, r(s)  = -0.2) and C4 (p = 0.02, r(s) = -0.1). Although hs-CRP serum levels were significantly higher in lupus patients compared with healthy controls, it seems that this marker is not a good indicator for disease activity.

  7. Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship for High Affinity 5-HT1A Receptor Ligands Based on Norm Indexes.

    PubMed

    Jia, Qingzhu; Cui, Xue; Li, Lei; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Ying; Xia, Shuqian; Ma, Peisheng

    2015-12-24

    Arylpiperazine derivatives are promising 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptor ligands which can inhibit serotonin reuptake effectively. In this work, some norm index descriptors were proposed and further utilized to develop a model for predicting 5-HT1A receptor affinity (pKi) of 88 arylpiperazine derivatives. Results showed that this new model could provide satisfactory predictions with the square of the correction coefficient (R(2)) of 0.8891 and the squared correlation coefficient of cross-validation (Q(2)) of 0.8082, respectively. In addition, the applicability domain of this model was validated by using the leverage approach and results which suggested potential large scale for further utilization of this model. The results of statistical values and validation tests demonstrated that our proposed norm index based model could be successfully applied for predicting the affinity 5-HT1A receptor ligands of arylpiperazine derivatives.

  8. Quality indexing with computer-aided lexicography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchan, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Indexing with computers is a far cry from indexing with the first indexing tool, the manual card sorter. With the aid of computer-aided lexicography, both indexing and indexing tools can provide standardization, consistency, and accuracy, resulting in greater quality control than ever before. A brief survey of computer activity in indexing is presented with detailed illustrations from NASA activity. Applications from techniques mentioned, such as Retrospective Indexing (RI), can be made to many indexing systems. In addition to improving the quality of indexing with computers, the improved efficiency with which certain tasks can be done is demonstrated.

  9. The effect of feedback respiratory exercise on muscle activity, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index of the neck flexors of patients with forward head posture

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jeong-il; Jeong, Dae-Keun; Choi, Hyun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study aimed to simultaneously investigate the activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and scalenus anterior muscle, which are agonists of neck and breathing accessory muscles, by implementing breathing exercises. [Subjects and Methods] Thirteen subjects were selected for the experimental group, which performed feedback respiratory exercises with McKenzie exercises, and 12 subjects were selected for the control group, which performed McKenzie exercises alone. The intervention program was performed for 30 minutes a session, once a day, four times a week, and for 2 weeks before conducting the experiment. Before intervention, muscle activity was measured using surface electromyogram, and the neck disability index was evaluated. [Results] There were meaningful differences in activities of the sternocleidomastoid muscle and the scalenus anterior muscle, craniovertebral angle, and neck disability index within both the experimental group and control group after intervention. There also were meaningful differences in sternocleidomastoid muscle and neck disability index changes between groups. [Conclusion] Neck flexors as accessory respiratory muscle can affect inefficient respiratory imbalance of forward head posture patients. Multimodal intervention method should be studied continually and not be exposed to upper chest breathing patterns by preventing such phenomenon. PMID:27799674

  10. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  11. Reduced serum concentrations of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in Egyptian patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: Relation to disease activity

    PubMed Central

    Hamza, Rasha T.; Awwad, Khaled S.; Ali, Mohamed K.; Hamed, Amira I.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Recently, vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a potential environmental factor triggering some autoimmune disorders, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)). In addition, patients with SLE, especially those with increased disease activity, were suggested to have decreased vitamin D level, suggesting that vitamin D might play a role in regulating autoantibody production. Material/Methods To assess 25 hydroxy vitamin D [25(OH)D] status in Egyptian patients with SLE and its relation to disease activity. Clinical evaluation and assay of serum 25(OH)D, total calcium, phosphorous, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were done on 60 SLE patients in comparison to 60 matched-healthy subjects. Serum 25(OH)D levels <30 and 10 ng/ml were defined as vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency, respectively. Results Serum 25(OH)D was significantly lower in patients than in controls (26.33±12.05 vs. 42.66±9.20 respectively, p<0.0001), with 13.30% and 60% being deficient and insufficient, respectively. Serum 25(OH)D levels were lower with increased disease activity (p=0.03) and frequency of photosensitivity(p=0.02) and photoprotection (p=0.002). Systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index (SLEDAI) score (OR: 2.72, 95% CI: 1.42–5.18, P=0.002), photosensitivity (OR: 3.6, 95% CI: 1.9–6.8, P<0.01) and photoprotection (OR: 6.7, 95% CI: 2.9–8.8, P<0.001) were significant predictors of 25(OH)D level among SLE cases. Conclusions Low vitamin D status is prevalent in Egyptian SLE patients despite plentiful exposure to sunlight throughout the year, and its level is negatively correlated to disease activity. Future studies looking at a potential role of vitamin D in the pathophysiology and treatment of SLE are warranted. PMID:22129903

  12. Revised description of index of Florida water data collection active stations and a user's guide for station or site information retrieval computer program FINDEX H578

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geiger, Linda H.

    1983-01-01

    The report is an update of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 77-703, which described a retrieval program for administrative index of active data-collection sites in Florida. Extensive changes to the Findex system have been made since 1977 , making the previous report obsolete. A description of the data base and computer programs that are available in the Findex system are documented in this report. This system serves a vital need in the administration of the many and diverse water-data collection activities. District offices with extensive data-collection activities will benefit from the documentation of the system. Largely descriptive, the report tells how a file of computer card images has been established which contains entries for all sites in Florida at which there is currently a water-data collection activity. Entries include information such as identification number, station name, location, type of site, county, frequency of data collection, funding, and other pertinent details. The computer program FINDEX selectively retrieves entries and lists them in a format suitable for publication. The index is updated routinely. (USGS)

  13. Lupus anticoagulant and history of thrombosis are not associated with persistent endothelial cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Frijns, C J M; Derksen, R H W M; De Groot, PH G; Algra, A; Fijnheer, R

    2001-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL), especially lupus anticoagulant (LAC), characterize systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients at increased risk for arterial and venous thromboembolic complications. It has been reported that purified human anti-phospholipid antibodies cause endothelial cell activation in in vitro experiments. In order to investigate whether increased endothelial cell activation is associated with thromboembolic events in SLE patients with LAC, we measured plasma levels of thrombomodulin (TM), von Willebrand factor (vWf), sP-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and ED1-fibronectin in a study of 76 patients with SLE. Patients were subdivided on the basis of: no history of thrombosis and LAC-negative (n = 22) or LAC-positive (n = 17); positive history of thrombosis and LAC-negative (n = 16) or LAC-positive (n = 21). The median SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) was 4. Although concentrations of sTM, vWf, sP-selectin and sVCAM-1 were significantly elevated in SLE compared with values in healthy controls, they did not differ between the four groups, between patients with or without history of thrombosis, and between patients with or without LAC. Presence of anticardiolipin antibodies could not explain these negative findings. Adjustment of the concentrations for significantly associated variables, such as age, hypertension, smoking, immunosuppressive treatment and concentrations of creatinine, cholesterol and homocysteine, did not change the main results of the study. Only sTM was significantly lower in patients with both LAC and thrombosis than in patients without both these features after adjustment for serum creatinine concentrations. In conclusion, we did not find an association between endothelial cell activation and presence of LAC or history of thrombosis in SLE. PMID:11472438

  14. Cardiovascular Endurance, Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, Screen Time, and Carotenoid Intake of Children: NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. Approximately 17% of children aged 6–11 years were classified as obese in the United States. Obesity adversely affects physical functioning and leads to reduced quality of life. Heart function for overweight and obese children has not been reported. Methods. Data for this study were from NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) conducted in conjunction with the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 2012. This study used data from children aged 6–12 (N = 732) that had the cardiorespiratory endurance measure, body mass index for age and sex, and dietary data (N = 682). Cardiovascular endurance was estimated by heart rate reserve. Results. Compared to the highest percentile of heart rate reserve, those in the first percentile had 3.52 (2.36, 5.24) odds and those in the second percentile had 3.61 (1.84, 7.06) odds of being in the overweight/obese as compared to the under/normal weight category. Considering the highest percentile, boys had a heart rate reserve of 35%, whereas girls had a heart rate reserve of 13% (less than half that of boys). Conclusion. Having an overweight or obese classification for children in this study demonstrated a compromise in cardiovascular endurance. Parental awareness should be raised as to the detrimental consequence of overweight and heart health. PMID:27774315

  15. Cut-Offs and Response Criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) and Their Comparison to Widely-Used Indices of Disease Activity in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Castrejón, Isabel; Ortiz, Ana M.; Toledano, Esther; Castañeda, Santos; García-Vadillo, Alberto; Carmona, Loreto

    2016-01-01

    Objective To estimate cut-off points and to establish response criteria for the Hospital Universitario La Princesa Index (HUPI) in patients with chronic polyarthritis. Methods Two cohorts, one of early arthritis (Princesa Early Arthritis Register Longitudinal [PEARL] study) and other of long-term rheumatoid arthritis (Estudio de la Morbilidad y Expresión Clínica de la Artritis Reumatoide [EMECAR]) including altogether 1200 patients were used to determine cut-off values for remission, and for low, moderate and high activity through receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis. The areas under ROC (AUC) were compared to those of validated indexes (SDAI, CDAI, DAS28). ROC analysis was also applied to establish minimal and relevant clinical improvement for HUPI. Results The best cut-off points for HUPI are 2, 5 and 9, classifying RA activity as remission if ≤2, low disease activity if >2 and ≤5), moderate if >5 and <9 and high if ≥9. HUPI’s AUC to discriminate between low-moderate activity was 0.909 and between moderate-high activity 0.887. DAS28’s AUCs were 0.887 and 0.846, respectively; both indices had higher accuracy than SDAI (AUCs: 0.832 and 0.756) and CDAI (AUCs: 0.789 and 0.728). HUPI discriminates remission better than DAS28-ESR in early arthritis, but similarly to SDAI. The HUPI cut-off for minimal clinical improvement was established at 2 and for relevant clinical improvement at 4. Response criteria were established based on these cut-off values. Conclusions The cut-offs proposed for HUPI perform adequately in patients with either early or long term arthritis. PMID:27603313

  16. Deficiency of IRE1 and PERK signal pathways in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Cheng, Qiyao; Wang, Xia; Zu, Beibei; Xu, Jianhua; Xu, Yuanhong; Zuo, Xianbo; Shen, Yujun; Wang, Jing; Shen, Yuxian

    2014-12-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease with uncertain pathogenesis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has close correlations with inflammation and/or immune diseases. However, it is unknown whether aberrant ER stress is involved in SLE pathogenesis. We aimed to characterize the ER stress-related genes in patients with SLE and analyzed their correlations with the disease. Peripheral blood leucocytes were isolated from 76 well-characterized patients with SLE and 69 healthy controls. ER stress-related genes were determined at transcription level by absolute quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Stepwise regression and correlation analysis were used to analyze the relationships between SLE disease and ER stress. Abnormal unfolded protein responses were found in patients with SLE with the downregulation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and upregulation of XBP1, XBP1s and MANF. In the patients with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) <12, PERK and MANF expressions were significantly decreased, compared with the patients with severe SLE (SLEDAI ≥ 12). However, there was no significant change in ATF6 mRNA expression in the patients with SLE. Negative correlation between IRE1/XBP1 and SLEDAI was observed in lower SLEDAI score group. Negative correlations between CHOP and anti-dsDNA antibody, MANF and antinuclear antibody were observed in high-SLEDAI score group. We also found that antinuclear antibody and anti-dsDNA antibodies correlated with SLEDAI in a weak positive manner. SLEDAI was negatively related with C3 level. SLEDAI and anti-dsDNA antibody showed modestly positive correlation with urine protein. These findings suggest that the abnormal unfolded protein responses, especially IRE1/XBP1 and PERK/CHOP axes, may contribute to SLE pathogenesis, which may be potential diagnosis indicators or treatment targets. PMID:25226532

  17. Associations between Physical Activity and Obesity Defined by Waist-To-Height Ratio and Body Mass Index in the Korean Population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, On; Lee, Duck-chul; Lee, Sukho; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity determined by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and body mass index (BMI). Methods This is the first study to our knowledge on physical activity and obesity using a nationally representative sample of South Korean population from The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We categorized individuals into either non-obese or obese defined by WHtR and BMI. Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity were classified as ‘Inactive’, ‘Active’, and ‘Very active’ groups based on the World Health Organization physical activity guidelines. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the associations between physical activity and the prevalence of obesity. Results Physical activity was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of obesity using both WHtR and BMI. Compared to inactive men, odds ratios (ORs) (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.69 (0.53–0.89) in active men and 0.76 (0.63–0.91) in very active men (p for trend = 0.007). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥25 kg/m2 were 0.78 (0.59–1.03) in active men and 0.82 (0.67–0.99) in very active men (p for trend = 0.060). The ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were 0.40 (0.15–0.98) in active men and 0.90 (0.52–1.56) in very active men (p for trend = 0.978). Compared to inactive women, the ORs (95% CIs) for obesity by WHtR ≥0.50 were 0.94 (0.75–1.18) in active women and 0.84 (0.71–0.998) in very active women (p for trend = 0.046). However, no significant associations were found between physical activity and obesity by BMI in women. Conclusions We found more significant associations between physical activity and obesity defined by WHtR than BMI. However, intervention studies are warranted to investigate and compare causal associations between physical activity and different obesity measures in various populations

  18. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography – mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  19. Rapid discovery and identification of anti-inflammatory constituents from traditional Chinese medicine formula by activity index, LC-MS, and NMR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shufang; Wang, Haiqiang; Liu, Yining; Wang, Yi; Fan, Xiaohui; Cheng, Yiyu

    2016-01-01

    The traditional activity-guided approach has the shortcoming of low accuracy and efficiency in discovering active compounds from TCM. In this work, an approach was developed by integrating activity index (AI), liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry (LC-MS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to rapidly predict and identify the potential active constituents from TCM. This approach was used to discover and identify the anti-inflammatory constituents from a TCM formula, Gui-Zhi-Jia-Shao-Yao-Tang (GZJSYT). The AI results indicated that, among the 903 constituents detected in GZJSYT by LC-MS, 61 constituents with higher AI values were very likely to have anti-inflammatory activities. And eight potential active constituents of them were isolated and validated to have significant inhibitory effects against NO production on LPS-induced RAW 264.7 cell model. Among them, glycyrrhisoflavone (836), glisoflavanone (893) and isoangustone A (902) were reported to have anti-inflammatory effects for the first time. The proposed approach could be generally applicable for rapid and high efficient discovery of anti-inflammatory constituents from other TCM formulae or natural products. PMID:27499135

  20. Activated carbon: waste water treatment. 1976-June, 1980 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1976-Jun 80

    SciTech Connect

    Cavagnaro, D.M.

    1980-07-01

    These citations from a worldwide literature survey cover activated carbon as it is used in treating industrial and sewage wastes, relative to process description, economics, mathematical models, performance, and the property changes the carbon undergoes. (This updated bibliography contains 277 citations, 59 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  1. School Health Index for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Elementary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (DHHS/CDC), Atlanta, GA. Adolescent and School Health Div.

    This self-assessment and planning guide is intended to help schools identify the strengths and weaknesses of their health promotion policies and programs, develop an action plan for improving student health, and involve teachers, parents, students, and the community in improving school services. It focuses on physical activity and nutrition. After…

  2. Indexing events in memory: evidence for index dominance.

    PubMed

    Taylor, H A; Tversky, B

    1997-07-01

    Research on narrative comprehension and autobiographical memory converge on three hypotheses which make different predictions about event organisation. The availability of different event components as indexes may explain the convergence on three hypotheses rather than one. In this paper, three experiments assessed event indexing in narratives with different available indexes. In Experiment 1, participants read event descriptions organised by character or time. In Experiment 2, event descriptions were organised by character or location. In Experiment 3, participants read event descriptions where events were grouped by activity. In each experiment, memory could be organised by any of the available components alone, by both components, or by using the organisation imposed by the discourse. Participants indexed events by character in Experiment 1, re-indexing information when necessary. Results of Experiment 2 indicated equal use of character and location indexes. In this case, participants used the discourse organisation. In Experiment 3, participants indexed events using activity groupings, again re-indexing events when necessary. Results are interpreted as indicating reliance on a single organising index with flexibility in the selection of different event components as indexes. PMID:9282221

  3. Nutrition and physical activity randomized control trial in child care centers improves knowledge, policies, and children’s body mass index

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To address the public health crisis of overweight and obese preschool-age children, the Nutrition And Physical Activity Self Assessment for Child Care (NAP SACC) intervention was delivered by nurse child care health consultants with the objective of improving child care provider and parent nutrition and physical activity knowledge, center-level nutrition and physical activity policies and practices, and children’s body mass index (BMI). Methods A seven-month randomized control trial was conducted in 17 licensed child care centers serving predominantly low income families in California, Connecticut, and North Carolina, including 137 child care providers and 552 families with racially and ethnically diverse children three to five years old. The NAP SACC intervention included educational workshops for child care providers and parents on nutrition and physical activity and consultation visits provided by trained nurse child care health consultants. Demographic characteristics and pre - and post-workshop knowledge surveys were completed by providers and parents. Blinded research assistants reviewed each center’s written health and safety policies, observed nutrition and physical activity practices, and measured randomly selected children’s nutritional intake, physical activity, and height and weight pre- and post-intervention. Results Hierarchical linear models and multiple regression models assessed individual- and center-level changes in knowledge, policies, practices and age- and sex-specific standardized body mass index (zBMI), controlling for state, parent education, and poverty level. Results showed significant increases in providers’ and parents’ knowledge of nutrition and physical activity, center-level improvements in policies, and child-level changes in children’s zBMI based on 209 children in the intervention and control centers at both pre- and post-intervention time points. Conclusions The NAP SACC intervention, as delivered by

  4. Body Mass Index, Physical Activity, and Working Memory in a Sample of Children with Down Syndrome: Can Physical Activity Improve Learning in Children with Intellectual Disabilities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Geertina Houthuijzen

    2013-01-01

    Research has suggested that in typical developing children a positive relationship exists between physical activity level and cognitive functioning. For some children, academic performance may increase when levels of physical activity are increased. Moreover, some studies have supported the idea that physical activity seems to improve attention.…

  5. The Association Between Physical Activity and Both Incident Coronary Artery Calcification and Ankle Brachial Index Progression: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Delaney, Joseph A C; Jensky, Nicole E.; Criqui, Michael H.; Whitt-Glover, Melicia C.; Lima, João A. C.; Allison, Matthew A.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Both coronary artery calcification (CAC) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) are measures of subclinical atherosclerotic disease. The influence of physical activity on the longitudinal change in these measures remains unclear. To assess this we examined the association between these measures and self-reported physical activity in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). Methods At baseline, the MESA participants were free of clinically evident cardiovascular disease. We included all participants with an ABI between 0.90 and 1.40 (n=5656). Predictor variables were based on self-reported measures with physical activity being assessed using the Typical Week Physical Activity Survey from which metabolic equivalent-minutes/week of activity were calculated. We focused on physical activity intensity, intentional exercise, sedentary behavior, and conditioning. Incident peripheral artery disease (PAD) was defined as the progression of ABI to values below 0.90 (given the baseline range of 0.90 to 1.40). Incident CAC was defined as a CAC score >0 Agatston units upon follow up with a baseline score of 0 Agatston units. Results Mean age was 61 years, 53% were female, and mean body mass index was 28 kg/m2. After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic factors, intentional exercise was protective for incident peripheral artery disease (Relative Risk (RR)= 0.85, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 0.74 to 0.98). After adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors and socioeconomic factors, there was a significant association between vigorous PA and incident CAC (RR=0.97, 95% CI: 0.94 to 1.00). There was also a significant association between sedentary behavior and increased amount of CAC among participants with CAC at baseline (Δlog(Agatston Units +25)=0.027, 95% CI 0.002, 0.052). Conclusions These data suggest that there is an association between physical activity/sedentary behavior and the progression of two different measures

  6. Respiratory Sinus Arrhythmia as an Index of Vagal Activity during Stress in Infants: Respiratory Influences and Their Control

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Thomas; Bosquet Enlow, Michelle; Schulz, Stefan M.; Kitts, Robert; Staudenmayer, John; Wright, Rosalind J.

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) is related to cardiac vagal outflow and the respiratory pattern. Prior infant studies have not systematically examined respiration rate and tidal volume influences on infant RSA or the extent to which infants' breathing is too fast to extract a valid RSA. We therefore monitored cardiac activity, respiration, and physical activity in 23 six-month old infants during a standardized laboratory stressor protocol. On average, 12.6% (range 0–58.2%) of analyzed breaths were too short for RSA extraction. Higher respiration rate was associated with lower RSA amplitude in most infants, and lower tidal volume was associated with lower RSA amplitude in some infants. RSA amplitude corrected for respiration rate and tidal volume influences showed theoretically expected strong reductions during stress, whereas performance of uncorrected RSA was less consistent. We conclude that stress-induced changes of peak-valley RSA and effects of variations in breathing patterns on RSA can be determined for a representative percentage of infant breaths. As expected, breathing substantially affects infant RSA and needs to be considered in studies of infant psychophysiology. PMID:23300753

  7. Comparison of active dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and yeast culture for growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Yin; Ren, Li-Ping; Zhou, Zhen-Ming; Chang, Ying; Meng, Qing-Xiang

    2016-08-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effect of active dry yeasts (ADY) and yeast cultures (YC), two typical products of yeast preparations, on growth performance, carcass characteristics, meat quality and blood indexes in finishing bulls fed a high-concentrate diet. Forty-five finishing bulls (mean body weight (BW) ± standard deviation: 505 ± 29 kg BW) were allocated to three groups of 15 bulls and assigned randomly to one of three diets which were CON diet (basal diet), ADY diet (basal diet + Levucell SC) and YC diet (basal diet + Diamond V XP), respectively. After 98 days of trial, all bulls were slaughtered. The result showed that ADY rather than YC improved growth performance and carcass traits of bulls compared to CON. Moreover, both ADY and YC improved beef tenderness and changed blood indexes related to fat metabolism. In conclusion, ADY had more pronounced effect on growth performance of bulls fed high-concentrate diet, and both ADY and YC improved the beef quality by intensive fat metabolism. PMID:26472702

  8. Association between media alerts of air quality index and change of outdoor activity among adult asthma in six states, BRFSS, 2005.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xiao-Jun; Balluz, Lina; Mokdad, Ali

    2009-02-01

    Media alerts of air quality index (AQI) were designed to inform the public the need to avoid harmful air pollution by changing their outdoor activities. The relationship between AQI media alerts and change in outdoor activities among people with asthma is unknown. Our objective is to examine this relationship. Data were analyzed in a cross-sectional study from 33,888 adults, in six states, who responded to the questions in the 2005 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) about reductions/changes in outdoor activity. The prevalence of change in outdoor activity due to media alerts was 31% among adults with lifetime asthma and 16% without asthma. The prevalence of outdoor activity change increased to 75% among those with lifetime asthma and to 68% without asthma, when the combined the effects of media alerts and individual perception were examined. The odds of activity change based on the media alerts was 2.30 (Adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.16, 95% Confidence interval [CI]: 1.61, 2.90) among those with lifetime asthma and 1.72 (aO R = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.50, 1.98) without asthma, compared to those unaware of media alerts, after adjustment for demographic variables and covariates. This study shows that awareness of media alerts as well as health professional advice may be associated with reported changes in outdoor activities. Therefore, along with consistent efforts to improve the air quality, government agencies, health professionals, and community leaders should implement measures to effectively inform the public about air quality and educate them to take appropriate actions accordingly.

  9. Effects of physical activity, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio and waist circumference on total mortality risk in the Swedish National March Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Jia, Chongqi; Ye, Weimin; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2010-11-01

    The health benefits of physical activity (PA) have been well documented. However, there is less research investigating whether or not these health benefits might differ among males and females or among subjects characterized by different levels of body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist circumference (WC). Baseline total PA, BMI, WHR and waist circumference were measured in 14,585 men and 26,144 women who participated in the Swedish National March. Their effects on all-cause mortality were analyzed with a follow-up time of almost 10 years. Sedentary men with a BMI ≥ 30 had a 98% (95% CI: 30-201%) increased risk of mortality compared to normal weight men with a high level of total PA. The same trend was observed for sedentary men with high WHR or waist circumference, compared to lean and highly active men. Sedentary women with a waist circumference of 88 cm or more had almost doubled, i.e. 97% (95% CI: 35-189%) increased mortality risk compared to physically active women with a waist circumference below 80 cm. BMI in men, but waist circumference in women better forecast all-cause mortality. We found no substantial effect modification between different measures of adiposity and physical activity-physical inactivity and obesity seem to increase total mortality risk independently and additively.

  10. Dietary Behaviour Pattern and Physical Activity in Overweight and Obese Egyptian Mothers: Relationships with Their Children’s Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Nayera E.; Wahba, Saneya; El-Alameey, Inas R.; El-Masry, Sahar A.; AbuShady, Mones M.; Hameed, Enas R. Abdel; Ibrahim, Tarek S.; Boseila, Samia

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and related morbidity increase in Egyptian women and their children. A better understanding of dietary and activity patterns is needed to reduce obesity prevalence. AIM: The present study aimed to assess dietary patterns and physical activity in Egyptian overweight and obese mothers and to explore its relationships with their children’s body mass index (BMI). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This descriptive case-control study was conducted at the National Research Center. The study included a sample of 64 overweight and obese mothers and 75 children, compared with apparently healthy non-obese mothers and their children of matched age and social class. Tested questionnaires were used to collect information of the studied subjects. RESULTS: A statistically significantly higher incidence of unemployment, large family size was observed in overweight & obese women compared to controls (P < 0.05). Those women who consumed vegetables more than 3 times a week were less likely to be overweight or obese (P < 0.05). No significant association were detected between mothers’ physical activity, dietary behaviour variables and children’s BMI except for consuming beverages with added sugar (95%CI = 0.074-0.985, P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Improper dietary patterns, nonworking mothers and big family size are associated with obesity among Egyptian women. Emphasis should be given to increasing physical activity and encourage healthier diets among Egyptian mothers and their children. PMID:27703555

  11. Index of Refraction without Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farkas, N.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2006-01-01

    This article presents several activities that permit students to determine the index of refraction of transparent solids and liquids using simple equipment without the need for geometrical relationships, special lighting or optical instruments. Graphical analysis of the measured data is shown to be a useful method for determining the index of…

  12. Transit Use, Physical Activity, and Body Mass Index Changes: Objective Measures Associated With Complete Street Light-Rail Construction

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Carol M.; Tribby, Calvin P.; Miller, Harvey J.; Smith, Ken R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed effects on physical activity (PA) and weight among participants in a complete street intervention that extended a light-rail line in Salt Lake City, Utah. Methods. Participants in the Moving Across Places Study resided within 2 kilometers of the new line. They wore accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) loggers for 1 week before and after rail construction. Regression analyses compared change scores of participants who never rode transit with continuing, former, and new riders, after adjustment for control variables (total n = 537). Results. New riders had significantly more accelerometer-measured counts per minute than never-riders (P < .01), and former riders had significantly fewer (P < .01). New riders lost (P < .05) and former riders gained (P < .01) weight. Former riders lost 6.4 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) per 10 hours of accelerometer wear (P < .01) and gained 16.4 minutes of sedentary time (P < .01). New riders gained 4.2 MVPA minutes (P < .05) and lost 12.8 (P < .05) sedentary minutes per 10 hours accelerometer wear. Conclusions. In light of the health benefits of transit ridership in the complete street area, research should address how to encourage more sustained ridership. PMID:25973829

  13. FTO variant rs9939609 is associated with body mass index and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity in European- and African-American youth

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Genome-wide association studies found common variants in the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene associated with adiposity in Caucasians and Asians but the association was not confirmed in African populations. Association of FTO variants with insulin resistance and energy intake showed inconsistent results in previous studies. This study aimed to assess the influence of FTO variant rs9939609 on adiposity, insulin resistance, energy intake and physical activity in European - (EA) and African-American (AA) youth. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study in EA and AA youths. One thousand, nine hundred and seventy-eight youths (48.2% EAs, 47.1% male, mean age 16.5 years) had measures of anthropometry. Percent body fat (%BF) was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAAT) by magnetic resonance imaging. Energy intake and physical activity were based on self report from up to 7 24-hour recalls. Physical activity was also measured by accelerometry. Results FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with body mass index (BMI) (P = 0.01), weight (P = 0.03) and waist circumference (P = 0.04), with per-allele effects of 0.4 kg/m2, 1.3 kg and 0.8 cm, respectively. No significant association was found between rs9939609 and %BF, VAT, SAAT or insulin resistance (P > 0.05), or between rs9939609 and energy intake or vigorous physical activity (P > 0.05). No significant interactions of rs9939609 with ethnicity, gender, energy intake or physical activity were observed (P > 0.05). Conclusions The FTO variant rs9939609 is modestly associated with BMI and waist circumference, but not with energy intake or physical activity. Moreover, these effects were similar for EAs and AAs. Improved understanding of the effect of the FTO variant will offer new insights into the etiology of excess adiposity. PMID:20377915

  14. Self-reported and accelerometer-measured physical activity by body mass index in US Hispanic/Latino adults: HCHS/SOL☆

    PubMed Central

    Palta, P.; McMurray, R.G.; Gouskova, N.A.; Sotres-Alvarez, D.; Davis, S.M.; Carnethon, M.; Castañeda, S.F.; Gellman, M.D.; Hankinson, A.L.; Isasi, C.R.; Schneiderman, N.; Talavera, G.A.; Evenson, K.R.

    2015-01-01

    The association between obesity and physical activity has not been widely examined in an ethnically diverse sample of Hispanic/Latino adults in the US. A cross-sectional analysis of 16,094 Hispanic/Latino adults 18–74 years was conducted from the multi-site Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). Body mass index (BMI) was measured and categorized into normal, overweight, and obese; underweight participants were excluded from analyses. Physical activity was measured using the 16-item Global Physical Activity Questionnaire and by an Actical accelerometer. Minutes/day of physical activity and prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 moderate–vigorous physical activity (MVPA) minutes/week were estimated by BMI group and sex adjusting for covariates. No adjusted differences were observed in self-reported moderate (MPA), vigorous (VPA), or MVPA across BMI groups. Accelerometry-measured MPA, VPA, and MVPA were significantly higher for the normal weight (females: 18.9, 3.8, 22.6 min/day; males: 28.2, 6.1, 34.3 min/day, respectively) compared to the obese group (females: 15.3, 1.5, 16.8 min/day; males: 23.5, 3.6, 27.1 min/day, respectively). The prevalence of engaging in ≥ 150 MVPA minutes/week using accelerometers was lower compared to the self-reported measures. Efforts are needed to reach the Hispanic/Latino population to increase opportunities for an active lifestyle that could reduce obesity in this population at high risk for metabolic disorders. PMID:26835248

  15. Occupational Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Results from the Hispanic Community Health Study / Study of Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Singer, Richard H.; Stoutenberg, Mark; Gellman, Marc D.; Archer, Edward; Davis, Sonia M.; Gotman, Nathan; Marquez, David X.; Buelna, Christina; Deng, Yu; Hosgood, H. Dean; Zambrana, Ruth E.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To examine the associations between overweight/obesity and occupation among Hispanics/Latinos, the largest minority population in the U.S. Methods This study included 7,409 employed individuals in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL), a prospective study of Hispanic/Latino individuals aged 18–74 in four communities in the U.S. We independently examined the relationships between BMI, Occupational Activity (OA), and Total Hours Worked, quantified via self-reported hours worked per week and occupation-assigned Metabolic Equivalents (METs). Results More than three quarters of the participants were either overweight (39.3%) or obese (37.8%). Individuals with a primary occupation and those employed in a secondary occupation worked an average of 36.8 and 14.6 hrs/wk, respectively. The overall adjusted odds for being obese compared to normal weight were 3.2% (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01, 1.05) and 14.4% (AOR = 1.14 95% Cl 1.07, 1.23) greater for each 10 MET•hrs/wk unit of increased OA, and each 10-hrs/wk unit of Total Hours Worked, respectively. Conclusion This study presents the first findings on the association between OA with overweight/obesity among Hispanic/Latino individuals in the U.S. Increasing OA and Total Hours Worked per week were independently associated with increasing odds of overweight/obesity suggesting that the workplace is only one part of the overall energy expenditure dynamic. Our findings point to the need to emphasize engaging employed individuals in greater levels of PA outside of the work environment to impact overweight/obesity. PMID:27031996

  16. Increasing maternal body mass index is associated with systemic inflammation in the mother and the activation of distinct placental inflammatory pathways.

    PubMed

    Aye, Irving L M H; Lager, Susanne; Ramirez, Vanessa I; Gaccioli, Francesca; Dudley, Donald J; Jansson, Thomas; Powell, Theresa L

    2014-06-01

    Obese pregnant women have increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines in maternal circulation and placental tissues. However, the pathways contributing to placental inflammation in obesity are largely unknown. We tested the hypothesis that maternal body mass index (BMI) was associated with elevated proinflammatory cytokines in maternal and fetal circulations and increased activation of placental inflammatory pathways. A total of 60 women of varying pre-/early pregnancy BMI, undergoing delivery by Cesarean section at term, were studied. Maternal and fetal (cord) plasma were collected for analysis of insulin, leptin, IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP) 1, and TNFalpha by multiplex ELISA. Activation of the inflammatory pathways in the placenta was investigated by measuring the phosphorylated and total protein expression of p38-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK)-MAPK, signal transducer-activated transcription factor (STAT) 3, caspase-1, IL-1beta, IkappaB-alpha protein, and p65 DNA-binding activity. To determine the link between activated placental inflammatory pathways and elevated maternal cytokines, cultured primary human trophoblast (PHT) cells were treated with physiological concentrations of insulin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, and inflammatory signaling analyzed by Western blot. Maternal BMI was positively correlated with maternal insulin, leptin, MCP-1, and TNFalpha, whereas only fetal leptin was increased with BMI. Placental phosphorylation of p38-MAPK and STAT3, and the expression of IL-1beta protein, were increased with maternal BMI; phosphorylation of p38-MAPK was also correlated with birth weight. In contrast, placental NFkappaB, JNK and caspase-1 signaling, and fetal cytokine levels were unaffected by maternal BMI. In PHT cells, p38-MAPK was activated by MCP-1 and TNFalpha, whereas STAT3 phosphorylation was increased following TNFalpha treatment. Maternal BMI is associated with elevated maternal

  17. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-02-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale.

  18. Atomic Scale Analysis of the Enhanced Electro- and Photo-Catalytic Activity in High-Index Faceted Porous NiO Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Meng; Han, Ali; Wang, Xijun; Ro, Yun Goo; Kargar, Alireza; Lin, Yue; Guo, Hua; Du, Pingwu; Jiang, Jun; Zhang, Jingyu; Dayeh, Shadi A.; Xiang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catalysts play a significant role in clean renewable hydrogen fuel generation through water splitting reaction as the surface of most semiconductors proper for water splitting has poor performance for hydrogen gas evolution. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the atomic arrangement at the surface, which necessitates the correlation of the surface structure to the catalytic activity in well-controlled catalyst surfaces. Herein, we report a novel catalytic performance of simple-synthesized porous NiO nanowires (NWs) as catalyst/co-catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The correlation of catalytic activity and atomic/surface structure is investigated by detailed high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) exhibiting a strong dependence of NiO NW photo- and electrocatalytic HER performance on the density of exposed high-index-facet (HIF) atoms, which corroborates with theoretical calculations. Significantly, the optimized porous NiO NWs offer long-term electrocatalytic stability of over one day and 45 times higher photocatalytic hydrogen production compared to commercial NiO nanoparticles. Our results open new perspectives in the search for the development of structurally stable and chemically active semiconductor-based catalysts for cost-effective and efficient hydrogen fuel production at large scale. PMID:25707903

  19. Opposite photocatalytic activity orders of low-index facets of anatase TiO₂ for liquid phase dye degradation and gaseous phase CO₂ photoreduction.

    PubMed

    Ye, Liqun; Mao, Jin; Peng, Tianyou; Zan, Ling; Zhang, Youxiang

    2014-08-01

    We firstly demonstrate the opposite photocatalytic activity orders of low-index facets of anatase TiO2 in the liquid phase for rhodamine B (RhB) photocatalytic degradation and in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The photocatalytic activity order in the liquid phase for RhB photocatalytic degradation is revealed as {001} > {101} > {010}, whereas the photocatalytic activity order {010} > {101} > {001} is found in the gaseous phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4. The atomic arrangement of the different facets, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectra, photoluminescence spectra and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis show that the photoactivity order in the gas phase for the photoreduction of CO2 to CH4 mainly depends on the CO2 molecule adsorption properties on the different exposed facets, and the separation efficiency of the photo-generated carriers determines the photoactivity order for the dye degradation reaction in the liquid phase. These findings also provide a new direction to design efficient photocatalysts and the tuning of their photoreactivity for environmental and energy applications.

  20. Amplitude and bilateral coherency of facial and jaw-elevator EMG activity as an index of effort during a two-choice serial reaction task.

    PubMed

    Van Boxtel, A; Jessurun, M

    1993-11-01

    In earlier studies, positive but inconsistent relationships have been reported between mental effort and electromyogram (EMG) amplitude in task-irrelevant limb muscles. In this study, we explored whether facial EMG activity would provide more consistent results. Tonic EMG activity of six different facial and jaw-elevator muscles was bilaterally recorded during a two-choice serial reaction task with paced presentation of auditory or visual signals. In Experiment 1, task load (signal presentation rate) was kept constant for 20 min at the level of the subject's maximal capacity. In Experiment 2, task load was increased in a stepwise fashion over six successive 2-min periods from sub- to supramaximal capacity levels. EMG amplitude and coherency between momentary bilateral amplitude fluctuations were measured. In Experiment 1, EMG amplitude of frontalis, corrugator supercilii, and orbicularis oris inferior showed a strong gradual increase throughout the task period, whereas taks performance remained fairly stable. Orbicularis oculi, zygomaticus major, and temporalis EMG showed a much smaller increase or no increase. In Experiment 2, the first three muscles showed a fairly consistent increase in EMG amplitude with increasing task load. Orbicularis oculi and zygomaticus major were not active until task load became supramaximal. Effects of stimulus modality or laterality were not found in any experiment. These results are consistent with the notion that EMG amplitude of frontalis, corrugator, and orbicularis oris provides a sensitive index of the degree of exerted mental effort. PMID:8248451

  1. Consumption of Low-Calorie Sweeteners among U.S. Adults Is Associated with Higher Healthy Eating Index (HEI 2005) Scores and More Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Rehm, Colin D.

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that low-calorie sweeteners (LCS) promote lower quality diets and, therefore, weight gain has been noted as a cause for concern. Data from a representative sample of 22,231 adults were obtained from five cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008 NHANES). A single 24-hour recall was used to identify consumers of LCS beverages, foods and tabletop sweeteners. Diet quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index 2005 (HEI 2005) and its multiple subscores. Health behaviors of interest were physical activity, smoking and alcohol use. LCS consumers had higher HEI 2005 scores than did non-consumers, largely explained by better SoFAAS subscores (solid fats, added sugar and alcohol). LCS consumers had better HEI subscores for vegetables, whole grains and low-fat dairy, but worse subscores for saturated fat and sodium compared to non-consumers. Similar trends were observed for LCS beverages, tabletop LCS and LCS foods. Consumers of LCS were less likely to smoke and were more likely to engage in recreational physical activity. LCS use was associated with higher HEI 2005 scores, lower consumption of empty calories, less smoking and more physical activity. PMID:25329967

  2. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture. PMID:26035225

  3. Influence of the interactions between tea (Camellia sinensis) extracts and ascorbic acid on their antioxidant activity: analysis with interaction indexes and isobolograms.

    PubMed

    Enko, Jolanta; Gliszczyńska-Świgło, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Products containing natural additives, including antioxidants, are usually perceived by consumers as safer than those with synthetic ones. Natural antioxidants, besides having a preservative activity, may exert beneficial health effects. Interactions between antioxidants may significantly change their antioxidant activity, thus in designing functional foods or food/cosmetic ingredients knowledge about the type of interactions could be useful. In the present study, the interactions between ascorbic acid (AA; vitamin C) and different black and green tea extracts and the influence on their antioxidant activities were investigated. The antioxidant activities of tea extracts and their mixtures with AA prepared in several different weight ratios were measured using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods. The type of interaction was determined by interaction indexes and isobolograms. It was found that the weight ratio of extracts to AA significantly influenced the antioxidant activity of a mixture and the type of interaction between these components. The weight ratio of tea extract to AA can cause the change of interaction, e.g. from antagonism to additivism or from additivism to synergism. The observed differences in the type of interactions were probably also a result of different extracts' polyphenol composition and content. The type of interaction may also be affected by the medium in which extracts and AA interact, especially its pH and the solvent used. To obtain the best antioxidant effect, all these factors should be taken into account during the design of a tea extract-AA mixture.

  4. Development of a disease activity and responder index for psoriatic arthritis--report of the Psoriatic Arthritis Module at OMERACT 11.

    PubMed

    Coates, Laura C; FitzGerald, Oliver; Mease, Philip J; Gladman, Dafna D; Strand, Vibeke; Goel, Niti; Campbell, Ina; Krueger, Gerald; McHugh, Neil J; Helliwell, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    This module reflected work within the Group for Research and Assessment of Psoriasis and Psoriatic Arthritis (GRAPPA) to develop and validate composite disease activity measures in psoriatic arthritis (PsA). At the Outcome Measures in Rheumatology (OMERACT) 8 Meeting, a core set of domains to be assessed in randomized controlled trials (RCT) and longitudinal observational studies of PsA was agreed upon. At OMERACT 10, 5 proposed composite responder definitions for PsA were reviewed and discussed, including new data from the GRACE (GRAppa Composite Exercise) study. At OMERACT 11, ongoing retrospective analyses of RCT data using the 3 proposed measures (Composite Psoriatic Disease Activity Index, Psoriatic Arthritis Disease Activity Score, and Arithmetic Mean of the Desirability Function) were discussed in detail. There was agreement that developing composite outcome measures for use in RCT and longitudinal observational studies in PsA was important. Concerns were expressed regarding development of a single measure that encompassed diverse domains, such as joint counts, quality of life (QOL), and disability measures. It was emphasized that the use of any composite measure should include the ability to differentiate between activity in individual domains, such as enthesitis or psoriasis, such that the effect of each could be assessed independently. It was also agreed that patients would be systematically involved in further development and refinement of composite measures. Future plans include qualitative work with patients to explore their experience of disease activity and statistical modeling to explore how each of the proposed measures will perform in different disease subgroups. PMID:24488420

  5. Evaluation of Biological Activity of Cellulose Pulp by Means of the Static Respiration Index (At4)/ Ocena Aktywności Biologicznej Pulpy Celulozowej Testem Respiracyjnym At4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myszograj, Sylwia; Kozłowska, Katarzyna; Krochmal, Agata

    2014-09-01

    In the countries of the European Union, work is presently being conducted on the standardisation of the limit values and test methods for the determination of the biological activity of waste. The aim of conducting the tests is to monitor the effectiveness of waste biodegradation during composting, the evaluate any decrease in the biological activity of the waste before its landfilling and control processes taking place at landfills. The evaluation of the waste's biological activity can be performed, among others, by testing respiration. One such method is AT4 (Static Respiration Index) determination. The results of respirometric tests depict the availability of substrates for microorganisms, that is, the biodegradability. The article describes the tests of the biological activity of the cellulose pulp, the impact of the degree of compost inoculation on the value of this parameter and the dependence on the content of organic mass and total organic carbon in the tested substrate. The measurements of the oxygen demand were made using the OxiTop® Control measuring system. W krajach UE prowadzone są obecnie prace nad ujednoliceniem wartości granicznych oraz metod testowych oznaczania aktywności biologicznej odpadów. Celem prowadzenia testów jest monitoring efektywności biologicznego rozkładu odpadów podczas kompostowania, ocena zmniejszenia aktywności biologicznej odpadów przed ich składowaniem, kontrola procesów zachodzących na składowiskach. Ocenę aktywności biologicznej odpadów można przeprowadzić m.in. poprzez badanie respiracji. Jedną z takich metod jest oznaczenie AT4 (Static Respiration Index). Wyniki badań respirometrycznych obrazują dostępność substratów dla mikroorganizmów, czyli podatność na biodegradację. W artykule opisano badania aktywności biologicznej pulpy celulozowej testem AT4, wpływ stopnia zaczepienia kompostem na wartość tego parametru oraz zależność od zawartości masy organicznej i OWO w badanym substracie

  6. Choices and Preferences "Water Index."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science Activities, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents a Project WET water education activity. Students rank and compare different uses of water in order of their importance. The class develops a "Water Index," an indication of the group's feelings and values about water and its uses. (LZ)

  7. Environment factors associated with adolescents' body mass index, physical activity and physical fitness in Kuching South City, Sarawak: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Whye L; Chang, Ching T; Saimon, Rosalia

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived built environment attributes and physical activity, physical fitness and body weight among adolescents aged 14-16 years in Sarawak. This was a cross-sectional study, using multi-stage sampling. A set of questionnaires consisting of socio-demographic information, a self-administered physical activity checklist and a Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale-Youth (NEWS-Y) was used. Body mass index (BMI) was measured and physical fitness was tested using a maximal multistage 20 m shuttle run test. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 17.0. A total of 316 respondents participated. The mean BMI for boys was almost equal to the mean BMI for girls. Only 7.9% of the sampled population was found to be overweight or obese. The overall mean duration spent per day on physical activity was 128.4 min (SD 118.43), with mean of 56.1 min (SD 73.94) after school time. Girls reported to spend longer each day taking physical activity before and during school. Boys were found to have significantly higher VO2max of 27.79±5.91 mL/kg/min as compared to girls (t=11.22, p<0.000). Based on comparison with other countries, the NEWS-Y scores indicated a mixture of low and high walkability neighborhoods. Respondents who had lower BMIs reported living in lower residential density areas and less risk of crime, and respondents who had better physical fitness reported less suitable infrastructure for walking. Promotion of exercise at all levels should be continuously encouraged as it would lead to improvement in the well-being of an individual.

  8. Vitamin K-dependent proteins GAS6 and Protein S and TAM receptors in patients of systemic lupus erythematosus: correlation with common genetic variants and disease activity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Growth arrest-specific gene 6 protein (GAS6) and protein S (ProS) are vitamin K-dependent proteins present in plasma with important regulatory functions in systems of response and repair to damage. They interact with receptor tyrosine kinases of the Tyro3, Axl and MerTK receptor tyrosine kinase (TAM) family, involved in apoptotic cell clearance (efferocytosis) and regulation of the innate immunity. TAM-deficient mice show spontaneous lupus-like symptoms. Here we tested the genetic profile and plasma levels of components of the system in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and compare them with a control healthy population. Methods Fifty SLE patients and 50 healthy controls with matched age, gender and from the same geographic area were compared. Genetic analysis was performed in GAS6 and the TAM receptor genes on SNPs previously identified. The concentrations of GAS6, total and free ProS, and the soluble forms of the three TAM receptors (sAxl, sMerTK and sTyro3) were measured in plasma from these samples. Results Plasma concentrations of GAS6 were higher and, total and free ProS were lower in the SLE patients compared to controls, even when patients on oral anticoagulant treatment were discarded. Those parameters correlated with SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) score, GAS6 being higher in the most severe cases, while free and total ProS were lower. All 3 soluble receptors increased its concentration in plasma of lupus patients. Conclusions The present study highlights that the GAS6/ProS-TAM system correlates in several ways with disease activity in SLE. We show here that this correlation is affected by common polymorphisms in the genes of the system. These findings underscore the importance of mechanism of regulatory control of innate immunity in the pathology of SLE. PMID:23497733

  9. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  10. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13-16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  11. Effectiveness of Facebook-Delivered Lifestyle Counselling and Physical Activity Self-Monitoring on Physical Activity and Body Mass Index in Overweight and Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ruotsalainen, Heidi; Kyngäs, Helvi; Tammelin, Tuija; Heikkinen, Hanna; Kääriäinen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week, Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling intervention, with or without physical activity self-monitoring, on physical activity and body mass index (BMI) in overweight and obese 13–16-year-old adolescents. Methods. Three-arm randomized controlled trial. Participants (n = 46) were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups: one group received Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling and monitoring of their physical activity (Fb + Act, n = 15), whereas a second experimental group received the same Facebook-delivered lifestyle counselling without self-monitoring (Fb, n = 16) and a third group served as the control group (n = 15). Objective and self-reported physical activity assessment were used. Nonparametric statistical tests were used. Results. There were no significant intervention effects in terms of changes in physical activity levels or BMI from baseline to the 12-week postintervention measurements between the intervention and control groups. The Fb + Act group had lower sedentary time on weekdays compared to the control group during postintervention measurements (p = 0.021), but there was no interaction between time and group. Conclusions. Interventions were not effective at increasing physical activity in overweight and obese adolescents. Before implementing such interventions, more evaluations on their effectiveness are needed. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT02295761 (2014-11-17). PMID:26697218

  12. The mRNA expression of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor in human adipose tissue is positively correlated with body mass index.

    PubMed

    Ng, Hien Fuh; Chin, Kin Fah; Chan, Kok-Gan; Ngeow, Yun Fong

    2015-06-01

    suPLAUR is the transcript variant that encodes the soluble form of the urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor (suPLAUR). This soluble protein has been shown to enhance leukocyte migration and adhesion, and its circulatory level is increased in inflammatory states. In this pilot study, we used RNA-Seq to examine the splicing pattern of PLAUR in omental adipose tissues from obese and lean individuals. Of the three transcript variants of the PLAUR gene, only the proportion of suPLAUR (transcript variant 2) increases in obesity. After removing the effects of gender and age, the expression of suPLAUR is positively correlated with body mass index. This observation was validated using RT-qPCR with an independent cohort of samples. Additionally, in our RNA-Seq differential expression analysis, we also observed, in obese adipose tissues, an up-regulation of genes encoding other proteins involved in the process of chemotaxis and leukocyte adhesion; of particular interest is the integrin beta 2 (ITGB2) that is known to interact with suPLAUR in leukocyte adhesion. These findings suggest an important role for suPLAUR in the recruitment of immune cells to obese adipose tissue, in the pathogenesis of obesity. PMID:26284904

  13. Instrumental-Variables Simultaneous Equations Model of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Katie A; Guilkey, David K; Tien, Hsiao-Chuen; Kiefe, Catarina I; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-09-15

    We used full-system-estimation instrumental-variables simultaneous equations modeling (IV-SEM) to examine physical activity relative to body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)(2)) using 25 years of data (1985/1986 to 2010/2011) from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study (n = 5,115; ages 18-30 years at enrollment). Neighborhood environment and sociodemographic instruments were used to characterize physical activity, fast-food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, marriage, and childbearing (women) and to predict BMI using semiparametric full-information maximum likelihood estimation to control for unobserved time-invariant and time-varying residual confounding and differential measurement error through model-derived discrete random effects. Comparing robust-variance ordinary least squares, random-effects regression, fixed-effects regression, single-equation-estimation IV-SEM, and full-system-estimation IV-SEM, estimates from random- and fixed-effects models and the full-system-estimation IV-SEM were unexpectedly similar, despite the lack of control for residual confounding with the random-effects estimator. Ordinary least squares tended to overstate the significance of health behaviors in BMI, while results from single-equation-estimation IV-SEM were notably different, revealing the impact of weak instruments in standard instrumental-variable methods. Our robust findings for fixed effects (which does not require instruments but has a high cost in lost degrees of freedom) and full-system-estimation IV-SEM (vs. standard IV-SEM) demonstrate potential for a full-system-estimation IV-SEM method even with weak instruments. PMID:27614300

  14. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents.

  15. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway.

    PubMed

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995-97 and in 2006-08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  16. Familial Risk of Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain and the Importance of Physical Activity and Body Mass Index: Prospective Data from the HUNT Study, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Lier, Ragnhild; Mork, Paul Jarle; Holtermann, Andreas; Nilsen, Tom Ivar Lund

    2016-01-01

    The main objectives of the current study was i) to prospectively examine if chronic musculoskeletal pain in parents is associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring, and ii) to assess if these parent-offspring associations are modified by offspring body mass index and leisure time physical activity. We used data on 4,742 adult offspring linked with their parents who participated in the population-based HUNT Study in Norway in 1995–97 and in 2006–08. Family relations were established through the national Family Registry. A Poisson regression model was used to estimate relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). In total, 1,674 offspring (35.3%) developed chronic musculoskeletal pain during the follow-up period of approximately 11 years. Both maternal (RR: 1.26, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.55) and paternal chronic musculoskeletal pain (RR: 1.29, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.57) was associated with increased risk of offspring chronic musculoskeletal pain. Compared to offspring of parents without chronic musculoskeletal pain, the adverse effect of parental pain was somewhat stronger among offspring who reported a low (RR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.32, 2.52) versus high (RR: 1.32, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.84) level of leisure time physical activity. Offspring of parents with chronic musculoskeletal pain and who were classified as obese had more than twofold increased risk (RR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.68, 3.24) of chronic musculoskeletal pain compared to normal weight offspring of parents without pain. In conclusion, parental chronic musculoskeletal pain is positively associated with risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in their adult offspring. Maintenance of normal body weight may reduce the risk of chronic musculoskeletal pain in offspring of pain-afflicted parents. PMID:27082110

  17. Body mass index and physical activity at different ages and risk of multiple myeloma in the NIH-AARP diet and health study.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Jonathan N; Moore, Steven C; Lim, Unhee; Park, Yikyung; Baris, Dalsu; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Matthews, Charles E; Gibson, Todd M; Hartge, Patricia; Purdue, Mark P

    2013-04-15

    Several studies have reported an increased risk of multiple myeloma associated with excess body weight. We investigated the risk of multiple myeloma in relation to separate measures of adiposity and energy balance at different ages in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort study in the United States. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire (1995-1996; n = 485,049), and a subset of participants completed a second questionnaire (1996-1997; n = 305,618) in which we solicited more detailed exposure information. Hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated for the risk of multiple myeloma (overall, n = 813; subset, n = 489) in relation to several measures of obesity and leisure time physical activity. Multiple myeloma risk was associated with increasing body mass index (BMI) at cohort entry (per 5-kg/m(2) increase, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.22); similar associations were observed for BMI at age 50 years (HR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.28), age 35 years (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.05, 1.36), and age 18 years (HR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.98, 1.32) without adjustment for baseline BMI. Risk of multiple myeloma was not associated with physical activity level at any age. These findings support the hypothesis that excess body weight, both in early adulthood and later in life, is a risk factor for multiple myeloma and suggest that maintaining a healthy body weight throughout life may reduce multiple myeloma risk.

  18. Development of a risk-based index for source water protection planning, which supports the reduction of pathogens from agricultural activity entering water resources.

    PubMed

    Goss, Michael; Richards, Charlene

    2008-06-01

    watershed. To confirm that potential pathways are active requires some microbial source tracking. One possibility is to identify the molecular types of Escherichia coli present in each hazard on a farm. An essential part of any such index is the identification of mitigation strategies and practices that can reduce the magnitude of the hazard or block open pathways.

  19. [Journal selection and indexing for Index Medicus and Chinese periodicals indexed in Index Medicus].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing-Hui; Ling, Chang-Quan; Bai, Yu-Jin; Yin, Hui-Xia

    2005-01-01

    Index Medicus/MEDLINE/PubMed published by U. S. National Library of Medicine (NLM) is the most important and commonly used biomedical literature retrieval system in the world. According to the"List of Journals Indexed in Index Medicus (2004)", 4,098 journals are indexed for Index Medicus, including 70 journals from mainland China and Hong Kong and 9 journals from Taiwan. Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine established in May, 2003 is indexed in Index Medicus in 2004. This article outlines the critical elements of journal selection for Index Medicus/MEDLINE and the journal selection process for indexing at NLM, and introduces some measures for the Journal of Chinese Integrative Medicine being indexed in Index Medicus/MEDLINE.

  20. Role of abnormal anterior pituitary hormones-growth hormone and prolactin in active systemic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaohua; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Shujuan; Huang, Wen; Li, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: The role of anterior pituitary hormones in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) remains controversial. Aims and Objectives: We determined the expression levels of human growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), and their receptors in subjects presenting with SLE, and modulation of disease severity. Materials and methods: Forty-seven subjects and ten healthy controls were assessed for possible association between SLE disease activity and levels of serum PRL, GH and thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH). In peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), specific binding and mRNA expression of receptors for GH (GHR), and PRL (PRLR) were determined by receptor-ligand binding assay (RLBA) and RT-PCR. PBMC of recruited subjects were treated with hPRL and rhGH to assess IgG production and antibodies against dsDNA. Results: In active SLE subjects we found elevated PRL and GH levels. Study subject PBMCs displayed augmented GHR and PRLR protein and mRNA expression. Study subjects also showed a positive correlation in serum PRL levels and specific antibodies against dsDNA, SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI), and proteinuria. However, a negative correlation was found between serum PRL levels and complement component C3. We found a positive correlation between specific binding rates of PRLR and GHR and both SLE activity and dsDNA antibody titers. Enhanced IgG and anti-dsDNA secretion was observed in cultured PBMC stimulated by PRL or GH with/without PHA, PWM, IL-2 or IL-10. In active SLE, a close association was found between augmented PRL and GH levels, expression and specific binding activities of PRLR and GHR, and changes in the specific titer of anti-dsDNA. Conclusion: Anterior pituitary hormones play an important role in the pathogenesis of SLE. High levels of growth hormone (GH) and prolactin (PRL) play a role in pathogenesis of SLE, which is correlated with SLE disease activity and antibodies against dsDNA. The mechanism of GH and PRL in SLE was complicated and should

  1. A Two-Generation Study of Body Mass Index, Energy Balance and Specific Physical Activity of College Students and Their Respective Parents Living in the Same Household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liang, Ying; Lee, Judy; Tam, Chick F.; Bridges, Elizabeth; Keating, Xiaofen D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose was to compare the differences in body mass index (BMI), energy balance (EB) and specific physical activity (SPA) between 30 CSULA college students (Y) and their respective parents (O) living in the same household at Los Angeles, California, U.S.A. Each student completed a 24-hour dietary record with SPA journal, and the same for…

  2. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: the role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments.

    PubMed

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2013-10-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of "obesogenic" neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child's residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments' contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students' reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children's BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast food

  3. Body Mass Index in Pregnancy Does Not Affect Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma Promoter Region (−359 to −260) Methylation in the Neonate

    PubMed Central

    Casamadrid, VRE; Amaya, CA; Mendieta, ZH

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity in pregnancy can contribute to epigenetic changes. Aim: To assess whether body mass index (BMI) in pregnancy is associated with changes in the methylation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR) promoter region (-359 to - 260) in maternal and neonatal leukocytes. Subjects and Methods: In this matched, cohort study 41 pregnant women were allocated into two groups: (a) Normal weight (n = 21) and (b) overweight (n = 20). DNA was extracted from maternal and neonatal leukocytes (4000-10,000 cells) in MagNA Pure (Roche) using MagNA Pure LC DNA Isolation Kit 1 (Roche, Germany). Treatment of DNA (2 μg) was performed with sodium bisulfite (EZ DNA Methylation-Direct™ Kit; Zymo Research). Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed in a LightCycler 2.0 (Roche) using the SYBR® Advantage® qPCR Premix Kit (Clontech). The primers used for PPARγ coactivator (PPARG) M3 were 5’- aagacggtttggtcgatc-3’ (forward), and5’- cgaaaaaaaatccgaaatttaa-3’ (reverse) and those for PPARG unmethylated were: 5’-gggaagatggtttggttgatt-3’ (forward) and 5’- ttccaaaaaaaaatccaaaatttaa-3’ (reverse). Intergroup differences were calculated using the Mann-Whitney U-test, and intragroup differences, with the Wilcoxon test (IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 19.0. Armonk, NY: IBM Corp.). Results: Significant differences were found in BMI, pregestational weight, and postdelivery weight between groups but not in the methylation status of the PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260). Conclusion: The PPARγ promoter region (-359 to - 260) in peripheral leukocytes is unlikely to get an obesity-induced methylation in pregnancy. PMID:27144075

  4. Disentangling neighborhood contextual associations with child body mass index, diet, and physical activity: The role of built, socioeconomic, and social environments

    PubMed Central

    Carroll-Scott, Amy; Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn; Rosenthal, Lisa; Peters, Susan M.; McCaslin, Catherine; Joyce, Rebecca; Ickovics, Jeannette R.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity prevalence among US children and adolescents has tripled in the past three decades. Consequently, dramatic increases in chronic disease incidence are expected, particularly among populations already experiencing health disparities. Recent evidence identifies characteristics of “obesogenic” neighborhood environments that affect weight and weight-related behaviors. This study aimed to examine associations between built, socioeconomic, and social characteristics of a child’s residential environment on body mass index (BMI), diet, and physical activity. We focused on pre-adolescent children living in New Haven, Connecticut to better understand neighborhood environments’ contribution to persistent health disparities. Participants were 1048 fifth and sixth grade students who completed school-based health surveys and physical measures in fall 2009. Student data were linked to US Census, parks, retailer, and crime data. Analyses were conducted using multilevel modeling. Property crimes and living further from a grocery store were associated with higher BMI. Students living within a 5-min walk of a fast food outlet had higher BMI, and those living in a tract with higher density of fast food outlets reported less frequent healthy eating and more frequent unhealthy eating. Students’ reported perceptions of access to parks, playgrounds, and gyms were associated with more frequent healthy eating and exercise. Students living in more affluent neighborhoods reported more frequent healthy eating, less unhealthy eating, and less screen time. Neighborhood social ties were positively associated with frequency of exercise. In conclusion, distinct domains of neighborhood environment characteristics were independently related to children’s BMI and health behaviors. Findings link healthy behaviors with built, social, and socioeconomic environment assets (access to parks, social ties, affluence), and unhealthy behaviors with built environment inhibitors (access to fast

  5. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  6. Comparative Index Terms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasheed, Muhammad Abdur

    1989-01-01

    Describes a study that compared indexing terms suggested by authors of articles in "The American Journal of the Medical Science" and indexing terms assigned to the same articles in MEDLARS. Case studies are used to examine the differences between author and indexer indexing. (CLB)

  7. Quaker Resources Online Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beke-Harrigan, Heidi

    The Quaker Resources Online Index is a World Wide Web-based index, including author, title, subject, and meeting indexes, that provides access to Quaker materials available on the Web. Given the current failings and shortcomings of search engines and automated key word searches, this index brings together information from a variety of sources and…

  8. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    1999-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  9. Nucleic acid indexing

    DOEpatents

    Guilfoyle, Richard A.; Guo, Zhen

    2001-01-01

    A restriction site indexing method for selectively amplifying any fragment generated by a Class II restriction enzyme includes adaptors specific to fragment ends containing adaptor indexing sequences complementary to fragment indexing sequences near the termini of fragments generated by Class II enzyme cleavage. A method for combinatorial indexing facilitates amplification of restriction fragments whose sequence is not known.

  10. Anti-nucleosome and anti-chromatin antibodies are present in active systemic lupus erythematosus but not in the cutaneous form of the disease.

    PubMed

    Souza, A; da Silva, L M; Oliveira, F R; Roselino, A M F; Louzada-Junior, P

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the presence of anti-nucleosome (anti-NCS) and anti-chromatin (anti-CRT) antibodies in patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) compared with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A total of 154 subjects were evaluated: 54 patients presenting CLE, 66 patients with active SLE and 34 with inactive SLE. Lupus activity was assessed using the disease activity index (SLEDAI). Anti-NCS and anti-CRT antibodies were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Only one of 54 patients with CLE tested positive for both anti-NCS and anti-CRT antibodies. The prevalence of anti-CRT antibodies was significantly higher in active SLE (84.8%) when compared with inactive SLE (26.4%) and CLE (1.8%) (P < 0.001). Anti-NCS antibodies were also more prevalent in active SLE patients (74.2%) than inactive SLE (11.7%) and CLE patients (1.8%) (P < 0.001). The presence of anti-CRT and anti-NCS antibodies was correlated to disease activity in patients with SLE (r = 0.4937, r = 0.5621, respectively). Furthermore, the detection of both antibodies was correlated with disease activity in patients with SLE who tested negative for anti-dsDNA antibodies (r = 0.4754 for anti-NCS and r = 0.4281 for anti-CRT). The presence of these two auto-antibodies was strongly associated with renal damage in patients with SLE (OR = 13.1, for anti-CRT antibodies and OR = 25.83, for anti-NCS antibodies). The anti-NCS and anti-CRT antibodies were not found in CLE. In patients with SLE, there is a correlation of these antibodies with disease activity and active nephritis. When compared with anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-NCS and anti-CRT antibodies were more sensitive in detecting disease activity and kidney damage in lupus patients.

  11. PC index and magnetic substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troshichev, Oleg; Janzhura, Alexander; Sormakov, Dmitry; Podorozhkina, Nataly

    PC index is regarded as a proxy of the solar wind energy that entered into the magnetosphere as distinct from the AL and Dst indices, which are regarded as characteristics of the energy that realize in the magnetosphere in form of substorm and magnetic storms. This conclusion is based on results of analysis of relationships between the polar cap magnetic activity (PC-index) and parameters of the solar wind, on the one hand, relationships between changes of PC and development of magnetospheric substorms (AL-index) and magnetic storms (Dst-index), on the other hand. This paper describes in detail the following main results which demonstrate a strong connection between the behavior of PC and development of magnetic disturbances in the auroral zone: (1) magnetic substorms are preceded by the РС index growth (isolated and extended substorms) or long period of stationary PC (postponed substorms), (2) the substorm sudden onsets are definitely related to such PC signatures as leap and reverse, which are indicative of sharp increase of the PC growth rate, (3) substorms generally start to develop when the PC index exceeds the threshold level ~ 1.5±0.5 mV/m, irrespective of the substorm growth phase duration and type of substorm, (4) linear dependency of AL values on PC is typical of all substorm events irrespective of type and intensity of substorm.

  12. Health Behavior and Academic Achievement among Adolescents: The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Physical Activity, Body Mass Index, and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Alfgeir Logi; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Allegrante, John P.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested a structural equation model to estimate the relationship between health behaviors, body mass index (BMI), and self-esteem and the academic achievement of adolescents. The authors analyzed survey data from the 2000 study of "Youth in Iceland", a population-based, cross-sectional sample of 6,346 adolescents in Iceland. The model…

  13. Refractive index of air. 2. Group index.

    PubMed

    Ciddor, P E; Hill, R J

    1999-03-20

    In a previous paper [Appl. Opt. 35, 1566 (1996)] one of us presented new equations for evaluation of the phase refractive index of air over a range of wavelengths and atmospheric parameters. That paper also gave an incorrect, although sufficiently accurate, procedure for calculating the group refractive index. Here we describe the results of a more rigorous derivation of the group index that takes proper account of the Lorentz-Lorenz formula, and we demonstrate that deviations from the Lorentz-Lorenz formula are insignificant to within a foreseeable precision of dispersion measurements for atmospheric conditions. We also derive and evaluate a simplification of the resultant equation that is useful for exploratory calculations. We clarify the limits of validity of the standard equation for the group refractive index and correct some minor errors in the previous paper.

  14. Improving Keyword Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsgaard, John N.; Evans, John Edward

    1981-01-01

    Examines some of the most frequently cited criticisms of keyword indexing, including (1) the absence of general subject headings, (2) limited entry points, and (3) irrelevant indexing. Six references are cited. (FM)

  15. Body mass index

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007196.htm Body mass index To use the sharing features on this ... your height is to figure out your body mass index (BMI). You and your health care provider ...

  16. Audio Indexing for Efficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahnlom, Harold F.; Pedrick, Lillian

    1978-01-01

    This article describes Zimdex, an audio indexing system developed to solve the problem of indexing audio materials for individual instruction in the content area of the mathematics of life insurance. (Author)

  17. Body Mass Index Table

    MedlinePlus

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Body Mass Index Table 1 for BMI greater than 35, go ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  18. Serum Renalase Levels Correlate with Disease Activity in Lupus Nephritis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Minfang; Shao, Xinghua; Chang, Xinbei; Fan, Zhuping; Cao, Qin; Mou, Shan; Wang, Qin; Yan, Yucheng; Desir, Gary; Ni, Zhaohui

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Lupus nephritis (LN) is among the most serious complications of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), which causes significant morbidity and mortality. Renalase is a novel, kidney-secreted cytokine-like protein that promotes cell survival. Here, we aimed to investigate the relationship of serum renalase levels with LN and its role in the disease progression of LN. Methods For this cross-sectional study, 67 LN patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled. Seventeen active LN patients who received standard therapies were followed up for six months. Disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity–2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scoring system and serum renalase amounts were determined by ELISA. Predictive value of renalase for disease activity was assessed. Furthermore, the expression of renalase in the kidneys of patients and macrophage infiltration was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Results Serum renalase amounts were significantly higher in LN patients than in healthy controls. Moreover, patients with proliferative LN had more elevated serum renalase levels than Class V LN patients. In proliferative LN patients, serum renalase levels were significantly higher in patients with active LN than those with inactive LN. Serum renalase levels were positively correlated with SLEDAI-2K, 24-h urine protein excretion, ds-DNA and ESR but inversely correlated with serum albumin and C3. Renalase amounts decreased significantly after six-months of standard therapy. The performance of renalase as a marker for diagnosis of active LN was 0.906 with a cutoff value of 66.67 μg/ml. We also observed that the amount of renalase was significantly higher in glomerular of proliferative LN along with the co-expression of macrophages. Conclusion Serum renalase levels were correlated with disease activity in LN. Serum renalase might serve as a potential indicator for disease activity in LN. The marked increase of glomerular renalase and its association with macrophages suggest

  19. Annual Index. Volume 13, September 1975-May 1976

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science and Children, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Presents an extensive author and subject index. The subject index is categorized into Activities and Resource Information, Biology, Earth and Space Science, Measurement and Metric System, Professional Organization Activities, Physics and Chemistry, Curriculum and Science Education. (EB)

  20. Index to Volume 110

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marriott, R. A.

    2001-02-01

    The Subject Index references items under general headings; where a contribution covers two or more clearly defined subjects, each is separately referenced, but otherwise sub-headings within the same topic are not included. Book and other reviews are indexed as such, but their subjects are not further cross-indexed. The Author Index details all named contributions, including talks at Ordinary Meetings, but not questions from the floor.

  1. Automatic Versus Manual Indexing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Meulen, W. A.; Janssen, P. J. F. C.

    1977-01-01

    A comparative evaluation of results in terms of recall and precision from queries submitted to systems with automatic and manual subject indexing. Differences were attributed to query formulation. The effectiveness of automatic indexing was found equivalent to manual indexing. (Author/KP)

  2. Machine-Aided Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Charles R.

    Progress is reported at the 1,000,000 word level on the development of a partial syntatic analysis technique for indexing text. A new indexing subroutine for hyphens is provided. New grammars written and programmed for Machine Aided Indexing (MAI) are discussed. (ED 069 290 is a related document) (Author)

  3. The Europe 2020 Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasimeni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new index to quantify, measure and monitor the progress towards the objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy. This index is based on a set of relevant, accepted, credible, easy to monitor and robust indicators presented by the European Commission at the time the strategy was launched. The internal analysis of the index shows…

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Marten

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the pine marten (Martes americana) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the species-habitat requirements of the pine marten. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of a HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are then synthesized into a model which is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  5. The combined effects of electrojet strength and the geomagnetic activity (Kp-index) on the post sunset height rise of the F-layer and its role in the generation of ESF during high and low solar activity periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulasi Ram, S.; Rama Rao, P. V. S.; Prasad, D. S. V. V. D.; Niranjan, K.; Raja Babu, A.; Sridharan, R.; Devasia, C. V.; Ravindran, Sudha

    2007-10-01

    Several investigations have been carried out to identify the factors that are responsible for the day-to-day variability in the occurrence of equatorial spread-F (ESF). But the precise forecasting of ESF on a day-to-day basis is still far from reality. The nonlinear development and the sustenance of ESF/plasma bubbles is decided by the background ionospheric conditions, such as the base height of the F-layer (h'F), the electron density gradient (dN/dz), maximum ionization density (Nmax), geomagnetic activity and the neutral dynamics. There is increasing evidence in the literature during the recent past that shows a well developed Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) during the afternoon hours contributes significantly to the initiation of ESF during the post-sunset hours. Also, there exists a good correlation between the Equatorial Ionization Anomaly (EIA) and the Integrated Equatorial ElectroJet (IEEJ) strength, as the driving force for both is the same, namely, the zonal electric field at the equator. In this paper, we present a linear relationship that exists between the daytime integrated equatorial electrojet (IEEJ) strength and the maximum elevated height of the F-layer during post-sunset hours (denoted as peak h'F). An inverse relationship that exists between the 6-h average Kp-index prior to the local sunset and the peak h'F of the F-layer is also presented. A systematic study on the combined effects of the IEEJ and the average Kp-index on the post-sunset, peak height of the F-layer (peak h'F), which controls the development of ESF/plasma bubbles, is carried out using the ionosonde data from an equatorial station, Trivandrum (8.47° N, 76.91° E, dip.lat. 0.5° N), an off-equatorial station, SHAR (13.6° N, 79.8° E, dip.lat. 10.8° N) and VHF scintillations (244 MHz) observed over a nearby low-latitude station, Waltair (17.7° N, 83.3° E, dip.lat. 20° N). From this study, it has been found that the threshold base height of the F-layer at the equator for

  6. Cumulative Index to NASA Tech Briefs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Tech Briefs are short announcements of new technology derived from the R&D activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. This Index to NASA Tech Briefs lists the technological innovations derived from the U.S. space program and published during the period January through December 1968. A new five year cycle of cumulative indexes begins with this index. The main section is arranged in six categories: Electrical (Electronic); Physical Sciences (Energy Sources); Materials (Chemistry); Life Sciences; Mechanical; and Computer Programs.

  7. NEW CONCEPTS IN INDEXING.

    PubMed

    SHANK, R

    1965-07-01

    Recent trends in indexing emphasize mechanical, not intellectual, developments. Mechanized operations have produced indexes in depth (1) of information on limited areas of science or (2) utilizing limited parameters for analysis. These indexes may include only citations or both useful data and citations of source literature. Both keyword-in-context and citation indexing seem to be passing the test of the marketplace. Mechanical equipment has also been successfully used to manipulate EAM cards for production of index copy. Information centers are increasingly being used as control devices in narrowly defined subject areas. Authors meet growing pressures to participate in information control work by preparing abstracts of their own articles. Mechanized image systems persist, although large systems are scarce and the many small systems may bring only limited relief for information control and retrieval problems. Experimentation and limited development continue on theory and technique of automatic indexing and abstracting.

  8. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls. PMID:22614913

  9. Mechanical loading with or without weight-bearing activity: influence on bone strength index in elite female adolescent athletes engaged in water polo, gymnastics, and track-and-field.

    PubMed

    Greene, David A; Naughton, Geraldine A; Bradshaw, Elizabeth; Moresi, Mark; Ducher, Gaele

    2012-09-01

    Bone health is considered not to benefit from water-based sports because of their weight-supported nature, but available evidence primarily relies on DXA technology. Our purpose was to investigate musculoskeletal health in the upper and lower body in well-trained adolescent female athletes using pQCT and compare these athletes with less-active, age- and sex-matched peers. Bone mineral content, volumetric cortical and trabecular BMD, total and cortical area, and bone strength index were assessed at the distal and proximal tibia and radius in four groups of adolescent females (mean age, 14.9 years) including water polo players (n = 30), gymnasts (n = 25), track-and-field athletes (n = 34), and nonactive controls (n = 28). Water polo players did not show any benefit in bone strength index or muscle size in the lower leg when compared with controls. In contrast, gymnasts showed 60.1 % and 53.4 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, than nonactive females (p < 0.05). Similarly, track-and-field athletes displayed 33.9 % and 14.7 % greater bone strength index at the distal and proximal tibia, respectively, compared with controls (p < 0.05). In the upper body, water polo players had 31.9 % greater bone strength index at the distal radius, but not the radial shaft, and 15.2 % larger forearm muscle cross-sectional area than controls (p < 0.05). The greatest musculoskeletal benefits in the upper body were found in gymnasts. In conclusion, despite training at an elite level, female water polo players did not show any benefits in musculoskeletal health in the lower leg and only limited benefits in the upper body when compared with nonactive girls.

  10. Obtaining Feedback for Indexing from Highlighted Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarroel, Miguel; Fuente, Pablo de la; Pedrero, Alberto; Vegas, Jesus; Adiego, Joaquin

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of weighted index terms in information retrieval focuses on a method for adjusting index weights by processing text in digital libraries that has been highlighted by users. Considers weights in query processing; feedback sources; active reading while accessing digital documents; collaborative information retrieval; and improving index…

  11. Personnel Management Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falcione, Carol

    1984-01-01

    Concentrates on four specialized indexes that are devoted exclusively to personnel and human resources topics: "Personnel Literature,""Personnel Management Abstracts,""Human Resources Abstracts," and "Work Related Abstracts." A concluding section compares strengths and weaknesses of these publications to three broader indexes: "The Business…

  12. EMMSE Media Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Clifford A., Comp.; McKinstry, Herbert A., Comp.

    This index provides a topical taxonomy of media which have been selected for their relevance in the teaching of materials science and engineering. The index is keyed to a matrix which matches topical and/or class material with six classifications of media: print, 16mm film, super 8 film, slide/tape, videotape, and other (including interactive…

  13. Transfer Index: One Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinselman, James L.

    A transfer index of the proportion of students in California's community colleges transferring to the University of California (UC) and the California State University (CSU) system for fall 1982, 1983, and 1984 is presented in this report. Introductory material provides one definition of an appropriate index of transfer rates, i.e., the ratio of…

  14. A Factor Simplicity Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano

    2003-01-01

    Proposes an index for assessing the degree of factor simplicity in the context of principal components and exploratory factor analysis. The index does not depend on the scale of the factors, and its maximum and minimum are related only to the degree of simplicity in the loading matrix. (SLD)

  15. Children's Stress Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Dianne, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    This double issue of the "ZPG Reporter" focuses on the theme of ZPG's Children's Stress Index", the first national survey of children's well-being based on population- related pressures. Using an extensive list of social, economic, and environmental factors that affect the lives of children, the index ranks 828 cities, counties, and metropolitan…

  16. A Computer Calculated Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Francis J.

    The Gunning Fog Index of readability indicates both the average length of words and the difficult words (three or more syllables) in written material. This document describes a business communication course at Wayne State University in which students calculate the Gunning Fog Index of two of their writing assignments with the aid of the…

  17. Gradient index retroreflector

    DOEpatents

    Layne, Clyde B.

    1988-01-01

    A retroreflector is formed of a graded index lens with a reflective coating at one end. The lens has a length of an odd multiple of a quarter period thereof. Hexagonally shaped graded index lenses may be closely packed in an array to form a retroreflecting surface.

  18. Exploring Volumetrically Indexed Cups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-01-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup "n" is equal to "n" times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to…

  19. Effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on thymus, spleen and cardiac indexes, caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein and mRNA expression levels in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ling; Sun, Yong Le; Wang, Ai Hong; Xu, Chong En; Zhang, Meng Yuan

    2012-10-01

    This study was designed to determine the possible protective effect of polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae on heart function in aged rats. Polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae was administered to aged rats. Results showed that thymus, spleen and cardiac indexs were significantly increased, whereas caspase-3 activity ratio, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi protein expression, Smac/DIABLO and HtrA2/Omi mRNA expression levels were markedly reduced. It can be concluded that polysaccharides extract of rhizoma atractylodis macrocephalae may enhance immunity and improve heart function in aged rats.

  20. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women. PMID:26416708

  1. Differences in Self-Reported Physical Activity and Body Mass Index Among Older Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Men and Women: Findings from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Billimek, John

    2015-10-01

    Older Hispanic Americans are a rapidly growing minority group who are disproportionately affected by diabetes mellitus and obesity. Given the importance of physical activity, particularly leisure-time activity, in the management of diabetes mellitus and obesity, the current study examined ethnic and sex differences in walking for transportation, leisure-time walking, moderate activity (not including walking), and vigorous activity between Hispanic and non-Hispanic white (NHW) older adults (age 55 and older) using the 2009 California Health Interview Survey, a population-based survey representative of California's noninstitutionalized population. The total sample consisted of 21,702 participants (20,148 NHW (7,968 men, 12,180 women) and 1,554 Hispanic (609 men, 945 women)). Multivariable logistic and linear regression analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. The findings revealed that Hispanic men and women were significantly less likely to engage in self-reported leisure-time walking and vigorous activity than NHW men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.51-0.99) and women (aOR = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87). Regardless of ethnic group, men were more likely than women to engage in self-reported walking for transportation (aOR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.58-0.87), moderate activity (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.57-0.81), and vigorous activity (aOR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.50-0.68). All types of self-reported physical activity were associated with lower body mass index (BMI; P < .001), although significant interactions between sex and leisure time walking (P < .001), moderate activity (P < .001), and vigorous activity (P < .001) indicated that women who engaged in these activities reported the lowest BMIs. The findings highlight the importance of emphasizing walking in efforts to increase moderate and vigorous activity, particularly for older women.

  2. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  3. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M.; Micallef, Malgre C.; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C.; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J.

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase. PMID:26904065

  4. Increased mtPDH Activity Through Antisense Inhibition of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Enhances Inflorescence Initiation, and Inflorescence Growth and Harvest Index at Elevated CO2 in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Weraduwage, Sarathi M; Micallef, Malgre C; Marillia, Elizabeth-France; Taylor, David C; Grodzinski, Bernard; Micallef, Barry J

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase (mtPDH) is a key respiratory enzyme that links glycolysis and the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and it is negatively regulated by mtPDH kinase (mtPDHK). Arabidopsis lines carrying either a constitutive or seed-specific antisense construct for mtPDHK were used to test the hypothesis that alteration of mtPDH activity in a tissue- and dosage-dependent manner will enhance reproductive growth particularly at elevated CO2 (EC) through a combined enhancement of source and sink activities. Constitutive transgenic lines showed increased mtPDH activity in rosette leaves at ambient CO2 (AC) and EC, and in immature seeds at EC. Seed-specific transgenic lines showed enhanced mtPDH activity in immature seeds. A strong relationship existed between seed mtPDH activity and inflorescence initiation at AC, and at EC inflorescence stem growth, silique number and seed harvest index were strongly related to seed mtPDH activity. Leaf photosynthetic rates showed an increase in rosette leaves of transgenic lines at AC and EC that correlated with enhanced inflorescence initiation. Collectively, the data show that mtPDHK plays a key role in regulating sink and source activities in Arabidopsis particularly during the reproductive phase.

  5. Amino acid substitutions in an alpha-helical antimicrobial arachnid peptide affect its chemical properties and biological activity towards pathogenic bacteria but improves its therapeutic index.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, A; Villegas, E; Satake, H; Possani, L D; Corzo, Gerardo

    2011-01-01

    Four variants of the highly hemolytic antimicrobial peptide Pin2 were chemically synthesized with the aim to investigate the role of the proline residue in this peptide, by replacing it with the motif glycine-valine-glycine [GVG], which was found to confer low hemolytic activity in a spider antimicrobial peptide. The proline residue in position 14 of Pin2 was substituted by [V], [GV], [VG] and [GVG]. Only the peptide variant with the proline substituted for [GVG] was less hemolytic compared to that of all other variants. The peptide variant [GVG] kept its antimicrobial activity in Muller-Hilton agar diffusion assays, whereas the other three variants were less effective. However, all Pin2 antimicrobial peptide variants, were active when challenged against a Gram-positive bacteria in Muller-Hilton broth assays suggesting that chemical properties of the antimicrobial peptides such as hydrophobicity is an important indication for antimicrobial activity in semi-solid environments.

  6. [Inhibition rate of gamma-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase activity in erythrocytes as a reliable index for individual workers of low lead exposure].

    PubMed

    Hirano, H; Omichi, M; Ohishi, H; Ishikawa, K; Hirashima, N

    1983-09-01

    As the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity in erythrocytes is decreased by lead exposure, we considered that a net reduction of ALAD activity by lead in blood should be the difference between the activity fully activated with zinc (Zn2+) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and that without activation. The optimal condition of activation of ALAD was found by addition of 0.25 mM of Zn2+ and 10 mM of DTT in the reaction mixture. Judging from our previous results that the amount of inhibition of ALAD activity can be represented as the rate of inhibition and is closely correlated with the dose of lead administered to rabbits, the inhibition rate of ALAD activity and lead content in blood (Pb-B) of lead workers were measured. The scatter diagram obtained from the inhibition rate and lead content in blood has two groups being divided at 50 micrograms/ml of Pb-B. In one group less than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B, the inhibition rate has been closely related to Pb-B., the regression equation being Y = 1.82 X + 11.7, and the correlation coefficient + 0.926. In another group more than 50 micrograms/100 ml of Pb-B the inhibition rate remained constant at the 90% level. Measurement of the inhibition rate suggests to have practical validity for monitoring lead exposure in workers, and by means of a nomograph lead content in blood can be estimated from the inhibition rate.

  7. Association of socioeconomic factors with body mass index, obesity, physical activity, and dietary factors in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil: The BH Health Study.

    PubMed

    Ward, Julia; Friche, Amélia Augusta de Lima; Caiaffa, Waleska Teixeira; Proietti, Fernando Augusto; Xavier, César Coelho; Roux, Ana V Diez

    2015-11-01

    Obesity prevalence is rapidly increasing in developing countries. Existing research investigating social patterning of obesity and its risk factors in Latin American urban contexts has inconsistent findings. This study analyzed a multistage household survey in adults in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. Marginal models were used to examine the association of education and household and neighborhood income with body mass index (BMI), obesity, physical inactivity, and low fruit and vegetable intake after adjusting for age and ethnicity and stratifying by sex. BMI and obesity were inversely associated with education in women. BMI was positively associated with household and neighborhood income in men. Additionally, physical inactivity and low fruit and vegetable intake were inversely associated with education and household income in both men and women, and physical inactivity was inversely associated with neighborhood income in men. Understanding the drivers of these patterns will allow for development of appropriate policy and interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease risk in large cities in Latin America. PMID:26648373

  8. Post-Outburst Observations of the Magnetically Active Pulsar J1846-0258: A New Braking Index, Increased Timing Noise, and Radiative Recovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Ng, C.-Y.; Kaspi, Victoria M.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Gotthelf, E. V.

    2010-01-01

    The approx.800yr-old pulsar J1846-0258 is a unique transition object between rotation-powered pulsars and magnetars: though behaving like a rotation-powered pulsar most of the time, in 2006 it exhibited a distinctly magnetar-like outburst accompanied by a large glitch. Here we present X-ray timing observations taken with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer over a 2.2-yr period after the X-ray outburst and glitch had recovered. We observe that the braking index of the pulsar, previously measured to be n = 2.65+/-0.01, is now n = 2.16+/-0.13, a decrease of 18+/-5%. We also note a persistent increase in the timing noise relative to the pre-outburst level. Despite the timing changes, a 2009 Chandra X-ray Observatory observation shows that the X-ray flux and spectrum of the pulsar and its wind nebula are consistent with the quiescent levels observed in 2000. Subject headings: pulsars: general pulsars: individual (PSR J1846-0258) supernovae: individual (Kes 75 X-rays: stars)

  9. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  10. Audio Indexing for Individualization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmlow, Harold F.; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Article describes a new development in indexing audiotapes called Zimdex. The system was developed in response to the problem of individualizing review materials for candidates studying the mathematics of life insurance. (Author/HB)

  11. Techniques for video indexing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C. Y. Roger; Meliksetian, Dikran S.; Liu, Larry J.; Chang, Martin C.

    1996-01-01

    A data model for long objects (such as video files) is introduced, to support general referencing structures, along with various system implementation strategies. Based on the data model, various indexing techniques for video are then introduced. A set of basic functionalities is described, including all the frame level control, indexing, and video clip editing. We show how the techniques can be used to automatically index video files based on closed captions with a typical video capture card, for both compressed and uncompressed video files. Applications are presented using those indexing techniques in security control and viewers' rating choice, general video search (from laser discs, CD ROMs, and regular disks), training videos, and video based user or system manuals.

  12. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  13. Exploring volumetrically indexed cups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Dustin L.

    2011-03-01

    This article was inspired by a set of 12 cylindrical cups, which are volumetrically indexed; that is to say, the volume of cup n is equal to n times the volume of cup 1. Various sets of volumetrically indexed cylindrical cups are explored. I demonstrate how this children's toy is ripe for mathematical investigation, with connections to geometry, algebra and differential calculus. Students with an understanding of these topics should be able to complete the analysis and related exercises contained herein.

  14. Role of caffeic acid phenethyl ester on mitomycin C induced clastogenesis: analysis of chromosome aberrations, micronucleus, mitotic index and adenosine deaminase activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Ghassan Mohammad

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present investigation is to determine whether the caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in combination with mitomycine-C (MMC) can ameliorate MMC-induced clastogenesis in the bone marrow cells of mice. The scoring of chromosomal aberrations, mitotic activity and micronuclei were undertaken in the current study as markers of clastogenicity. The action of CAPE in adenosine deaminase enzyme (ADA) activities of serum, thymus and spleen were also investigated. The animals were orally administered CAPE alone at the doses 5 or 10 mg kg b.wt.(-1) for 5 days then sacrificed 24 hours after the CAPE administration. MMC was administered to mice either alone at a single dose (2 mg kg b.wt.(-1)) by intraperitoneal injection, before or after CAPE treatment. Pre or post - treatment with two doses of CAPE significantly decreased the number of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and adapted the mitotic activity reduction in the bone marrow cells of mice induced by MMC when compared with only MMC given group. In addition, combination treatment with MMC caused a significant decrease in the activities of ADA in serum, thymus and spleen. The results of this study showed that ADA activity probably related to high levels of reactive oxygen species. This study concluded that the protective effect of CAPE against MMC clastogenesis resides at least in part, in its antioxidant effects.

  15. New generic indexing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeston, Michael

    1996-01-01

    There has been no fundamental change in the dynamic indexing methods supporting database systems since the invention of the B-tree twenty-five years ago. And yet the whole classical approach to dynamic database indexing has long since become inappropriate and increasingly inadequate. We are moving rapidly from the conventional one-dimensional world of fixed-structure text and numbers to a multi-dimensional world of variable structures, objects and images, in space and time. But, even before leaving the confines of conventional database indexing, the situation is highly unsatisfactory. In fact, our research has led us to question the basic assumptions of conventional database indexing. We have spent the past ten years studying the properties of multi-dimensional indexing methods, and in this paper we draw the strands of a number of developments together - some quite old, some very new, to show how we now have the basis for a new generic indexing technology for the next generation of database systems.

  16. FECAL CALPROTECTIN AND GASTROINTESTINAL (GI) PERMEABILITY CORRELATE WITH DISEASE ACTIVITY INDEX, AND HISTOLOGIC, ENDOSCOPIC, AND RADIOLOGIC FINDINGS IN CHILDREN WITH CROHN DISEASE (CD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fecal calprotectin and permeability are noninvasive measures of GI inflammation and damage, respectively. However, there are scant data as to the possible association between the tests and CD disease activity in children. We hypothesized that levels of fecal calprotectin and permeability would corre...

  17. School Health Index for Physical Activity and Healthy Eating: A Self-Assessment and Planning Guide. Middle School/High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (DHHS/PHS), Atlanta, GA.

    This self-assessment and planning guide is designed to help schools evaluate their physical activity and nutrition policies and programs based on national standards and guidelines. It assists schools in identifying strengths and weaknesses of their health promotion policies and practices, developing action plans for improving student health, and…

  18. Needs for Research in Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milstead, Jessica L.

    1994-01-01

    Uncovers issues in indexing that need scientific research, including the cognitive processes of indexers and users; vocabulary control; how best to supplement human indexers' intellectual effort with computer capabilities; structure and layout of indexes on the printed page and on the computer screen; and evaluation of indexes. (Contains 21…

  19. Light Intensity Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Relation to Body Mass Index and Grip Strength in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Findings from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hire, Don; Manini, Todd; Cooper, Rachel; Botoseneanu, Anda; McDermott, Mary M.; Pahor, Marco; Glynn, Nancy W.; Fielding, Roger; King, Abby C.; Church, Timothy; Ambrosius, Walter T.; Gill, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background Identifying modifiable determinants of fat mass and muscle strength in older adults is important given their impact on physical functioning and health. Light intensity physical activity and sedentary behavior are potential determinants, but their relations to these outcomes are poorly understood. We evaluated associations of light intensity physical activity and sedentary time—assessed both objectively and by self-report—with body mass index (BMI) and grip strength in a large sample of older adults. Methods We used cross-sectional baseline data from 1130 participants of the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) study, a community-dwelling sample of relatively sedentary older adults (70-89 years) at heightened risk of mobility disability. Time spent sedentary and in light intensity activity were assessed using an accelerometer worn for 3–7 days (Actigraph GT3X) and by self-report. Associations between these exposures and measured BMI and grip strength were evaluated using linear regression. Results Greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were both associated with lower BMI. This was evident using objective measures of lower-light intensity, and both objective and self-reported measures of higher-light intensity activity. Time spent watching television was positively associated with BMI, while reading and computer use were not. Greater time spent in higher but not lower intensities of light activity (assessed objectively) was associated with greater grip strength in men but not women, while neither objectively assessed nor self-reported sedentary time was associated with grip strength. Conclusions In this cross-sectional study, greater time spent in light intensity activity and lower sedentary times were associated with lower BMI. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that replacing sedentary activities with light intensity activities could lead to lower BMI levels and obesity

  20. The Impact of Clinical Information on the Assessment of Endoscopic Activity: Characteristics of the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index Of Severity [UCEIS

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Dan; Feagan, Brian G.; Abreu, Maria T.; Altman, Douglas G.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Krzeski, Piotr; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Marteau, Philippe R.; Mary, Jean-Yves; Reinisch, Walter; Sands, Bruce E.; Schnell, Patrick; Yacyshyn, Bruce R.; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Bernhardt, Christian A.; Sandborn, William J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: To determine whether clinical information influences endoscopic scoring by central readers using the Ulcerative Colitis Endoscopic Index of Severity [UCEIS; comprising ‘vascular pattern’, ‘bleeding’, ‘erosions and ulcers’]. Methods: Forty central readers performed 28 evaluations, including 2 repeats, from a library of 44 video sigmoidoscopies stratified by Mayo Clinic Score. Following training, readers were randomised to scoring with [‘unblinded’, n = 20, including 4 control videos with misleading information] or without [‘blinded’, n 20] clinical information. A total of 21 virtual Central Reader Groups [CRGs], of three blinded readers, were created. Agreement criteria were pre-specified. Kappa [κ] statistics quantified intra- and inter-reader variability. Results: Mean UCEIS scores did not differ between blinded and unblinded readers for any of the 40 main videos. UCEIS standard deviations [SD] were similar [median blinded 0.94, unblinded 0.93; p = 0.97]. Correlation between UCEIS and visual analogue scale [VAS] assessment of overall severity was high [r blinded = 0.90, unblinded = 0.93; p = 0.02]. Scores for control videos were similar [UCEIS: p ≥ 0.55; VAS: p ≥ 0.07]. Intra- [κ 0.47–0.74] and inter-reader [κ 0.40–0.53] variability for items and full UCEIS was ‘moderate’-to-‘substantial’, with no significant differences except for intra-reader variability for erosions and ulcers [κ blinded: 0.47 vs unblinded: 0.74; p 0.047]. The SD of CRGs was lower than for individual central readers [0.54 vs 0.95; p < 0.001]. Correlation between blinded UCEIS and patient-reported symptoms was high [stool frequency: 0.76; rectal bleeding: 0.82; both: 0.81]. Conclusions: The UCEIS is minimally affected by knowledge of clinical details, strongly correlates with patient-reported symptoms, and is a suitable instrument for trials. CRGs performed better than individuals. PMID:25956538

  1. My Body Looks Like That Girl’s: Body Mass Index Modulates Brain Activity during Body Image Self-Reflection among Young Women

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xin; She, Ying; Vinke, Petra Corianne; Chen, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Body image distress or body dissatisfaction is one of the most common consequences of obesity and overweight. We investigated the neural bases of body image processing in overweight and average weight young women to understand whether brain regions that were previously found to be involved in processing self-reflective, perspective and affective components of body image would show different activation between two groups. Thirteen overweight (O-W group, age = 20.31±1.70 years) and thirteen average weight (A-W group, age = 20.15±1.62 years) young women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a body image self-reflection task. Among both groups, whole-brain analysis revealed activations of a brain network related to perceptive and affective components of body image processing. ROI analysis showed a main effect of group in ACC as well as a group by condition interaction within bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL, bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala and left MPFC. For the A-W group, simple effect analysis revealed stronger activations in Thin-Control compared to Fat-Control condition within regions related to perceptive (including bilateral EBA, bilateral FBA, right IPL) and affective components of body image processing (including bilateral DLPFC, left amygdala), as well as self-reference (left MPFC). The O-W group only showed stronger activations in Fat-Control than in Thin-Control condition within regions related to the perceptive component of body image processing (including left EBA and left FBA). Path analysis showed that in the Fat-Thin contrast, body dissatisfaction completely mediated the group difference in brain response in left amygdala across the whole sample. Our data are the first to demonstrate differences in brain response to body pictures between average weight and overweight young females involved in a body image self-reflection task. These results provide insights for understanding the vulnerability to body image distress

  2. Calculate Your Body Mass Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... Can! ) Health Professional Resources Calculate Your Body Mass Index Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based ... to content Twitter Facebook YouTube Google+ SEARCH | SITE INDEX | ACCESSIBILITY | PRIVACY STATEMENT | FOIA | OIG | CONTACT US National ...

  3. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  4. Diagnostic Thresholds for Quantitative REM Sleep Phasic Burst Duration, Phasic and Tonic Muscle Activity, and REM Atonia Index in REM Sleep Behavior Disorder with and without Comorbid Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    PubMed Central

    McCarter, Stuart J.; St. Louis, Erik K.; Duwell, Ethan J.; Timm, Paul C.; Sandness, David J.; Boeve, Bradley F.; Silber, Michael H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We aimed to determine whether phasic burst duration and conventional REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) methods could accurately diagnose REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients with comorbid OSA. Design: We visually analyzed RSWA phasic burst durations, phasic, “any,” and tonic muscle activity by 3-s mini-epochs, phasic activity by 30-s (AASM rules) epochs, and conducted automated REM atonia index (RAI) analysis. Group RSWA metrics were analyzed and regression models fit, with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves determining the best diagnostic cutoff thresholds for RBD. Both split-night and full-night polysomnographic studies were analyzed. Setting: N/A. Participants: Parkinson disease (PD)-RBD (n = 20) and matched controls with (n = 20) and without (n = 20) OSA. Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: All mean RSWA phasic burst durations and muscle activities were higher in PD-RBD patients than controls (P < 0.0001), and RSWA associations with PD-RBD remained significant when adjusting for age, gender, and REM AHI (P < 0.0001). RSWA muscle activity (phasic, “any”) cutoffs for 3-s mini-epoch scorings were submentalis (SM) (15.5%, 21.6%), anterior tibialis (AT) (30.2%, 30.2%), and combined SM/AT (37.9%, 43.4%). Diagnostic cutoffs for 30-s epochs (AASM criteria) were SM 2.8%, AT 11.3%, and combined SM/AT 34.7%. Tonic muscle activity cutoff of 1.2% was 100% sensitive and specific, while RAI (SM) cutoff was 0.88. Phasic muscle burst duration cutoffs were: SM (0.65) and AT (0.79) seconds. Combining phasic burst durations with RSWA muscle activity improved sensitivity and specificity of RBD diagnosis. Conclusions: This study provides evidence for REM sleep without atonia diagnostic thresholds applicable in Parkinson disease-REM sleep behavior disorder (PD-RBD) patient populations with comorbid OSA that may be useful toward distinguishing PD-RBD in typical outpatient populations. Citation: McCarter SJ, St. Louis EK, Duwell EJ, Timm PC

  5. Beyond the Kubler index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberl, D.D.; Velde, B.

    1989-01-01

    The value of peak width at half-height for the illite 001 XRD reflection is known as the Kubler index or the illite "crystallinity' index. This measurement, which has been related to the degree of metamorphism of very low-grade, pelitic rocks, is a function of at least two crystal-chemical factors: 1) illite X-ray scattering domain size; and 2) illite structural distortions (especially swelling). Reynolds' NEWMOD computer program is used to construct a grid with which these two contributions to illite peak width can be determined independently from measurements of the 001 peak width at half-height and the Srodon intensity ratio. This method yields more information about changes undergone by illite during metamorphism than application of the Kubler index method alone. -Authors

  6. Biliary excretion of acetaminophen-glutathione as an index of toxic activation of acetaminophen: effect of chemicals that alter acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Madhu, C.; Gregus, Z.; Klaassen, C.D.

    1989-03-01

    Acetaminophen (AA) is converted, presumably by cytochrome P-450, to an electrophile which is conjugated with glutathione (GS). AA-GS is excreted into bile, therefore the biliary excretion rate of AA-GS may reflect the rate of activation of AA in vivo. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of agents capable of altering the activation of AA including cytochrome P-450 inducers and inhibitors, cobaltous chloride which decreases the amount of P-450, prostaglandin synthetase inhibitors (indomethacin and naproxen), antioxidants (butylated hydroxyanisole, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid palmitate) and other chemicals known to decrease AA hepatotoxicity (dimethylsulfoxide and cysteamine), on the biliary excretion of AA-GS was studied in hamsters, the species most sensitive to AA-induced hepatotoxicity. The biliary excretion of AA-GS increased linearly up to 1 mmol/kg of AA i.v., but at higher dosages exhibited saturation kinetics. Dosages above 0.5 mmol/kg lowered hepatic GS concentration. Of the cytochrome P-450 inducers, 3-methylcholanthrene and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, increased the biliary excretion of AA-GS (2.9- and 3.2-fold, respectively) whereas ethanol and isoniazid did not affect it, and pregnenolone-16 alpha-carbonitrile tended to decrease it (43%). Phenobarbital tended to increase the biliary excretion of AA-GS, but not in a statistically significant manner. Several cytochrome P-450 inhibitors (metyrapone, 8-methoxypsoralen, 2-(4,6-dichloro-biphenyloxy) ethylamine, alpha-naphthoflavone and cimetidine) decreased the biliary excretion of AA-GS, although SKF 525-A and piperonyl butoxide did not. Cobaltous chloride decreased dramatically the biliary excretion of AA-GS.

  7. Rutin ameliorates glycemic index, lipid profile and enzymatic activities in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats fed with a combination of hypercaloric diet and chronic ethanol consumption.

    PubMed

    Chuffa, Luiz Gustavo A; Fioruci-Fontanelli, Beatriz A; Bordon, Juliana G; Pires, Rafaelle B; Braga, Camila P; Seiva, Fábio R F; Fernandes, Ana Angélica H

    2014-06-01

    Alcoholism and obesity are strongly associated with several disorders including heart and liver diseases. This study evaluated the effects of rutin treatment in serum, heart and liver tissues of rats subjected to a combination of hypercaloric diet (HD) and chronic ethanol consumption. Rats were divided into three groups: Control: rats fed a standard diet and drinking water ad libitum; G1: rats fed the HD and receiving a solution of 10% (v/v) ethanol; and G2: rats fed the HD and ethanol solution, followed by injections of 50 mg/kg(-1) rutin as treatment. After 53 days of HD and ethanol exposure, the rutin was administered every three days for nine days. At the end of the experimental period (95 days), biochemical analyses were carried out on sera, cardiac and hepatic tissues. Body weight gain and food consumption were reduced in both the G1 and G2 groups compared to control animals. Rutin effectively reduced the total lipids (TL), triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), VLDL, LDL-cholesterol and glucose levels, while it increased the HDL-cholesterol in the serum of G2 rats, compared to G1. Although rutin had no effect on total protein, albumin, uric acid and cretinine levels, it was able to restore serum activities of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) in animals fed HD and receiving ethanol. Glycogen stores were replenished in both hepatic and cardiac tissues after rutin treatment. Moreover, rutin consistently reduced hepatic levels of TG and TC and cardiac AST, ALT and CK activities. Thus, rutin treatment was effective in reducing the risk factors for cardiac and hepatic disease caused by both HD and chronic ethanol consumption.

  8. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and

  9. Correlation between serum 25(OH)D values and lupus disease activity: an original article and a systematic review with meta-analysis focusing on serum VitD confounders.

    PubMed

    Sahebari, M; Nabavi, N; Salehi, M

    2014-10-01

    Notwithstanding that several original studies and some systematic reviews have been undertaken on the subject "correlation between serum values of vitamin D (VitD) and lupus disease activity," there is still no consensus on the importance of sectional measurement of serum VitD in the prediction of disease activity and important confounders in estimation of serum VitD. Medline, Web of Knowledge, and Scopus databases were searched from 1995 to 2013. The following medical subject heading (MeSH) terms and/or text words were used: "Vitamin D" OR "25OHD" OR "25(OH)D" combined with "systemic lupus erythematosus" OR "lupus" OR "SLE." References cited in the identified articles were also manually searched. Human studies in any language were included. Original research on this topic was also carried out on 82 lupus patients, considering important VitD confounders according to our systematic review and we included them in the meta-analysis. A total of 35 studies were registered for this study. Only 11 of these pointed to this correlation by Pearson test. The pooled Pearson correlation (r) of associations between disease activity and VitD was -0.365 (95% CI: -0.536, -0.165) with significant heterogeneity (p = 0.001 I (2 )= 93%). Sensitivity analysis resulted in no significant differences. The most important adjustable confounders considered by researchers were drugs, especially hydroxychloroquine, prednisolone and supplementary VitD, body mass index (BMI) and proteinuria or renal function. Only proteinuria was reported to influence VitD concentration strongly. BMI was another probable influencing factor. Our original research presented no correlation between VitD and SLEDAI (p = 0.68, r s = 0.003). This meta-analysis demonstrated that most of the studies on the relationship between VitD and lupus disease activity that found no correlation did not present the details of the statistics. However, analyzing 11 studies, most of which found a reverse correlation and

  10. Graded-index magnonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. S.; Kruglyak, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The wave solutions of the Landau-Lifshitz equation (spin waves) are characterized by some of the most complex and peculiar dispersion relations among all waves. For example, the spin-wave ("magnonic") dispersion can range from the parabolic law (typical for a quantum-mechanical electron) at short wavelengths to the nonanalytical linear type (typical for light and acoustic phonons) at long wavelengths. Moreover, the long-wavelength magnonic dispersion has a gap and is inherently anisotropic, being naturally negative for a range of relative orientations between the effective field and the spin-wave wave vector. Nonuniformities in the effective field and magnetization configurations enable the guiding and steering of spin waves in a deliberate manner and therefore represent landscapes of graded refractive index (graded magnonic index). By analogy to the fields of graded-index photonics and transformation optics, the studies of spin waves in graded magnonic landscapes can be united under the umbrella of the graded-index magnonics theme and are reviewed here with focus on the challenges and opportunities ahead of this exciting research direction.

  11. A Social Capital Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzàlez-Aranguena, Enrique; Khmelnitskaya, Anna; Manuel, Conrado; del Pozo, Mónica

    2011-09-01

    We define an index of social capital using game-theoretical concepts. We assume that interests of individuals are presented by means of a cooperative game which take into account possible different players abilities whereas the network of relations is modeled by a graph. The social capital of each actor is then measured as the difference between his Myerson value and his Shapley value.

  12. Space Photography 1977 Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An index is provided to representative photographs and transparencies available from NASA. Subjects include spacecraft, astronauts, lunar surface, planets and outer space phenomena, earth observations, and aviation. High altitude aircraft infrared photographs are included along with artists' conceptions of space shuttle and space colonies.

  13. A Sociodemographic Risk Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Kristin Anderson; Vandivere, Sharon; Redd, Zakia

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we conceptualize and develop an index of sociodemographic risk that we hypothesize will be an improvement over the standard poverty measure as a measure of risk for children's development. The poverty line is widely used in government statistics and in research but is also widely acknowledged to have multiple shortcomings. Using…

  14. Gradient Refractive Index Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, N.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the nature of gradient refractive index (GRIN) lenses, focusing on refraction in these materials, focal length of a thin Wood lens, and on manufacturing of such lenses. Indicates that GRIN lenses of small cross section are in limited production with applications suggested for optical communication and photocopying fields. (JN)

  15. The Misery Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    U.S. taxpayers score lower on the "Forbes" Misery Index than taxpayers of other industrialized nations. A recent report concludes that public-school students challenge their schools more than private-school counterparts. Low birth weight and demographic factors (gender, poverty, and race) affect Florida's burgeoning special-education placements.…

  16. Index for Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Allister

    2005-01-01

    Index for Inclusion is a programme to assist in developing learning and participation in schools. It was written by Tony Booth and Mel Ainscow from the Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education, UK. Central Normal School was pleased to have the opportunity to trial this programme.

  17. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Valisa E.; Davy, Brenda M.; Myers, Emily A.; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  18. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-04

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction.

  19. Changes in the Healthy Beverage Index in Response to an Intervention Targeting a Reduction in Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Consumption as Compared to an Intervention Targeting Improvements in Physical Activity: Results from the Talking Health Trial.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Valisa E; Davy, Brenda M; Myers, Emily A; You, Wen; Zoellner, Jamie M

    2015-12-01

    The recently developed Healthy Beverage Index (HBI) was designed to evaluate overall beverage intake quality (including total fluid consumption and beverage calories), yet no known intervention studies have assessed longitudinal changes to the HBI. The objective of this investigation was to assess changes in HBI scores in response to a sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) reduction trial as compared to a physical activity comparison group. Participants were enrolled into a six-month, community-based, controlled behavioral trial and randomized into either a SSB reduction group (SIPsmartER) or a physical activity group (MoveMore). Correlations and multilevel mixed-effects linear regression with intention-to-treat analyses are presented. Total HBI score significantly increased for SIPsmartER (n = 149) (mean increase = 7.5 points (5.4, 9.7), p ≤ 0.001) and MoveMore (n = 143) (mean increase = 3.4 points (1.6, 5.2), p ≤ 0.001) participants, with a significant between group effect (p ≤ 0.05), over the six-month intervention. Other significant changes in HBI components for SIPsmartER included increased SSB and total beverage calorie scores, and decreased low-fat milk and diet soda scores. Changes in total HBI scores were significantly correlated with changes in total Healthy Eating Index-2010 scores (r = 0.15, p ≤ 0.01). Our findings suggest that individual HBI component scores, beyond the SSB component, are influenced by intervention strategies that primarily focus on SSB reduction. PMID:26690208

  20. Indexing Theory and Retrieval Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Stephen E.

    1978-01-01

    Describes recent attempts to make explicit connections between the indexing process and the use of the index or information retrieval system, particularly the utility-theoretic and automatic indexing models of William Cooper and Stephen Harter. Theory and performance, information storage and retrieval, search stage feedback, and indexing are also…

  1. Automatic Indexing of Full Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonak, Zdenek

    1984-01-01

    Demonstrates efficiency of preparation of query description using semantic analyser method based on analysis of semantic structure of documents in field of automatic indexing. Results obtained are compared with automatic indexing results performed by traditional methods and results of indexing done by human indexers. Sample terms and codes are…

  2. Fiber optic refractive index monitor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan David

    2002-01-01

    A sensor for measuring the change in refractive index of a liquid uses the lowest critical angle of a normal fiber optic to achieve sensitivity when the index of the liquid is significantly less than the index of the fiber core. Another embodiment uses a liquid filled core to ensure that its index is approximately the same as the liquid being measured.

  3. The tree BVOC index.

    PubMed

    Simpson, J R; McPherson, E G

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes in BVOC emissions are calculated as the result of transitioning to a lower-emitting species mix in future planting. A simplified method for calculating the emissions reduction and a Tree BVOC index based on the calculated reduction is described. An example illustrates the use of the index as a tool for implementation and monitoring of a tree program designed to reduce BVOC emissions as a control measure being developed as part of the State Implementation Plan (SIP) for the Sacramento Federal Nonattainment Area. PMID:21435760

  4. Abstracting and indexing guide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Department of the Interior; Office of Water Resources Research

    1974-01-01

    These instructions have been prepared for those who abstract and index scientific and technical documents for the Water Resources Scientific Information Center (WRSIC). With the recent publication growth in all fields, information centers have undertaken the task of keeping the various scientific communities aware of current and past developments. An abstract with carefully selected index terms offers the user of WRSIC services a more rapid means for deciding whether a document is pertinent to his needs and professional interests, thus saving him the time necessary to scan the complete work. These means also provide WRSIC with a document representation or surrogate which is more easily stored and manipulated to produce various services. Authors are asked to accept the responsibility for preparing abstracts of their own papers to facilitate quick evaluation, announcement, and dissemination to the scientific community.

  5. Variable Lifting Index (VLI)

    PubMed Central

    Waters, Thomas; Occhipinti, Enrico; Colombini, Daniela; Alvarez-Casado, Enrique; Fox, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We seek to develop a new approach for analyzing the physical demands of highly variable lifting tasks through an adaptation of the Revised NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) Lifting Equation (RNLE) into a Variable Lifting Index (VLI). Background: There are many jobs that contain individual lifts that vary from lift to lift due to the task requirements. The NIOSH Lifting Equation is not suitable in its present form to analyze variable lifting tasks. Method: In extending the prior work on the VLI, two procedures are presented to allow users to analyze variable lifting tasks. One approach involves the sampling of lifting tasks performed by a worker over a shift and the calculation of the Frequency Independent Lift Index (FILI) for each sampled lift and the aggregation of the FILI values into six categories. The Composite Lift Index (CLI) equation is used with lifting index (LI) category frequency data to calculate the VLI. The second approach employs a detailed systematic collection of lifting task data from production and/or organizational sources. The data are organized into simplified task parameter categories and further aggregated into six FILI categories, which also use the CLI equation to calculate the VLI. Results: The two procedures will allow practitioners to systematically employ the VLI method to a variety of work situations where highly variable lifting tasks are performed. Conclusions: The scientific basis for the VLI procedure is similar to that for the CLI originally presented by NIOSH; however, the VLI method remains to be validated. Application: The VLI method allows an analyst to assess highly variable manual lifting jobs in which the task characteristics vary from lift to lift during a shift. PMID:26646300

  6. Indexing Similar DNA Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songbo; Lam, T. W.; Sung, W. K.; Tam, S. L.; Yiu, S. M.

    To study the genetic variations of a species, one basic operation is to search for occurrences of patterns in a large number of very similar genomic sequences. To build an indexing data structure on the concatenation of all sequences may require a lot of memory. In this paper, we propose a new scheme to index highly similar sequences by taking advantage of the similarity among the sequences. To store r sequences with k common segments, our index requires only O(n + NlogN) bits of memory, where n is the total length of the common segments and N is the total length of the distinct regions in all texts. The total length of all sequences is rn + N, and any scheme to store these sequences requires Ω(n + N) bits. Searching for a pattern P of length m takes O(m + m logN + m log(rk)psc(P) + occlogn), where psc(P) is the number of prefixes of P that appear as a suffix of some common segments and occ is the number of occurrences of P in all sequences. In practice, rk ≤ N, and psc(P) is usually a small constant. We have implemented our solution and evaluated our solution using real DNA sequences. The experiments show that the memory requirement of our solution is much less than that required by BWT built on the concatenation of all sequences. When compared to the other existing solution (RLCSA), we use less memory with faster searching time.

  7. New weather index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scientists at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the University of Delaware have refined the wind-chill factor, a common measurement of weather discomfort, into a new misery register called the weather stress index. In addition to the mix of temperature and wind speed data used to calculate wind chill, the recipe for the index adds two new ingredients—humidity and a dash of benchmark statistics—to estimate human reaction to weather conditions. NOAA says that the weather stress index estimates human reaction to weather conditions and that the reaction depends on variations from the ‘normal’ conditions in the locality involved.Discomfort criteria for New Orleans, La., and Bismarck, N.D., for example, differ drastically. According to NOAA, when it's the middle of winter and it's -10°C with a relative humidity of 80% and 24 km/h winds, persons in New Orleans would be highly stressed while those in Bismarck wouldn't bat an eye.

  8. Index of cyber integrity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Gustave

    2014-05-01

    Unfortunately, there is no metric, nor set of metrics, that are both general enough to encompass all possible types of applications yet specific enough to capture the application and attack specific details. As a result we are left with ad-hoc methods for generating evaluations of the security of our systems. Current state of the art methods for evaluating the security of systems include penetration testing and cyber evaluation tests. For these evaluations, security professionals simulate an attack from malicious outsiders and malicious insiders. These evaluations are very productive and are able to discover potential vulnerabilities resulting from improper system configuration, hardware and software flaws, or operational weaknesses. We therefore propose the index of cyber integrity (ICI), which is modeled after the index of biological integrity (IBI) to provide a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment. The ICI provides a broad base measure through a collection of application and system specific metrics. In this paper, following the example of the IBI, we demonstrate how a multi-metric index may be used as a holistic measure of the health of a system under test in a cyber-environment.

  9. 29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. TRACK LAYOUT, INDEX TO DRAWINGS AND INDEX TO MATERIALS, REED & STEM ARCHITECTS, ST. PAUL, NEW YORK, 1909 (Burlington Northern Collection, Seattle, Washington) - Union Passenger Station Concourse, 1713 Pacific Avenue, Tacoma, Pierce County, WA

  10. Developing a Vocational Index for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Julie Lounds; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick

    2012-01-01

    Existing methods of indexing the vocational activities of adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have made significant contributions to research. Nonetheless, they are limited by problems with sensitivity and reliability. We developed an index of vocational and educational outcomes that captures the full range of activities experienced by…

  11. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

  12. Body Mass Index

    PubMed Central

    Nuttall, Frank Q.

    2015-01-01

    The body mass index (BMI) is the metric currently in use for defining anthropometric height/weight characteristics in adults and for classifying (categorizing) them into groups. The common interpretation is that it represents an index of an individual’s fatness. It also is widely used as a risk factor for the development of or the prevalence of several health issues. In addition, it is widely used in determining public health policies.The BMI has been useful in population-based studies by virtue of its wide acceptance in defining specific categories of body mass as a health issue. However, it is increasingly clear that BMI is a rather poor indicator of percent of body fat. Importantly, the BMI also does not capture information on the mass of fat in different body sites. The latter is related not only to untoward health issues but to social issues as well. Lastly, current evidence indicates there is a wide range of BMIs over which mortality risk is modest, and this is age related. All of these issues are discussed in this brief review. PMID:27340299

  13. Index Sets and Vectorization

    SciTech Connect

    Keasler, J A

    2012-03-27

    Vectorization is data parallelism (SIMD, SIMT, etc.) - extension of ISA enabling the same instruction to be performed on multiple data items simultaeously. Many/most CPUs support vectorization in some form. Vectorization is difficult to enable, but can yield large efficiency gains. Extra programmer effort is required because: (1) not all algorithms can be vectorized (regular algorithm structure and fine-grain parallelism must be used); (2) most CPUs have data alignment restrictions for load/store operations (obey or risk incorrect code); (3) special directives are often needed to enable vectorization; and (4) vector instructions are architecture-specific. Vectorization is the best way to optimize for power and performance due to reduced clock cycles. When data is organized properly, a vector load instruction (i.e. movaps) can replace 'normal' load instructions (i.e. movsd). Vector operations can potentially have a smaller footprint in the instruction cache when fewer instructions need to be executed. Hybrid index sets insulate users from architecture specific details. We have applied hybrid index sets to achieve optimal vectorization. We can extend this concept to handle other programming models.

  14. Association between the Presence of Autoantibodies Targeting Ficolin-3 and Active Nephritis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Clavarino, Giovanna; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Ouili, Saber; Paul, Stéphane; Gout, Evelyne; Sarrot-Reynauld, Françoise; Bardin, Nathalie; Boëlle, Pierre -Yves; Chiche, Laurent; Bouillet, Laurence; Thielens, Nicole M.; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of multiple autoantibodies. Antibodies against Ficolin-3 were previously identified in the sera of some SLE patients, but their prevalence and significance have not been yet investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies among SLE patients and to investigate their potential as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in SLE. In this retrospective study, sera from SLE patients (n = 165) were selected from a preexisting declared biological collection. Samples from healthy controls (n = 48) were matched with SLE sera. Disease activity was determined according to the SLEDAI score. Anti-ficolin-3, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies levels were measured in sera by ELISA. First, a highly significant difference was found in the anti-ficolin-3 levels between SLE patients and healthy subjects. Anti-ficolin-3 antibodies were detected as positive in 56 of 165 (34%) SLE patients. The titer of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies was correlated with the SLEDAI score (r = 0.38, p<0.0001). The presence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies was associated with anti-C1q and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Regarding associations with clinical manifestations, the presence of active lupus nephritis was significantly associated with the presence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies (p≤0.001). This association with renal involvement was higher with anti-ficolin-3 or anti-C1q antibodies than with other auto-antibodies. Interestingly, the combination of anti-ficolin-3 and anti-C1q antibodies demonstrated higher specificity than any other serological biomarker. These results suggest that anti-ficolin-3 antibodies could be useful for the diagnosis of active nephritis in SLE patients. PMID:27631981

  15. Association between the Presence of Autoantibodies Targeting Ficolin-3 and Active Nephritis in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Plawecki, Maëlle; Lheritier, Elise; Clavarino, Giovanna; Jourde-Chiche, Noémie; Ouili, Saber; Paul, Stéphane; Gout, Evelyne; Sarrot-Reynauld, Françoise; Bardin, Nathalie; Boëlle, Pierre-Yves; Chiche, Laurent; Bouillet, Laurence; Thielens, Nicole M; Cesbron, Jean-Yves; Dumestre-Pérard, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the production of multiple autoantibodies. Antibodies against Ficolin-3 were previously identified in the sera of some SLE patients, but their prevalence and significance have not been yet investigated. The aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies among SLE patients and to investigate their potential as diagnostic and/or prognostic biomarkers in SLE. In this retrospective study, sera from SLE patients (n = 165) were selected from a preexisting declared biological collection. Samples from healthy controls (n = 48) were matched with SLE sera. Disease activity was determined according to the SLEDAI score. Anti-ficolin-3, anti-dsDNA and anti-C1q antibodies levels were measured in sera by ELISA. First, a highly significant difference was found in the anti-ficolin-3 levels between SLE patients and healthy subjects. Anti-ficolin-3 antibodies were detected as positive in 56 of 165 (34%) SLE patients. The titer of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies was correlated with the SLEDAI score (r = 0.38, p<0.0001). The presence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies was associated with anti-C1q and anti-dsDNA antibodies. Regarding associations with clinical manifestations, the presence of active lupus nephritis was significantly associated with the presence of anti-ficolin-3 antibodies (p≤0.001). This association with renal involvement was higher with anti-ficolin-3 or anti-C1q antibodies than with other auto-antibodies. Interestingly, the combination of anti-ficolin-3 and anti-C1q antibodies demonstrated higher specificity than any other serological biomarker. These results suggest that anti-ficolin-3 antibodies could be useful for the diagnosis of active nephritis in SLE patients. PMID:27631981

  16. Quality Indexing with Computer-Aided Lexicography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchan, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of computer-aided indexing activity focuses on examples from projects at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Standardization and quality in providing subject access to databases are considered; and computer-aided lexicography, including thesaurus construction, access vocabulary, definitions preparation,…

  17. An Introduction to Voice Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, James G.

    1986-01-01

    Uses and sources of voice indexing (a look-up feature for recorded materials) are discussed. Voice indexing enables a blind user of audiocassettes to find specific sections of recorded text independently. A procedure for sequential voice indexing on a two-track or four-track cassette recorder is described. (JW)

  18. Rapid shallow breathing index

    PubMed Central

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A.; Pillai, Lalitha V.; Arabi, Yaseen M.

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  19. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  20. Rapid shallow breathing index.

    PubMed

    Karthika, Manjush; Al Enezi, Farhan A; Pillai, Lalitha V; Arabi, Yaseen M

    2016-01-01

    Predicting successful liberation of patients from mechanical ventilation has been a focus of interest to clinicians practicing in intensive care. Various weaning indices have been investigated to identify an optimal weaning window. Among them, the rapid shallow breathing index (RSBI) has gained wide use due to its simple technique and avoidance of calculation of complex pulmonary mechanics. Since its first description, several modifications have been suggested, such as the serial measurements and the rate of change of RSBI, to further improve its predictive value. The objective of this paper is to review the utility of RSBI in predicting weaning success. In addition, the use of RSBI in specific patient populations and the reported modifications of RSBI technique that attempt to improve the utility of RSBI are also reviewed. PMID:27512505

  1. Traffic air quality index.

    PubMed

    Bagieński, Zbigniew

    2015-02-01

    Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI. PMID:25461063

  2. A Windshear Hazard Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Proctor, Fred H.; Hinton, David A.; Bowles, Roland L.

    2000-01-01

    An aircraft exposed to hazardous low-level windshear may suffer a critical loss of airspeed and altitude, thus endangering its ability to remain airborne. In order to characterize this hazard, a nondimensional index was developed based oil aerodynamic principals and understanding of windshear phenomena, 'This paper reviews the development and application of the Bowles F-tactor. which is now used by onboard sensors for the detection of hazardous windshear. It was developed and tested during NASA/I:AA's airborne windshear program and is now required for FAA certification of onboard radar windshear detection systems. Reviewed in this paper are: 1) definition of windshear and description of atmospheric phenomena that may cause hazardous windshear. 2) derivation and discussion of the F-factor. 3) development of the F-factor hazard threshold, 4) its testing during field deployments, and 5) its use in accident reconstructions,

  3. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported. PMID:27528524

  4. Effects of an after-school care-administered physical activity and nutrition protocol on body mass index, fitness levels, and targeted psychological factors in 5- to 8-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Annesi, James J; Smith, Alice E; Walsh, Stephanie M; Mareno, Nicole; Smith, Kathleen R

    2016-09-01

    Over one third of U.S. youth are overweight or obese. Treatments typically have had unreliable effects, inconsistently incorporating behavior-change theory. After-school care might be a viable setting for health behavior-change programs. We evaluated effects of two consecutive 12-week segments of a revised self-efficacy/social cognitive theory-based physical activity and nutrition treatment on fitness levels, body mass index (BMI), and targeted psychosocial factors in after-school care participants, ages 5-8 years. Changes in physiological measures, exercise self-efficacy (ESE), and physical self-concept over 9 months were contrasted in experimental (n = 72) vs. typical-care (n = 42) groups. Mediation of the group-BMI change relationship by the psychosocial factors was also assessed. Improvements in physiological measures and ESE were significantly greater in the experimental group. ESE change completely mediated the association of treatment type with BMI change. The experimental group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in the physiological measures, with its treatment's theoretical basis and application within after-school care supported.

  5. Indexing contamination surveys

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.L.

    1998-02-06

    The responsibility for safely managing the Tank Farms at Hanford belongs to Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation which is part of the six company Project Hanford Management Team led by Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc.. These Tank Farm Facilities contain numerous outdoor contamination areas which are surveyed at a periodicity consistent with the potential radiological conditions, occupancy, and risk of changes in radiological conditions. This document describes the survey documentation and data tracking method devised to track the results of contamination surveys this process is referred to as indexing. The indexing process takes a representative data set as an indicator for the contamination status of the facility. The data are further manipulated into a single value that can be tracked and trended using standard statistical methodology. To report meaningful data, the routine contamination surveys must be performed in a manner that allows the survey method and the data collection process to be recreated. Three key criteria are necessary to accomplish this goal: Accurate maps, consistent documentation, and consistent consolidation of data meeting these criteria provides data of sufficient quality to be tracked. Tracking of survey data is accomplished by converting the individual survey results into a weighted value, corrected for the actual number of survey points. This information can be compared over time using standard statistical analysis to identify trends. At the Tank Farms, the need to track and trend the facility`s radiological status presents unique challenges. Many of these Tank Farm facilities date back to the second world war. The Tank Farm Facilities are exposed to weather extremes, plant and animal intrusion, as well as all of the normal challenges associated with handling radiological waste streams. Routine radiological surveys did not provide a radiological status adequate for continuing comparisons.

  6. Solar index generation and delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, L.J.

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Index, or, more completely defined as the Service Hot Water Solar Index, was conceptualized during the spring of 1978. The purpose was to enhance public awareness to solar energy usability. Basically, the Solar Index represents the percentage of energy that solar would provide in order to heat an 80 gallon service hot water load for a given location and day. The Index is computed by utilizing SOLCOST, a computer program, which also has applications to space heating, cooling, and heat pump systems and which supplies economic analyses for such solar energy systems. The Index is generated for approximately 68 geographic locations in the country on a daily basis. The definition of the Index, how the project came to be, what it is at the present time and a plan for the future are described. Also presented are the models used for the generation of the Index, a discussion of the primary tool of implementation (the SOLCOST program) and future efforts.

  7. Scintillation Monitoring Using Asymmetry Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaikh, Muhammad Mubasshir; Mahrous, Ayman; Abdallah, Amr; Notarpietro, Riccardo

    Variation in electron density can have significant effect on GNSS signals in terms of propagation delay. Ionospheric scintillation can be caused by rapid change of such delay, specifically, when they last for a longer period of time. Ionospheric irregularities that account for scintillation may vary significantly in spatial range and drift with the background plasma at speeds of 45 to 130 m/sec. These patchy irregularities may occur several times during night, e.g. in equatorial region, with the patches move through the ray paths of the GNSS satellite signals. These irregularities are often characterized as either ‘large scale’ (which can be as large as several hundred km in East-West direction and many times that in the North-South direction) or ‘small scale’ (which can be as small as 1m). These small scale irregularities are regarded as the main cause of scintillation [1,2]. In normal solar activity conditions, the mid-latitude ionosphere is not much disturbed. However, during severe magnetic storms, the aurora oval extends towards the equator and the equator anomaly region may stretched towards poles extending the scintillation phenomena more typically associated with those regions into mid-latitudes. In such stormy conditions, the predicted TEC may deviate largely from the true value of the TEC both at low and mid-latitudes due to which GNSS applications may be strongly degraded. This work is an attempt to analyze ionospheric scintillation (S4 index) using ionospheric asymmetry index [3]. The asymmetry index is based on trans-ionospheric propagation between GPS and LEO satellites in a radio occultation (RO) scenario, using background ionospheric data provided by MIDAS [4]. We attempted to simulate one of the recent geomagnetic storms (NOAA scale G4) occurred over low/mid-latitudes. The storm started on 26 September 2011 at UT 18:00 and lasted until early hours of 27 September 2011. The scintillation data for the storm was taken from an ionospheric

  8. Habitat suitability index models: Black crappie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edwards, Elizabeth A.; Krieger, Douglas A.; Bacteller, Mary; Maughan, O. Eugene

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics and habitat requirements of the black crappie (Pomoxis nigromaculatus) are described in a review of Habitat Suitability Index models. This is one in a series of publications to provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Numerous literature sources have been consulted in an effort to consolidate scientific data on species-habitat relationships. These data have subsequently been synthesized into explicit Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The models are based on suitability indices indicating habitat preferences. Indices have been formulated for variables found to affect the life cycle and survival of each species. Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models are designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities. The HSI technique is a corollary to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures.

  9. [ENDOMETRIOSIS FERTILITY INDEX].

    PubMed

    Ibrjam, I; Veleva, G; Karagjozova, G; Ivanov, S

    2016-01-01

    In women suffering from endometriosis and infertility, the decision as to when and how to perform surgical excision and/or fertility treatment is mainly based on clinical guidelines and expert opinions. However, so far data from randomized controlled trials or meta-analyses to answer the question whether surgical treatment of moderate to severe endometriosis can indeed enhance pregnancy rates compared with expectant management are lacking, as not all studies report fertility outcome or supply sufficiently detailed information. The most frequently used staging system for endometriosis is the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) score (ASRM, 1997). Unfortunately, this classification system has some serious limitations, including not effectively predicting clinical outcomes of treatment, especially pregnancy rates in infertile patients. For this reason, Adamson and Pasta (2010) developed the endometriosis fertility index (EFI). EFI is a scoring system which includes assessment of historical factors at the time of surgery (age, duration of infertility and pregnancy history), of adnexal function at conclusion of surgery (functional score of Fallopian tubes, fimbriae and ovaries bilaterally), and of the extensiveness of endometriosis (rAFS endometriosis lesion score and total rAFS score). The EFI is intended as a clinical tool to counsel patients on the approach towards fertility after surgery. PMID:27509661

  10. Glycaemic index methodology.

    PubMed

    Brouns, F; Bjorck, I; Frayn, K N; Gibbs, A L; Lang, V; Slama, G; Wolever, T M S

    2005-06-01

    The glycaemic index (GI) concept was originally introduced to classify different sources of carbohydrate (CHO)-rich foods, usually having an energy content of >80 % from CHO, to their effect on post-meal glycaemia. It was assumed to apply to foods that primarily deliver available CHO, causing hyperglycaemia. Low-GI foods were classified as being digested and absorbed slowly and high-GI foods as being rapidly digested and absorbed, resulting in different glycaemic responses. Low-GI foods were found to induce benefits on certain risk factors for CVD and diabetes. Accordingly it has been proposed that GI classification of foods and drinks could be useful to help consumers make 'healthy food choices' within specific food groups. Classification of foods according to their impact on blood glucose responses requires a standardised way of measuring such responses. The present review discusses the most relevant methodological considerations and highlights specific recommendations regarding number of subjects, sex, subject status, inclusion and exclusion criteria, pre-test conditions, CHO test dose, blood sampling procedures, sampling times, test randomisation and calculation of glycaemic response area under the curve. All together, these technical recommendations will help to implement or reinforce measurement of GI in laboratories and help to ensure quality of results. Since there is current international interest in alternative ways of expressing glycaemic responses to foods, some of these methods are discussed.

  11. Applied Parallel Metadata Indexing

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobi, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    The GPFS Archive is parallel archive is a parallel archive used by hundreds of users in the Turquoise collaboration network. It houses 4+ petabytes of data in more than 170 million files. Currently, users must navigate the file system to retrieve their data, requiring them to remember file paths and names. A better solution might allow users to tag data with meaningful labels and searach the archive using standard and user-defined metadata, while maintaining security. last summer, I developed the backend to a tool that adheres to these design goals. The backend works by importing GPFS metadata into a MongoDB cluster, which is then indexed on each attribute. This summer, the author implemented security and developed the user interfae for the search tool. To meet security requirements, each database table is associated with a single user, which only stores records that the user may read, and requires a set of credentials to access. The interface to the search tool is implemented using FUSE (Filesystem in USErspace). FUSE is an intermediate layer that intercepts file system calls and allows the developer to redefine how those calls behave. In the case of this tool, FUSE interfaces with MongoDB to issue queries and populate output. A FUSE implementation is desirable because it allows users to interact with the search tool using commands they are already familiar with. These security and interface additions are essential for a usable product.

  12. Aeronautical Engineering: 1983 cumulative index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    This bibliography is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in NASA SP-7037 (158) through NASA SP-7037 (169) of Aeronautical Engineering: A Continuing Bibliography. NASA SP-7037 and its supplements have been compiled through the cooperative efforts of the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cumulative index includes subject, personal author, corporate source, contract, report number, and accession number indexes.

  13. MedIndEx System: Medical Indexing Expert System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, Susanne M.

    1989-01-01

    Describes a prototype system for interactive knowledge-based indexing of the medical literature. Topics covered include current indexing practice; knowledge-based systems using frames; various types of assistance provided by the prototype system; and current research activities and plans for the development of the system. (17 references) (CLB)

  14. Malaysian Education Index (MEI): An Online Indexing and Repository System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabilan, Muhammad Kamarul; Ismail, Hairul Nizam; Yaakub, Rohizani; Yusof, Najeemah Mohd; Idros, Sharifah Noraidah Syed; Umar, Irfan Naufal; Arshad, Muhammad Rafie Mohd.; Idrus, Rosnah; Rahman, Habsah Abdul

    2010-01-01

    This "Project Sheet" describes an on-going project that is being carried out by a group of educational researchers, computer science researchers and librarians from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang. The Malaysian Education Index (MEI) has two main functions--(1) Online Indexing System, and (2) Online Repository System. In this brief…

  15. EQ Index, 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Federation, Washington, DC.

    To assess the status of our environmental quality and determine if we are winning or losing the campaign to save our environment, the National Wildlife Federation has developed this "EQ" kit. Multi-media materials help measure one's attitudes and activities in the areas of air, water, forests, wildlife, minerals, and soil conservation. Living…

  16. Acoustic radiation force impulse elastography, FibroScan®, Forns’ index and their combination in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B, and the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on these diagnostic methods

    PubMed Central

    DONG, DAO-RAN; HAO, MEI-NA; LI, CHENG; PENG, ZE; LIU, XIA; WANG, GUI-PING; MA, AN-LIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the combination of certain serological markers (Forns’ index; FI), FibroScan® and acoustic radiation force impulse elastography (ARFI) in the assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with hepatitis B, and to explore the impact of inflammatory activity and steatosis on the accuracy of these diagnostic methods. Eighty-one patients who had been diagnosed with hepatitis B were recruited and the stage of fibrosis was determined by biopsy. The diagnostic accuracy of FI, FibroScan and ARFI, as well as that of the combination of these methods, was evaluated based on the conformity of the results from these tests with those of biopsies. The effect of concomitant inflammation on diagnostic accuracy was also investigated by dividing the patients into two groups based on the grade of inflammation (G<2 and G≥2). The overall univariate correlation between steatosis and the diagnostic value of the three methods was also evaluated. There was a significant association between the stage of fibrosis and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis; P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test, P<0.001 for all patients). The combination of FI with ARFI/FibroScan increased the predictive accuracy with a fibrosis stage of S≥2 or cirrhosis. There was a significant correlation between the grade of inflammation and the results obtained using ARFI and FibroScan (Kruskal-Wallis, P<0.001 for all patients), and FI (t-test; P<0.001 for all patients). No significant correlation was detected between the measurements obtained using ARFI, FibroScan and FI, and steatosis (r=−0.100, P=0.407; r=0.170, P=0.163; and r=0.154, P=0.216, respectively). ARFI was shown to be as effective in the diagnosis of liver fibrosis as FibroScan or FI, and the combination of ARFI or FibroScan with FI may improve the accuracy of diagnosis. The presence of inflammatory activity, but not that of steatosis, may affect the diagnostic accuracy of these

  17. The HLD (CalMod) index and the index question.

    PubMed

    Parker, W S

    1998-08-01

    The malocclusion index problem arises because of the need to identify which patient's treatments will be paid for with tax dollars. Both the civilian (Medicaid) and military (Champus) programs in the United States require that "need" be demonstrated. Need is defined as "medically necessary handicapping malocclusion" in Medicaid parlance. It is defined by Champus as "seriously handicapping malocclusion." The responsible specialty organization (the AAO) first approved the Salzmann Index in 1969 for this purpose and then reversed course in 1985 and took a formal position against the use of any index. Dentistry has historically chosen a state of occlusal perfection as ideal and normal and declared that variation was not normal hence abnormal and thus malocclusion. This "ideal" composes from 1% to 2% of the population and fails all statistical standards. Many indexes have been proposed based on variations from this "ideal" and fail for that reason. They are not logical. The HLD (CalMod) Index is a lawsuit-driven modification of some 1960 suggestions by Dr. Harry L. Draker. It proposes to identify the worst looking malocclusions as handicapping and offers a cut-off point to identify them. In addition, the modification includes two situations known to be destructive to tissue and structures. As of Jan. 1, 1998, the California program has had 135,655 patients screened by qualified orthodontists using this index. Of that number, 49,537 patients have had study models made and screened by qualified orthodontists using the index. Two separate studies have been performed to examine results and to identify problems. Necessary changes have been made and guidelines produced. The index problem has proven to be very dynamic in application. The HLD (CalMod) Index has been successfully applied and tested in very large numbers. This article is published as a factual review of the situation regarding the index question and one solution in the United States. PMID:9714277

  18. The Pemberton Happiness Index

    PubMed Central

    Paiva, Bianca Sakamoto Ribeiro; de Camargos, Mayara Goulart; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Hervás, Gonzalo; Vázquez, Carmelo; Paiva, Carlos Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Pemberton Happiness Index (PHI) is a recently developed integrative measure of well-being that includes components of hedonic, eudaimonic, social, and experienced well-being. The PHI has been validated in several languages, but not in Portuguese. Our aim was to cross-culturally adapt the Universal Portuguese version of the PHI and to assess its psychometric properties in a sample of the Brazilian population using online surveys. An expert committee evaluated 2 versions of the PHI previously translated into Portuguese by the original authors using a standardized form for assessment of semantic/idiomatic, cultural, and conceptual equivalence. A pretesting was conducted employing cognitive debriefing methods. In sequence, the expert committee evaluated all the documents and reached a final Universal Portuguese PHI version. For the evaluation of the psychometric properties, the data were collected using online surveys in a cross-sectional study. The study population included healthcare professionals and users of the social network site Facebook from several Brazilian geographic areas. In addition to the PHI, participants completed the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Diener and Emmons’ Positive and Negative Experience Scale (PNES), Psychological Well-being Scale (PWS), and the Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS). Internal consistency, convergent validity, known-group validity, and test–retest reliability were evaluated. Satisfaction with the previous day was correlated with the 10 items assessing experienced well-being using the Cramer V test. Additionally, a cut-off value of PHI to identify a “happy individual” was defined using receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology. Data from 1035 Brazilian participants were analyzed (health professionals = 180; Facebook users = 855). Regarding reliability results, the internal consistency (Cronbach alpha = 0.890 and 0.914) and test–retest (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.814) were

  19. Correlation between clinical severity of central nervous system (CNS) lupus and findings on single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) images of the brain; preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Silverman, I.E.; Zeit, R.M.; Von Feldt, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    Systemic Lupus Erythematosis (SLE) commonly causes significant neuropsychiatric disorders. The purpose of this study was to review the brain SPECT studies of SLE patients with clinical evidence of CNS involvement and determine whether there is a correlation between the findings on SPECT images and the clinical manifestations of this serious phase of the disease. We enrolled 19 SLE patients and 12 normal controls in this study. The level of each patient`s disease activity was determined by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), an established method of scoring disease severity which is heavily weighted toward neuropsychiatric symptomatology, for 15 of the 19 SLE patients. The SLEDAI was calculated within a 10 day window of the date when the SPECT scan was obtained. SPECT scans were performed 30 minutes following the intravenous administration of 99mTc-HMPAO. Results are discussed.

  20. How To Create a Great Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Contends that the index at the back of a book is an important reader service. Discusses how and why to index, and how to make indexes interesting. Outlines programs, such as Filemaker and Adobe, which help the indexing process. (PM)

  1. Disease activity and damage accrual during the early disease course in a multinational inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Nossent, J; Kiss, E; Rozman, B; Pokorny, G; Vlachoyiannopoulos, P; Olesinska, M; Marchesoni, A; Mosca, M; Påi, S; Manger, K; Schneider, M; Nielsen, H; van Vollenhoven, R; Swaak, T

    2010-07-01

    An inception cohort of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus from 14 European centres was followed for up to 5 years in order to describe the current early disease course. At inclusion patients (n = 200, 89% female, mean age 35 years, 97% Caucasian, mean SLEDAI 12.2) fulfilled a mean of 6.5 ACR classification criteria. The most prevalent criteria were antinuclear Ab presence (97%) followed by anti-dsDNA Ab (74%), arthritis (69%), leukocytopenia (54%) and malar rash (53%), antiphospholipid Ab (48%) and anti-synovial membrane Ab (21.6%). Clinical signs of lupus nephritis (LN) were present in 39% with biopsy-confirmed LN seen in 25%. Frequent additional findings were hypocomplementaemia (54%), anti-SSA Ab (49%), alopecia (26%) and Raynaud's phenomenon (31%). There were few regional differences in disease presentation and management. One and 5-year survival rates were 99% and 97% respectively. During the mean follow-up of 4.1 years 25% entered a state of early disease quiescence by global physician assessment, but the overall risk of subsequent flare was 60%. Maximum SLEDAI scores decreased over time, but 45% of patients accrued damage (SDI >or=1) for which baseline presence of proteinuria and persistent disease activity were independent predictors. The results indicate minor differences in SLE presentation and treatment within various regions of Europe and a high diagnostic reliance on anti-dsDNA Ab. Despite early reductions in disease activity and improved mortality, the risk for disease flare and damage development is, however, still substantial, especially in patients not entering an early remission.

  2. Indexing by Latent Semantic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deerwester, Scott; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes a new method for automatic indexing and retrieval called latent semantic indexing (LSI). Problems with matching query words with document words in term-based information retrieval systems are discussed, semantic structure is examined, singular value decomposition (SVD) is explained, and the mathematics underlying the SVD model is…

  3. Simplifying the Water Poverty Index

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Danny I.; Ogwang, Tomson; Opio, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, principal components methodology is used to derive simplified and cost effective indexes of water poverty. Using a well known data set for 147 countries from which an earlier five-component water poverty index comprising of "Resources," "Access," "Capacity," "Use" and "Environment" was constructed, we find that a simplified…

  4. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    The computer assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects described in this index are listed by subject matter. The index gives the program name, author, source, description, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student, average completion time, logic and program, purpose for which program was designed, supplementary…

  5. The Development of Indexing Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Roy

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of indexing in database management systems to provide librarians with more understanding of the possibilities and limitations of current information systems. Sequential, direct, indexed sequential, and virtual sequential file accessing methods are explained, and various binary tree structures are described. (EAM)

  6. Developments in Indexing Picture Collections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1993-01-01

    Discussion of electronic image processing focuses on the need for indexing to ensure adequate retrieval. Highlights include icons, i.e., reduced pictorial surrogates; file staging; indexing languages, including examples of thesauri; and pictorial languages, including a HyperCard system. (Contains eight references.) (LRW)

  7. Linguistic Indexicality in Algebra Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staats, Susan; Batteen, Chris

    2010-01-01

    In discussion-oriented classrooms, students create mathematical ideas through conversations that reflect growing collective knowledge. Linguistic forms known as indexicals assist in the analysis of this collective, negotiated understanding. Indexical words and phrases create meaning through reference to the physical, verbal and ideational context.…

  8. The Earliest Hebrew Citation Indexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Bella Hass

    1997-01-01

    Describes early Hebrew citation indexes, both embedded and book-length, and discusses terminological variation, format, precision of locators, the order of index entries and assumption of user knowledge, knowledge of the compilers, and recommendations for further research. (59 references) (LRW)

  9. Generalized flexibility-rigidity index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Duc Duy; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    Flexibility-rigidity index (FRI) has been developed as a robust, accurate, and efficient method for macromolecular thermal fluctuation analysis and B-factor prediction. The performance of FRI depends on its formulations of rigidity index and flexibility index. In this work, we introduce alternative rigidity and flexibility formulations. The structure of the classic Gaussian surface is utilized to construct a new type of rigidity index, which leads to a new class of rigidity densities with the classic Gaussian surface as a special case. Additionally, we introduce a new type of flexibility index based on the domain indicator property of normalized rigidity density. These generalized FRI (gFRI) methods have been extensively validated by the B-factor predictions of 364 proteins. Significantly outperforming the classic Gaussian network model, gFRI is a new generation of methodologies for accurate, robust, and efficient analysis of protein flexibility and fluctuation. Finally, gFRI based molecular surface generation and flexibility visualization are demonstrated.

  10. Index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1974

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The following information was given for 1974: (1) abstracts of reports dealing with new technology derived from the research and development activities of NASA or the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, arranged by subjects: electronics/electrical, electronics/electrical systems, physical sciences, materials/chemistry, life sciences, mechanics, machines, equipment and tools, fabrication technology, and computer programs, (2) indexes for the above documents: subject, personal author, originating center.

  11. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Eastern meadowlark

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.; Sousa, Patrick J.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the eastern meadowlark, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word, and mathematical, and is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  12. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pine warbler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Richard L.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences of the pine warbler (Dendroica pinus) are described in this publication, which is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. Habitat use information is presented in a synthesis of the literature on the species-habitat requirements of the pine warbler, followed by the development of the HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic, word, and mathematical, and is designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management activities.

  13. Index to NASA News Releases 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This issue of the index to NASA News Releases contains a listing of news releases distributed by the Office of Public Affairs, NASA Headquarters, during 1995. The index is arranged in six sections: Subject index, Personal name index, News release number index, Accession number index, Speeches, and News releases.

  14. The nucleophilicity N index in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia

    2011-10-21

    The nucleophilicity N index (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 4615), the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, and the recently proposed inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻, (J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4957) have been checked toward (i) a series of single 5-substituted indoles for which rate constants are available, (ii) a series of para-substituted phenols, and for (iii) a series of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes which display concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. While all considered indices account well for the nucleophilic behavior of organic molecules having a single substitution, the nucleophilicity N index works better for more complex molecules. Unlike, the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, (R(2) = 0.71), and the inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻ (R(2) = 0.83), a very good correlation of the nucleophilicity N index of twelve 2-substituted-6-methoxy-bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes versus the activation energy associated with the nucleophilic attack on 1,1-dicyanoethylene is found (R(2) = 0.99). This comparative study allows to assert that the nucleophilicity N index is a measure of the nucleophilicity of complex organic molecules displaying concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. PMID:21842104

  15. The nucleophilicity N index in organic chemistry.

    PubMed

    Domingo, Luis R; Pérez, Patricia

    2011-10-21

    The nucleophilicity N index (J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 4615), the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, and the recently proposed inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻, (J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 4957) have been checked toward (i) a series of single 5-substituted indoles for which rate constants are available, (ii) a series of para-substituted phenols, and for (iii) a series of 2,5-disubstituted bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes which display concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors. While all considered indices account well for the nucleophilic behavior of organic molecules having a single substitution, the nucleophilicity N index works better for more complex molecules. Unlike, the inverse of the electrophilicity, 1/ω, (R(2) = 0.71), and the inverse of the electrodonating power, 1/ω⁻ (R(2) = 0.83), a very good correlation of the nucleophilicity N index of twelve 2-substituted-6-methoxy-bicyclic[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-dienes versus the activation energy associated with the nucleophilic attack on 1,1-dicyanoethylene is found (R(2) = 0.99). This comparative study allows to assert that the nucleophilicity N index is a measure of the nucleophilicity of complex organic molecules displaying concurrently electrophilic and nucleophilic behaviors.

  16. L'index significant (The Pointed Index Finger).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calbris, G.

    1979-01-01

    In the framework of a study of nonverbal communication, the various meanings attached to the pointed index finger are analyzed. The question is raised as to what extent the findings hold for cultures other than French. (AMH)

  17. [The assessment of exposure to and the activity of the manual lifting of patients in wards: methods, procedures, the exposure index (MAPO) and classification criteria. Movimientazione e Assistenza Pazienti Ospedalizzati (Lifting and Assistance to Hospitalized Patients)].

    PubMed

    Menoni, O; Ricci, M G; Panciera, D; Occhipinti, E

    1999-01-01

    Since a method for quantifying exposure to patient handling in hospital wards is lacking, the authors describe and propose a model for identifying the main risk factors in this type of occupational exposure: presence of disabled patients, staff engaged on manual handling of patients, structure of the working environment, equipment and aids for moving patients, training of workers according to the specific risk. For each factor a procedure for identification and assessment is proposed that is easily applicable in practice. The authors also propose a formula for the calculation of a condensed exposure index (MAPO Index), which brings together the various factors. The exposure index, which requires further, detailed study and validation, makes it possible, in practice, to plan the preventive and health measures according to a specific order of priority, thus complying with the requirements of Chapter V of Law 626/94. From a practical point of view, in the present state of knowledge, it can be stated that for MAPO Index values between 0 and 1.5, risk is deemed negligible, average for values between 1.51 and 5, and high for values exceeding 5.

  18. Indexing and Automatic Significance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinacker, Ivo

    1974-01-01

    An algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of sequential indexing which does not use any grammatical or semantic analysis, but follows the principle of emulating human judgement by evaluation of machine-recognizable attributes of structured word assemblies. (Author)

  19. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  20. Environmental Quality Index - Overview Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    A better estimate of overall environmental quality is needed to improve our understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and humanhealth. Described in this report is the effort to construct an environmental quality index representing multiple domains of the ...

  1. Energy Index For Aircraft Maneuvers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R. (Inventor); Lynch, Robert E. (Inventor); Lawrence, Robert E. (Inventor); Amidan, Brett G. (Inventor); Ferryman, Thomas A. (Inventor); Drew, Douglas A. (Inventor); Ainsworth, Robert J. (Inventor); Prothero, Gary L. (Inventor); Romanowski, Tomothy P. (Inventor); Bloch, Laurent (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Method and system for analyzing, separately or in combination, kinetic energy and potential energy and/or their time derivatives, measured or estimated or computed, for an aircraft in approach phase or in takeoff phase, to determine if the aircraft is or will be put in an anomalous configuration in order to join a stable approach path or takeoff path. A 3 reference value of kinetic energy andor potential energy (or time derivatives thereof) is provided, and a comparison index .for the estimated energy and reference energy is computed and compared with a normal range of index values for a corresponding aircraft maneuver. If the computed energy index lies outside the normal index range, this phase of the aircraft is identified as anomalous, non-normal or potentially unstable.

  2. Ozone - Current Air Quality Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... reducing exposure to extremely high levels of particle pollution is available here . Fires: Current Conditions Click to ... Air Quality Basics Air Quality Index | Ozone | Particle Pollution | Smoke from fires | What You Can Do Health ...

  3. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Muskellunge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, Mark F.; Solomon, R. Charles

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the muskellunge (Esox masquinongy Mitchell). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  4. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Bobcat

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyle, Katherine A.; Fendley, Timothy T.

    1987-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the bobcat (Felis rufus). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  5. The heat rate index indicator

    SciTech Connect

    Lasasso, M.; Runyan, B.; Napoli, J.

    1995-06-01

    This paper describes a method of tracking unit performance through the use of a reference number called the Heat Rate Index Indicator. The ABB Power Plant Controls OTIS performance monitor is used to determine when steady load conditions exist and then to collect controllable and equipment loss data which significantly impact thermal efficiency. By comparing these loss parameters to those found during the previous heat balance, it is possible to develop a new adjusted heat rate curve. These impacts on heat rate are used to changes the shape of the tested heat rate curve by the appropriate percentages over a specified load range. Mathcad is used to determine the Heat Rate Index by integrating for the areas beneath the adjusted heat rate curve and a heat rate curve that represents the unit`s ideal heat rate curve is the Heat Rate Index. An index of 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at an ideal efficiency, while an index of less than 1.0 indicates that the unit is operating at less than ideal conditions. A one per cent change in the Heat Rate Index is equivalent to a one percent change in heat rate. The new shape of the adjusted heat rate curve and the individual curves generated from the controllable and equipment loss parameters are useful for determining performance problems in specific load ranges.

  6. A data fusion-based drought index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azmi, Mohammad; Rüdiger, Christoph; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2016-03-01

    Drought and water stress monitoring plays an important role in the management of water resources, especially during periods of extreme climate conditions. Here, a data fusion-based drought index (DFDI) has been developed and analyzed for three different locations of varying land use and climate regimes in Australia. The proposed index comprehensively considers all types of drought through a selection of indices and proxies associated with each drought type. In deriving the proposed index, weekly data from three different data sources (OzFlux Network, Asia-Pacific Water Monitor, and MODIS-Terra satellite) were employed to first derive commonly used individual standardized drought indices (SDIs), which were then grouped using an advanced clustering method. Next, three different multivariate methods (principal component analysis, factor analysis, and independent component analysis) were utilized to aggregate the SDIs located within each group. For the two clusters in which the grouped SDIs best reflected the water availability and vegetation conditions, the variables were aggregated based on an averaging between the standardized first principal components of the different multivariate methods. Then, considering those two aggregated indices as well as the classifications of months (dry/wet months and active/non-active months), the proposed DFDI was developed. Finally, the symbolic regression method was used to derive mathematical equations for the proposed DFDI. The results presented here show that the proposed index has revealed new aspects in water stress monitoring which previous indices were not able to, by simultaneously considering both hydrometeorological and ecological concepts to define the real water stress of the study areas.

  7. Refractive Index of Sodium Iodide

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison Jr, Gerald Earle; Boatner, Lynn A; Ramey, Joanne Oxendine; Kolopus, James A; Ramey, Lucas A; Singh, David J

    2012-01-01

    The refractive index of sodium iodide, an important scintillator material that is widely used for radiation detection, is based on a single measurement made by Spangenberg at one wavelength using the index-matching liquid immersion method (Z. Kristallogr., 57, 494-534 (1923)). In the present paper, we present new results for the refractive index of sodium iodide as measured by the minimum deviation technique at six wavelengths between 436 nm (n=1.839 0.002) and 633 nm (n=1.786 0.002). These 6 measurements can be fit to a Sellmeier model, resulting in a 2 of 1.02, indicating a good fit to the data. In addition, we report on ellipsometry measurements, which suggest that the near-surface region of the air sensitive NaI crystal seriously degrades, even in a moisture-free environment, resulting in a significantly lower value of the refractive index near the surface. First-principles theoretical calculations of the NaI refractive index that agree with the measured values within 0.025-0.045 are also presented and discussed.

  8. DIDA: Distributed Indexing Dispatched Alignment

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadi, Hamid; Vandervalk, Benjamin P; Raymond, Anthony; Jackman, Shaun D; Chu, Justin; Breshears, Clay P; Birol, Inanc

    2015-01-01

    One essential application in bioinformatics that is affected by the high-throughput sequencing data deluge is the sequence alignment problem, where nucleotide or amino acid sequences are queried against targets to find regions of close similarity. When queries are too many and/or targets are too large, the alignment process becomes computationally challenging. This is usually addressed by preprocessing techniques, where the queries and/or targets are indexed for easy access while searching for matches. When the target is static, such as in an established reference genome, the cost of indexing is amortized by reusing the generated index. However, when the targets are non-static, such as contigs in the intermediate steps of a de novo assembly process, a new index must be computed for each run. To address such scalability problems, we present DIDA, a novel framework that distributes the indexing and alignment tasks into smaller subtasks over a cluster of compute nodes. It provides a workflow beyond the common practice of embarrassingly parallel implementations. DIDA is a cost-effective, scalable and modular framework for the sequence alignment problem in terms of memory usage and runtime. It can be employed in large-scale alignments to draft genomes and intermediate stages of de novo assembly runs. The DIDA source code, sample files and user manual are available through http://www.bcgsc.ca/platform/bioinfo/software/dida. The software is released under the British Columbia Cancer Agency License (BCCA), and is free for academic use. PMID:25923767

  9. Introducing a disturbance ionosphere index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakowski, N.; Borries, C.; Wilken, V.

    2012-01-01

    Although ionospheric perturbations such as traveling ionospheric disturbances have a strong impact on Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) and other space-based radio systems, the description of individual perturbations is difficult. To overcome this problem, it is suggested to use a disturbance ionosphere index (DIX) that describes the perturbation degree of the ionosphere in a less specific form as a proxy. Although such an index does not describe the exact propagation conditions at the measurement site, the estimated index number indicates the probability of a potential impact on radio systems used in communication, navigation, and remote sensing. The definition of such a DIX must take into account the following major requirements: relevance to practical needs, objective measure of ionospheric conditions, easy and reproducible computation, and availability of a reliable database. Since the total electron content has been shown in many publications to act as an outstanding parameter for quantifying the range error and also the strength of ionospheric perturbations, we propose a DIX that is based on GNSS measurements. To illustrate the use of the index, recent storms monitored in 2011 and the Halloween storm are discussed. The proposed index is a robust and objective measure of the ionospheric state, applicable to radio systems which are impacted by a highly variable perturbed ionosphere.

  10. Index for Wind Power Variability

    SciTech Connect

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Scharff, Richard; Milligan, Michael; Weir, David Edward

    2014-11-13

    Variability of large scale wind power generation is dependent on several factors: characteristics of installed wind power plants, size of the area where the plants are installed, geographic dispersion within that area and its weather regime(s). Variability can be described by ramps in power generation, i.e. changes from time period to time period. Given enough data points, it can be described with a probability density function. This approach focuses on two dimensions of variability: duration of the ramp and probability distribution. This paper proposes an index based on these two dimensions to enable comparisons and characterizations of variability under different conditions. The index is tested with real, large scale wind power generation data from several countries. Considerations while forming an index are discussed, as well as the main results regarding what the drivers of variability experienced for different data.

  11. Thesaurus-Based Automatic Indexing: A Study of Indexing Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caplan, Priscilla Louise

    This study examines automatic indexing performed with a manually constructed thesaurus on a document collection of titles and abstracts of library science master's papers. Errors are identified when the meaning of a posted descriptor, as identified by context in the thesaurus, does not match that of the passage of text which occasioned the…

  12. Electronic evaluation for video commercials by impression index.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Hu, Sanqing; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals.

  13. Electronic evaluation for video commercials by impression index.

    PubMed

    Kong, Wanzeng; Zhao, Xinxin; Hu, Sanqing; Vecchiato, Giovanni; Babiloni, Fabio

    2013-12-01

    How to evaluate the effect of commercials is significantly important in neuromarketing. In this paper, we proposed an electronic way to evaluate the influence of video commercials on consumers by impression index. The impression index combines both the memorization and attention index during consumers observing video commercials by tracking the EEG activity. It extracts features from scalp EEG to evaluate the effectiveness of video commercials in terms of time-frequency-space domain. And, the general global field power was used as an impression index for evaluation of video commercial scenes as time series. Results of experiment demonstrate that the proposed approach is able to track variations of the cerebral activity related to cognitive task such as observing video commercials, and help to judge whether the scene in video commercials is impressive or not by EEG signals. PMID:24427225

  14. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used.

  15. Indexing molecules with chemical graph identifiers.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Garriga-Sust, Rut; Mestres, Jordi

    2011-09-01

    Fast and robust algorithms for indexing molecules have been historically considered strategic tools for the management and storage of large chemical libraries. This work introduces a modified and further extended version of the molecular equivalence number naming adaptation of the Morgan algorithm (J Chem Inf Comput Sci 2001, 41, 181-185) for the generation of a chemical graph identifier (CGI). This new version corrects for the collisions recognized in the original adaptation and includes the ability to deal with graph canonicalization, ensembles (salts), and isomerism (tautomerism, regioisomerism, optical isomerism, and geometrical isomerism) in a flexible manner. Validation of the current CGI implementation was performed on the open NCI database and the drug-like subset of the ZINC database containing 260,071 and 5,348,089 structures, respectively. The results were compared with those obtained with some of the most widely used indexing codes, such as the CACTVS hash code and the new InChIKey. The analyses emphasize the fact that compound management activities, like duplicate analysis of chemical libraries, are sensitive to the exact definition of compound uniqueness and thus still depend, to a minor extent, on the type and flexibility of the molecular index being used. PMID:21647928

  16. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Veery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sousa, Patrick J.

    1982-01-01

    Habitat preferences and species characteristics of the veery (Catharus fuscesens) are described in this publication. It is one of a series of Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models and was developed through an analysis of available scientific data on the habitat requirements of the veery. Habitat use information is presented in a review of the literature, followed by the development of an HSI model. The model is presented in three formats: graphic; word; and mathematical. Suitability index graphs quantify the species-habitat relationship. These data are synthesized into a model designed to provide information for use in impact assessment and habitat management.

  17. 78 FR 79519 - IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... COMMISSION IndexIQ ETF Trust, et al.; Notice of Application December 23, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and... Act (``business development companies''), and registered unit investment trusts that are within or... invest in certain financial instruments. Applicants: IndexIQ ETF Trust, IndexIQ Active ETF Trust (each,...

  18. Spectral vegetation indexes and the remote sensing of biophysical parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huemmrich, Karl F.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1992-01-01

    Combinations of remotely sensed data from different spectral bands have been combined into spectral vegetation indexes (SVIs) and used to determine biophysical parameters. The characteristics of two-band SVIs made up of visible and near-infrared reflectances are examined. Two canopy reflectance models, a turbid media model and a geometrical model, are used to study the effects of different canopy structures on the measurement of leaf area index and the fraction of photosynthetically intercepted active radiation.

  19. Chaotic appearance of the AE index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shan, L.-H.; Hansen, P.; Goertz, C. K.; Smith, R. A.

    1991-01-01

    Results are reported from a stochastic analysis of a 5-day time series of the geomagnetic AE index during an active period. The original data, the power spectrum, and the autocorrelation function are shown, and the steps in the analysis are described in detail. It is found that the autocorrelation time scale is about 50 min, giving a correlation dimension (for the construction of a time series of m-dimensional vectors) of 2.4. This result is consistent with either colored-noise or deterministic-chaos magnetosphere models, indicating the need for further investigation.

  20. Special Education Master Key and Index for Environmental Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garowski, Robert; And Others

    Prepared for teachers working with disadvantaged students, this booklet contains keys and indexes for activities in the out-of-doors. It should be used in conjunction with field trip activity sheets and follow-up materials currently available through the Southeastern Pennsylvania Outdoor Education Center and described in the following documents:…

  1. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  2. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  3. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  4. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  5. 10 CFR 765.12 - Inflation index adjustment procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inflation index adjustment procedures. 765.12 Section 765.12 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REIMBURSEMENT FOR COSTS OF REMEDIAL ACTION AT ACTIVE URANIUM AND... Department shall adjust annually, using the CPI-U as defined in this part, amounts paid to an active...

  6. Index and Description of Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Inst. for Developmental Studies.

    The tests described in this index are used by the Institute for Developmental Studies in its principal areas of research and do not include recently developed tests. The research at the Institute is concerned with (1) the relationship of differing environments to language development, (2) classroom communication between teachers and children of…

  7. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies. PMID:10309052

  8. Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox

    SciTech Connect

    Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2003-09-08

    The Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of the crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "indexing" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of indexing. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits indexing to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.

  9. Mining and Indexing Graph Databases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Dayu

    2013-01-01

    Graphs are widely used to model structures and relationships of objects in various scientific and commercial fields. Chemical molecules, proteins, malware system-call dependencies and three-dimensional mechanical parts are all modeled as graphs. In this dissertation, we propose to mine and index those graph data to enable fast and scalable search.…

  10. USGS 1-min Dst index

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gannon, J.L.; Love, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    We produce a 1-min time resolution storm-time disturbance index, the USGS Dst, called Dst8507-4SM. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years 1985-2007. The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index. The USGS 1-min Dst is compared against the Kyoto Dst, Kyoto Sym-H, and the USGS 1-h Dst (Dst5807-4SH). In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. The USGS 1-min Dst is shown to have the higher time resolution benefits of Sym-H, while using the more typical low-latitude observatories of Kyoto Dst. ?? 2010.

  11. Index to Computer Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoye, Robert E., Ed.; Wang, Anastasia C., Ed.

    The computer-based programs and projects described in this index are listed under 98 different subject matter fields. Descrptions of programs include information on: subject field, program name and number, author, source, the program's curriculum content, prerequisites, level of instruction, type of student for which it is intended, total hours of…

  12. Coming to Schools: Creativity Indexes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2012-01-01

    At a time when U.S. political and business leaders are raising concerns about the need to better nurture creativity and innovative thinking among young people, several states are exploring the development of an index that would gauge the extent to which schools provide opportunities to foster those qualities. In Massachusetts, a new state…

  13. Competency Index. [Health Technology Cluster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center on Education and Training for Employment.

    This competency index lists the competencies included in the 62 units of the Tech Prep Competency Profiles within the Health Technologies Cluster. The unit topics are as follows: employability skills; professionalism; teamwork; computer literacy; documentation; infection control and risk management; medical terminology; anatomy, physiology, and…

  14. Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile. Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Vocational Instructional Materials Lab.

    This index contains the unit titles from all 60 Ohio's Competency Analysis Profile (OCAP) lists. It is intended to facilitate the combination of units from different OCAPs in order to develop curricula that meet specific program needs (e.g., learner differences, labor market demands, and technological developments). OCAP titles are as follows:…

  15. Index to Computer Assisted Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lekan, Helen A., Ed.

    This index contains information on 456 computer-assisted instruction (CAI) programs and projects developed by 51 organizations. The information was obtained from correspondence, annual reports, technical reports, and questionnaires which were sent to the producers of the program. The material is organized to list: the name of each program or…

  16. Witten index for noncompact dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Joo; Yi, Piljin

    2016-06-01

    Among gauged dynamics motivated by string theory, we find many with gapless asymptotic directions. Although the natural boundary condition for ground states is L 2, one often turns on chemical potentials or supersymmetric mass terms to regulate the infrared issues, instead, and computes the twisted partition function. We point out how this procedure generically fails to capture physical L 2 Witten index with often misleading results. We also explore how, nevertheless, the Witten index is sometimes intricately embedded in such twisted partition functions. For d = 1 theories with gapless continuum sector from gauge multiplets, such as non-primitive quivers and pure Yang-Mills, a further subtlety exists, leading to fractional expressions. Quite unexpectedly, however, the integral L 2 Witten index can be extracted directly and easily from the twisted partition function of such theories. This phenomenon is tied to the notion of the rational invariant that appears naturally in the wall-crossing formulae, and offers a general mechanism of reading off Witten index directly from the twisted partition function. Along the way, we correct early numerical results for some of mathcal{N} = 4 , 8 , 16 pure Yang-Mills quantum mechanics, and count threshold bound states for general gauge groups beyond SU( N ).

  17. Optimal deployment of solar index

    SciTech Connect

    Croucher, Matt

    2010-11-15

    There is a growing trend, generally caused by state-specific renewable portfolio standards, to increase the importance of renewable electricity generation within generation portfolios. While RPS assist with determining the composition of generation they do not, for the most part, dictate the location of generation. Using data from various public sources, the authors create an optimal index for solar deployment. (author)

  18. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  19. 1988 Bulletin compilation and index

    SciTech Connect

    1989-02-01

    This document is published to provide current information about the national program for managing spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This document is a compilation of issues from the 1988 calendar year. A table of contents and one index have been provided to assist in finding information.

  20. Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox

    2003-09-08

    The Lawrence Berkeley Lab Indexing Toolbox is intended to be used in the context of X-ray crystallography experiments involving biological macromolecules. Macromolecules such as proteins form 3-dimensional periodic arrays (crystal) which in turn lead to lattice-like diffraction patterns when the crystal sample is irradiated with collimated X-rays from a synchrotron or other X-ray source. Once the diffraction pattern is captured on an imaging device the next step is to deduce the periodic nature of themore » crystal sample, along with its internal symmetry. this analysis, known as "indexing" is a well-studied problem. However, there are no other implementations designed to operate in an automated setting, in which the human experimentalist is not prosent to manually verify the results of indexing. In particular LABELIT uses three novel algorithms to facilitate automation: a more robust way to verify the position of the incident X-ray beam on the image, a better way to verify that the deduced lattice is consistent with the observed crystal lattice, and new method to deduce the internal symmetry from measurements of the lattice. Moreover, the algorithms are implemented in a Python framework that permits indexing to fail (in rare cases) without crashing the program, thus allowing the software to be incorporated in robotic systems where unattended operation is expected. It will be especially useful for high throughput operations at snychrotron beamlines.« less

  1. Indexing and Retrieval for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Edie M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores current research on indexing and ranking as retrieval functions of search engines on the Web. Highlights include measuring search engine stability; evaluation of Web indexing and retrieval; Web crawlers; hyperlinks for indexing and ranking; ranking for metasearch; document structure; citation indexing; relevance; query evaluation;…

  2. Machine-Aided Indexing of Technical Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.

    1973-01-01

    To index at the Defense Documentation Center (DDC), an automated system must choose single words or phrases rapidly and economically. Automation of DDC's indexing has been machine-aided from its inception. A machine-aided indexing system is described that indexes one million words of text per hour of CPU time. (22 references) (Author/SJ)

  3. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  4. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  5. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  6. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  7. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  8. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  9. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  10. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  11. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  12. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  13. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  14. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  15. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5..., AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in § 200.... However, copies of the indexes are available for public review in the Forest Service headquarters...

  16. 40 CFR 58.50 - Index reporting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Index reporting. 58.50 Section 58.50... QUALITY SURVEILLANCE Air Quality Index Reporting § 58.50 Index reporting. (a) The State or where... quality index that complies with the requirements of appendix G to this part. (b) Reporting is...

  17. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  18. 13 CFR 102.9 - Public Index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Public Index. 102.9 Section 102.9... Information § 102.9 Public Index. (a) The Public Index is a document that provides identifying information... FOIA, that periodic publication and distribution of the Public Index is unnecessary and...

  19. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  20. 32 CFR 701.39 - Vaughn index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vaughn index. 701.39 Section 701.39 National... DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC FOIA Definitions and Terms § 701.39 Vaughn index. Itemized index, correlating... agency's nondisclosure justification. The index may contain such information as: date of...

  1. The Biodiversity Informatics Potential Index

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Biodiversity informatics is a relatively new discipline extending computer science in the context of biodiversity data, and its development to date has not been uniform throughout the world. Digitizing effort and capacity building are costly, and ways should be found to prioritize them rationally. The proposed 'Biodiversity Informatics Potential (BIP) Index' seeks to fulfill such a prioritization role. We propose that the potential for biodiversity informatics be assessed through three concepts: (a) the intrinsic biodiversity potential (the biological richness or ecological diversity) of a country; (b) the capacity of the country to generate biodiversity data records; and (c) the availability of technical infrastructure in a country for managing and publishing such records. Methods Broadly, the techniques used to construct the BIP Index were rank correlation, multiple regression analysis, principal components analysis and optimization by linear programming. We built the BIP Index by finding a parsimonious set of country-level human, economic and environmental variables that best predicted the availability of primary biodiversity data accessible through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) network, and constructing an optimized model with these variables. The model was then applied to all countries for which sufficient data existed, to obtain a score for each country. Countries were ranked according to that score. Results Many of the current GBIF participants ranked highly in the BIP Index, although some of them seemed not to have realized their biodiversity informatics potential. The BIP Index attributed low ranking to most non-participant countries; however, a few of them scored highly, suggesting that these would be high-return new participants if encouraged to contribute towards the GBIF mission of free and open access to biodiversity data. Conclusions The BIP Index could potentially help in (a) identifying countries most likely to

  2. Empirical Examination of Fundamental Indexation in the German Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihm, Max; Locarek-Junge, Hermann

    Index Funds, Exchange Traded Funds and Derivatives give investors easy access to well diversified index portfolios. These index-based investment products exhibit low fees, which make them an attractive alternative to actively managed funds. Against this background, a new class of stock indices has been established based on the concept of “Fundamental Indexation”. The selection and weighting of index constituents is conducted by means of fundamental criteria like total assets, book value or number of employees. This paper examines the performance of fundamental indices in the German equity market. For this purpose, a backtest of five fundamental indices is conducted over the last 20 years. Furthermore the index returns are analysed under the assumption of an efficient as well as an inefficient market. Index returns in efficient markets are explained by applying the three factor model for stock returns of Fama and French (J Financ Econ 33(1):3-56, 1993). The results show that the outperformance of fundamental indices is partly due to a higher risk exposure, particularly to companies with a low price to book ratio. By relaxing the assumption of market efficiency, a return drag of capitalisation weighted indices can be deduced. Given a mean-reverting movement of prices, a direct connection between market capitalisation and index weighting leads to inferior returns.

  3. Liquefaction potential index: Field assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Toprak, S.; Holzer, T.L.

    2003-01-01

    Cone penetration test (CPT) soundings at historic liquefaction sites in California were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the liquefaction potential index (LPI), which was defined by Iwasaki et al. in 1978. LPI combines depth, thickness, and factor of safety of liquefiable material inferred from a CPT sounding into a single parameter. LPI data from the Monterey Bay region indicate that the probability of surface manifestations of liquefaction is 58 and 93%, respectively, when LPI equals or exceeds 5 and 15. LPI values also generally correlate with surface effects of liquefaction: Decreasing from a median of 12 for soundings in lateral spreads to 0 for soundings where no surface effects were reported. The index is particularly promising for probabilistic liquefaction hazard mapping where it may be a useful parameter for characterizing the liquefaction potential of geologic units.

  4. Common mental disorders and psychological distress in systemic lupus erythematosus are not associated with disease activity.

    PubMed

    Jarpa, E; Babul, M; Calderón, J; González, M; Martínez, M E; Bravo-Zehnder, M; Henríquez, C; Jacobelli, S; González, A; Massardo, L

    2011-01-01

    Psychiatric diagnosis in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is controversial: variations have been reported in frequency, diagnostic assays, associations with disease activity, autoantibodies, and contributing social factors. Eighty-three consecutive non-selected Chilean patients with SLE were evaluated for: (i) 26 common mental disorders according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI-plus); (ii) psychological suffering measured by Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS); (iii) ACR 1999 neuropsychiatric (NP)SLE criteria; (iv) SLE disease activity (SLEDAI-2K); (v) cumulative damage (SLICC/ACR); and (vi) anti-ribosomal P antibodies by enzyme-linked immunoassay and immunoblot. Psychiatric diagnoses occurred in 44.6% of patients; the most frequent (21.7%) was major depressive episode (MDE). No association with lupus activity was observed in patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis or MDE or psychological suffering. ACR 1999 NPSLE criteria were present in 42.2% of patients, the majority corresponding to mood (28.9%) or anxiety disorders (15.6%). Suicidal risk was present in 9.6% of patients. Anti-ribosomal P antibodies (13.3%) were not associated with DSM-IV diagnosis. Severe psychiatric disorders in SLE are common and not associated with disease activity.

  5. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Pronghorn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, Arthur W.; Cook, John G.; Armbruster, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    This is one of a series of publications that provide information on the habitat requirements of selected fish and wildlife species. Literature describing the relationship between habitat variables related to life requisites and habitat suitability for the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana) are synthesized. These data are subsequently used to develop Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) models. The HSI models are designed to provide information that can be used in impact assessment and habitat management.

  6. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  7. Increased serum β2-microglobulin is associated with clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, M-L F; Hummelshøj, L; Lundsgaard, D; Hornum, L; Keller, P; Fleckner, J; Fox, B; Poulsen, L K; Jacobsen, S

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between serum levels of β2-microglobulin (β2MG), which some studies suggest reflect disease activity in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and various clinical and immunological markers of disease activity in SLE. Twenty-six SLE patients and 10 healthy controls were included. Disease activity was assessed by: SLEDAI, 24 hr-proteinuria, circulating levels of complement C3, anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA), β2MG and various pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-18) measured with a multiplex assay, IFN-α assessed with a reporter gene assay, and a combined expression score of 12 IFN-α inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Median serum levels of β2MG were significantly higher in SLE patients vs controls (2.8 mg/L, range: 1.1-21.6 and 1.2 mg/L, range: 0.9-1.7, respectively, p < 0.001). β2MG was correlated with SLEDAI score (R = 0.68, p < 0.001), 24 hr-proteinuria (R = 0.64, p < 0.001), and complement C3 (R = -0.52, p = 0.007). The cytokines were significantly correlated with β2MG: IL-6 (R = 0.45, p = 0.02), IL-8 (R = 0.75, p < 0.001), IL-10 (R = 0.67, p < 0.001) and IL-18 (R = 0.71, p < 0.001) as were serum IFN-α (R = 0.45, p = 0.02) and the IFN-α inducible gene-score (R = 0.51, p = 0.01). The results support that β2MG may serve as a marker of disease activity in SLE. The correlations with the measured cytokines indicate that increased β2MG in SLE reflects immunological activity.

  8. Common catabolic enzyme patterns in a microplankton community of the Humboldt Current System off northern and central-south Chile: Malate dehydrogenase activity as an index of water-column metabolism in an oxygen minimum zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, R. R.; Quiñones, R. A.

    2009-07-01

    An extensive subsurface oxygen minimum zone off northern and central-south Chile, associated with the Peru-Chile undercurrent, has important effects on the metabolism of the organisms inhabiting therein. Planktonic species deal with the hypoxic and anoxic environments by relying on biochemical as well as physiological processes related to their anaerobic metabolisms. Here we characterize, for the first time, the potential enzymatic activities involved in the aerobic and anaerobic energy production pathways of microplanktonic organisms (<100 μm), their relationship, and this relationship's association with the oxygen concentration and microplanktonic biomass in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas of the Humboldt Current System water column. Our results demonstrate significant potential enzymatic activity of catabolic pathways in the oxygen minimum zone. Malate dehydrogenase had the highest oxidizing activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced form) in the batch of catabolic enzymatic activities assayed, including potential pyruvate oxidoreductases activity, the electron transport system, and dissimilatory nitrate reductase. Malate dehydrogenase correlated significantly with almost all the enzymes analyzed within and above the oxygen minimum zone, and also with the oxygen concentration and microplankton biomass in the water column of the Humboldt Current System, especially in the oxygen minimum zone off Iquique. These results suggest a possible specific pattern for the catabolic activity of the microplanktonic realm associated with the oxygen minimum zone spread along the Humboldt Current System off Chile. We hypothesize that malate dehydrogenase activity could be an appropriate indicator of microplankton catabolism in the oxygen minimum zone and adjacent areas.

  9. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2002-10-01 2002-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  10. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2005-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2005-07-01 2005-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  11. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2002-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2002-07-01 2002-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Regulations of the Offices of the Department.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  12. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2008-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2008-07-01 2008-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  13. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1998-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1998-10-01 1998-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  14. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2000-10-01 2000-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  15. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2003-10-01 2003-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  16. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2015-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2015-07-01 2015-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  17. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2001-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2001-10-01 2001-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  18. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2004-10-01 2004-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTHAND..., Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are in...

  19. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2007-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2007-07-01 2007-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  20. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1999-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF.... Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1 Preamble paragraph numbers...

  1. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2003-07-01 2003-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  2. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title IX... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2016-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2016-07-01 2016-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the...] Procedures. Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph...

  3. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2004-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2004-07-01 2004-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  4. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1997-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1997-10-01 1997-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ GENERAL ADMINISTRATION... FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble...

  5. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2006-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2006-07-01 2006-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  6. 45 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    1996-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 1996-10-01 1996-10-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF SEX... Procedures Interim procedures. Pt. 86, Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation \\1\\ 1...

  7. 34 CFR Subject Index to Title Ix... - Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2009-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2009-07-01 2009-07-01 false Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 Education Regulations of the Offices of the.... Subject Index Subject Index to Title IX Preamble and Regulation 1 1 Preamble paragraph numbers are...

  8. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  9. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  10. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  11. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  12. 7 CFR 5.1 - Parity index and index of prices received by farmers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. 5.1 Section 5.1 Agriculture Office of the Secretary of Agriculture DETERMINATION OF PARITY PRICES § 5.1 Parity index and index of prices received by farmers. (a) The parity index and related...

  13. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse. PMID:16521772

  14. Experimental comparison between speech transmission index, rapid speech transmission index, and speech intelligibility index.

    PubMed

    Larm, Petra; Hongisto, Valtteri

    2006-02-01

    During the acoustical design of, e.g., auditoria or open-plan offices, it is important to know how speech can be perceived in various parts of the room. Different objective methods have been developed to measure and predict speech intelligibility, and these have been extensively used in various spaces. In this study, two such methods were compared, the speech transmission index (STI) and the speech intelligibility index (SII). Also the simplification of the STI, the room acoustics speech transmission index (RASTI), was considered. These quantities are all based on determining an apparent speech-to-noise ratio on selected frequency bands and summing them using a specific weighting. For comparison, some data were needed on the possible differences of these methods resulting from the calculation scheme and also measuring equipment. Their prediction accuracy was also of interest. Measurements were made in a laboratory having adjustable noise level and absorption, and in a real auditorium. It was found that the measurement equipment, especially the selection of the loudspeaker, can greatly affect the accuracy of the results. The prediction accuracy of the RASTI was found acceptable, if the input values for the prediction are accurately known, even though the studied space was not ideally diffuse.

  15. Braking index of isolated pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamil, O.; Stone, J. R.; Urbanec, M.; Urbancová, G.

    2015-03-01

    Isolated pulsars are rotating neutron stars with accurately measured angular velocities Ω , and their time derivatives that show unambiguously that the pulsars are slowing down. Although the exact mechanism of the spin-down is a question of detailed debate, the commonly accepted view is that it arises through emission of magnetic dipole radiation (MDR) from a rotating magnetized body. Other processes, including the emission of gravitational radiation, and of relativistic particles (pulsar wind), are also being considered. The calculated energy loss by a rotating pulsar with a constant moment of inertia is assumed proportional to a model dependent power of Ω . This relation leads to the power law Ω ˙ =-K Ωn where n is called the braking index. The MDR model predicts n exactly equal to 3. Selected observations of isolated pulsars provide rather precise values of n , individually accurate to a few percent or better, in the range 1 index within the MDR model. Four microscopic equations of state are employed as input to two different computational codes that solve Einstein's equations numerically, either exactly or using the perturbative Hartle-Thorne method, to calculate the

  16. Socioeconomic Status, Smoking, Alcohol use, Physical Activity, and Dietary Behavior as Determinants of Obesity and Body Mass Index in the United States: Findings from the National Health Interview Survey

    PubMed Central

    Shaikh, Raees A.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Singh, Gopal K.; Tibbits, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the socio-demographic and behavioral determinants of obesity and Body Mass Index (BMI) in the United States, using a nationally representative sample. Methods: We used data from the 2010 US National Health Interview Survey. Analyses were limited to adults 18 years and older (N=23,434). Multivariate regression analyses were conducted to estimate the associations between covariates and obesity and BMI. Results: Overall, 28.1% in the sample were obese and the mean BMI was 27.6 kg/m2. In adjusted models, we found that older age, non-Hispanic Black race, lower education and income levels, Midwestern and Southern region of residence, former smoking, infrequent alcohol use, physical inactivity, consumption of less fruits, vegetables, brown rice and more cheese, fried potato and meat, were associated with obesity. These factors were also associated with higher BMI, along with male gender and higher consumption of meat, fried potatoes and cheese. Conclusions and Global Health Implications: The association of many of the socio-demographic and behavioral factors with obesity and higher BMI found in our study was consistent with previous findings. Persistence of such associations suggest a need for better understanding of the underlying mechanism as well as for evaluation of the current programs and policies targeted at reducing the obesity burden in the United States. In view of the rising global obesity epidemic, especially in the low- and middle-income countries, our findings could help guide development of effective health and social policies and programs aimed at reducing the obesity burden in other parts of the world.

  17. Viscosity Index Improvers and Thickeners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stambaugh, R. L.; Kinker, B. G.

    The viscosity index of an oil or an oil formulation is an important physical parameter. Viscosity index improvers, VIIs, are comprised of five main classes of polymers: polymethylmethacrylates (PMAs), olefin copolymers (OCPs), hydrogenated poly(styrene-co-butadiene or isoprene) (HSD/SIP/HRIs), esterified polystyrene-co-maleic anhydride (SPEs) and a combination of PMA/OCP systems. The chemistry, manufacture, dispersancy and utility of each class are described. The comparative functions, properties, thickening ability, dispersancy and degradation of VIIs are discussed. Permanent and temporary shear thinning of VII-thickened formulations are described and compared. The end-use performance and choice of VI improvers is discussed in terms of low- and high-temperature viscosities, journal bearing oil film thickness, fuel economy, oil consumption, high-temperature pumping efficiency and deposit control. Discussion of future developments concludes that VI improvers will evolve to meet new challenges of increased thermal-oxidative degradation from increased engine operating temperatures, different base stocks of either synthetic base oils or vegetable oil-based, together with alcohol- or vegetable oil-based fuels. VI improvers must also evolve to deal with higher levels of fuel dilution and new types of sludge and also enhanced low-temperature requirements.

  18. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, January--June 1995. Volume 41, Index 2

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. The information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case name index; digests and headers; legal citations index; subject index; and facility index.

  19. Indexes to Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances, July--December 1993. Volume 38, Index 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    Digests and indexes for issuances of the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM) are presented in this document. These digests and indexes are intended to serve as a guide to the issuances. These information elements are displayed in one or more of five separate formats arranged as follows: Case Name Index; Digests and Headers; Legal Citations Index; Subject Index, and Facility Index.

  20. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  1. 30 CFR 250.1401 - Index table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... AND SULPHUR OPERATIONS IN THE OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF Outer Continental Shelf Civil Penalties Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act Civil Penalties § 250.1401 Index table. The following table is an index of...

  2. The PC index: review of methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCreadie, H.; Menvielle, M.

    2010-10-01

    The Polar Cap (PC) index is a controversial topic within the IAGA scientific community. Since 1997 discussions of the validity of the index to be endorsed as an official IAGA index have ensued. There is no doubt as to the scientific merit of the index which is not discussed here. What is in doubt is the methodology of the derivation of the index by different groups. The Polar Cap index (PC: PCN, northern; PCS, southern) described in Troshichev et al. (2006) and Stauning et al. (2006), both termed the "unified PC index", and the PCN index routinely derived at DMI are inspected using only available published literature. They are found to contain different derivation procedures, thus are not unified. The descriptions of the derivation procedures are found to not be adequate to independently derive the PC indices.

  3. Aerospace Medicine and Biology: Cumulative index, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    This publication is a cumulative index to the abstracts contained in the Supplements 190 through 201 of 'Aerospace Medicine and Biology: A Continuing Bibliography.' It includes three indexes-subject, personal author, and corporate source.

  4. Refractive-index measurements by moire deflectometry.

    PubMed

    Karny, Z; Kafri, O

    1982-09-15

    A novel method for measuring refractive index of gases and liquids is presented based on moire deflectometry. We demonstrate this technique by measuring the refractive index of diluted sucrose solutions and of air at atmospheric pressure.

  5. Enhanced index tracking modelling in portfolio optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, W. S.; Hj. Jaaman, Saiful Hafizah; Ismail, Hamizun bin

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced index tracking is a popular form of passive fund management in stock market. It is a dual-objective optimization problem, a trade-off between maximizing the mean return and minimizing the risk. Enhanced index tracking aims to generate excess return over the return achieved by the index without purchasing all of the stocks that make up the index by establishing an optimal portfolio. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal portfolio composition and performance by using weighted model in enhanced index tracking. Weighted model focuses on the trade-off between the excess return and the risk. The results of this study show that the optimal portfolio for the weighted model is able to outperform the Malaysia market index which is Kuala Lumpur Composite Index because of higher mean return and lower risk without purchasing all the stocks in the market index.

  6. Interferometric atmospheric refractive-index environmental monitor.

    PubMed

    Ludman, J E; Ludman, J J; Callahan, H; Caulfield, H J; Watt, D; Sampson, J L; Robinson, J; Davis, S; Hunt, A

    1995-06-20

    Long, open-path, outdoor interferometric measurement of the index of refraction as a function of wavelength (spectral refractivity) requires a number of innovations. These include active compensation for vibration and turbulence. The use of electronic compensation produces an electronic signal that is ideal for extracting data. This allows the appropriate interpretation of those data and the systematic and fast scanning of the spectrum by the use of bandwidths that are intermediate between lasers (narrow bandwidth) and white light (broad bandwidth). An Environmental Interferometer that incorporates these features should be extremely valuable in both pollutant detection and pollutant identification. Spectral refractivity measurements complement the information available from spectral absorption instruments (e.g., a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer). The Environmental Interferometer currently uses an electronic compensating device with a 1-kHz response time, and therefore rapid spectral scans are feasibe so that it is possible to monitor the time evolution of pollutant events.

  7. Three-dimensional Gradient Index Optics Fabricated in Diffusive Photopolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Chunfang

    This thesis demonstrates three-dimensional gradient index (GRIN) optics fabricated in two diffusive photopolymers. These polymer optical components have localized gradient index structures, which are self-developed in diffusive photopolymers by introducing localized illuminations. Based on the sizes of the formed index structures, the photopolymer optics studied in this thesis fall into two categories: GRIN lens based optics and waveguide based optics. GRIN lenses and lens arrays with parabolic index profiles are created through Gaussian beam exposure, while GRIN lenses with arbitrary index profiles are created through a dual-axis galvo scanning system. Waveguide based optics, which include uniform waveguides, waveguide tapers, waveguides through thin optics and 900 sharp waveguide bends, are fabricated through direct-write lithography. Several quantitative characterization methods for the fabricated polymer optics are described. The index profiles of the GRIN lens based optics are quantitatively measured by a modified scanning transmission phase microscope and a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor. Three-dimensional mode profile characterization of the polymer waveguides is carried out through a novel polymer sample preparation procedure and an active mode imaging system. A single mode performance is confirmed for the fabricated waveguides. A loss measurement for the waveguides is also accomplished. An index formation model is developed for a diffusive polymer developed by Dr. McLeod's group, which provides a fundamental guidance for fabricating custom-design index structures in the polymer. A hybrid GRIN axicon lens is fabricated to significantly extend the depth of focus in an endoscopy OCT application. Potential applications of the fabricated polymer optics include hybrid integrated optical circuits. The diffusive photopolymer with self-development characteristics provides a platform to integrate various optoelectronic subcomponents in integrated optical circuits.

  8. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kincaid, Charlene; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents an activity in which students collect and organize data from a real-world simulation of the scientific concept of half life. Students collect data using a marble sifter, analyze the data using a graphing calculator, and determine an appropriate mathematical model. Includes reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  9. Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teacher, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The material presented is designed to help students explore geometric patterns involving Fibonnaci numbers and the golden ratio, and to aid in review of basic geometry skills. Worksheet masters intended for duplication are provided. Suggestions are made of possible classroom extensions to the initial activities. (MP)

  10. UMLS-based automatic image indexing.

    PubMed

    Sneiderman, C; Sneiderman, Charles Alan; Demner-Fushman, D; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Fung, K W; Fung, Kin Wah; Bray, B; Bray, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    To date, most accurate image retrieval techniques rely on textual descriptions of images. Our goal is to automatically generate indexing terms for an image extracted from a biomedical article by identifying Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concepts in image caption and its discussion in the text. In a pilot evaluation of the suggested image indexing method by five physicians, a third of the automatically identified index terms were found suitable for indexing.

  11. Cumulative index to NASA Tech Briefs, 1970-1975. [bibliographies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Tech briefs of technology derived from the research and development activities of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration are presented. Abstracts and indexes of subject, personal author, originating center, and tech brief number for the 1970-1975 tech briefs are presented.

  12. Inhaled corticosteroids: potency, dose equivalence and therapeutic index

    PubMed Central

    Daley-Yates, Peter T

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticosteroids are a group of structurally related molecules that includes natural hormones and synthetic drugs with a wide range of anti-inflammatory potencies. For synthetic corticosteroid analogues it is commonly assumed that the therapeutic index cannot be improved by increasing their glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity. The validity of this assumption, particularly for inhaled corticosteroids, has not been fully explored. Inhaled corticosteroids exert their anti-inflammatory activity locally in the airways, and hence this can be dissociated from their potential to cause systemic adverse effects. The molecular structural features that increase glucocorticoid receptor binding affinity and selectivity drive topical anti-inflammatory activity. However, in addition, these structural modifications also result in physicochemical and pharmacokinetic changes that can enhance targeting to the airways and reduce systemic exposure. As a consequence, potency and therapeutic index can be correlated. However, this consideration is not reflected in asthma treatment guidelines that classify inhaled corticosteroid formulations as low-, mid- and high dose, and imbed a simple dose equivalence approach where potency is not considered to affect the therapeutic index. This article describes the relationship between potency and therapeutic index, and concludes that higher potency can potentially improve the therapeutic index. Therefore, both efficacy and safety should be considered when classifying inhaled corticosteroid regimens in terms of dose equivalence. The historical approach to dose equivalence in asthma treatment guidelines is not appropriate for the wider range of molecules, potencies and device/formulations now available. A more robust method is needed that incorporates pharmacological principles. PMID:25808113

  13. Prospectus for a Chicano Periodical Index Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chabran, Richard

    Seven Southwest Chicano library units propose to collaborate in the first cycle of the development and production of a Chicano Periodical Index. The units intend to provide library users with an indexing system which would improve access of Chicano periodical publications and to provide a model index for future development. The proposed project…

  14. 36 CFR 200.5 - Indexes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Indexes. 200.5 Section 200.5 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES Functions and Procedures § 200.5 Indexes. Publication of the indexes described in §...

  15. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  16. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  17. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  18. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...

  19. 22 CFR 212.23 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Current index. 212.23 Section 212.23 Foreign... Inspection and Copying § 212.23 Current index. USAID maintains and makes available for public inspection and copying a current index providing identifying information for the public as to any matter which has...

  20. 12 CFR 1402.11 - Current index.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Current index. 1402.11 Section 1402.11 Banks... the Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation § 1402.11 Current index. The Farm Credit System Insurance Corporation will make available for public inspection and copying a current index to provide...